Non-native, invasive weeds are a problem worldwide and cost billions of dollars in control efforts each year. Invasive weeds are those plant species that spread rapidly and degrade wildlife habitat, reduce quality grazing forage, or cause problems for humans in the garden, home landscape, or agricultural fields. Cheatgrass is an invasive weed that greatly increases the intensity and frequency of wildfire in sagebrush ecosystems. Tamarisk (aka Saltcedar), Perennial Pepperweed, Phragmites, and Russian Olive are examples of other invasive plant species occurring in Ruby Valley. The Refuge uses an Integrated Pest Management program to control invasive weeds that includes a combination of mechanical methods, such as mowing or discing, prescribed fire, and chemical herbicides.