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Wallkill River
National Wildlife Refuge


Liberty Marsh
1547 County Route 565
Sussex, NJ   07461 - 4013
E-mail: wallkillriver@fws.gov
Phone Number: 973-702-7266
Visit the Refuge's Web Site:
http://wallkillriver.fws.gov
Liberty Marsh
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  History
Continued . . .

The Wallkill River area is said to have been known by the Native Americans as "Twischsawkin," meaning the land where plums abound. Many prehistoric resources are found in the area, including at least three Indian rock shelters. The Wallkill Valley was an important source of flint and chert for the aboriginal inhabitants, who used these stones to fashion their projectile points. Thus, it appears that the Native Americans not only valued the area for its abundant food resources, but also traveled considerable distances to exploit its mineral resources.

In historic times, an influx of Dutch settlers followed the Wallkill up from the Hudson River. They dubbed the Wallkill River bottomland "The Drowned Lands" because the valley flooded extensively, forming a huge lake in the spring. Before it was effectively drained, settlers used the bottomland meadows as pasturage for cattle.

As early as 1760, efforts were made to straighten, dredge, and drain the river corridor to make the land dry enough to farm. The effort didn't succeed until sixty-six years later when a large canal lowered the water table of the river. Mill owners, however, sought to keep the lands flooded, and a battle ensued between the millers and the farmers who wanted the lands drained. These battles were known as the "Muskrat and Beaver Wars". The millers were known as the "beavers." The farmers were known as the "muskrats." The disputes were finally settled in the farmers favor in 1871.

Until just recently, the Wallkill River valley was primarily agricultural. Dairy farming is no longer the dominant economic force in the valley. Due to the proximity of the valley to larger metropolitan areas, the region is becoming more suburbanized. However, an abundance of state and federal public lands are helping preserve the natural beauty of the area and provide valuable habitat for wildlife.


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