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Publications Bibliography

Refuge-related Publications
Archaelogy
Fisheries
Wildlife
Other 

To receive a copy of a project report listed here, please contact:
Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge

1390 Buskin River Road 

Kodiak, Alaska 99615

or call (907)487-2600 or (888)408-3514

Archaeology

Collaboration with the Alutiiq Museum has fostered understanding and protection of archaeological resources by documenting sites and culture of the ancient native Alutiiq people.
Compiled by Amy F. Steffian, Deputy Director
Alutiiq Museum & Archaeological Repository,
215 Mission Road, Kodiak, AK 99615

amy@alutiiqmuseum.com, 907-789-3365 (phone & FAX)

The following list provides a summary of articles, books and theses on the archaeology of the Kodiak region. These professional, peer-reviewed publications span an academic research era from the early 1930s to the present day. The list focuses on the area in and adjacent to the Kodiak Refuge. The goal is to provide a synthetic view of the research conducted to date in Kodiak archaeology and Alutiiq prehistory.

Please note that this bibliography focuses specifically on archaeological research. It does not include a larger number of publications on the broader anthropology of the Kodiak region –historic accounts, ethnographies, linguistics summaries, studies of physical anthropology or applied anthropology. Similarly, it does not include references to the many publications on the archaeology of adjacent regions (e.g., the Alaska and Kenai peninsulas) where comparisons to Kodiak archaeology are made, or publication where Kodiak prehistory is discussed in assessing broader issues of world prehistory.

Kopperl, R. E. 2003. Prehistoric resource depletion and intensification on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.

Steffian, A. F., E. B. Pontti, and P. G. Saltonstall. 2003. Early sites and microblade technologies from the Kodiak Archipelago. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska – New Series 2(1):1-38.
Saltonstall, P. G. and G. A. Carver. 2002. Earthquakes, subsidence and prehistoric site attrition: A view from Afognak Island, Alaska. In: J. Grattin and R. Torrence (eds.). Natural Disasters, Catastrophism, and Cultural Change. Routledge, New York.

Fitzhugh, J. B. 2001a. Risk and invention in human technological evolution. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 20:125-167.
Fitzhugh, J. B. 2001b. Residential and logistical strategies in the evolution of complex hunter-gatherers on the Kodiak Archipelago. Pgs. 157-304 in: B. Fitzhugh and J Habu (eds.). Beyond Foraging and Collection: Evolutionary Change in Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems. Kluwer-Plenum, New York, New York.

Fitzhugh, J. B. 2001c. The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific. Kluwer-Plenum, New York, New York

Steffian, A. F. 2001. Cummillallret – Ancestors. Pgs. 99-135 in: A. L. Crowell, A. F. Steffian and G. L. Pullar (eds.). Looking Both Ways: Heritage and Identity of the Alutiiq People. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks.

Steffian, A. F. and P. G. Saltonstall. 2001. Markers of identity: Labrets and social organization in the Kodiak Archipelago. Alaska Journal of Anthropology 1(1):1-27.

Woodhouse-Beyer, K. 2001. Gender relations and socioeconomic change in Russian America: an archaeological study of the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, 1741–1867. Doctoral Dissertation, Brown University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Knecht, R. A. 2000 . Archaeology and Alutiiq Cultural Identity on Kodiak Island. Pgs. 147-154 in: K. E. Dongoske, M. Aldenderfer, and K. Doehner (eds.). Working Together: Native Americans and Archaeologists. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.

Partlow, M. 2000. Salmon intensification and changing household organization in the Kodiak Archipelago. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Steffian, A. F., and R. A. Knecht. 1998. Karluk One. Pictures of Record, Weston, Connecticut. 

Clark, D W. 1998. Kodiak Island: the later cultures. Arctic Anthropology 35(1):172-186. 

Woodhouse-Beyer, K. 1998. Artels and identities: Gender, power and Russian America. In: Power, Gender and the Interpretation of Power in Archaeology. Routledge Press, London.

Clark, D. W. 1997. The Early Kachemak Phase on Kodiak Island at Old Kiavak. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series, Paper 155. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull.

Crowell, A. 1997. Archaeology and the Capitalist World System: A Study from Russian America. Plenum Press, New York.

Steffian, A. F. and J. J. K. Simon. 1996. Metabolic stress in an abundant environment: A bioarchaeological approach to Kachemak human ecology. Pgs. 574-583 in: D. A. Meyer, P. C. Dawson, D. T. Hanna (eds.). Debating Complexity, Proceedings of the 26th Annual Chacmool Conference. The Archaeological Association of the University of Alberta, Calgary, Canada.

Fitzhugh, J. B.1996 . The evolution of complex hunter-gatherers in the north Pacific; An archaeological case study from Kodiak Island, Alaska. Doctoral Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Knecht, R. A. 1995 . The late prehistory of the Alutiiq People: Culture change on the Kodiak Archipelago from 1200-1750 A.D. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.

Fitzhugh, J. B. 1995a. Clams and the Kachemak: Seasonal dating and implications of seasonal shellfish use on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Research in Economic Anthropology 16:129-176.

Bray, T. L., and T. Killion (eds.). 1994. Reckoning with the Dead, The Larsen Bay Repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Clark, D. W. 1994 . Still a big story: The prehistory of Kodiak Island. Pgs. 137-149 in: T. L. Bray and T. Killion (eds.). Reckoning with the Dead, The Larsen Bay Repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Dumond, D. E. 1994. The Uyak Site in Prehistory. Pgs. 43-53 in: T. L. Bray and T. W. Killion (eds.). Reckoning with the Dead. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Simon, J. J. K., and A. F. Steffian. 1994. Cannibalism or complex mortuary behavior? An analysis of patterned variability in the treatment of human remains from the Kachemak Tradition of Kodiak Island, Alaska. Pgs. 75-100 in: T. Bray and T. Killion (eds.). Reckoning with the Dead: Larsen Bay and the Onset of Repatriation at the National Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Speaker, S. 1994. The red, black, and blue: Context and mortuary data at Larsen Bay, Kodiak Island. Pgs. 54-66 in: T. L. Bray and T. W. Killion (eds.). Reckoning with the Dead, The Larsen Bay Repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Steffian, A. F. and J. J. K. Simon. 1994. Metabolic stress among prehistoric foragers of the central Alaskan gulf. Arctic Anthropology 31(2):78-94.

Mills, R. O. 1994. Radiocarbon calibration of archaeological dates from the central Gulf of Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 31(1):126-149.

Jordan, R. H. 1994. Qasqiluteng: Feasting and ceremonialism among the traditional Koniag of Kodiak Island. Pgs. 147-173 in: W.W. Fitzhugh and V. Chaussonnet (eds.). Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Donta, C. L. 1994. Continuity and function in the ceremonial material culture of the Koniag Eskimo. Pgs. 122-136 in: T. Bray and T. W. Killion (eds.). Reckoning with the Dead, The Larsen Bay Repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Donta, C. L. 1993. Koniag ceremonialism. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.

Crowell, A. 1992. Precontact Konaig ceremonialism on Kodiak Island and the Alaska Peninsula: Evidence from the Fisher collection. Arctic Anthropology 29(1):18-37.

Clark, D. W. 1992a. Archaeology on Kodiak: The quest for prehistory and its implications for north Pacific prehistory. Pgs. 109-126 in: R. H. Jordan, F. de Laguna, and A. F. Steffian (eds.). Contributions to the Anthropology of Southcentral and Southwestern Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 24.

Clark, D. W. 1992b. "Only a skin boat load or two": The role of migration in Kodiak prehistory. Arctic Anthropology 29(1):2-17.

Donta, C. L. 1992. Incised slate images and the development of social and political complexity in south Alaska. Pgs. 11-18 in: A.S. Goldsmith, S. Garvie, D. Selin, and J. Smith (eds.). Ancient Images, Ancient Thought: The Archaeology of Ideology. University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Erlandson, J. M., A. Crowell, C. Wooley, and J. Haggerty. 1992. Spatial and temporal patterns in Alutiiq paleodemography. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):42-62

Jordan, R. H. 1992. A maritime paleoarctic assemblage from Crag Point, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Pgs. 127-140 in: R. H. Jordan, F. de Laguna, and A. F. Steffian (eds.). Contributions to the Anthropology of Southcentral and Southwestern Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 24(1&2)

Moss, M. L. and J. M. Erlandson. 1992 . Forts, refuge rocks, and defensive sites: The antiquity of warfare along the north Pacific coast of North America. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):73-90.

Scott, R. G. 1992 . Affinities of Prehistoric and Modern Kodiak Islanders and the Question of Kachemak-Koniag Biological Continuity. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):150-166.

Simon, J. J. K. 1992. Mortuary practices of the Late Kachemak Tradition in southcentral Alaska: A perspective from the Crag Point Site, Kodiak Island. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):130-149.

Steffian, A. F. 1992a . Archaeological coal in the Gulf of Alaska: A view from Kodiak Island. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):111-129.

Steffian, A. F. 1992b. Fifty years after Hrdlicka: Further investigations at the Uyak Site, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Pgs. 141-164 in: R. H. Jordan, F. de Laguna, and A. F. Steffian (eds.). Contributions to the Anthropology of Southcentral and Southwestern Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 24(1&2).

Yesner, D. R. 1992. Evolution of subsistence in the Kachemak Tradition: Evaluating the north Pacific maritime stability model. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):167-181.

Dumond, D. E. 1991. The Uyak site in regional prehistory: The cultural evidence. Pgs. 57-114 in: D. E. Dumond and G. R. Scott (eds.). The Uyak Site on Kodiak Island: Its Place in Alaskan Prehistory. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers 44. University of Oregon Press, Eugene.

Scott, R. G. 1991. Continuity or replacement at the Uyak Site, Kodiak Island, Alaska: A physical analysis of population relationships. Pgs. 1-56 in: D. E. Dumond and G. R. Scott (eds.). The Uyak Site on Kodiak Island: Its Place in Alaskan Prehistory. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers 44. University of Oregon Press, Eugene.

Crozier, S. N. 1989. Excavation of a late prehistoric dwelling structure on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 26(2):78-95.

Yesner, D. R. 1989. Osteological remains from Larsen Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 26(2):96-106.

Donta, C. L. 1988 . Archaeological Indications of Evolving Social Complexity on Kodiak Island, Alaska. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.

Dumond, D. E. 1988 . The Alaska Peninsula as super highway: A comment. Pgs. 379-388 in: R. D. Shaw, R. K. Harritt, D. E. Dumond, and G. R. Scott (eds.). The Late Prehistoric Development of Alaska's Native People. Aurora IV. Alaska Anthropological Association, Anchorage.

Fitzhugh, W. W. and A. Crowell (eds.). 1988. Crossroads of Continents Cultures of Siberia and Alaska. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Jordan, R. H. and R. A. Knecht. 1988 . Archaeological research on western Kodiak Island, Alaska: The development of Koniag Culture. Pgs. 225-306 in: R. D. Shaw, R. K. Harritt, and D. E. Dumond. Late Prehistoric Development of Alaska's Native People. Aurora IV. Alaska Anthropological Association, Anchorage.

Clark, D. W. 1988. Pacific Eskimo encoded prehistoric contact. Pgs. 211-224 in: R.D. Shaw, R.K. Harritt, and D.E. Dumond (eds.). The Late Prehistoric Development of Alaska's Native People. Aurora IV. Alaska Anthropological Association, Anchorage.

Clark, D. W. 1987. On a misty day you can see back to 1805: Ethnohistory and historical archaeology of the southeastern side of Kodiak Island, Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 21(1-2):105-132.

Clark, D. W. 1986 . Archaeological and historical evidence for an 18th century “blip” in the distribution of the northern fur seal at Kodiak Island, Alaska. Arctic 39(1):39-42.

Clark, D. W. 1979. Ocean Bay: An early north Pacific maritime culture. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series Paper 86. National Museum of Man, Ottawa.

Clark, D. W. 1970a . The late Kachemak tradition at Three Saints and Crag Point, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 6(2):73-111.

Clark, D. W. 1970b . Petroglyphs on Afognak Island, Kodiak Group, Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 15(1):284-29

Dumond, D. E. 1969. The prehistoric pottery of southwestern Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 14(2):19-42.

Dumond, D. E. 1987a. The Eskimo and Aleuts. Revised Edition. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London

Dumond, D. E. 1987b . A Reexamination of Eskimo-Aleut Prehistory. American Anthropologist 89:32-56.

Knecht, R. A. and R. H. Jordan. 1985 . Nunakakhnak: A historic period Koniag Village in Karluk, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 22(2):17-35.

Clark, D. W. 1984b. Prehistory of the Pacific Eskimo region. Pgs. 136-148 in: D. Damas (Arctic chapter ed.) and C. Sturtevant (gen. ed.). Handbook of American Indians 5. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Clark, D. W. 1982a . An example of technological change in prehistory: The origins of a regional ground slate industry in south-central coastal Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 19(1):103-125.

Clark, D. W. 1982b. From just beyond the southern fringe: A comparison of Norton Culture and the contemporary Kachemak Tradition of Kodiak Island. Arctic Anthropology 19(2):123-132.

Workman, W. B. 1980. Continuity and change in the prehistoric record from southern Alaska. Pgs. 49-102 in: Y. Kotani and W. B. Workman (eds.). Alaska Native Culture and History. Senri Ethnological Series 4. National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan.

Clark, D. W. 1974a. Contributions to the later prehistory of Kodiak Island, Alaska. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series , No. 20. National Museum of Man, Ottawa.

Clark, D. W. 1974b. The earliest prehistoric cultures of Kodiak Island, Alaska: 1971 Field Work, Preliminary Report. Arctic Anthropology 10(1):41-46.

Clark, D. W. 1974c . Koniag Prehistory. Tubinger Monographien zur Urgeschichte, Band 1. Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart.

Clark, D. W. 1966a. Perspectives in the prehistory of Kodiak Island, Alaska. American Antiquity 3(3):358-371.

Clark, D. W. 1966b. Two late prehistoric pottery-bearing sites on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 3(2):157-184.

Clark, D. W. 1964. Incised figurine tablets from Kodiak, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 2(1):118-134.

Laughlin, W. S. 1966 . Kodiak studies introduction. Arctic Anthropology 3(2):155-156.

Laughlin, W. S. and W. G. Reeder. 1962 . Rationale for the Collaborative Investigation of Aleut-Konyag Prehistory and Ecology. Arctic Anthropology 1(1):104-108.

Heizer, R. F. 1956 . Archaeology of the Uyak Site, Kodiak Island, Alaska. University of California Anthropological Records 17(1):1-199. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Heizer, R. F. 1948 . Pottery from the Southern Eskimo Region. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93(1):48-56.

Heizer, R. F. 1947 . Petroglyphs of southwestern Kodiak Island, Alaska. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 91:284-293.

Hrdlicka, A. 1944. The Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Alaska Packers Association. 1917 . Petroglyphs on Kodiak Island. American Anthropologist 19:320-322.

 

Fisheries

 

Blackett, R. F. 1979. Establishment of sockeye and Chinook salmon runs at Frazer Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36:1265-1277.
Blackett, R. F. 1987. Development and performance of and performance of an Alaska steeppass fishway for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 44:66-76.
Booth, J. A. and M. L. McCosh. 1996. Ayakulik River chinook salmon creel survey, Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1993 and 1994. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fisheries Technical Report Number 37, Kenai, Alaska.
Booth, J. A. 1995. Escapement timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Uganik River, Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1990, 1991, and 1992. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fisheries Technical Report Number 32, Kenai, Alaska.
Carlson, S. R., L. G. Coggins Jr., and C. O. Swanton. 1998. A simple stratified design for mark-recapture estimation of salmon smolt abundance. Alaska Fisheries Research Bulletin 5:88-102.
DeLacy, A. C and W. M. Morton. 1943. Taxonomy and habits of the charrs, Salvelinus

malma and Salvelinus alpinus, of the Karluk drainage system. Transactions of the North American Fisheries Society 72:79-91.
Edmundson, J. A. and A. Mazumder. 2001. Linking growth of juvenile sockeye salmon to habitat temperature in Alaskan lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130:644-662.
Faustini, M. A. 1999. Abundance and run timing of adult chum salmon in the Sturgeon River, Kodiak, Alaska, 1998. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fisheries Data Series Report 99-2, Kenai, Alaska.
Finney, B. P., I. Gregory-Eaves, J. Sweetman, M. S. V. Douglas, and J. P. Smol. 2000. Impacts of climatic change and fishing on Pacific salmon abundances over the past 300 years. Science 290:795-799.
Finney, B. P., I. Gregory-Eaves, J. Sweetman, M. S. V. Douglas, and J. P. Smol. 2002. Fisheries productivity in the northeastern Pacific over the past 2,200 years. Nature 416:729-733.
Gregory-Eaves I., J. P. Smol, M. S. V. Douglas, and B. P. Finney. 2003. Diatoms and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population dynamics: Reconstruction of salmon-derived nutrients over the past 2,200 years in two lakes from Kodiak Island, Alaska. Journal of Paleolimnology 30:35-53.

Koenings, J. P., and R. D. Burkett. 1987. Population characteristics of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts relative to temperature regimes, euphotic volume, fry density, and forage base within Alaskan lakes. Pgs. 216–234 in: H. D. Smith, L. Margolis, and C. C. Wood (eds.). Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population biology and future management. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 96.

Koenings, J. P., and R. D. Burkett. 1987. An aquatic Rubic’s cube: restoration of the Karluk Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Pgs. 419–434 in: H. D. Smith, L. Margolis, and C. C. Wood (eds.). Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population biology and future management. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 96.

Koenings, J. P., H. J. Geiger, and J. J. Hasbrouck. 1993. Smolt-to-adult survival patterns of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): effects of smolt length and geographic latitude when entering the sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:600-611.

Koenings, J. P., and G. B. Kyle. 1997. Consequences to juvenile sockeye salmon and the zooplankton community resulting from intense predation. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 4(2):120-135.

Krueger, C., T. Chatto, S. Miller, and B. Spearman. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA variation in steelhead trout (Onchorynchus mykiss): Comparison of collections from the Kodiak NWR, Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fisheries Technical Report 54. Anchorage, Alaska.

Krumme, E. M., R. W. Macdonald, L. E. Kimpe, I. Gregory-Eaves, M. J. Demers, J. P. Smol, B. Finney, and J. M. Blais. 2003. Aquatic ecology: Delivery of pollutants by spawning salmon. Nature 425:255-256.

Kyle, G. B. 1994. Nutrient treatment of 3 coastal Alaskan lakes: Trophic level responses and sockeye salmon production trends. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 1(2):153-167.

Kyle, G. B. 1996. Stocking sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in barren lakes of Alaska: effects on the macrozooplankton community. Fisheries Research 28:29-44.

Kyle, G. B., J. P. Koenings, and B. M. Barrett. 1988. Density-dependent, trophic level responses to an introduced run of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at Frazer Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 856-867.

Price, M. 2001. Abundance and run timing of adult chum salmon, and stellhead kelt emigration in the Sturgeon River, Kodiak, Alaska, 1999. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Alaska Fisheries Data Series Number 2001-2, Kenai, Alaska. 

Roppel, P. 1986. Salmon from Kodiak: A history of the salmon fishery of Kodiak Island, Alaska. Alaska Historical Committees Studies in History No. 216. 355pp.

Blackett, R. F. 1979. Establishment of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon runs at Frazer Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36:1265-1277.

Schmidt, D.C., J. P. Koenings, and G. B. Kyle. 1992. Predator-induced changes in copepod vertical migration: explanations for decreased overwinter survival of sockeye salmon. Pgs. 187–209 in: D. J. Strouder, K.L. Fresh, and R. J. Feller (eds.). Theory and Application in Fish Feeding Ecology. University of South Carolina Press.

Schmidt, D. C., S. R. Carlson, G. B. Kyle, and B. P. Finney. 1998. Influence of carcass-derived nutrients on sockeye salmon productivity of Karluk Lake, Alaska: Importance in the assessment of an escapement goal. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18:743-763.

Wildlife

Van Daele, L. J. 2003. The history of bears on the Kodiak Archipelago. Alaska Natural History Association. Anchorage, Alaska. 88pp. 

Williams, L. 2003. Patterns of harvest and use of mountain goats on Kodiak Island, GMU 8. Technical report no. 276. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Anchorage, Alaska. 146pp.

Barnes, V. G., Jr. 2001. The majestic Kodiak brown bear. Pgs 75-87 in: Kodiak Bears & the Exxon Valdez. T. Richardson and D. Cline (eds.). Kodiak Brown Brown Bear Trust, Anchorage, Alaska. 172pp.

Lanctot, R., B. Goatcher, K. Scribner, S. Talbot, B. Pierson, D. Esler, and D. Zwiefelhofer. 1999. Harlequin duck recovery from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A population genetics perspective. Auk 116(3):781-791.

Miller, S. D., and V. Leigh Tutterrow. 1999. Characteristics of nonsport mortalities to brown and black bears and human injuries from bears in Alaska. Ursus 11:239-252.Wilker, G. A., and V. G. Barnes, Jr. 1998. Responses of brown bears to human activities at O'Malley River, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Ursus 10:557-561.

Barnes, V. G., Jr., and R. B. Smith. 1998. Estimates of brown bear abundance on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Ursus 10:1-9.

Barnes, V. G., Jr. 1994. Brown bear-human interactions associated with deer hunting on Kodiak Island. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9:63-73. 

Barnes, V. G., Jr., and R .B. Smith. 1993. Cub adoption by brown bears, Ursus artos middendorffi, on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Canadian Field Naturalist 107: 65-367.

Barnes, V. G., Jr. 1990. The influence of salmon availability on movements and range of brown bears on southwest Kodiak Island. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8:305-313.

Smith, R. B., and L. J. Van Daele. 1990. Impacts of hydroelectric development on brown bears, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8:93-103.

Van Daele, L. J., V. G. Barnes, Jr., and R. B. Smith. 1990. Denning characteristics of brown bears on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8:257-267.

Smith, R. B., V. G. Barnes, Jr., and L. J. Van Daele. 1989. Brown bear-human conflicts in the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8:111-119.

Miller, S. D., and M. A. Chihuly. 1987. Characteristics of nonsport brown bear deaths in Alaska. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7:51-58.

Forsell, D. J. and P. J. Gould. 1981. Distribution and abundance of marine birds and mammals wintering in the Kodiak area of Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, D.C. FWS/OBS-81/13. 81pp.

Atwell, G., D. Boone, J. Gustafson, and V. D. Berns. 1980. Brown bear summer use of alpine habitat on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4:297-305. 

Berns, V. D., G. C. Atwell, and D. L. Boone. 1980. Brown bear movements and habitat use at Karluk Lake, Kodiak Island. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4:293-296.

Smith, R. B. 1979. History and current status of Sitka black-tailed deer in the Kodiak Archipelago. Pgs. 184-195 in: O. C. Wallmo and J. W. Schoen (eds.). Sitka Black-tailed Deer: Proceedings of a Conference in Juneau, Alaska. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with State of Alaska, Department of Fish and Game. Series No. R10-48. Juneau, Alaska.

Grubb, T. G. and R. J. Hensel. 1978. Food habits of nesting bald eagles on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Murrelet 59:70-72.

Sprunt, A., IV., W. B. Robertson, Jr., S. Postupalsky, R. J. Hensel, C. E. Knoder, and F. J. Ligas. 1973. Comparative productivity of six bald eagle populations. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 38:96-106.

Lentfer, J. W., R. J. Hensel, L. H. Miller, L. P. Glenn, and V. D. Berns. 1972. Remarks on denning habits of Alaska brown bears. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 2:125-137.

Berns, V. D., and R. J. Hensel. 1972. Radio tracking brown bears on Kodiak Island. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 2:19-25.

Gard, R. 1971. Brown bear predation on sockeye salmon at Karluk Lake, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 35:193-204.

Hensel, R. J., W. H. Troyer, and A. W. Erickson. 1969. Reproduction in the female brown bear. Journal of Wildlife Management 33:357-365.

Erickson, A. W., H. W. Mossman, R. J. Hensel, and W. A. Troyer. 1968. The breeding biology of the male brown bear (Ursus arctos). Zoological 53:85-105.

Troyer, W. A., and R. J. Hensel. 1965. Nesting and productivity of bald eagles on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Auk 82:636-638. 

Troyer, W. A., and R. J. Hensel. 1964. Structure and distribution of a Kodiak bear population. Journal of Wildlife Management 28:769-772.

Troyer, W. A., and R.J. Hensel. 1964. Behavior of female brown bears under stress. Journal of Mammology 45:488-489.

Hensel, R. J., and W. A. Troyer. 1964. Nesting studies of the bald eagle in Alaska. Condor 66:282-286 

Troyer, W. A., R. J. Hensel, and K. E. Durley. 1962. Live-trapping and handling of brown bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 26:330-331.

Troyer, W. A. 1962. Cannibalism in brown bear. Animal Behavior 10:3-4.

Troyer, W. A. 1961. The brown bear harvest in relation to management on Kodiak Islands. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 26:460-68.

Clark, W. K. 1957. Seasonal food habits of the Kodiak bear. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 24:337-345.

Merriam, C. H. 1918. Review of the grizzly and big brown bears of North America. U.S. Department of Agricultural, Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna 41:126-127.

Other Topics

Nielsen, E.A., Bauder, P. & Lewis A. (2005). Recreation Use and Visitor Experience on the Karluk River: A Comparative Study 2002-2004. Submitted to the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. Alaska Pacific University, Department of Environmental Science. Anchorage, AK. 216 pp. (pdf)

Talbot, S. S. 1998. Lichens of the Spirdon Peninsula, Western Kodiak Island, Alaska, with observations on lichen communities. Pgs. 245-260 in: M. G. Glenn, R. C. Harris, R. Dirig, and M. S. Cole (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd, Ithaca, New York.

Karlstrom, T. N. V., and G. E. Ball (eds.). 1969. The Kodiak Island Refugium: Its Geology, Flora, Fauna, and History. The Boreal Institute, University of Alberta. The Reyerson Press, Toronto, Canada. 262pp.

Griggs, R. F. 1934. The edge of the forest in Alaska. Ecology 15:80-96.

Last Updated: Apr 07, 2012
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