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Adjust Management and Implement Mitigation as Needed
Adaptive management is used to solve management problems and involves:
- Identifying management objectives;
- Evaluating accomplishment of objectives;
- Assessing departure from objectives and corresponding management issue(s);
- Proposing management options to address the issue(s);
- Implementing the management option(s);
- Evaluation of success in addressing issue(s) as a result of the altered management; and
- Adjusting management accordingly.
Management options need to be tailored to local conditions and site-specific issues, and may, after coordination with the Wyoming Field Office, include:
- Adjusting turbine cut-in speeds or feathering turbine blades;
- Installing bird strike indicator sensors, such as microphones, accelerometers or fiber optic sensors, cameras or radar to identify circumstances of bird fatalities;
- Seasonal shut downs or turbine relocation or removal;
- Painting blades to reduce wind smear;
- Placing visual and/or auditory bird flight diverters in critical locations;
- Removal of artificial habitats attracting birds; and
- Limiting domestic livestock grazing within the project area in order to minimize attraction of avian species (e.g., under turbines).
Management actions may be targeted at specific species or groups of species. For example, alleviating mortality of resident avian species that repeatedly occur at specific locations may be accomplished with bird flight diverters, whereas impacts to long distant migrants may be best addressed by temporarily shutting down or feathering turbines at critical times or weather conditions.
In developing mitigation recommendations, the Service is guided by Mitigation Policy (46 FR 15; January 1981) in evaluating modifications to or loss of habitat caused by development (http://www.fws.gov/policy/501fw2.html). The Service can assist wind energy developers in planning conservation agreements that address the needs of both wildlife and wind energy producers. Information regarding these programs may be found at http://www.fws.gov/endangered.