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James Campbell
National Wildlife Refuge


66-590 Kamehameha Hwy
Haleiwa, HI   
E-mail: Dave_Ellis@fws.gov
Phone Number: 808-637-6330
Visit the Refuge's Web Site:
http://www.fws.gov/refuge/james_campbell/
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  Overview
James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge
James Campbell Refuge consists of over 160 acres of wetland habitat in two separate wetland units near the community of Kahuku on the northeastern shore of Oahu, Hawaii. This wetland refuge is primarily devoted to the recovery of four of Hawaii's six endemic water birds (Hawaiian stilt, Hawaiian moorhen, Hawaiian coot, and Hawaiian duck). All four birds are listed as endangered species due to their precipitous decline in the 20th century.


Getting There . . .
The refuge office is located on Oahu's north shore in Haleiwa at 66-590 Kamehameha Highway.


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Wildlife and Habitat

This refuge consists of approximately 164 acres in two units (Kii Unit at 126 acres and Punamano Unit with 38 acres) comprising a mix of naturally occurring, spring-fed marsh and man-made ponds and impoundments. Refuge management goals include enhancement of the wetland area to provide maximum production and survival of endangered Hawaiian waterbird populations.

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History
The Punamano Pond Unit is a naturally occurring, spring-fed marsh. Once known as Ki'i Pond (literal translation means picture), the open brackish waters of the Kahuku shoreline were configured into freshwater settling ponds by the Kahuku Sugar Mill. The refuge was established in 1976 when the Kahuku Sugar Mill closed and waterbird habitat in the area became jeopardized. The closure of the mill resulted in the drying of settling ponds which were formerly heavily utilized by waterbirds. The largest ponds were placed under the protection and management of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a national wildlife refuge through a lease from the estate of James Campbell.

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    Recreation and Education Opportunities
Interpretation
Photography
Wildlife Observation
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Management Activities
Management includes maintenance of natural marsh and man-made ponds, predator control, and reduction of human disturbances. Wetland management consists of a seasonally based schedule of timed impoundment drawdowns and water level pulsing. This provides suitable habitat for nesting, feeding, and resting of native and migrant water birds during different times of the year.

Prescribed burns and vegetation manipulation are conducted as a means of controlling noxious and exotic vegetation, primarily California grass, millet, Indian fleabane, bulrush, cattail, knotgrass, and makai. A comprehensive animal control program is conducted to reduce threats from populations of mongoose, feral cats and dogs. Control of these plant and animal species is required to provide secure and proper habitat for endangered water birds, migratory waterfowl, and shorebirds.

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