Neosho Mucket (Lampsilis rafinesqueana)
Range: Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma
* A public comment period is currently open for this species *
History and Location
Map of the historical and current range of the species.
Map of all designated critical habitat in rivers and streams in Arkansas.
The Neosho Mucket is a freshwater species found in rivers and streams in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. We estimate the Neosho mucket has been lost from about 62 percent of its historical range with only 9 of 16 historical populations remaining. This mussel is declining throughout its range with only one of the remaining nine populations considered a large, viable population.
Neosho mucket mussels are found in river bottoms with gravel and sand in shoals and near the shore. Most freshwater mussels live burrowed in mixed mud, sand, and gravel at the bottom of rivers and streams. Some are adapted to the quiet water and muddy depths of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs.
For the Neosho mucket, the Service is proposing to designate critical habitat in seven stream segments where the mussel is found, comprising approximately 484 river miles in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma.
All areas proposed as critical habitat are occupied by the mussel.
Critical habitat is a geographic area containing features essential to the survival of a threatened or endangered species and that may require special management consideration or protection. The Service is required under the ESA to consider whether critical habitat is needed for a species’ recovery.
Designation of critical habitat does not affect land ownership or establish a refuge, reserve, preserve, or other conservation area. It does not affect activities on the land unless they are funded by federal dollars.
If federal funds are involved in a project in the area, the government agency involved will need to consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to help landowners avoid, reduce, or mitigate potential impacts to the species or modify its critical habitat.
- Fact Sheet: Critical Habitat in Arkansas (PDF)
- Frequently Asked Questions: Proposed Critical Habitat Rule for the Neosho Mucket and Rabbitsfoot (PDF)
- Map of critical habitat designed for freshwater species in Arkansas (PDF)
- Proposed Rule in the Federal Register: Proposed Endangered Status for the Neosho Mucket, Threatened Status for the Rabbitsfoot, and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species.
Why Should You Care?
Mussels are monitors of the health of our waters. They are natural filters and serve as a food source for numerous species of wildlife. They are part of our American cultural history, and they aid in the preservation of biodiversity.
The presence of diverse and reproducing populations of mussels indicate a healthy aquatic system which means good fishing, good water quality for waterfowl and other wildlife species, as well as insurance that our water is safe for our use (swimming and drinking). Conversely, when mussel populations are at risk, it indicates problems for other fish and wildlife species, and people, too.
Mussels are natural filters, feeding on algae and plankton that help clean the water. Mussels are also an important food source for many species of wildlife including otters, raccoon, muskrat, herons, egrets, and some fish.
The study of mussels, their natural history, and habitat requirements provides important lessons on the interconnectedness of the aquatic system and how species adapt to their ecosystem.
Mussels played an important role in the cultural history of prehistoric and recent native people of Arkansas. They were used as food and the shells were used for ornamentation, tools, and as a commodity for trade. Indian shell middens (the piles of shells that Native Americans left behind) extend for miles along sites of old villages and encampments along rivers. Mussels were used for buttons prior to World War II. They are still used in the cultural pearl industry.
Mussels play an important role in our aquatic ecosystems. Considering that less than 20 mussel species are found in most other countries of the world, our North American rivers and streams are truly “rich” with close to 300 species. Arkansas has more native freshwater mussel species than any state west of the Mississippi River!
Fact Sheets and Additional Information
- Fact Sheet (developed for Arkansas audiences): Two Arkansas Mussels (PDF)
- Arkansas: Species listed under the Endangered Species Act and Pending Evaluations of Other Species (PDF)
- Draft Economic Analysis of Critical Habitat for Neosho Mucket and Rabbitsfoot (PDF)
- Draft Environmental Assessment of Designation of Critical Habitat for Neosho mucket and Rabbitsfoot Mussels (PDF)
A Recovery Plan is currently in development for this species.
- January 10, 2014: Proposed Critical Habitat in Arkansas for Two Mussel Species and Next Steps
- September 16, 2013: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lists Neosho Mucket as Endangered and Rabbitsfoot as Threatened
- August 26, 2013: Service Re-opens Review of Draft Economic Analysis for the Proposed Critical Habitat Designation for Two Freshwater Mussels
- May 8, 2013: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Estimates Economic Impacts and Releases Draft Environmental Assessment of Critical Habitat Designation for Neosho Mucket and Rabbitsfoot
- October 15, 2012: Service Proposes to Protect Neosho Mucket and Rabbitsfoot under the Endangered Species Act; Agency Seeks Information from the Public, Scientific Community before making final decision
Federal Register Documents
All Federal Register documentation for the neosho mucket is accessible via the Enivornmental Online Conservation System (ECOS) here: http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/displayAllDocuments!fedreg.action;jsessionid=38BD5D5C5D63DB23C8FD365903494EA1?spcode=F00F
Need More Information?
Our Arkansas Ecological Services Office in Conway, Arkansas is the lead office for this species. Please call 501-513-4470.