American bullfrogs, a variety of predacious sport fishes, crayfish, and barred tiger salamanders are introduced predators that are very efficient at preying and may eliminate Chiricahua leopard frogs. This and the disease chytridiomycosis are the greatest threats to the frog.
Chytridiomycosis: This apparently introduced fungal skin disease, also known as “Bd”, is killing frogs and toads around the globe, and has caused the decline or extinction of about 200 species worldwide. Bd was first detected in the Southwest in 1972, at about the same time that the first declines of ranid frogs were noted. The disease is widespread within the range of the Chiricahua leopard frog, but some populations appear unaffected or have not been exposed, while other populations are either quickly eliminated once the disease manifests or persist long-term (some more than 30 years) with Bd. Populations seem to persist better with the disease where the water is warmer (low elevation sites or warm springs).
Habitat Loss and Degradation: Habitats degraded due to water diversions and groundwater pumping, poor livestock management, catastrophic wild fire resulting from a long history of fire suppression, mining, development, and other human activities. Environmental contamination, such as runoff from mining operations and airborne contaminants from copper smelters have also adversely affected habitats and populations.
Other Factors: With the loss of populations, particularly large populations that occurred in rivers and valley bottom ciénegas and were probably source populations for nearby aquatic sites, metapopulation dynamics have been disrupted. There is also an increased chance of extirpation or extinction due to the dynamics of small populations existing in aquatic systems that are subject to drying, floods, fire, and other disturbances.