[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 167 (Wednesday, August 28, 2013)]
[Pages 53155-53156]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-20965]



Fish and Wildlife Service

[FWS-R1-ES-2013-N105; FXES11130100000C2-134-FF01E00000]

Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for 
Phyllostegia hispida; Addendum to the Molokai Plant Cluster Recovery 

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of document availability.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the 
availability of our final recovery plan for Phyllostegia hispida (no 
common name) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended 
(Act). This plant species is endemic to the island of Molokai, Hawaii. 
This plan is an addendum to the recovery plan for the Molokai Plant 
Cluster, published in September of 1996. The plan includes recovery 
objectives and criteria, and specific recovery actions necessary to 
achieve downlisting and delisting of the species and its removal from 
the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.

ADDRESSES: An electronic copy of the recovery plan is available at 
http://www.fws.gov/endangered/species/recovery-plans.html and http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/endangered/recovery/plans.html. Copies 
of the recovery plan are also available by request from the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 300 Ala 
Moana Boulevard, Room 3-122, Box 50088, Honolulu, HI 96850 (telephone: 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kristi Young, Deputy Field Supervisor, 
at the above Honolulu address.



    Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants is a 
primary goal of the Endangered Species Act (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et 
seq.) and our endangered species program. Recovery means improvement of 
the status of listed species to the point at which listing is no longer 
required under the criteria set out in section 4(a)(1) of the Act. 
Recovery plans describe actions considered necessary for the 
conservation of listed species, establish criteria for downlisting or 
delisting, and estimate time and cost for implementing the measures 
needed for recovery.
    The Act requires the development of recovery plans for endangered 
or threatened species, unless such a plan would not promote the 
conservation of the species. Section 4(f) of the Act requires that 
public notice, and an opportunity for public review and comment, be 
provided during recovery plan development. The draft recovery plan for 
Phyllostegia hispida was published on June 2, 2011, and was available 
for public comment through August 1, 2011 (76 FR 31973). We have 
considered information we received from public comments and peer 
reviewers in our preparation of the final recovery plan, and have 
summarized that information in an appendix of the approved recovery 
plan. We welcome continuing public comment on this recovery plan, and 
we will consider all substantive comments on an ongoing basis to inform 
the implementation of recovery activities and future updates to the 
recovery plan.
    We listed Phyllostegia hispida under the Act as an endangered 
species without critical habitat on March 17, 2009 (74 FR 11319). 
Phyllostegia hispida is found only on the island of Molokai. Currently 
there are less than 10 wild mature individuals, 3 wild seedlings, and 
approximately 7 to 10 reintroduced individuals on the island of 
Molokai. No known population is entirely protected from the numerous 
factors threatening the species' recovery, and the species is 
endangered throughout its range. P. hispida is typically found in wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia)--dominated forest, occurring between 
1,112 and 1,280 meters (3,650 and 4,200 feet) elevation.
    The major threats to all known populations are habitat degradation 
by feral pigs (Sus scrofa); habitat degradation by and competition with 
invasive introduced plants; predation or herbivory by rats (Rattus 
spp.) and nonnative slugs; climate change; habitat degradation by 
landslides and flooding; and the negative demographic and genetic 
consequences of extremely small population size, as well as the 
consequent vulnerability to extinction through deterministic or 
stochastic (chance) events. Native caterpillar species may also pose an 
herbivory threat to this species.
    The short-term recovery objectives for Phyllostegia hispida focus 
on stabilizing all existing populations. To be considered stable, the 
species must be managed to control threats (e.g., feral ungulates and 
invasive plants) and be represented in an ex situ population (such as a 
nursery or arboretum). The long-term objectives leading to downlisting 
and delisting are an increase in populations and their numbers. This 
increase may require

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outplanting, development of appropriate management and monitoring plans 
at each site, and conservation agreements with landowners to ensure 
threats are controlled in perpetuity.
    As the species meets reclassification and recovery criteria, we 
will review the species' status and consider the species for 
reclassification or removal from the Federal List of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife and Plants.

    Authority: The authority for this action is section 4(f) of the 
Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1533 (f).

    Dated: July 30, 2013.
Richard R. Hannan,
Acting Regional Director, Pacific Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
[FR Doc. 2013-20965 Filed 8-27-13; 8:45 am]