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Bird List

laplandLongspur512x219201 bird species have been recorded on the Arctic Refuge. This list describes their status and abundance. Many birds migrate outside of the Refuge in the winter, so unless otherwise noted the information is for spring, summer or fall.


REGIONS OF THE REFUGE 

Coastal Plain
The area between the coast and the Brooks Range. This area is sometimes split in to the coast (the lagoons, barrier islands and Beaufort Sea areas) and inland (upland areas near the foothills of the Brooks Range).

Brooks Range
The mountains, valleys, and foothills north and south of the continental divide.

South Side
The foothills, taiga and boreal forest south of the Brooks Range.


STATUS 

Permanent Resident
Present throughout the year and breeds in the area.

Summer Resident
Only present during the period from May to September.

Migrant
Travels through on the way to wintering or breeding areas.

Breeder
Documented as a breeding species.

Visitor
Present as a non-breeding species.

*
Not Documented


ABUNDANCE 

Abundant
Very numerous in suitable habitats.

Common
Very likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitats.

Fairly Common
Numerous but not always present in suitable habitats.

Uncommon
Occurs regularly, but not always observed either because of lower abundance or secretive behaviors.

Rare
Occurs regularly but in very small numbers so not commonly observed.

Casual
Beyond its normal range but irregularly observed.

Accidental
Far from its normal range. Further observations unlikely.




GEESE, SWANS, DUCKS

___ Greater White-fronted Goose
       Common spring/fall migrant and uncommon breeder on coastal plain. Rare migrant in Brooks Range. Common spring migrant on south side.
___ Snow Goose
       Common spring migrant, rare summer visitor and abundant fall migrant on coastal plain. Uncommon spring migrant on south side.
___ Ross's Goose
       Casual spring migrant on coastal plain. Hypothetical fall migrant (*).
___ Brant
       Uncommon breeder and common migrant on coast.
___ Cackling Goose (formerly a subspecies of Canada Goose)
       Common breeder and migrant on coastal plain.
___ Canada Goose
       Uncommon breeder on south side. Rare migrant in Brooks Range.
___ Trumpeter Swan
       Casual breeder and visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Tundra Swan
       Common breeder on coastal plain. Uncommon migrant on south side.
___ Gadwall
       Casual visitor to coastal plain.
___ Eurasian Wigeon
       Casual visitor to coastal plain.
___ American Wigeon
       Uncommon migrant on coastal plain. Uncommon in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Common breeder on south side.
___ Mallard
       Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Uncommon elsewhere on coastal plain, in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Northern Shoveler
       Uncommon visitor on coastal plain and south side. May breed in these areas (*). Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Northern Pintail
       Common breeder and migrant on coastal plain and on south side. Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Green-winged Teal
       Uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain. Rare breeder and migrant along coast. Common in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Canvasback
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and south side.
___ Redhead
       Casual visitor on south side.
___ Ring-necked Duck
       Casual visitor in Brooks Range. Likely rare visitor on south side (*).
___ Greater Scaup
       Uncommon migrant and visitor along coast. Rare breeder on inland coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Common visitor on south side.
___ Lesser Scaup
       Rare breeder and visitor on inland areas of coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Common summer resident on south side, where it likely breeds (*).
___ Steller's Eider
       Rare visitor along coast.
___ Spectacled Eider
       Rare breeder and uncommon visitor along coast.
___ King Eider
       Fairly common breeder and uncommon migrant along coast.
___ Common Eider
       Common breeder on coastal islands. Common migrant along coast.
___ Harlequin Duck
       Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Rare visitor on south side.
___ Surf Scoter
       Uncommon migrant along coast. Uncommon on the inland coastal plain and south side. May breed in both areas (*).
___ White-winged Scoter
       Rare on inland lakes of coastal plain. Common migrant along coast. Rare visitor in Brooks Range. Common visitor on south side. May breed in all areas (*).
___ Black Scoter
       Uncommon migrant along coast.
___ Long-tailed Duck
       Common breeder on coastal plain. Abundant fall migrant along coast. Uncommon in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Common visitor and uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Bufflehead
       Rare visitor to Brooks Range and south side.
___ Common Goldeneye
       Rare visitor to all areas. May breed on south side (*).
___ Barrow's Goldeneye
       Casual visitor on south side.
___ Smew
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain.
___ Common Merganser
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon visitor to south side.
___ Red-breasted Merganser
       Rare breeder and fairly common migrant on coast. Fairly common breeder on inland coastal plain. Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range. Common on south side, where it may breed (*).

GROUSE, PTARMIGAN

___ Ruffed Grouse
       Rare permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Spruce Grouse
       Uncommon permanent resident on south side.
___ Willow Ptarmigan
       Uncommon permanent resident along coast. Common to abundant permanent resident elsewhere on Refuge.
___ Rock Ptarmigan
       Common permanent resident in all areas of Refuge.
___ Sharp-tailed Grouse
       Annual populations vary. Uncommon permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).

LOONS

___ Red-throated Loon
       Fairly common breeder and migrant along coast. Rare breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Pacific Loon
       Common breeder on coastal plain and south side. Common migrant along coast. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range.
___ Common Loon
       Rare visitor along coast. Rare on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Yellow-billed Loon
       Uncommon migrant on coast. Rare migrant on inland coastal plain. Rare visitor in Brooks Range and rare breeder on larger lakes in this area.

GREBES

___ Horned Grebe
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon on inland coastal plain and south side. May breed in both areas (*).
___ Red-necked Grebe
       Casual visitor to coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Rare on south side, where it may breed (*).

FULMARS, SHEARWATERS

___ Northern Fulmar
       Rare offshore visitor.
___ Short-tailed Shearwater
       Rare visitor along coast, mostly offshore.

RAPTORS

___ Osprey
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain. Rare visitor in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Bald Eagle
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Northern Harrier
       Uncommon summer resident on coastal plain. May breed on inland coastal plain (*). Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Uncommon visitor on south side.
___ Sharp-shinned Hawk
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Northern Goshawk
       Casual visitor on inland coastal plain. Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Swainson's Hawk
       Casual breeder on south side.
___ Red-tailed Hawk
       Rare visitor on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Rough-legged Hawk
       Rare visitor along coast. Uncommon breeder on inland areas of coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Rare breeder on south side.
___ Golden Eagle
       Fairly common visitor on coastal plain. Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range. Uncommon breeder on south side.

FALCONS

___ American Kestrel
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Common breeder on south side.
___ Merlin
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon in Brooks Range and on south side. May breed in all areas (*).
___ Gyrfalcon
       Uncommon permanent resident on inland coastal plain, in Brooks Range and on south side. Rare visitor to coast.
___ Peregrine Falcon
       Rare breeder and uncommon visitor on coastal plain. Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.

COOTS, RAILS

___ American Coot
       Rare visitor on south side.

CRANES

___ Sandhill Crane
       Rare breeder and uncommon summer resident on coastal plain. Rare visitor in Brooks Range. Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*).

SHOREBIRDS

___ Black-bellied Plover
       Rare breeder and migrant on coastal plain. Fairly common fall migrant along coast. Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ American Golden-Plover
       Common breeder on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Rare visitor on south side.
___ Semipalmated Plover
       Uncommon breeder on coastal islands. Fairly common breeder on inland coastal plain. Rare visitor elsewhere on coastal plain. Common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Killdeer
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.
___ Eurasian Dotterel
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.
___ Spotted Sandpiper
       Uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain.Common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Solitary Sandpiper
       Rare in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Wandering Tattler
       Uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain. Common breeder in Brooks Range. Fairly common breeder on south side.
___ Lesser Yellowlegs
       Casual visitor along coast. Uncommon in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Common breeder on south side.
___ Upland Sandpiper
       Fairly common breeder on inland coastal plain, Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Whimbrel
       Uncommon visitor to coast and in Brooks Range. Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Rare visitor and breeder on south side.
___ Black-tailed Godwit
       Accidental visitor to coast.
___ Hudsonian Godwit
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.
___ Bar-tailed Godwit
       Uncommon on coastal plain, where it may breed (*).
___ Ruddy Turnstone
       Fairly common breeder on coast and uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain. Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Surfbird
       Rare breeder in Brooks Range.
___ Red Knot
       Rare migrant along coast.
___ Sanderling
       Rare breeder on coastal plain. Rare spring and uncommon fall migrant along coast. Casual visitor on south side.
___ Semipalmated Sandpiper
       Abundant breeder in coastal areas and common breeder on inland coastal plain. Common fall migrant along coast. Rare visitor in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Western Sandpiper
       Rare on coastal plain, where it may breed (*). Uncommon fall migrant along coast.
___ Red-necked Stint
       Casual visitor on coast.
___ Least Sandpiper
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Common breeder on south side.
___ White-rumped Sandpiper
       Rare breeder and spring migrant, and uncommon fall migrant, on coastal plain. Casual visitor on south side.
___ Baird's Sandpiper
       Uncommon breeder on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Common migrant on south side.
___ Pectoral Sandpiper
       Abundant breeder on coastal plain. Abundant fall migrant along coast. Fairly common migrant in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
       Casual migrant on coast.
___ Dunlin
       Uncommon breeder and fall migrant along coast. Rare migrant on south side.
___ Stilt Sandpiper
       Uncommon breeder and fall migrant on coastal plain.
___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper
       Uncommon breeder and migrant on coastal plain. Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Ruff
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.
___ Long-billed Dowitcher
       Uncommon breeder and fairly common summer visitor on coastal plain. Common fall migrant along coast. Uncommon migrant on south side.
___ Wilson's Snipe
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Fairly common in Brooks Range. May breed in both these areas (*). Common breeder on south side.
___ Wilson's Phalarope
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range.
___ Red-necked Phalarope
       Common breeder on coastal plain and south side. Common to abundant fall migrant along coast. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range.
___ Red Phalarope
       Fairly common breeder in coastal areas, east to Jago Delta. Uncommon elsewhere on coastal plain. Uncommon fall migrant along coast.

JAEGERS, GULLS, TERNS

___ Black-legged Kittiwake
       Rare visitor along coast, mostly offshore.
___ Ivory Gull
       Rare migrant along coast.
___ Sabine's Gull
       Uncommon breeder and migrant along coast.
___ Bonaparte's Gull
       Casual visitor to coastal plain and Brooks Range. Uncommon visitor on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Ross' Gull
       Rare migrant along coast.
___ Mew Gull
       Rare visitor and breeder on coastal plain. Common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Herring Gull
       Rare migrant and visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Thayer's Gull
       Rare visitor on coastal plain.
___ Slaty-backed Gull
       Casual visitor along coast.
___ Glaucous-winged Gull
       Casual visitor in Brooks Range and on coast.
___ Glaucous Gull
       Common breeder and abundant summer resident along coast. Uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain.Common breeder in Brooks Range.
___ Caspian Tern
       Accidental visitor on coast.
___ Arctic Tern
       Uncommon breeder on coast. Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Common summer resident on coastal plain and Brooks Range (breeding not documented). Uncommon visitor on south side.
___ Pomarine Jaeger
       Common spring migrant, summer visitor, and occasional common breeder on the coast. Breeding occurs in years of high lemming populations. Common migrant in Brooks Range.
___ Parasitic Jaeger
       Common summer resident and uncommon breeder on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon migrant on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Long-tailed Jaeger
       Fairly common breeder on inland coastal plain. Common summer resident and rare breeder along coast. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Rare visitor to south side.

ALCIDS

___ Thick-billed Murre
       Rare migrant along coast.
___ Black Guillemot
       Uncommon summer resident and rare breeder along coast.
___ Least Auklet
       Casual visitor along coast.
___ Horned Puffin
       Rare visitor along coast.
___ Tufted Puffin
       Casual visitor along coast.

OWLS

___ Great Horned Owl
       Uncommon permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Snowy Owl
       Annual populations vary. Uncommon to common permanent resident and occasional rare breeder on coastal plain. Breeding occurs in years of high lemming populations. Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Northern Hawk-Owl
       Uncommon permanent resident on south side.
___ Great Grey Owl
       Rare permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Short-eared Owl
       Uncommon to common breeder on coastal plain. Breeding occurs in years of high lemming populations. Fairly common in Brooks Range. Rare summer visitor on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Boreal Owl
       Uncommon permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).

GOATSUCKERS

___ Common Nighthawk
       Casual visitor to coastal plain.

HUMMINGBIRDS

___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird
       Accidental visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Rufous Hummingbird
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain.

KINGFISHERS

___ Belted Kingfisher
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon summer resident on south side, where it may breed (*).

WOODPECKERS

___ Downy Woodpecker
       Rare permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Hairy Woodpecker
       Rare permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ American Three-toed Woodpecker
       Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Black-backed Woodpecker
       Rare permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Northern Flicker
       Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS

___ Olive-sided Flycatcher
       Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Western Wood-Pewee
       Rare on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
       Casual visitor on south side.
___ Alder Flycatcher
       Common breeder on south side.
___ Hammond's Flycatcher
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Eastern Phoebe
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain.
___ Say's Phoebe
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range.
___ Eastern Kingbird
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range.

SHRIKES

___ Northern Shrike
       Rare visitor on inland coastal plain, where it may breed (*). Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.

CORVIDS

___ Gray Jay
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Common permanent resident on south side.
___ Common Raven
       Uncommon permanent resident and possible rare breeder (*) on coastal plain. Uncommon permanent resident in Brooks Range and on south side, where it may breed (*).

LARKS

___ Horned Lark
       Rare breeder inland and visitor elsewhere on coastal plain. Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range. Rare visitor on south side.

SWALLOWS

___ Tree Swallow
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Violet-green Swallow
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Bank Swallow
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Cliff Swallow
       Rare visitor on coastal plain, where it may breed (*). Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Barn Swallow
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.

CHICKADEES

___ Black-capped Chickadee
       Uncommon permanent resident on south side.
___ Boreal Chickadee
       Rare visitor in Brooks Range. Uncommon permanent resident on south side.
___ Gray-headed Chickadee
       Uncommon permanent resident in Brooks Range and on south side.

NUTHATCHES

___ Red-breasted Nuthatch
       Casual visitor on south side.

DIPPERS

___ American Dipper
       Uncommon permanent resident throughout Refuge, except along the coast.

KINGLETS, OLD WORLD WARBLERS, AND THRUSHES

___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet
       Uncommon visitor in Brooks Range. Common breeder on south side.
___ Arctic Warbler
       Rare in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Bluethroat
       Rare breeder on inland coastal plain and in Brooks Range.
___ Northern Wheatear
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range.
___ Mountain Bluebird
       Rare breeder in recent burns on south side.
___ Townsend's Solitaire
       Uncommon visitor in Brooks Range. Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Gray-cheeked Thrush
       Rare visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Common breeder on south side.
___ Swainson's Thrush
       Common breeder on south side.
___ Hermit Thrush
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ American Robin
       Rare visitor to coast. Uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain. Common breeder in Brooks Range.Abundant breeder on south side.
___ Varied Thrush
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Common breeder on south side.

WAGTAILS, PIPITS

___ Eastern Yellow Wagtail
       Fairly common breeder on coastal plain. Rare visitor to south side.
___ American Pipit
       Rare breeder and uncommon fall migrant on coastal plain. Abundant breeder in Brooks Range.

WAXWINGS

___ Bohemian Waxwing
       Casual visitor in Brooks Range. Fairly common summer resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Cedar Waxwing
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain.

WOOD WARBLERS, SPARROWS, BUNTINGS, BLACKBIRDS

___ Lapland Longspur
       Abundant breeder on coastal plain and in Brooks Range. Uncommon migrant on south side.
___ Smith's Longspur
       Rare visitor to coastal plain. Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Snow Bunting
       Common breeder along coast and in Brooks Range.
___ Tennessee Warbler
       Casual visitor on south side.
___ Orange-crowned Warbler
       Casual visitor to coastal plain. Fairly common breeder on south side.
___ Yellow Warbler
       Rare visitor to coast. Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Fairly common breeder on south side.
___ Yellow-rumped Warbler
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon in Brooks Range. Common breeder on south side.
___ Blackpoll Warbler
       Uncommon on south side, where it may breed (*). Rare visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Northern Waterthrush
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Wilson's Warbler
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ American Tree Sparrow
       Rare visitor to coast. Common breeder on inland coastal plain. Abundant breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Chipping Sparrow
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Rare on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Clay-colored Sparrow
       Accidental visitor on coastal plain.
___ Savannah Sparrow
       Common breeder on coastal plain, in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Fox Sparrow
       Rare visitor on coast. Rare breeder on inland coastal plain. Common breeder in Brooks Range and on south side.
___ Lincoln's Sparrow
       Rare breeder on south side.
___ White-throated Sparrow
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.
___ White-crowned Sparrow
       Rare visitor along coast. Uncommon breeder on inland coastal plain. Common breeder in Brooks Range. Abundant breeder on south side.
___ Golden-crowned Sparrow
       Rare in Brooks Range, where it may breed (*). Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Dark-eyed Junco
       Rare visitor on coastal plain. Uncommon breeder in Brooks Range. Abundant breeder on south side.
___ Western Tanager
       Accidental visitor in Brooks Range.
___ Red-winged Blackbird
       Casual visitor on coastal plain and in Brooks Range.
___ Rusty Blackbird
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Rare visitor in Brooks Range. Uncommon breeder on south side.
___ Brown-headed Cowbird
       Casual visitor on coastal plain.

FINCHES

___ Gray-crowned Rosy-finch
       Fairly common breeder in Brooks Range. Uncommon summer resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ Pine Grosbeak
       Uncommon permanent resident on south side, where it may breed (*).
___ White-winged Crossbill
       Common permanent resident on south side.
___ Common Redpoll
       Common breeder on coastal plain, in Brooks Range and on south side. Permanent resident on south side.
___ Hoary Redpoll
       Common breeder on coastal plain, in Brooks Range and on south side. Permanent resident on south side.
___ Pine Siskin
       Casual visitor on coastal plain. Rare visitor on south side.

You can help us keep this check list current by sending information of any unusual sightings to arctic_refuge@fws.gov. Information on species not on the list, or those that have abundance or status listed as not documented, would be especially valuable. A photograph is the best way to document an unusual sighting.

[Bird listing updated September 2010.] 

Last Updated: Sep 12, 2014
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