Marine Mammals Management
Alaska Region


Polar Bear

Natural History - Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)

Polar bears evolved from brown bears and are the largest member of the bear family. Male polar bears measure 2.4- 2.6 m (8-9 ft) from nose to tail and generally weigh up to 600 kg (1,320 lbs), but Polar Bear on ice.  Credit: Marie Webber/USFWS.may reach up to 800 kg (1,760 lbs). Females measure around 2 m (6-7 ft) and are typically about half the weight of males.

Polar bears are specially adapted to the polar marine environment in which they live. Adaptations include: white coloration for camouflage; water repellent guard hairs, dense underfur, and black skin for absorbing warmth; small “suction cups” on the soles of their feet for traction on slippery ice; teeth specialized for a carnivorous rather than omnivorous diet; and the ability to store large amounts of fat when food is available and then use it later when food is unavailable. Polar bears’ primary food source are ringed seals but they also hunt bearded seals, walrus, and beluga whales, and will scavenge on beached carrion such as whale, walrus and seal carcasses found along the coast.

Polar bears generally live alone except when concentrating along the coast during the open water period, or when mating or rearing cubs. Pregnant females will enter maternity dens in October/November; most dens in the circumpolar Arctic are located on land in areas where snow accumulates, such as along coastal bluffs or river banks. In Alaska, dens are excavated on either sea ice or on land. One to three cubs are born in December/January; cubs remain with their mother for about 2 1/4 years.

Fact Sheets



Last updated: June 30, 2014