California Tiger Salamander Critical Habitat

California tiger salamander

Photo: Pete Trenham, USFWS

Central California Population

(All maps are in PDF format and under 250 KB in size.)

These are the maps published in the Federal Register. For more detailed maps, see our national Critical Habitat Mapper.

Project developers seeking precise geospatial data, visit our Critical Habitat Data page.

Critical Habitat Units

Unit descriptions for Central California population of the California tiger salamander and the identified threats that might require special management. Each unit contains essential occupied aquatic, upland, and dispersal habitat features. See below for details on exclusions.

Central Valley Geographic Region

Unit 1, Dunnigan Creek Unit, Yolo County, 2,730 acres - Bordered by Interstate 5 on the east, Bird Creek on the south, and Buckeye Creek on the north and west. Land ownership: private. Threats: agricultural land conversion, non-native predators. Central Valley Unit 1 Map

Unit 2, Jepson Prairie Unit, Solano County, 5,699 acres - South of Dixon, west of State Route 113, north of Creed Road, and east of Travis Air Force Base. Ownership: Mostly private, but also includes some California Department of Fish and Game lands. Threats: loss and destruction of occupied habitat due to agricultural land conversion. Central Valley Unit 2 Map

Unit 3, Southeastern Sacramento Unit, Sacramento County, 9,966 acres - Bordered on the south by the Sacramento-San Joaquin county line, Laguna Creek on the north, the Sacramento and Amador County border dividing line on the east, and Alta Mesa Road on the west. Land ownership: private. Threats: road construction, agricultural land conversion, urban development, non-native predators. Central Valley Units 3 & 4 Map

Unit 4, Northeastern San Joaquin Unit, San Joaquin and Amador Counties, 9,603 acres - South of the San Joaquin-Sacramento county line, east of Day Creek Road, north of Liberty Road, and west of Comanche and Jackson Valley Roads. Land ownership: private. Threats: development, road construction. Central Valley Units 3 & 4 Map

Unit 5, Indian Creek Unit, Calaveras County, 3,128 acres - Bordered by State Route 26 on the south and east, Warren Road on the west, and State Route 12 on the north. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Units 5, 6 & 7 Map

Unit 6, Rock Creek Unit, Calaveras, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus counties, 23,491 acres - West of San Joaquin County Road J6, north of Sonora Road, east of Stanislaus County Road J12, and south of the Calaveras River. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Units 5, 6 & 7 Map

Unit 7, Rodden Lake Unit, Stanislaus County, 562 acres - Bounded by Horseshoe Road on the east, Frankenheimer Road on the north, Twenty Eight Mile Road on the west, and the Stanislaus River of the south. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Units 5, 6 & 7 Map

Unit 8, La Grange Ridge Unit, Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 4,013 acres - West of Cardoza Ridge, east of Los Cerritos Road, south of State Route 132, and north of Fields Road. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Units 8, 9 & 10 Map

Unit 9, Fahrens Creek Unit, Merced County, 17,799 acres - Generally northeast from Merced, east of the Merced-Mariposa county line, north of Bear Creek, and south of the Merced River. Land ownership: private. Threats: Urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Units 8, 9 & 10 Map

Unit 10, Miles Creek Unit, Merced County, 10,585 acres - Generally east of Owens Lake in Mariposa County, west of Cunningham Road in Merced County, south of South Bear Creek Road in Merced County, and north of Childs Avenue. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Units 8, 9 & 10 Map

Unit 11, Rabbit Hill Unit, Madera County, 8,291 acres - Generally west of Hensley Lake, south of Knowles Junction, west of the Daulton Mine, and north of the Fresno River. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Unit 11 Map

Proposed Units 12-17 have been excluded from the final designation.

Unit 18, Doolan Canyon Unit, Alameda County, 1,178 acres - South of the Contra Costa County line near Collier Canyon Road on the east and the south, and the City of Dublin on the west. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural land conversion, road construction. Central Valley Unit 18 Map

Proposed Unit 19 has been excluded from the final designation.

Southern San Joaquin Valley Geographic Region

Units 1a and 1b, Millerton Unit, Madera County, 6,811 acres (Unit 1a 3,808 acres and Unit 1b 3,003 acres) - West of State Highway 41 and generally north of the San Joaquin River. The eastern boundary is approximately the western side of Millerton Lake, and the northern boundary is south of Berry Hill along O'Neal Road. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction. Southern San Joaquin Units 1 & 2 Map

Unit 2, Northeast Fresno, Fresno County, 4,961 acres - Northeast of Fresno, southwest of Millerton Lake, east of Friant Road, and generally west of Academy. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction. Southern San Joaquin Units 1 & 2 Map

Units 3a and 3b, Hills Valley Unit, Fresno and Tulare counties, 4,181 acres (Unit 3a 1,626 acres and Unit 3b 2,553 acres) - South of State Highway 180, generally west of George Smith and San Creek Roads, north of Curtis Mountain, and east of Cove Road. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction. Southern San Joaquin Unit 3 Map

Proposed Unit 4, Seville Unit, Tulare County was excluded from the final designation.

Unit 5, Cottonwood Creek Unit, Tulare County, 4,342 acres - Roughly bordered by County Road J36 on the north, Dinuba Road on the east, Avenue 352 on the south, and County Road 112 on the west. Land ownership: mostly private. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction. Southern San Joaquin Unit 5 Map

Proposed Subunit 5B has been excluded from the final designation.

East Bay Geographic Region

Proposed Unit 1, Patterson Unit, Alameda County - This unit was moved to the Central Valley Region (Unit 19 of Central Valley Region) and was excluded from the final designation.

Proposed Unit 2, Mendenhall Unit, Alameda County, was excluded from the final designation.

Unit 3, Alameda Creek Unit, Santa Clara County, 619 acres - North of Calaveras Reservoir, east of Sugar Butte, west of Fremont, and south of Livermore. Land ownership: A mixture of county parks and private lands. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction, non-native species. East Bay Unit 3 Map

Proposed Unit 4, San Francisco Bay Unit, Alameda County, was excluded from the final critical habitat designation.

Unit 5, Poverty Ridge Unit, Santa Clara County, 2,814 acres - West of Alum Rock, south of the Alameda and Contra Costa Counties dividing line, west of Kincaid Road, and north of Master Hill. Land ownership: private. Threats: conversion of grazing land to housing and commercial development. East Bay Units 5, 6, 7 & 8 Map

Unit 6, Smith Creek Unit, Santa Clara County, 7,976 acres - West of Sugarloaf Mountain, south of Packard Ridge, east of Masters Hill, and north of Panochita Hill. Ownership: county, private, and University of California-owned lands. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction. East Bay Units 5, 6, 7 & 8 Map

Unit 7, San Felipe Creek Unit, Santa Clara County, 9,080 acres - West of Silver Creek, south of Panochita Hill, east of Bollinger Mountain, and north of Morgan Hill. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, agricultural conversion, road construction. East Bay Units 5, 6, 7 & 8 Map

Unit 8, Laurel Hill Unit, Santa Clara County, 2,535 acres - East of Morgan Hill, south of San Jose, west of the Santa Cruz Mountains, and north of Croy Ridge. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, road construction, non-native predators. East Bay Units 5, 6, 7 & 8 Map

Unit 9, Cebata Flat Unit, Santa Clara County, 2,934 acres - Generally located west of Gilroy, south of Henry Coe State Park, east of Lake Mountain, and north of Canada Road. Land ownership: private. Threats: development, road construction, non-native predators. East Bay Units 9, 10, 11 & 12 Map

Units 10a and 10b, Lions Peak Unit, Santa Clara County, 892 acres (Unit 10a 194 acres and Unit 10b 698 acres) - Generally east of State Highway 101, south of Morgan Hill, north of Hecker Pass Highway, and west of Uvas Reservoir. Land ownership: private. Threats: urban development, road construction, non-native bullfrogs. East Bay Units 9, 10, 11 & 12 Map

Unit 11, Braen Canyon Unit, Santa Clara County, 6,991 acres - Southern Santa Clara County generally west of Gilroy, south of Kelly Lake, east of Pacheco Lake, and north of Jamison Road. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. East Bay Units 9, 10, 11 & 12 Map

Unit 12, San Felipe Unit, Santa Clara and San Benito Counties, 6,642 acres - Generally west of Camadero, south of Kickham Peak, east of San Joaquin Peak, and north of Dunneville. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road building. East Bay Units 9, 10, 11 & 12 Map

Unit 13, Los Banos Unit, Merced County, 2,409 acres - East of Los Banos Reservoir, north of Bullard Mountain, west of Cathedral Peak, and south of San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. East Bay Unit 13 Map

Unit 14, Landgon Unit, Merced County, 2,212 acres - West of Sweeney Hill, south of Gasten Bide Road, and north of Ortigalita Peak. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. East Bay Unit 14 Map

Units 15A and 15B, Ana Creek Unit, San Benito County, 3,165 acres (15A 2,722 acres and 15B 194 acres) - West of Hollister, north of Tres Pinos, east of Cibo Peak, and south of Coyote Peak. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. East Bay Unit 15 Map

Unit 16, Bitterwater Unit, San Benito County, 16,952 acres - South of Pinnacles, east of Hernandez Reservoir, north of Lonoak, and west of Murphy Flat. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. East Bay Unit 16 Map

Unit 17, Gloria Valley Unit, Monterey and San Benito Counties, 3,881 acres - North of Soledad, east of the Pinnacles National Monument, south of Tres Pinos, and west of Gonzales. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. East Bay Unit 17 Map

Central Coast Geographic Region

Proposed Unit 1, Crazy Horse Canyon Unit, Monterey County, was excluded from the final critical habitat designation.

Proposed Unit 2, Pilarcitos Canyon Unit, Monterey County, was excluded from the final critical habitat designation.

Unit 3, Haystack Hill Unit, Monterey County, 3,665 acres - North of Soledad, east of Paloma Ridge, west of Jamesberg, and south of Carmel Valley. Land ownership: A mixture of private and Hastings Natural History State Reserve. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. Central Coast Unit 3 Map

Proposed Unit 4, Gloria Valley Unit, Monterey and San Benito Counties, has been moved to the East Bay Region based on new information on geographic boundaries (see unit 17 East Bay Region).

Proposed Units 5A and 5B, Fort Hunter Liggett Unit, Monterey County, were excluded from the final critical habitat designation.

Unit 6, Choice Valley, Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, 9,233 acres - North of the Carrisa Highway, east of Antelope Valley, south of Cottonwood, and west of Shandon. Land ownership: private. Threats: erosion and sedimentation, pesticide application, non-native predators, development, road construction. Central Coast Unit 6 Map

Major exclusions

Economics

Proposed critical habitat for the Central population of the California tiger salamander was excluded in 12 census tracts in Alameda (5), Contra Costa (2), Monterey (2), Santa Clara (1), San Benito (1) and Fresno (1) counties. The economic analysis conducted for this proposal estimated that the costs associated with designating these 12 census tracts would be approximately $365 million. Areas affected are detailed below.

Military Lands

The Service exempted lands owned by Naval Weapons Station-Concord, Camp Parks, and Fort Hunter Liggett from the final critical habitat designation based on Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans (INRMPs) that provide a benefit to the California tiger salamander. This includes portions of Central Valley Region Units 14 and 18 and portions of Central Coast Units 5a and 5b.

Exclusions by area

Central Valley Geographic Region

Units 12-13 (Merced County) were excluded because they are part of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge complex, which is already managed to conserve fish, wildlife, and plants and their habitats, including the California tiger salamander.

Units 14-17 (Contra Costa County) were excluded because they are part of the draft East Contra Costa Habitat Conservation Plan. The ECCHCP will provide substantial protection for the California tiger salamander.

Southern San Joaquin Valley Geographic Region

Unit 4 and Subunit 5B (Tulare and Kings counties) were excluded because they are California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG)-owned ecological reserves. There is minimal benefit from designating critical habitat for the California tiger salamander within the ecological reserves because these lands are already managed for the conservation of wildlife.

East Bay Geographic Region

Unit 1, Patterson Unit, Alameda County, was excluded based on economic reasons.

Unit 2, Mendenhall Unit, Alameda County, was excluded based on economic reasons.

Unit 4, San Francisco Bay Unit, Alameda County, was excluded because it is part of the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, which is managed to conserve fish, wildlife, and plants and their habitats, including the California tiger salamander.

Central Coast Geographic Region

Unit 1, Crazy Horse Canyon Unit, Monterey County, was excluded based on economic reasons.

Unit 2, Pilarcitos Canyon Unit, Monterey County, was excluded based on economic reasons.

Units 5A and 5B, Fort Hunter Liggett Unit, Monterey County, were excluded. They are lands owned Fort Hunter Liggett that have a resource management plan that provides a benefit to the California tiger salamander.