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Greenhead Slough Restoration

Streams, liek this one, are home to salmon, cutthroat trout and lamprey/USFWS Photo

Removing Barriers for Wildlife

Since 2003, the Refuge has been working with numerous partners to remove barriers for fish travel from its tributaries down into the Willapa Bay Estuary. To date, culverts on four streams (North, Lost, Chum and South Creeks) have been replaced by bridges and ten miles of stream habitat has been enhanced to successfully encourage spawning and rearing habitat for salmon, cutthroat trout and lamprey. The last partial obstacle, a culvert/tide gate on Greenhead Slough remains. This culvert is the last remaining fish barrier to the 3.74 square mile (2,317 acres) watershed. 

A Backward Glance at Greenhead Slough

Greenhead Slough was modified in the 1940s when the Washington State Department of Transportation re-routed four streams along State Route 101. A culvert/tide gate was later installed to allow road access to private timberlands. In 2003, the Willapa National Wildlife Refuge purchased the property with an existing Natural Resources Conservation Service Wetland Reserve Program easement as well as a right-of-way easement to Washington State Department of Transportation for State Route 101 and to Bonneville Power Administration for power lines and transmission towers. 

When a Bridge is an Open Door

In 2014, the Friends of Willapa National Wildlife Refuge successfully obtained a grant from the Washington State Salmon Recovery Funding Board to remove this fish passage barrier. The grant provides $373,524 for the project  Willapa Bay Regional Fisheries Enhancement Group has also contributed $86,000 to the restoration.  These funds will be managed by the Sustainable Fisheries Foundation in partnership with the Refuge. The Refuge will also contribute over $255,000 in funds and in-kind labor.  

Restoration will begin in June 2015 and continue through December 2015. Work includes abandoning the blocking culvert, realigning the existing channel, and installing a bridge over the new channel for access to the uplands. Once complete, the daily influence of tides, mix of fresh and salt water, and growth of salt-tolerant plants, algae, and phytoplankton will create cycles of rich nutrients that provide essential food, spawning, and nursery habitat for chum and coho salmon and cutthroat trout. Hundreds of other species will also benefit, such as inveterates, migratory and resident birds and mammals. 

Learn more about the importance of estuarine conservation…

Monitoring Success

Tributary streams, North, Chum, Lost and South Creeks, are monitored by Refuge staff and volunteers. Annual spawning surveys have consistently documented chum and coho salmon, and cutthroat trout.

Discover how you can get involved…

Working Together for Wildlife at Greenhead Slough

The resources needed to accomplish this restoration effort reach well beyond the Refuge. Learn more about the Refuge partners that are working for wildlife in the Greenhead Slough watershed:

*Contributor or Consultant

Page Photo Credits — Refuge stream - USFWS
Last Updated: Jun 08, 2015
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