Note: A significant portion of the text on this website is taken from the American Fisheries Society (AFS; www.fisheries.org). It has been modified and used here with permission.
North American Fauna encourages submission of original, high quality, English-language scientific monographs on an array of topics relating to North American vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Appropriate treatments include descriptions of groups of taxa, ecosystems, or complex interactions among species and basic research on species life history, distribution, population dynamics and taxonomy and must be of sufficient detail to be considered among the authoritative publication on the topic or species covered. Between 1895 and 1991, 76 issues of North American Fauna were published in print. We are in the process of having every issue digitized and will make them available online in 2009. For additional information on monograph acceptance criteria, see the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Scientific Journals Home Page.
Supplemental material files are submitted along with the primary manuscript files and are available to the peer reviewers. However, when published, they are not copyedited or typeset and do not appear directly in the final published article. Instead, web links to the files are given in the published paper, allowing the reader immediate online access to them. The files will be available in exactly the same form as provided by the authors, so they should be publication-ready upon submission.
The use of supplemental material has several benefits. First, it enables authors to incorporate multimedia files, such as audio and video files. It also allows authors to disseminate supporting or comprehensive data without detracting from the primary presentation. Finally, it allows for judicious use of journal space and, therefore, significant savings on publication costs.
Supplemental material should fall into one of the following categories: Figures, Tables, Text, Audio, or Video. All supplemental material should be referred to in the manuscript with a leading capital S (e.g., Figure S4 for the fourth supplemental figure). During the online submission process, authors will provide titles (required) and captions (optional) for each file. Except in rare cases, files should be smaller than 10 MB in size because of the difficulties that some users will experience in loading or downloading larger files.
Style Guides and Reference Literature
For taxonomic and vernacular names of North American fish species, we follow the American Fisheries Society’s most recent edition of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico (Special Publication 29). The American Fisheries Society Fish Name Spellchecker is a useful tool for providing current common and scientific names. For other fish and invertebrate species, we encourage readers to follow the Society’s companion publications: World Fishes Important to North Americans (Special Publication 21), and Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada (Mollusks, 2nd edition; Crustaceans, and Cnidaria and Ctenophora are currently available in the latter series).
For analyses of fish population dynamics, we prefer the notation as used by W. E. Ricker in his Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations (Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 191, 1975). However, all such symbolism should be defined anew in each manuscript.
Our standards for chemical names are the current editions of the Merck Index (Merck & Co., Rahway, New Jersey) and Enzyme Nomenclature (Academic Press, San Diego, California). Geneticists should use the “Gene Nomenclature for Protein-Coding Loci in Fish” by J. B. Shaklee et al. (Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:2–15, 1990).
As general references for birds, use the most current edition of The American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list (i.e., 1998) and periodic supplements published in Auk. For mammals, use either Whitaker (1996) National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals or Wilson and Reeder (2005) Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition. There is no single reference for plants in North America; cite the most widely accepted regional flora reference (e.g., in northwestern states, Hitchcock and Cronquist ).
As a general reference for amphibians and reptiles, follow Crother (2008; Herpetological Circular 37, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles) for species from North America.
As a general reference for insects, use the current Entomological Society of America (ESA) Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms online database (http://www.entsoc.org/Pubs/Common_Names/search.asp) or names approved by the ESA Common Names Committee.
As a general reference for bacteria, follow the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (formerly the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology [ICSB]) (http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/30/1/225).
For categories not specifically addressed, follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) (http://www.iczn.org/) or International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (http://www.bgbm.org/iapt/nomenclature/code/SaintLouis/0000St.Luistitle.htm).
In addition, several other style manuals provide useful guidance for the preparation of manuscripts, especially the latest edition of Scientific Style and Format, 7th edition (Council of Science Editors, Chicago). The Elements of Style by Strunk and White (Macmillan, New York) continues to be an excellent guide to English usage. Accuracy and precision in scientific writing are just as important as accuracy and precision in scientific measurement. Lapses in either context invite criticism.
Document and Multimedia FilesThe following formats are acceptable:
See Manuscript Components section for additional details.
Numbers and Symbols
Our policy allows for reasonable flexibility; deviations in format, in addition to those specified in the component descriptions below, are allowed when a manuscript benefits from them. For instance, the Results and Discussion sections may be combined for some manuscripts, Results may not be necessary for others, such as those that primarily report on methodology, and Review papers will often have unique formats depending on the topic being reviewed. Describe and justify deviations in format in a cover letter.
Headers.— Indicate levels of heads as follows:
Number One Head
Bold, centered, cap and lowercase (title capitalization).
Number two head
Bold, flush left, capitalize only first word and proper nouns (sentence capitalization).
Number three head.
Lightface, italic, ends with period; text runs in. Capitalization as for number two heads.
Title.—The title should accurately reflect a paper’s content. The best titles—those that attract a reader’s attention and interest—are usually short (a dozen words or less; there is a 15-word limit) and crisp. For fishes, Latin binomials covered in the American Fisheries Society’s Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico should not be included in the title. Authors of scientific taxa also should be omitted from the title except when their names are absolutely needed for clarification.
Author information.—Use an asterisk to designate corresponding author, and follow this format to indicate affiliations and present addresses:
Norman Stevens,* Robert E. McGibony, Paige M.A. Knotley, John Marshall Blue, Evan S. Alighieri
N. Stevens, R.E. McGibony
Abstract.— The abstract should be a single paragraph of less than 500 words that summarizes the results and conclusions in concise and declarative prose. Abstracts should neither list the contents (this is presented; that is discussed) nor review the methods. Literature citations, footnotes, abbreviations and acronyms (unless used more than five times) are not allowed in abstracts. Abstracts obviate the need for formal text summaries. Because they are widely circulated by abstracting services, abstracts have much larger readerships than do full papers, and the abstract should represent the text fairly and accurately. Abstracts are optional for Issues and Perspectives.
Introduction.—An introduction should set the context for the work to be reported and establish the purpose and importance of that work. It also should demonstrate the authors’ awareness of the most pertinent literature, including review articles. However, a comprehensive literature survey may be deferred to the discussion section if this is more appropriate.
Study site.—A report of field studies may need a detailed site description, which can be given in a separate section of the manuscript. Limit the information to that needed for an understanding and interpretation of the results. If only a few words are needed to locate and describe the study site, include them in the introduction or methods. Maps are unnecessary if they only give information contained in standard atlases.
Methods.—Methodologies can be tedious to read, but it is better to be overly explicit than to omit details needed by a reader to evaluate the data or repeat the study. Previously published descriptions of equipment and procedures may be cited by reference, unless they are in theses, dissertations, agency reports, or other sources of limited availability. Clarity of expression is as important in the methods section as it is elsewhere in the paper. If the experimental protocol and equipment are particularly complex, they can be displayed in a table or figure. Similarly, the numerous variables needed for some mathematical developments may be listed and defined in a table. Long papers that report diverse research may benefit if methodological details are split up and regrouped together with the respective results. This can help the reader to associate the data with the respective procedures. In such cases, a formal methods section can be restricted to matters common to all or most of the experiments: sources of fish, equipment, chemical analyses, or statistical tests, for example.
Results.—Results traditionally follow methods, and need not be explicitly labeled as such if a more descriptive subheading is available. If results are presented in tables or figures, it is pointless to describe them exhaustively in prose as well; the text can be devoted to summary statements and analyses. Display data in tables if precision is important, in figures if trends are paramount. Although long lists of raw data are undesirable in the Results (see however Supplemental Material section above), basic data should not be refined to the degree that a reader can neither verify the analyses nor use the information for other purposes. Authors should take special care to critically evaluate large data sets and appendices to determine which can be submitted as Supplemental Material. Statistical testing is an important part of most analyses, but it should not obscure biological insight. Most importantly, the statistical designs and models used should be appropriate for the study. Although most scientific decisions are based on a statistical probability of error of 5% or less, we have no requirements regarding significance levels. Decision probabilities should balance the sacrifice of biological information against the consequences of being wrong.
Discussion.—The value of a paper can be greatly enhanced by a good discussion. This is the place to relate what has been learned to what is known, to create new syntheses, to search for generalities, to establish basic principles. The weakest discussions are brief literature surveys appended to mechanical restatements of the results; these usually should be integrated with the results in a single section of the paper. The strongest discussions are true scientific essays that materially advance understanding of their respective fields. Most discussions fall between these extremes because they are founded on limited research objectives, but a thoughtful and scholarly discussion can transform a pedestrian paper into a remarkable one. The quality of a discussion is inversely related to redundancy, wordiness, and unfounded speculation. It is better not to make a point than to burden it with a paragraph of qualifications. The work of others, when cited, should be attributed carefully and accurately. Transitions from evidence to intuition need explicit identifications.
Acknowledgments.—Place grant and contribution numbers and organizations in the acknowledgments. Acknowledge only people and institutions that contributed directly to the research or to the manuscript’s quality. Consider acknowledging the anonymous reviewers and Subject Editor for revisions where you believe they made a positive contribution to the quality of the manuscript (e.g., “Two anonymous reviewers and the Subject Editor provided comments that improved an earlier version of this manuscript”). The standard disclaimer required for Service authors (i.e., "The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service."; see Policy Review section below) will be automatically included for each paper published and is therefore NOT required in this section.
References.—Select references with care. Minimize references to gray literature (e.g., progress reports, unpublished papers, abstracts of papers given at conferences, and manuscripts in preparation or under review) except to acknowledge intellectual debt in the Acknowledgments section. Similarly, theses, dissertations, final reports, and institutional documents of limited or no circulation often contain useful data and may be cited; however, such sources rarely have been subjected to external review and should be cited sparingly. Authors should endeavor provide internet addresses for all difficult to find references and provide the month and year accessed parenthetically after the internet address [e.g., (September 2010)]. Authors may be requested to provide unpublished reports if they are required by the referees and should be prepared to provide an electronic version of any reference upon request by readers or editors, unless precluded by copyright laws, in a timely manner. Reliance on unpublished reports reduces an author’s credibility. If unpublished or personal communication must be cited do so parenthetically in the text, giving initials, surname and affiliation (not address) of the source; for example, (A. B. Jones, Institute for Aquatics, personal communication). Obtain written permissions from the appropriate people to cite unpublished data and personal communications, and be prepared to show such letters to the editor. See the Current Issue for examples.
Follow the name-year system for literature citations; they may take either of two forms, depending on the context. Note the punctuation in the following examples:
Cite both of two authors, but for three or more give only the first author plus “et al.” Arrange multiple citations chronologically (oldest first) in a text sentence.
If their names are long, institutional authors may be cited as abbreviations in the text, but such abbreviations must be defined in the references. For example, “APHA et al. (1992)” cited in the text appears in the reference list as “[APHA] American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. 1992.”
The reference list will generally follow Scientific Style and Format, 7th edition. Please submit your references in a style that approximates that as much as possible to facilitate copyediting. In the reference list, alphabetize entries first by the surnames of first authors or by the first word or abbreviation of corporate authors, then by the initials of first authors with the same surname, and finally by the surnames of coauthors. List multiple papers by the same author(s) chronologically by year of publication. Distinguish papers by the same author(s) in the same year by lowercase letters after the year (1998a, 1998b). Substitute “in press” for the year if a paper has been accepted for publication but page numbers are not yet available.
Completely spell out all bibliographic information, including serial titles. We allow only these abbreviations:
Note also that only the first words and proper nouns of English titles are capitalized. In German titles, all nouns are capitalized. Retain italics when they are used in the titles cited.
Examples of common bibliographic formats follow.
(1) Articles in journals and other periodicals listed in BIOSIS Serial Sources (BIOSIS, Philadelphia): Author(s). year. Article title. Journal title volume number (issue number only if each starts with page 1): inclusive pages.
However, see the exception for AFS book series in (3) below. Use this format for book-length publications such as monographs and symposia as well.
Crawshaw LI, Lemons DE, Palmer M, Messing JM. 1982. Behavioral and metabolic aspects of low-temperature dormancy in the brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 148:41–47.
Hochachka PW. 1990. Scope for survival: a conceptual “mirror” to Fry’s scope for activity. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:622–628.
Kennedy VS. 1990. Anticipated effects of climate change on estuarine and coastal fisheries. Fisheries 15(6):16–24.
Kent ML, Traxler GS, Kieser D, Richard J, Dawe SC, Shaw RW, Prosperi-Porta G, Ketcheson J, Evelyn TPT. 1998. Survey of salmonid pathogens in ocean-caught fishes in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 10:211–219.
Petersen MR, Weir DN, Dick MH. 1991. Birds of the Kilbuck and Ahklun Mountain Region, Alaska. North American Fauna. 76:1–158. doi: 10.3996/nafa.76.0001
(2) Book: Author(s) or editor (s). year. Title. edition (other than 1st) or Volume (if part of a series). City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): Publisher. Other identifying information. Omit the number of pages.
[APHA] American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th edition. Washington, D.C.: APHA.
Hoar WS, Randall DJ, editors. 1988. Fish physiology. Volume 11, part B. New York: Academic Press.
(3) Article in a book (including those in the AFS book series—Special Publications, Symposia, and Monographs): Author(s). year. Article title. Inclusive pages in editor(s). Book title. City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): Publisher. Other identifying information.
Identify conference proceedings by year of publication, not by the year of the meeting, and give the publisher’s name and location (i.e., where the proceedings may be obtained), not the location of the meeting.
Adams SM, Breck JE. 1990. Bioenergetics. Pages 389–415 in Schreck CB, Moyle PB, editors. Methods for fish biology. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society.
Campton DE. 1995. Genetic effects of hatchery fish on wild populations of Pacific salmon and steelhead: what do we really know? Pages 337–353 in Schramm HL Jr, Piper RG, editors. Uses and effects of cultured fishes in aquatic ecosystems. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society. Symposium 15.
Livingstone AC, Rabeni CF. 1991. Food-habitat relations of underyearling smallmouth bass in an Ozark stream. Pages 76–83 in Jackson DC, editor. The first international smallmouth bass symposium. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society.
(4) Thesis or dissertation: Author. year. Title. Master’s thesis or Doctoral dissertation. City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): University.
Omit state after city if included in the university name.
Chitwood JB. 1976. The effects of threadfin shad as a forage species for largemouth bass in combination with bluegill, redear, and other forage species. Master’s thesis. Auburn, Alabama: Auburn University.
(5) Government publication: Author(s) or agency. year. Title. City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): Agency. Type and number of publication.
Omit state or province after city if included in the agency name.
[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Quality criteria for water. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Report 440/5-86-001.
Gimbarzevsky P. 1988. Mass wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands: a regional inventory. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands. Land Management Report 29.
(6) Contract report: Author(s). year. Title. Organization that issued the report (if different from the author) to Organization that received the report, Receiver’s city, state, province, or country (only if needed to locate city).
(7) Internet: Author(s) or agency. year. Title. Publisher or Publication. [volume:page numbers]. Available: URL (month and year accessed). [DOI:]
Items in brackets are optional.
Baldwin NA, Saalfield RW, Dochoda MR, Buettner HJ, Eshenroder RL. 2000. Commercial fish production in the Great Lakes 1867–1996. Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Available: www.glfc.org/databases/commercial/commerc.php (September 2000).
Villeneuve DL, Wang RL, Bencic DC, Biales AD, Martinovic D, Lazorchak JM, Toth G, Ankley GT. 2009. Altered gene expression in the brain and ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole: microarray analysis and hypothesis generation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:1767–1782. Available: www.setacjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1897%2F08-653.1&ct=1 (October 2009). DOI: 10.1897/08-653.1
(8) Other electronic sources: Author(s) or agency. year. Title. Medium: description [if necessary] (availability).
King, S. 2009. New parasite species in Irion County, Texas prairie dogs. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4¾ in. (from the author).Smith, EH. 2009. Fewer salmon in the Pacific Northwest. Kindle DX version (retrieved from Amazon.com).
Footnotes.—There should be no in-text footnotes. Although footnotes will be used to designate information such as corresponding author e-mail or present address, they will follow the address section and be in text (not footnote) format; do not use the Word footnote function. Information regarding availability of supplementary materials and disclaimers of product endorsement can be included in the text or the acknowledgments.
Tables.— Tables should be constructed in either Word or Excel. Each table should be clearly labeled with an appropriate number, even if there is only one. For typesetting purposes, it is more important that a table be formatted correctly upon submission than for it to approximate the look of the final paged document as it would appear in print or online. Organize tables to convey the greatest amount of coherent information with the least amount of wasted space and redundancy. Do not repeat column heads unnecessarily. Do not submit tables in which the data are separated by tab characters.
Table captions.— Captions should be clearly numbered and appear outside of the table. Captions should stand alone; except in rare cases, all terms, abbreviations, acronyms and symbols should be defined without necessitating the need to refer back to the text or other tables.
Table column heads.—These should each appear in individual cells. For heads that straddle columns (or other column heads) please merge the cells over the desired columns. Do not use hard returns to break column heads. Do not repeat the column heads if the table continues on to another page in the word processing document—breaks will occur (if they occur) at different places in the typeset file and will be automatically inserted.
Table body.—As tables will have alternate line shading when typeset, do not use shading to indicate meaning. Instead either use bold, italic, or bold italic text, or use footnote indicators. Do not use hard returns within the body of the table, except to indicate a list that should appear within the cell. Do not attempt to align data by using keyboard spaces or tabs. To indicate a structured indent in the stub column, use either the Word emspace character or an indent. Do not use blank columns or rows to indicate extra space.
Table footnotes.—Use lowercase superscript letters to indicate footnotes. The footnotes themselves should not appear in the body of the table, but outside it. Asterisks may be used to indicate probability. Define statistical probability of error.
Miscellaneous table information.—Place a zero to the left of the decimal point for fractions smaller than one. Pay attention to the number of significant digits, regardless of what a computer may have printed out. Although fractions of a percent may be statistically justified in some cases, they rarely convey more meaning in biological work than do rounded, whole percentages.
Use the table caption or footnotes to identify nonstandard symbols and abbreviations. Footnotes take lowercase letter superscripts, which occur in alphabetical order. List footnotes below the table.
In column and row headings, capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and appropriate symbols. Horizontal ruled lines are inserted by the typesetting software, but their placement in the submitted document can be used to distinguish column heads from the table body. Vertical lines are never allowed. Use line spacing of at least 1.5 for the caption and entries and continue the table on additional pages, if necessary. Do not reduce type size for tables.
Figure captions.— Captions should be clearly numbered and appear outside of the figure. Captions should stand alone; except in rare cases, all terms, abbreviations, acronyms and symbols should be defined without necessitating the need to refer back to the text or other figures. Include full disclosure whenever digital images have been electronically manipulated or enhanced.
Figures.— Figures should be in files separate from the article file (multiple figures can be in the same file) and labeled with an appropriate number. There is no additional charge for color photographs and graphics; submit the highest resolution possible.
Minimum dpi (dots per inch) for Line Drawings is 1200 dpi; Combination Figures should be at least 600 dpi; Grayscale or Color Figures should be at least 300 dpi. For more detailed instructions, please see the official Allen Press Guide to Digital Art Specifications at http://allenpress.com/system/files/pdfs/library/apmk_digital_art.pdf.
Publishing images from Google maps (or other providers that are not in the public domain) is not permitted. All maps should contain a compass direction indicator (e.g., north arrow) and a scale bar. Provide inset maps to provide geographic context at a readily recognizable scale (e.g., states in the US). Labeled latitude and longitude lines are encouraged when they do not detract from the message of the figure.
Labels should describe the x- and y-axes clearly. Place the y-axis label to the left of the axis and orient it to read sideways from bottom to top of the graph. Photomicrographs may be reduced during printing and should contain a scale bar directly on the photograph; give the equivalent length either on the bar or in the figure caption.
All letters should be at least 1.5 mm high (6-point type) after the figure is reduced; avoid bold fonts. A figure that is 20 cm wide when drawn can reduce to one column if the smallest original lettering is at least 4.5 mm high (18-point type). Letter size and line thickness (including axes) should vary no more than twofold on a figure. Reduction can cause pattern fill in charts to become distorted or to moiré; shaded fill or very simple, large patterns are preferred. Figure reduction can cause symbols and shadings to look alike, dashed lines to become continuous, and dotted lines to disappear, so choose elements that will retain their clarity and contrast when reduced and published. Keep graphics simple and uncluttered. Avoid unnecessary use of three-dimensional charts, black borders, and shaded fill. If shaded fill is used, keep it in the range of 30–70% of black for best reproduction. Keep blank space to a minimum by placing axis labels near the axes, multiple panels close together, and “outlier” words (compass directions, scale bars, keys) within the margins of the figure. Carefully planned figures enhance a paper’s message and can reduce publication costs.
Multimedia.—Authors are encouraged to submit multimedia files with their manuscripts (e.g., video footage, audio clips, data sets, and enhanced figures) in any of the formats indicated in the Document and Multimedia Files in the Format Conventions section.
Re-publication and Dual Publication
Authors with any doubt about the appropriateness of re-publication for a specific manuscript should contact the Editor-in-Chief before submission. If any portion of a manuscript has been published or reported elsewhere, all similarities between information in the manuscript and the previous publications must be detailed in the manuscript and properly cited.
We subscribe to the standards articulated by Kendall in "Dual Publication of Scientific Information", Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110:573-574 (1981). We also discourage fragmented reporting of results whenever possible. If publishing a single comprehensive paper is not feasible, we recommend related papers be coordinated, cross-referenced, and submitted together. Publishing of interim or annual reports is discouraged in North American Fauna.
On your first visit to the journal site, you will need to register for an account. The same login name and password can be used for both North American Fauna and the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, but you are required log in separately for access to each journal site.
The submission site is designed to be intuitive and authors who have experience with the online system for the journals of either The Wildlife Society or AFS will find the online environment familiar - they are all built using the same basic system. In addition, detailed instructions and help files are available on the site. Before submitting a manuscript, you will need to gather the following information:
Begin the manuscript submission process by pressing the "Submit Manuscript" link on your "Home" page.
After the files are uploaded, you will be asked to select the order you would like them to be displayed in a merged PDF files that the system will create for you. You be asked to review and approve the PDF conversions before they are submitted for review. Note - the conversion process may take up to 15-20 minutes for large files, so you may have to wait a few minutes before you can view and approve the converted PDF files.
Specific instructions for Reviewers for the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna, including some specific questions we ask them to consider, can be found here.
Authors should do their part by revising papers promptly, ideally in less than 90 days after the paper is evaluated. Papers that have been out for revision for six months will be considered withdrawn; revisions completed after that time will be considered new submissions. Reviewers (and Editors) react positively to concisely written and well-organized papers and are likely to give such papers priority attention. Careless preparation of manuscripts implies careless research and thought and may lead to negative critiques.
Authors can greatly enhance reviewers perception of their manuscripts if they:
All articles published in the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna will automatically contain the following disclaimer: “The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.”
Copyright and Public Domain
Authors who are reproducing copyrighted material in their manuscripts must secure permission from the copyright owner prior to submission. The copyright owner should be informed that the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna are in the public domain; if the copyright owner will not agree to have their material be in the public domain, we will publish the material with the copyright symbol ©, the copyright owner's name, and the phrase "used with permission". Provide specific details in a cover letter for any copyrighted material that is reproduced in your submission.
The information in the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna is provided on an "AS IS" basis and any warranties, either express or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of non-infringement, originality, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are disclaimed. In no event shall the U.S. Government be liable for any damages that arise out of or in connection with the access, use or performance of this journal, including infringement actions.
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