Note: A significant portion of the text on this website is taken from the American Fisheries Society (AFS; www.fisheries.org). It has been modified and used here with permission.
The Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management encourages submission of original, high quality, English-language scientific papers on the practical application and integration of science to conservation and management of native North American fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats in the following categories: Articles, Notes, Surveys and Issues and Perspectives. Papers that do not relate directly to native North American fish, wildlife plants or their habitats may still be considered if they highlight species that are closely related to, or conservation issues that are germane to, those in North America. For additional information on manuscript criteria, see the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Scientific Journals Home Page and the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management Guide for Authors.
(1) Articles are full research articles and comprehensive reviews of particular topics that contain critical assessments and often innovative interpretation and distillation of principles and generalities pertinent to the management and conservation of fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats, including methodology and protocol (however, see Surveys below). Articles typically do not exceed 50 pages (including text, references, tables, and figures). Large data sets and supporting information that may be of interest to the reader, but are not central to the main tenets of a manuscript, should be submitted as Supplemental Material. Longer manuscripts (monographs) may be more appropriately submitted to North American Fauna.
(2) Notes are shorter research papers of more limited scope and inference. Notes typically contain more limited analyses, often with less spatial or temporal replication, and may be more descriptive than Articles. Notes report results from almost any research topic pertinent to the management and conservation of fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats, including methodology and protocol (however, see Surveys below). Notes typically do not exceed 20 pages (including text, references, tables, and figures). Large data sets and supporting information that may be of interest to the reader, but are not central to the main tenets of a manuscript, should be submitted as Supplemental Material.
(3) Surveys deal specifically with results of inventory and monitoring studies, field surveys and survey methodology. Surveys vary extensively in overall length and breadth. Some are as short and limited in scope as Notes, while others are as long and detailed as Articles – the uniting theme is their focus. Large data sets and supporting information that may be of interest to the reader, but are not central to the main tenets of a manuscript, should be submitted as Supplemental Material.
(4) Issues and Perspectives contain essays examining issues and questions of concern on matters of scientific interest to conservation professionals, as well as critiques and comments on papers published in this journal, along with invited responses from the original authors that rebut them. Essays in this category, even when they are opinion pieces, should be scientifically based, logical, persuasive and clearly presented; reviewer agreement is not a criterion for acceptance. Deviation from standard formatting for manuscript components is often warranted and should be described in a cover letter.
Editorials, Invited Papers and Errata are also published. Contact the Editor-In-Chief with suggested topics or requests.
Supplemental material should fall into one of the following categories: Figures, Tables, Text, References, Audio, or Video. All supplemental material should be referred to in the manuscript with a leading capital S (e.g., Figure S4 for the fourth supplemental figure). Endeaver smaller than 10 MB in size because of the difficulties that some users will experience in loading or downloading larger files.
Supplemental material files are submitted along with the primary manuscript files and are available to the peer reviewers. However, when published, they are not copyedited or typeset and do not appear directly in the final published article. Instead, web links to the files are given in the published paper, allowing the reader immediate online access to them. The files will be available in exactly the same form as provided by the authors, so they should be publication-ready upon submission.
The Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management has implemented a data archiving policy that applies to all papers. The policy was formally introduced in the editorial for Issue 2, Number 1 published in June 2011. See the editorial for more details. The policy reads:
The Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management requires, as a condition for publication, that data supporting the results in papers published be provided either directly in the paper, in the associated supplemental materials (electronic files that provide information associated with a paper; Internet links to these files are given in the published paper), or archived in an appropriate public archive. Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and usable for decades in the future. Exceptions, especially for sensitive information such as human subject data or the location of endangered species, and short-term embargoes, may be granted at the discretion of the Editor-In-Chief.
Every manuscript submitted must include a cover letter with a Data Access section. In your cover letter, include a Data Access section detailing how you are providing the data supporting the results in your manuscript. Include specifics on where all data are located (e.g., directly in the manuscript, Supplemental Material, public data archive), give specific access details as needed for public data archives (e.g., passwords, internet links) and detail any exemptions to the Data Archiving policy granted by the Editor-In-Chief. Alternatively, explain why no data are required to reproduce the results in your manuscript (e.g., some opinion or synthesis papers).
It is not acceptable to state that data "will be provided upon acceptance", such manuscripts will be returned without review. However, some public archives (e.g., Dryad www.datadryad.org) require that manuscripts be formally accepted before information can be archived. If you plan to use this type of service, which we encourage, you should still provide the data as Supplemental Material for review upon submission of the manuscript following all guidelines given in the Supplemental Material section above. Upon formal acceptance of the manuscript, authors can choose to leave the information uploaded as Supplemental Material as is for publication, switch the information to a public archive and provide access information in an Archived Material section (and delete it from Supplemental Material), or use a combination of both methods and the titles of the section(s) will be changed accordingly.
Style Guides and Reference Literature
For taxonomic and vernacular names of North American fish species, we follow the American Fisheries Society’s most recent edition of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico (Special Publication 29). The American Fisheries Society Fish Name Spellchecker is a useful tool for providing current common and scientific names. For other fish and invertebrate species, we encourage readers to follow the Society’s companion publications: World Fishes Important to North Americans (Special Publication 21), and Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada (Mollusks, 2nd edition; Crustaceans, and Cnidaria and Ctenophora are currently available in the latter series).
For analyses of fish population dynamics, we prefer the notation as used by W. E. Ricker in his Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations (Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 191, 1975). However, all such symbolism should be defined anew in each manuscript.
Our standards for chemical names are the current editions of the Merck Index (Merck & Co., Rahway, New Jersey) and Enzyme Nomenclature (Academic Press, San Diego, California). Geneticists should use the “Gene Nomenclature for Protein-Coding Loci in Fish” by J. B. Shaklee et al. (Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:2–15, 1990).
As general references for birds, use the most current edition of The American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list (i.e., 1998) and periodic supplements published in Auk. For mammals, use either Whitaker (1996) National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals or Wilson and Reeder (2005) Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition. There is no single reference for plants in North America; cite the most widely accepted regional flora reference (e.g., in northwestern states, Hitchcock and Cronquist ).
As a general reference for amphibians and reptiles, follow Crother (2008; Herpetological Circular 37, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles) for species from North America.
As a general reference for insects, use the current Entomological Society of America (ESA) Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms online database (http://www.entsoc.org/Pubs/Common_Names/search.asp) or names approved by the ESA Common Names Committee.
As a general reference for bacteria, follow the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (formerly the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology [ICSB]) (http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/30/1/225).
For categories not specifically addressed, follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) (http://www.iczn.org/) or International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (http://www.bgbm.org/iapt/nomenclature/code/SaintLouis/0000St.Luistitle.htm).
In addition, several other style manuals provide useful guidance for the preparation of manuscripts, especially the latest edition of Scientific Style and Format, 7th edition (Council of Science Editors, Chicago). The Elements of Style by Strunk and White (Macmillan, New York) continues to be an excellent guide to English usage. Accuracy and precision in scientific writing are just as important as accuracy and precision in scientific measurement. Lapses in either context invite criticism.
Document and Multimedia FilesThe following formats are acceptable:
See Manuscript Components section for additional details.
Numbers and Symbols
Our policy allows for reasonable flexibility; deviations in format (in addition to those specified in the component descriptions below) should be used sparingly, but are allowed when manuscripts benefit from them. For instance, review papers and Issues and Perspectives essays will often have unique formats and some papers may combine, omit or add components. Describe and justify deviations from standard format in the cover letter.
Headers.— Indicate levels of heads as follows:
Number One Head
Bold, centered, cap and lowercase (title capitalization).
Number two head
Bold, flush left, capitalize only first word and proper nouns (sentence capitalization).
Number three head.
Lightface, italic, ends with period; text runs in. Capitalization as for number two heads.
Title.—The title should accurately reflect a paper’s content. The best titles—those that attract a reader’s attention and interest—are usually short (a dozen words or less; there is a 15-word limit) and crisp. For fishes, Latin binomials covered in the American Fisheries Society’s Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico should not be included in the title. Taxonomic authority names should be omitted from the title except when their names are absolutely needed for clarification.
Author information.—Use an asterisk to designate corresponding author, and follow this format to indicate affiliations and present addresses:
Norman Stevens,* Robert E. McGibony, Paige M.A. Knotley, John Marshall Blue, Evan S. Alighieri
N. Stevens, R.E. McGibony
Abstract.— The abstract should be a single paragraph typically less than 500 words that summarizes the results and conclusions in concise and declarative prose. Abstracts should neither list the contents (this is presented; that is discussed) nor review the methods. Literature citations, footnotes, abbreviations and acronyms (unless used more than five times) are not allowed in abstracts. Abstracts obviate the need for formal text summaries. Because they are widely circulated by abstracting services, abstracts have much larger readerships than do full papers, and the abstract should represent the text fairly and accurately. Abstracts are optional for Issues and Perspectives.
Introduction.—An introduction should set the context for the work to be reported and establish the purpose and importance of that work. It also should demonstrate the authors’ awareness of the most pertinent literature, including review articles. However, a comprehensive literature survey may be deferred to the discussion section if this is more appropriate. Relevance of the work to conservation and management should be included often in or near the final paragraph. The last paragraph should also clearly and succinctly detail the study objectives.
Study site.—A report of field studies may need a detailed site description, which can be given in a separate section of the manuscript. Limit the information to that needed for an understanding and interpretation of the results. If only a few words or sentences are needed to locate and describe the study site, include them in the introduction or methods. Maps are not required in all cases, but are often beneficial.
Methods.—Methodologies can be tedious to read, but it is better to be overly explicit than to omit details needed by a reader to evaluate the data or repeat the study. Clarity of expression is as important in the methods section as it is elsewhere in the paper. If the experimental protocol and equipment are particularly complex, they can be displayed in a table or figure (including photos). Similarly, the numerous variables needed for some mathematical developments may be listed and defined in a table. Long papers that report diverse research may benefit if methodological details are split up and regrouped together with the respective results. This can help the reader to associate the data with the respective procedures. In such cases, a formal methods section can be restricted to matters common to all or most of the experiments: sources of fish, equipment, chemical analyses, or statistical tests, for example. Some papers, such as those concerned wholly with techniques or models, as well as review articles, may not need a separate methods section.
Results.—Results traditionally follow methods, and need not be explicitly labeled as such if a more descriptive subheading is available. If results are presented in tables or figures, it is pointless to describe them exhaustively in prose as well; the text can be devoted to summary statements and analyses. Display data in tables if precision is important, in figures if trends are paramount. Authors should take special care to critically evaluate large data sets and appendices to determine which should be submitted as Supplemental Material. Statistical testing is an important part of most analyses, but it should not obscure biological insight. Most importantly, the statistical designs and models used should be appropriate for the study. Although most scientific decisions are based on a statistical probability of error of 5% or less, we have no requirements regarding significance levels. Decision probabilities should balance the sacrifice of biological information against the consequences of being wrong.
Discussion.—The value of a paper can be greatly enhanced by a good discussion. This is the place to relate what has been learned to what is known, to create new syntheses, to search for generalities, to establish basic principles. The weakest discussions are brief literature surveys appended to mechanical restatements of the results; these usually should be integrated with the results in a single section of the paper. The strongest discussions are true scientific essays that materially advance understanding of their respective fields. Most discussions fall between these extremes because they are founded on limited research objectives, but a thoughtful and scholarly discussion can transform a pedestrian paper into a remarkable one. The quality of a discussion is inversely related to redundancy, wordiness, and unfounded speculation. It is better not to make a point than to burden it with a paragraph of qualifications. The work of others, when cited, should be attributed carefully and accurately. Transitions from evidence to intuition need explicit identifications.
Archived Material and Supplemental Material (as needed).-In order to comply with our Data Archiving policy, one or both of these sections will be required for most papers. An Archived Material section is only required if information (e.g., data, references, video files) has been archived anywhere other than the journal’s own Supplemental Material website (e.g., publically available archives like Dryad: www.datadryad.org). A Supplemental Material section is only required if information (e.g., data, references, video files) has been archived in the journal’s Supplemental Material website. Manuscripts may contain either one of these sections, both sections, or neither section.
In all cases for both sections, reference (callout) each item or file (e.g., figures, tables, references) at least once in the manuscript text (e.g., Table S1, Figure S1, Figure S2, etc.). Use this same numbering format for both Archived and Supplemental Material sections; continue numbering sequentially from Archived through Supplemental Materials if both are required. Provide detailed captions for each item (following the same “stand alone” requirements as for normal Table and Figure captions). Additional readme text files with a detailed description of the variables in data files are often needed and almost always useful. When references are provided in either section, be sure to include the standard citation in the References section of the manuscript, followed by "Reference R1", “Reference R2”, etc. For example:
Michael J. Millard,Craig A. Czarnecki, John M. Morton, Laura A. Brandt, Jennifer S. Briggs, Frank S. Shipley, Roger Sayre, Pamela J. Sponholtz, David Perkins, Darin G. Simpkins, Janith Taylor (2012) A National Geographic Framework for Guiding Conservation on a Landscape Scale. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management: June 2012, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 175-183. Reference R1.
For examples published previously in the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, see the Archived Material and Supplemental Material sections, respectively, in Klimstra and Padding (2012): http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/full/10.3996/032011-JFWM-023 and Loesch et al. (2012): http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/full/10.3996/032011-JFWM-020
Acknowledgments.—Place grant and contribution numbers and organizations in the acknowledgments. Acknowledge only people and institutions that contributed directly to the research or to the manuscript’s quality. Consider acknowledging the anonymous reviewers and Subject Editor for revisions where you believe they made a positive contribution to the quality of the manuscript (e.g., “Two anonymous reviewers and the Subject Editor provided comments that improved an earlier version of this manuscript”). The standard disclaimer required for Service authors (i.e., "The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service."; see Policy Review section below) will automatically be included below the abstract in each paper published and is therefore NOT required in this section. Similarly, the standard US government product endorsement disclaimer will appear in automatically in the Acknowledgements section of each paper published.
References.—Select references with care. Minimize references to gray literature and difficult to find publications (e.g., progress reports, unpublished papers, abstracts of papers given at conferences, and manuscripts in preparation or under review) except to acknowledge intellectual debt in the Acknowledgments section. However, theses, dissertations, final reports, and institutional documents of limited or no circulation often contain useful data and may be cited sparingly when absolutely necessary. Authors may be requested to provide an electronic version of any reference cited upon request by the editors.
In all cases, authors should endeavor to provide website addresses for difficult to find references; provide the month and year accessed parenthetically after the website address [e.g., (September 2010)]. Also note, authors should submit high resolution scans as Archived or Supplemental Material of gray literature references for which there are no copyright infringement issues (e.g., all federal government publications) except in rare cases where documents are extremely large (detail any such references in the cover letter). This provides the added benefit of providing a way to disseminate gray literature and ensure long-term preservation; website addresses change and disappear; Supplemental and Archived Material is more stable. Providing both an internet address and a scanned in version is preferred when possible.
If papers “under review” or “in press” are important enough to be cited, they should be uploaded as “review only” Supplemental Material attachments upon manuscript submission. These files will not be published but will be available for reviewers and editors to see during the review process.
If “unpublished data” or “personal communications” must be cited, do so parenthetically in the text, giving initials, surname and affiliation (not address) of the source; for example, (A. B. Jones, Institute for Aquatics, personal communication). Obtain written permissions from the appropriate people to cite unpublished data and personal communications, and be prepared to show them to the editor.
Follow the name-year system for literature citations; they may take either of two forms, depending on the context. Note the punctuation in the following examples:
Cite both of two authors, but for three or more give only the first author plus “et al.” Arrange multiple citations chronologically (oldest first) in a text sentence.
If their names are long, institutional authors may be cited as abbreviations in the text, but such abbreviations must be defined in the references. For example, “APHA et al. (1992)” cited in the text appears in the reference list as “[APHA] American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. 1992.”
The reference list will generally follow Scientific Style and Format, 7th edition. Please submit your references in a style that approximates that as much as possible to facilitate copyediting. In the reference list, alphabetize entries first by the surnames of first authors or by the first word or abbreviation of corporate authors, then by the initials of first authors with the same surname, and finally by the surnames of coauthors. List multiple papers by the same author(s) chronologically by year of publication. Distinguish papers by the same author(s) in the same year by lowercase letters after the year (1998a, 1998b). Substitute “in press” for the year if a paper has been accepted for publication but page numbers are not yet available.
Completely spell out all bibliographic information, including serial titles. We allow only these abbreviations:
Note also that only the first words and proper nouns of English titles are capitalized. In German titles, all nouns are capitalized. Retain italics when they are used in the titles cited.
At first mention of the US Endangered Species Act (or use of the terms “threatened” or “endangered” pursuant to the US Endangered Species Act) cite the Act with the following format for the in-text citation: “US Endangered Species Act (ESA 1973, as amended)" at first mention, thereafter “ESA 1973”. Correspondingly, use the following citation for the References section: [ESA] US Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. No. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884 (Dec. 28, 1973). Available at: http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa-library/pdf/ESAall.pdf.
Examples of common bibliographic formats follow.
(1) Articles in journals and other periodicals listed in BIOSIS Serial Sources (BIOSIS, Philadelphia): Author(s). year. Article title. Journal title volume number (issue number only if each starts with page 1): inclusive pages.
However, see the exception for AFS book series in (3) below. Use this format for book-length publications such as monographs and symposia as well.
Crawshaw LI, Lemons DE, Palmer M, Messing JM. 1982. Behavioral and metabolic aspects of low-temperature dormancy in the brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 148:41–47.
Hochachka PW. 1990. Scope for survival: a conceptual “mirror” to Fry’s scope for activity. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:622–628.
Kennedy VS. 1990. Anticipated effects of climate change on estuarine and coastal fisheries. Fisheries 15(6):16–24.
Kent ML, Traxler GS, Kieser D, Richard J, Dawe SC, Shaw RW, Prosperi-Porta G, Ketcheson J, Evelyn TPT. 1998. Survey of salmonid pathogens in ocean-caught fishes in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 10:211–219.
Petersen MR, Weir DN, Dick MH. 1991. Birds of the Kilbuck and Ahklun Mountain Region, Alaska. North American Fauna. 76:1–158. doi: 10.3996/nafa.76.0001
(2) Book: Author(s) or editor (s). year. Title. edition (other than 1st) or Volume (if part of a series). City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): Publisher. Other identifying information. Omit the number of pages.
[APHA] American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th edition. Washington, D.C.: APHA.
Hoar WS, Randall DJ, editors. 1988. Fish physiology. Volume 11, part B. New York: Academic Press.
(3) Article in a book (including those in the AFS book series—Special Publications, Symposia, and Monographs): Author(s). year. Article title. Inclusive pages in editor(s). Book title. City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): Publisher. Other identifying information.
Identify conference proceedings by year of publication, not by the year of the meeting, and give the publisher’s name and location (i.e., where the proceedings may be obtained), not the location of the meeting.
Adams SM, Breck JE. 1990. Bioenergetics. Pages 389–415 in Schreck CB, Moyle PB, editors. Methods for fish biology. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society.
Campton DE. 1995. Genetic effects of hatchery fish on wild populations of Pacific salmon and steelhead: what do we really know? Pages 337–353 in Schramm HL Jr, Piper RG, editors. Uses and effects of cultured fishes in aquatic ecosystems. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society. Symposium 15.
Livingstone AC, Rabeni CF. 1991. Food-habitat relations of underyearling smallmouth bass in an Ozark stream. Pages 76–83 in Jackson DC, editor. The first international smallmouth bass symposium. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society.
(4) Thesis or dissertation: Author. year. Title. Master’s thesis or Doctoral dissertation. City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): University.
Omit state after city if included in the university name.
Chitwood JB. 1976. The effects of threadfin shad as a forage species for largemouth bass in combination with bluegill, redear, and other forage species. Master’s thesis. Auburn, Alabama: Auburn University.
(5) Government publication: Author(s) or agency. year. Title. City, State, Province, or Country (only if needed to locate city): Agency. Type and number of publication.
Omit state or province after city if included in the agency name.
[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Quality criteria for water. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Report 440/5-86-001.
Gimbarzevsky P. 1988. Mass wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands: a regional inventory. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands. Land Management Report 29.
(6) Contract report: Author(s). year. Title. Organization that issued the report (if different from the author) to Organization that received the report, Receiver’s city, state, province, or country (only if needed to locate city).
(7) Internet: Author(s) or agency. year. Title. Publisher or Publication. [volume:page numbers]. Available: URL (month and year accessed). [DOI:]
Items in brackets are optional.
Baldwin NA, Saalfield RW, Dochoda MR, Buettner HJ, Eshenroder RL. 2000. Commercial fish production in the Great Lakes 1867–1996. Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Available: www.glfc.org/databases/commercial/commerc.php (September 2000).
Villeneuve DL, Wang RL, Bencic DC, Biales AD, Martinovic D, Lazorchak JM, Toth G, Ankley GT. 2009. Altered gene expression in the brain and ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole: microarray analysis and hypothesis generation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:1767–1782. Available: www.setacjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1897%2F08-653.1&ct=1 (October 2009). DOI: 10.1897/08-653.1
(8) Other electronic sources: Author(s) or agency. year. Title. Medium: description [if necessary] (availability).
King, S. 2009. New parasite species in Irion County, Texas prairie dogs. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4¾ in. (from the author).Smith, EH. 2009. Fewer salmon in the Pacific Northwest. Kindle DX version (retrieved from Amazon.com).
Footnotes.—There should be no in-text footnotes. Although footnotes will be used to designate information such as corresponding author e-mail or present address, they will follow the address section and be in text (not footnote) format; do not use the Word footnote function.
Tables.— Tables should be constructed in either Word or Excel. Each table should be clearly labeled with an appropriate number, even if there is only one. For typesetting purposes, it is more important that a table be formatted correctly upon submission than for it to approximate the look of the final paged document as it would appear in print or online. Organize tables to convey the greatest amount of coherent information with the least amount of wasted space and redundancy. Do not repeat column heads unnecessarily. Do not submit tables in which the data are separated by tab characters.
Table captions.— Captions should be clearly numbered and appear outside of the table. Captions should stand alone; except in rare cases, all terms, abbreviations, acronyms and symbols should be defined without necessitating the need to refer back to the text or other tables. Scientific names should be given at first use in all captions.
Table column heads.—These should each appear in individual cells. For heads that straddle columns (or other column heads) please merge the cells over the desired columns. Do not use hard returns to break column heads. Do not repeat the column heads if the table continues on to another page in the word processing document—breaks will occur (if they occur) at different places in the typeset file and will be automatically inserted.
Table body.—As tables will have alternate line shading when typeset, do not use shading to indicate meaning. Instead either use bold, italic, or bold italic text, or use footnote indicators. Do not use hard returns within the body of the table, except to indicate a list that should appear within the cell. Do not attempt to align data by using keyboard spaces or tabs. To indicate a structured indent in the stub column, use either the Word emspace character or an indent. Do not use blank columns or rows to indicate extra space.
Table footnotes.—Use lowercase superscript letters to indicate footnotes. The footnotes themselves should not appear in the body of the table, but outside it. Asterisks may be used to indicate probability. Define statistical probability of error.
Miscellaneous table information.—Place a zero to the left of the decimal point for fractions smaller than one. Pay attention to the number of significant digits, regardless of what a computer may have printed out. Although fractions of a percent may be statistically justified in some cases, they rarely convey more meaning in biological work than do rounded, whole percentages.
Use the table caption or footnotes to identify nonstandard symbols and abbreviations. Footnotes take lowercase letter superscripts, which occur in alphabetical order. List footnotes below the table.
In column and row headings, capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and appropriate symbols. Horizontal ruled lines are inserted by the typesetting software, but their placement in the submitted document can be used to distinguish column heads from the table body. Vertical lines are never allowed. Use line spacing of at least 1.5 for the caption and entries and continue the table on additional pages, if necessary. Do not reduce type size for tables.
Figure captions.— Captions should be clearly numbered and appear outside of the figure. Captions should stand alone; except in rare cases, all terms, abbreviations, acronyms and symbols should be defined without necessitating the need to refer back to the text or other figures. Scientific names should be given at first use in all captions. Include full disclosure whenever digital images have been electronically manipulated or enhanced.
Figures.— Figures should be in files separate from the article file (multiple figures can be in the same file) and labeled with an appropriate number. There is no additional charge for color photographs and graphics; submit the highest resolution possible.
A picture can be worth a thousand words. Figures consisting of high quality photos of interesting, cryptic, unusual, or lesser-known species are encouraged (e.g., Figure 1 in Halstead et al. 2011: http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/pdf/10.3996/012011-JFWM-009). Similarly, photos of things like a specific habitat type (e.g., Figure 1 in Lynch et al. 2011: http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/pdf/10.3996/062011-JFWM-040) or difficult to describe apparatus (e.g., Figure 2 in Krementz et al. 2011: http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/pdf/10.3996/042011-JFWM-026) often make interesting and informative Figures and are published at no costs to authors.
Minimum dpi (dots per inch) for Line Drawings is 1200 dpi; Combination Figures should be at least 600 dpi; Grayscale or Color Figures should be at least 300 dpi. For more detailed instructions, please see the official Allen Press Guide to Digital Art Specifications at http://allenpress.com/system/files/pdfs/library/apmk_digital_art.pdf.
Publishing images from Google maps (or other providers that are not in the public domain) is not permitted. All maps should contain a compass direction indicator (e.g., north arrow) and a scale bar. Provide inset maps to provide geographic context at a readily recognizable scale (e.g., states in the US). Labeled latitude and longitude lines are encouraged when they do not detract from the message of the figure. Label maps at the state level in the US using the full name unless two letter abbreviations are necessary for cluttered figures.
Labels should describe the x- and y-axes clearly. Place the y-axis label to the left of the axis and orient it to read sideways from bottom to top of the graph. Photomicrographs may be reduced during printing and should contain a scale bar directly on the photograph; give the equivalent length either on the bar or in the figure caption.
All letters should be at least 1.5 mm high (6-point type) after the figure is reduced; avoid bold fonts. A figure that is 20 cm wide when drawn can reduce to one column if the smallest original lettering is at least 4.5 mm high (18-point type). Letter size and line thickness (including axes) should vary no more than twofold on a figure. Reduction can cause pattern fill in charts to become distorted or to moiré; shaded fill or very simple, large patterns are preferred. Figure reduction can cause symbols and shadings to look alike, dashed lines to become continuous, and dotted lines to disappear, so choose elements that will retain their clarity and contrast when reduced and published. Keep graphics simple and uncluttered. Avoid unnecessary use of three-dimensional charts, black borders, and shaded fill. If shaded fill is used, keep it in the range of 30–70% of black for best reproduction. Keep blank space to a minimum by placing axis labels near the axes, multiple panels close together, and “outlier” words (compass directions, scale bars, keys) within the margins of the figure. Carefully planned figures enhance a paper’s message and can reduce publication costs.
Multimedia.—Authors are encouraged to submit multimedia files with their manuscripts (e.g., video footage, audio clips, data sets, and enhanced figures) in any of the formats indicated in the Document and Multimedia Files in the Format Conventions section when they enhance the message.
Re-publication and Dual Publication
If any portion of a manuscript has been published or reported elsewhere, all similarities between information in the manuscript and the previous publications must be detailed in the manuscript and properly cited. We also subscribe to the standards articulated by Kendall in “Dual Publication of Scientific Information”, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110:573-574 (1981).
We discourage fragmented reporting of results whenever possible. If publishing a single comprehensive paper is not feasible, we recommend related papers be coordinated, cross-referenced, and submitted together. Similarly, publishing of interim manuscripts is discouraged, but exceptions can be made for Notes. For example, interim reporting may be appropriate where timely dissemination of data is needed, cannot be accomplished through alternative means, and the data and analysis in the manuscript form a cohesive and meaningful whole. On the other hand, manuscripts that do not meet these criteria, but instead report on interim results in order to fulfill funding source or work plan requirements are likely not appropriate. The nature of a given project and the data produced will determine which manuscripts lend themselves to interim publication.
Authors with any doubt about the appropriateness of a specific manuscript should contact the Editor-in-Chief before submission.
On your first visit to the journal site, you will need to register for an account. The same login name and password can be used for both the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna, but you are required log in separately for access to each journal site.
Before submitting a manuscript, you will need to gather the following information:
Begin the manuscript submission process by pressing the "Submit Manuscript" link on your "Home" page.
After the files are uploaded, you will be asked to select the order you would like them to be displayed in a merged PDF files that the system will create for you. You be asked to review and approve the PDF conversions before they are submitted for review. Note - the conversion process may take up to 15-20 minutes for large files, so you may have to wait a few minutes before you can view and approve the converted PDF files.
More detailed instructions for Reviewers for the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna, including some specific questions we ask them to consider, can be found here.
Authors should do their part by revising papers promptly. Papers that have been out for revision for six months will be considered withdrawn; revisions completed after that time will be considered new submissions. Reviewers (and Editors) react positively to concisely written and well-organized papers and are likely to give such papers priority attention. Careless preparation of manuscripts implies careless research and thought and may lead to negative critiques.
Authors can greatly enhance reviewers perception of their manuscripts if they:
Let us be very clear - this policy does NOT question or diminish the quality of the work published here, by Service scientists or others, nor does it in any way limit its applicability for use in decision or policy making by the Service. Its purpose is simple – to meet standards for scientific freedom by getting our employees out from underneath any ill-defined, cumbersome, and potentially stifling processes of "policy review" and any associated portent of agency censorship, perceived or otherwise. Under this policy, peer-reviewed publications authored by Service employees, in both internal and external outlets, will stand on their scientific merit, and will be considered equally along with similar scientific publications during Service decision- and policy-making processes. While the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna are supported by the Service, and information presented in the papers published in them may very well be used in forming official Service decisions and policies, they are not themselves official Service publications and do not necessarily represent the views of the Service.
Service Director Dan Ashe described the policy by saying: “This is an empowering permission and encouragement for employees to publish their scientific work, with official attribution, but without the uncertain and potentially unnerving glare of ‘policy review’. It is a hearty vote of confidence in the responsibility and professionalism of Service employees.”
As always, documents that require the full endorsement and imprimatur of the Service (e.g., many documents pursuant to the US Endangered Species Act, other regulatory and decision documents, Service manual chapters) must undergo specific review for both scientific quality and policy, defined elsewhere, and will be published as official Service publications, through outlets such as the Federal Register.
Copyright and Public Domain
Authors who are reproducing copyrighted material in their manuscripts must secure permission from the copyright owner prior to submission. The copyright owner should be informed that the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna are in the public domain; if the copyright owner will not agree to have their material be in the public domain, we will publish the material with the copyright symbol ©, the copyright owner's name, and the phrase "used with permission". Provide specific details in the cover letter for any copyrighted material that is reproduced in your submission.
The information in the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management and North American Fauna is provided on an "AS IS" basis and any warranties, either express or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of non-infringement, originality, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are disclaimed. In no event shall the U.S. Government be liable for any damages that arise out of or in connection with the access, use or performance of this journal, including infringement actions.
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