Landscapes of Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge

This is a list of the images and their descriptions found in the Landscapes Photo Gallery. The images were photographed by James N Perdue and any usage of these images should credit Mr. Perdue and his website:



Mountains surround the Refuge and provide water, shelter and a unique weather system not to mention scenic beauty. They create a large valley which maintains the wetlands ecology for the refuge at 6600 feet.

Closeup of Portion of the Centennial Mountains

Spring thaw creates grasses on steep mountain sides.

Mountain Snow in Spring

This snow provides spring flow to maintain the refuge wetlands. Notice the hanging ledge of snow at the top.

Baldy Mountain in Spring

Baldy Mountain is the key high feature at the southwest end of the refuge. Shown here in May.

Mount Baldy in Winter

Mount Baldy is in the western part of the Centennial Mountains. Snow clings to the top and sides of this refuge landmark.

Baldy Mountain in Snow

The western Centennial Mountains expose more volcanic rocks than the eastern Centennial Mountains. The highest topographic feature in the western part of the mountain range is Baldy Mountain, capped by lava flows and flow breccias of andesite and basalt which are are probably of Pliocene or Miocene, formed between 5 to 20 million years ago. (Breccias are rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix.)

Baldy Mountain and the Moon

Baldy Mountain seen from the refuge headquarters as moon sets in mid-February. Clear and cold winter mornings in the refuge are beautiful.

Baldy Mountain and Lower Lake

From the North Valley Road grasslands, marshes and Lower Red Rock Lake stand before Baldy Mountain, part of the western Centennial Range of the Rocky Moun

Looking South on Elk Lake Road at Western Centennials

Elk Lake Road can get very difficult to travel in wet weather but the views are great.

Eastern Portion of the Centennial Range

Looking east from the refuge fire tower is the eastern part of the Centennial Mountains. This mountain range is unique because it trends east to west unlike most other mountain ranges in the Rockies. Sheep Mountain is center in the image. Mount Nemesis is the most eastern visible. The entire valley is covered with 1 to 3 feet of snow in this February image. The dark vegetation in the center are willows lining Odell Creek.

Avalanche Chute on Centennial Mtns

Trees are cleared down the mountain by avalanches in winter.

Trees Felled by Avalanche

This avalanche chute brought down many trees down the mountain as seen here.

Upper Red Rock Lake with Madison Range and Trees

Douglas Firs and Aspens line the Upper Red Rock Lake here.

Lower Red Rock Lake and the Madison Range

Many grasses are still brown in May.

Madison Range from Banks of Widgeon Pond

Not so distant Madison Range is still covered in snow in May

Willows in Early Spring with Snow-capped Madison Range

Willows prior to gaining leaves in early spring are red-orange and contribute to the beauty of the refuge scenery.

Madison Range and Lower Red Rock Lake

A telephoto view compresses the distances between Lower Red Rock Lake and the Madison range, over 15 miles distant.

Snow-covered Madison Range in Winter

The refuge is surrounded by near and far mountain ranges. Here the Madison Range appears in the distance.

Jagged Peaks in the Madison Range

The jagged snowy peaks of the Madison Range can be seen from South Valley Road in the refuge. These wilderness areas contribute to the scenic beauty of the refuge and provide protected habitat to many birds and animals that wander from them into the refuge throughout the spring, summer and fall. Notice the snow covered layer of volcanic rock at the bottom portion of the photo. This can be found along the southern end of Elk Lake.

Mount Taylor

Mount Taylor is part of a large uplifted area of the Centennial fault that forms the southern border to the refuge. The winter snows accumulate on the high slopes to contribute to the wetlands in the valley below.

Snow-capped Mount Taylor in May

Pronghorn gather below Taylor Mountain at the wildlife refuge.

Mt Taylor Stratification and Winter

The eastern portion of the Centennial Mountains are characterized here by the stratification of the Mount Taylor rocks. These mountains contain Precambrian rocks that are overlain by Paleozoic rocks ranging from Middle Cambrian to Permian in age. These young mountains rose from the valley floor in only the last 2 million years.

Centennial Mountain Tops in Winter

High above the Centennial Valley, the tops of the Centennial peaks are buried in snow. The trees are flocked with snow. These high peaks are the source of summer and fall water in the refuge since the temperature at the top remains very cold even through early summer.

Taylor Mountain with Swans

Taylor Mountain (9800 feet) with Widgeon Pond in the foreground.

Clouds over Centennial Mountains

Looking south along South Valley road within the refuge, the clouds that are pushed by the southern winds topple over the Centennial Mountains and dump snow at the base of the mountains in winter.

Taylor Mountain in Snow

The snow covered Centennial Valley slopes down to the south as it sinks and the Centennial Mountains continue to rise. This photo features Taylor mountain, which rises to an elevation of 9608 feet. The Teton Range in Wyoming and the Centennial Range are two of the youngest mountain ranges in North America and were created by the special tectonic forces around the Yellowstone Hotspot. These two ranges are perpendicular to each other and lines drawn along these ranges would intersect over the current hotspot.

Centennial Mountains from North Valley Road

Grasses and sagebrush fill the gap between the north boundary of the refuge along North Valley Road and the Centennial Mountains.

View from Top of Hill above Picnic Creek

Centennial Mountains are the only East-West trending range in the Rocky Mountains.

Nemesis Mountain

From Elk Lake Road, Nemesis Mountain is in the center of the Centennial Mountains. These mountains form the Continental Divide.

Nemesis Mountain in Winter

Clouds swirl around Nemesis Mountain and Red Rock Mountain in the distance. Those are in the eastern part of the Centennial Range, continuing out of the refuge. Culver Pond with its warm springs sits at the base of the forested area in the middle of this photo and Widgeon Pond is buried under ice and snow in the foreground. The winter landscape covers much vegetation, and aquatic features of the refuge.

Quartz Rocks

Granite and quartz make up some of the hills north of Picnic Creek.

Sunset in Centennial Valley in Winter

The last vestige of sunlight appears on the high peaks of the Madison Range beyond Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge in winter. A cold night is ahead and the wildlife must gather all their natural defenses to survive another freezing night in the Centennial Valley.

Snow Erosion Structures

The refuge is a place to find many different phenomena of nature that is both interesting to see and educational. The patterns that form on the snow here due to the depth of the various snow storms, the temperature fluctuations and the winds are extremely interesting. This patch reminds one of the highly eroded sandstone canyons of Canyonlands National Park in Utah. Similar erosion processes are at work here on a greatly speeded up time scale.

Ice Halo in Winter

The refuge provides good opportunity to see many interesting atmospheric effects, including this 22 degree ice halo around the sun in mid-February. The 22 degree refers to the angle from the sun to the halo (not the temperature).



Without the wetlands, the refuge wouldn't exist. Wetlands provide the environment for our unique wildlife.

Centennial Mountains Across Upper Red Rock Lake from the North

Willows and wet meadows provide cover for much wildlife

Centennial Mountains and Wetlands

Picnic Creek meanders in the foreground with marshes and wetlands stretching to the Centennial Mountains in the distant.

Pond Next to Lower Red Rock Lake

Several species of waterfowl often inhabit this very shallow pond adjacent to Lower Red Rock Lake. This pond dries up by early summer.

Wetlands in Spring

Looking from Elk Lake Road, in spring the grasses are flooded with water. Mount Nemesis in the background, part of the eastern part of the Centennial Mountains. lin

Looking East over Lower Red Rock Lake

Golden colors line Lower Red Rock Lake in fall.

Culver Pond

Looking southeast, Culver Pond is formed by a natural spring and a small dam. Trumpeter Swans and other waterfowl frequent this pond.

Culver Pond Looking East

Culver Pond is a quiet place perfect for waterfowl families in spring.

Culver Pond Frozen

Culver Pond is an elongated pond starting on the eastern edge of two warm springs. This portion is often populated by many ducks and swans in other seasons. This image is of the elongated part adjacent to the small Culver Pond dam. It is further from the warm springs and has frozen over in February in this image.

Historical Feeding Area for Swans.

Many years ago the concrete structure in the image of eastern Culver Pond held a grain silo used for feeding Trumpeter Swans in winter, thus re-establishi

Culver Pond Open Water in Winter

This portion of Culver Pond is near the warm springs and is open to swans and ducks during the deepest of winter. The concrete structure you see is the remains

Culver Pond Spring in Winter

Culver Pond is fed by two springs. The northern springs are at the base of these willows. You can see the open water in the distance. The warm springs are responsible for keeping the eastern parts of Culver Pond from freezing and thus provide bottom plants for swans and ducks during winter months.

Part of Culver Pond and Upper Red Rock Lake

In the distance is Upper Red Rock Lake. Culver Pond is an elongated pond seen here from above.

Picnic Creek Exits Widgeon pond.

Tall grasses and moist conditions allow birds and small mammals to flourish here.

Picnic Creek Flowing Out of Widgeon Pond

This creek flows into Elk Springs Creek and then into Upper Red Rock Lake, nourishing an aquatic and riparian habitat on its way. li

Picnic Creek Forms Wetlands

Drainage from Culver Pond forms a wetland area with willows. Notice the extensive sagebrush area bordering the wetlands.

Meandering Picnic Creek

View of Picnic Creek from a hill above.

Red Rock Creek Exits Lower Lake

Many species of birds hang out at the exit to the Lower Red Rock Lake

Picnic Creek in Winter

Picnic Creek flows out of Culver Pond in the refuge. In winter, this creek is frozen over and covered with snow as seen in this image near the Culver Pond dam. Stream-s

Beaver Dam

Looking west on Red Rock Creek. This beaver dam broke in high waters in 2010.

Beaver Dam along Red Rock Creek near the Eastern Entrance.

Beavers have the capacity to change the ecosystem of the refuge by restricting flow into the lakes and creating new wetland habits.

Red Rock Creek

Riparian area surrounding Red Rock Creek. Notice willows growing around creek. This is on the east side of the refuge looking west.

Red Rock Creek from Elk Lake Road

Red Rock Creek is the major stream moving through the refuge. It provides fishing, scenic views and refreshes meadows and marshes.

Red Rock Creek in Winter

Red Rock Creek is covered in ice and snow in mid-February. Mount Taylor is in the background.

Red Rock Creek

Red Rock Creek winds through the refuge providing a riparian wetland habitat for many animals. This is on the east side of the refuge.

Red Rock Creek Tributary

This is a small tributary of Red Rock Creek in winter. Warm water from springs keeps this from freezing. The sand dune hills that border the northern part of the refuge are in the distance. Notice the willows that border the creek making this an ideal place for foraging moose.

Widgeon Pond

Widgeon Pond is fed by Picnic Creek and provides habitat for many of the waterbirds, who want a more protected environment than the more open lakes.

Widgeon Pond

A birds eye view of Widgeon Pond, home of many waterbirds including a Trumpeter Swan pair.

Widgeon Pond looking at Centennial Mountains on a cloudy day

Widgeon Pond access may be closed to the public if there are trumpeter swans nesting. Floating or other boating is not permitted here.

Centennial Mountains and Widgeon pond

Waterbirds, eagles and otters frequent Widgeon Pond in this scenic wetlands area.

Late Spring Snow Showers

Much of the wetlands is created by snowmelt in early spring which creates these temporary marshes good for the waterbirds.

River Marsh Campground

This primitive campground borders Lower Red Rock Lake with a non-motorized boat launch.

Beaked Sedge Grows Next to Shoreline at Lower Red Rock Lake

After Sep 1, you can launch a non-motorized boat from this location at the River Marsh Campground. There are 3 places to launch such boats at Lower Red Rock Lake.

Part of Upper Red Rock Lake

This view from the Lakeview fire tower covers the southern part of Upper Red Rock Lake with part of the Centennial Mountains visible.

Upper Red Rock Lake

In this far view is both the northern part of Upper Red Rock Lake and Swan Lake. The Madison Range is behind.

Swan Lake from a Distance

Swan Lake is north and adjacent to Upper Red Rock lake. This isolated lake is home of several swans and other ducks.

Upper Red Rock Lake from Firetower

This view encompasses the snow-covered frozen Upper Red Rock Lake. The willows in the foreground trace the Odell Creek.

Entrance to the Upper Lake Campground

Upper Lake Campground provides picnic tables, fire rings, vault toilets, food storage, and access to Upper Red Rock Lake on July 1.

Path to Upper Red Rock Lake at Campground in Fall

Launch a non-motorized boat from here from July 1 until freezeup

View of Wetlands and Lower Lake

View of grasslands and wetlands between South Valley Road and Lower Red Rock Lake.

Lower Red Rock Lake and Willows

A view of the snow-covered frozen Lower Red Rock Lake and nearby willows.

American White Pelicans on an Island in Widgeon Pond

Birds find refuge on island in Widgeon Pond. The forest is visible in the background and further wetlands.

Centennials Reflect in Widgeon Pond

Scenic views like this abound throughout the refuge.

View of Upper Red Rock Lake in Fall

Grasses turn gold in fall at Upper Red Rock Lake.

View East from River Marsh Campground

Part of Lower Lake and the eastern portion of the Centennial Mountains are visible in the distant. These high grasses provide cover and food for birds like the Sand Hill Crane and the Curlew among others.

Pond near Lower Red Rock Lake dam Looking at Baldy Mountain (south)

This pond provides habitat for many birds including the northern shoveler and the Wilson's phalarope.

Looking Northeast Over Lower Red Rock Lake

Islands of bulrush and sedges provide excellent nesting and roosting areas for many bird species.

Looking East over Lower Red Rock Lake

Cumulous clouds form over Sheep Mountain. Notice high grasses on lake shoreline.

Canoe's View of Lower Red Rock Lake

Taken from a canoe, looking east is Lower Red Rock Lake. Canoeing is allowed from Sept 1 to freeze up here.

Bulrush and Baldy Mountain from Lower Red Rock Lake

Bulrush create many flooded islands in Lower Red Rock Lake. They are perfect for many ducks and song birds birds for nesting.

Lower Red Rock Lake

Taken from the fire tower you can see all of Lower Red Rock Lake. Notice the islands of bulrush.

Lower Lake is Frozen in Winter

Lower Red Rock Lake is the flat snow-covered area in the distance between the trees and the mountains in this winter image. The lake is frozen over for most of the winter months. The Snowcrest Range (9846 feet) is in the distance.

Wind Blown Snow

After a night of high winds the light snow has blown away and exposed ridges of hard snow and ice. The eastern tip of Lower Red Rock Lake is the smooth white surface in the distance and farther still are the Gravelly Range mountains.

Elk Creek and Centennial Mountains

Elk Creek flows out of Elk Springs, and into Upper Red Rock Lake.

Elk Springs Creek Through Lake Bed

MacDonald pond was drained in 2010 to restore arctic grayling spawing habitat in an attempt to increase the population of this threatened fish.

Elk Springs Creek at Duck Level

Elk Spring Creek exits from Elk Springs.

Elk Springs Creek and Snow

Elk Springs Creek is one of the few places in the refuge where water is still flowing in mid-February. Coming from springs underground about 1/2 mile from here, these warmer waters prevent ice from forming. The Centennial Mountains covered with clouds make a scenic backdrop for this pleasant winter scene.

Elk Springs Creek in Winter

Elk Springs Creek as it flows into what was once McDonald Pond. This is looking southwest in February. The warmer water of the springs, less than 1000 feet from here keeps the water flowing in this freezing weather.

Elk Spring Creek Provide Open Water in Winter

Elk Springs Creek provides open water for ducks and swans in the depth of winter. This image is looking north towards Elk Lake.

Shambow Pond and Upper Red Rock Lake with far mountains

Shambow Pond in May

A cold day in May at Shambow Pond. This is a favorite breeding area for the Trumpeter Swans.

Shambow Pond in Winter

Shambow Pond is covered partially with ice and snow as viewed from the South Valley road. The Gravelly range is in the background.

Shambow Pond and Spring

Shambow Pond serves as a protected body of water for several water fowl during non-winter months, most notably a pair of nesting Trumpeter Swans. In winter, sometimes the warmer spring fed pond does NOT freeze over as the lakes and other ponds do. Here you see the blue water reflecting the spring fed nature of the pool. It was 10F outside when this photo was taken.

Wildflowers Bloom Above Upper Red Rock Lake

Upper Red Rock Lake in Winter

Upper Red Rock lake shown here is frozen to a depth of 12 to 24 inches in the deep of winter. It's a shallow lake so only about 12 inches of water remains unfrozen. Here the Douglas Firs line the southern shore while the low lying hills and sand dunes are covered by snow in the north.

Looking West to Upper Red Rock Lake

Willows dominate this wetland area east of Upper Red Rock Lake. Many animals use the shelter of the willows and browsing resources of the willows and grasses for their sur



Our roads allow visitors to experience the refuge. These images provide a sample of the roads you'll travel and the structures you'll see in the refuge.

Unique Fogbow over South Valley Road

The angle of the light from the sun created this apparent 'bow' over South Valley Road in morning on the refuge.

Centennial Mountains Looking South along South Valley Road

Centennial Mountains and Storm

View of Centennial Mountains from South Valley Road. Storms often form over the mountains with impressive thunder and lightning.

South Valley Road and Trees

The snow pushes in from the mountains as everything turns a shade of black and white. This is South Valley road as snow clouds pour over the Centennial Mountains ahead.

South Valley Road Entrance in Winter

The western entrance to the refuge is shown here along South Valley road looking east in winter. At this time, road travel was possible only by snowmobile or sno-cat.

Lower Lake Road is Closed in Winter

The road to the Lower Lake access points, such as the dam, the primitive campground and the canoe launching sites are closed in winter due to deep snow.

South Valley Road as it Descends from the Upper Lake Campground Area

Although a dirt road, it is very well maintained and drivable at reasonable speeds.

South Valley Road as it Approaches Shambow Pond

Hawks and song birds often sit on the fences along the road.

South Valley Road

Looking west along South Valley Road, this is on the east side of the refuge.

South Valley Road as it Descends from Lakeview

Private land is on the left and refuge is on the right.

South Valley Road in Winter

Looking west, the snow covered South Valley road is only recognizable by the snowmobile tracks and the few fence posts visible. In non-winter months this area is filled with sedges, low sagebrush and other grasses. Baldy Mountain is in the distance.

South Valley Road Looking East

Looking east of Lakeview, Montana on South Valley road after a snowstorm. Wolf tracks follow the middle of the road.

South Valley Road

A portion of South Valley Road passes in front of the Centennial Mountains for a beautiful scenic drive.

Shambow Pond and South Valley Road

Trumpeter Swans often breed in Shambow Pond

Centennial Mountains

Looking south down Elk Lake Road at the Centennial Mountains.

Culver Pond Road

This single lane dirt road goes from Elk Lake Road along Picnic Creek and Culver Pond to Red Rock Creek and terminates in a dead end.

Culver Pond Road

This primitive road follows the northeast boundary of the refuge past Culver Pond. It ends at Red Rock Creek on the south where an old bridge is out, preventing access to South Valley Road.

Culver Pond Road South

Looking east but on the south side of the refuge, this primitive road takes you to the north side of Red Rock Creek.

North Valley Road

On the north boundary of the refuge is North Valley Road. This isolated road goes through unique sand dunes. Sage grouse are often seen on this road in the spring.

North Valley Road in Winter

Looking west from Elk Springs Road into the snow covered North Valley road. In spring, summer and fall, this is a seldom traveled road along the northern boundary of the refuge, but in winter, almost no one travels it, even on snowmobile.

North Valley Road

Looking east along North Valley the sandy nature of the area is evident.

Refuge Sign

This sign marks the northeast boundary of the refuge. Cows graze in summer.

Bridge over Red Rock Creek on Elk Lake Road

Looking west on Red Rock Creek. This is a popular fishing access point.

Road to Widgeon Pond

A short dirt road leads to the Widgeon Pond dam . This road may be closed if Trumpeter Swans are nesting. No camping is permitted here.

Snow on Old Buildings

Several abandoned buildings of the Buck Homestead dating from the pre-refuge days still exist. The relentless winters continue to wear them down.

Hanson Homestead

Several homesteads were abandoned since the refuge was established in 1935. This valley was first settled in 1876, the first Centennial of the USA, thus the name, Centennial Valley.

Fire Tower and Moonset

The fire tower, one of the original structures built in 1935 at the founding of the refuge, is shown here with an early morning moon set.

Search and Rescue in Winter

Several snowmobile tracks from a recent Search and Rescue effort define the South Valley road in February. Winter travel in the refuge can be dangerous and requires special care when traveling here in winter. Mount Taylor is in the background.

Refuge Patrol

The employees of the refuge most often use the snowmobile during the winter months to travel within the refuge to perform their duties and monitor wildlife and any visitors. Here, a refuge manager travels South Valley Road to monitor the local moose population.

Refuge Sno-cat

"Often in winter, the only way to get to the refuge is either by snowmobile or sno-cat. Here, the sno-cat is arriving at the refuge garage in Monida. The 28-mile South Valley road leads from I15 in the little village of Monida, MT east to the small settlement of Lakeview, MT the home of the refuge headquarters. Often the road is full of large snow drifts and is not cleared. This adds to the isolation of the refuge and acts to protect the wildlife even further from human intrusion.

Lakeview and Headquarter Buildings.

Lakeview, Montana is at the heart of the Centennial Valley and is a mix of private and refuge buildings. The office and visitor center is the building at the bottom of photo. The Visitor Center provides accessible restrooms when the office is open. Otherwise an accessible vault toilet is available after hours.

HQ in the Snow

The entrance to the refuge headquarters in Lakeview is blocked with snow. Living here in winter is difficult due to the inaccessibility, the weather and cold and the lack of normal services of a nearby city, but it provides solitude and scenic beauty in return.

Refuge Headquarters in Winter

This is the small village of Lakeview, Montana in winter. Winter presents challenges to the staff of the refuge headquarters (in center of image). Usually less than 10 staff and volunteers are present in winter to manage this large refuge. Monitoring inventories of wintering wildlife, performing winter research projects, keeping up with the paperwork of running this refuge and keeping the snow at bay around critical buildings keeps them busy. Often snowmobiles are the only mode of transportation here in winter.



Forests line the refuge on the south and provide cover for our mammals and song birds.

Forests at East End of Refuge.

Conifers cover the hills and mountain slopes at the east end of the refuge.

Forests at East End of Culver Pond

Culver Pond borders a conifer forest. Eagles and other birds inhabit this forest.

Forest on South Side of Refuge

Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest borders the Refuge and is home to deer, moose, bear and birds.

Forest Meets Upper Red Rock Lake

Conifers, willows and aspens converge on Upper Red Rock Lake here.

Fall Colors Adjacent to Southern Shore of Upper Red Rock Lake

These aspen trees provide shelter for many birds, pronghorn and moose near the lake. Fall is a great time to visit the refuge.

South Valley Road and Aspens

Snow covers the South Valley road under a peaceful roof of dormant aspens in February.

Trunk Bark of Aspen Trees near Upper Red Rock Lakes Campground

When snow arrives, elk browse on aspen bark if other vegetation is sparse.

Trees along Upper Lake

Trees (aspens, willows and Douglas Firs) along the southern shore of Upper Lake wait out the winter until new leaves, birds, and a variety of wildlife return to hide in their branches. This is a particularly unusual winter view in the refuge with the colors of blue, red, green, yellow and yes, white dominating a seemingly mostly white viewshed around the refuge.

Douglas Firs on Snow-covered Hillside

Douglas Firs on hillside at northeastern end of Culver Pond. Wind-smoothed snow on this hillside provides a scenic respite from the flat, snow-covered valley below.

Madison Range and Douglas Firs

Peaking over the Douglas Firs is the distant snow-covered Madison Range in February.



Grasslands fill the spaces between the ponds, lakes, rivers and forest and provide cover for many animals.

Looking over Willow Bog in early spring with Madison Range

Before willow shrubs leaf out they are a deep shade of orange.

Grasslands at the Refuge

A wide expanse of wetlands and grasslands dominate this view from the high hills above Picnic Creek

Smooth Snow-covered Plain over Grasses

In any season but winter, this view shows a large field of grasses and sagebrush, but now looks smooth and devoid of life. Life teems underneath, just waiting for snowmelt in May. Mount Taylor is in the background.

Northern Hills of the Refuge with Ibis Flying

Ibis fly along the Red Rock Creek. Cattle graze in the distant grasslands.

Storms Move Across the Centennial Valley.

Frequent spring storms help maintain the grasslands at the refuge.

Looking South at the Centennial Mountains over Refuge

Dandelions line Elk Lake Road and grasslands.

Chive Blooming in Grass near the Lower Red Rock Lake Road

Area between the lakes with grass and willows.

A vast grass prairie provides food and protection for many animals and birds.

Silvery Lupine and Grasslands near Lower Red Rock Lake

Along Lower Red Rock Lake Road. Short-eared owls and badgers inhabit these grasses

View from Lower Lake campground.

Grasses and wildflowers dominate the scene at River Marsh campground.

Grasses and Lower Red Rock Lake

Grasses predominant the landscape here. Lower Red Rock Lake is in the background.

Grasses in Early Spring

In mid-May, grasses haven't started to replace last year's growth yet.

Fogbow over Grasslands

A fogbow sometimes called a white rainbow is formed by the very small drops of water in fog being reflected by the sun here over the grasslands near Elk Lake road.

Red Swampfire and Foxtail Barley

Near Lower Red Rock Lake is this seasonally flooded area that hosts red swampfire (Salicornia rubra) and foxtail barley with the Madison Range as a backdrop.

Sand Dunes Sign

Along the North Valley Road is an area made of old sand dunes from erosion of the lake and the southern winds. It is covered with sagebrush and grasses, but the sand is fairly evident along the road and at the base of the plants.

Sand Dunes

Several wildflowers grow in this sandy region due to the southern winds bringing seeds from a distance.

Sand Dune Hills in Snow

Upper Red Rock Lake with the smooth hills and sand dunes covered in snow behind.


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US Fish and Wildlife Service, Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Montana USA