Currently, the refuge is comprised of over 36,000 acres within parts of the four Connecticut River watershed states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The refuge includes nine divisions and nine units that represent a wide variety of unique habitats.
Refuge land in Vermont includes the Nulhegan Basin Division and the Putney Mountain Unit.
Divisions in New Hampshire include Pondicherry and Blueberry Swamp.
There are many units and divisions located in Massachusetts including Third Island, Honey Pot, Wissatinnewag, Mt. Tom, Mt. Toby, Hatfield, Fort River, Mill River, Westfield River and Dead Branch.
Refuge land in Connecticut consists of the Deadman's Swamp Unit, Roger Tory Peterson Unit and the Salmon River Division.
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The Watershed on Wheels (WoW Express) is the mobile visitor center for the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. In addition to attending local fairs and festivals throughout the Connecticut River watershed, the WoW Express has a free environmental education program tied to state and national science standards for 3rd-5th grades that focuses on watersheds, rivers, adaptations, and habitats.