Endangered Species, Threatened Species,Federal Species of Concern, and Candidate Species,

Graham County, North Carolina


Updated: 1-14-2014


Critical Habitat Designations:


Appalachian elktoe - Alasmidonta raveneliana - The main stem of the Cheoah River (Little Tennessee River system), from the Santeetlah Dam, downstream to its confluence with the Little Tennessee River. Within these areas, the primary constituent elements include: (i) Permanent, flowing, cool, clean water; (ii)Geomorphically stable stream channels and banks; (iii)Pool, riffle, and run sequences within the channel; (iv)Stable sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock substrates with no more than low amounts of fine sediment; (v)Moderate to high stream gradient; (vi)Periodic natural flooding; and (vii)Fish hosts, with adequate living, foraging, and spawning areas for them.
Federal Register Reference: September 27, 2002, Federal Register, 67:61016-61040.

Common Name Scientific name Federal Status Record Status
Vertebrate:
Appalachian cottontail Sylvilagus obscurus FSCCurrent
Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus BGPACurrent
Bog turtle Clemmys muhlenbergii T (S/A)Current
Carolina northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus ECurrent
Cerulean warbler Dendroica cerulea FSCCurrent
Eastern small-footed bat Myotis leibii FSCCurrent
Hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis FSCCurrent
Indiana bat Myotis sodalis ECurrent
Junaluska salamander Eurycea junaluska FSCCurrent
Northern pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus FSCHistoric
Northern long-eared bat Myotis septentrionalis PCurrent
Northern saw-whet owl (Southern Appalachian population) Aegolius acadicus pop. 1 FSCCurrent
Rafinesque's big-eared bat Corynorhinus rafinesquii FSCCurrent
Red crossbill (Southern Appalachian) Loxia curvirostra FSCProbable/potential
Seepage salamander Desmognathus aeneus FSCCurrent
Yellow-bellied sapsucker (Southern Appalachian population) Sphyrapicus varius appalachiensis FSCCurrent
Invertebrate:
Appalachian elktoe Alasmidonta raveneliana ECurrent
Diana fritillary (butterfly) Speyeria diana FSCCurrent
Southern Tawny Crescent butterfly Phyciodes batesii maconensis FSCCurrent
a harvestman Fumontana deprehendor FSCCurrent
Vascular Plant:
Butternut Juglans cinerea FSCCurrent
Darlington's spurge Euphorbia purpurea FSCCurrent
Gray's saxifrage Saxifraga caroliniana FSCCurrent
Mountain bitter cress Cardamine clematitis FSCCurrent
Mountain catchfly Silene ovata FSCCurrent
Smoky Mountains manna grass Glyceria nubigena FSCCurrent
Virginia spiraea Spiraea virginiana TCurrent
Nonvascular Plant:
a liverwort Plagiochila sharpii FSCCurrent
a liverwort Plagiochila sullivantii var. sullivantii FSCCurrent
a liverwort Porella wataugensis FSCCurrent
Lichen:
Rock gnome lichen Gymnoderma lineare ECurrent

Definitions of Federal Status Codes:
E = endangered. A taxon "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range."
T = threatened. A taxon "likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range."
C = candidate. A taxon under consideration for official listing for which there is sufficient information to support listing. (Formerly "C1" candidate species.)
BGPA =Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. See below.
FSC=Federal Species of Concern. FSC is an informal term. It is not defined in the federal Endangered Species Act. In North Carolina, the Asheville and Raleigh Field Offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) define Federal Species of Concern as those species that appear to be in decline or otherwise in need of conservation and are under consideration for listing or for which there is insufficient information to support listing at this time.Subsumed under the term "FSC" are all species petitioned by outside parties and other selected focal species identified in Service strategic plans, State Wildlife Action Plans, or Natural Heritage Program Lists.
T(S/A) = threatened due to similarity of appearance. A taxon that is threatened due to similarity of appearance with another listed species and is listed for its protection. Taxa listed as T(S/A) are not biologically endangered or threatened and are not subject to Section 7 consultation. See below.
EXP = experimental population. A taxon listed as experimental (either essential or nonessential). Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species (e.g., red wolf) are treated as threatened species on public land, for consultation purposes, and as species proposed for listing on private land.
P = proposed. Taxa proposed for official listing as endangered or threatened will be noted as "PE" or "PT", respectively.

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGPA):

In the July 9, 2007 Federal Register( 72:37346-37372), the bald eagle was declared recovered, and removed (de-listed) from the Federal List of Threatened and Endangered wildlife. This delisting took effect August 8,2007. After delisting, the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (Eagle Act) (16 U.S.C. 668-668d) becomes the primary law protecting bald eagles. The Eagle Act prohibits take of bald and golden eagles and provides a statutory definition of "take" that includes "disturb". The USFWS has developed National Bald Eagle Management Guidelines to provide guidance to land managers, landowners, and others as to how to avoid disturbing bald eagles. For mor information, visit http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/baldeagle.htm

Threatened due to similarity of appearance(T(S/A)):

In the November 4, 1997 Federal Register (55822-55825), the northern population of the bog turtle (from New York south to Maryland) was listed as T (threatened), and the southern population (from Virginia south to Georgia) was listed as T(S/A) (threatened due to similarity of appearance). The T(S/A) designation bans the collection and interstate and international commercial trade of bog turtles from the southern population. The T(S/A) designation has no effect on land management activities by private landowners in North Carolina, part of the southern population of the species. In addition to its official status as T(S/A), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service considers the southern population of the bog turtle as a Federal species of concern due to habitat loss.

Definitions of Record Status:
Current - the species has been observed in the county within the last 50 years.
Historic - the species was last observed in the county more than 50 years ago.
Obscure - the date and/or location of observation is uncertain.
Incidental/migrant - the species was observed outside of its normal range or habitat.
Probable/potential - the species is considered likely to occur in this county based on the proximity of known records (in adjacent counties), the presence of potentially suitable habitat, or both.