Forests growing within the floodplain of rivers and streams are considered bottomland forests. These areas either experience floods on a frequent basis, such as the “flash floods” along small riverine systems, or are subjected to long flooding durations typical of large riverine systems. Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge is located within the floodplain of one of the largest rivers in the world. Flooding along the Mississippi River in 1993 extended from April to October of that year.
The pin oak, swamp white oak, cottonwood, green ash, willows, river birch, silver maple, pecan and other trees at the refuge have adapted to these conditions. This habitat provides food and cover for many wildlife species, including deer, turkey, wood ducks, prothonotary warbler, pileated woodpeckers and more.