[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 181 (Tuesday, September 18, 2012)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 57647-57862]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2012-19561]



[[Page 57647]]

Vol. 77

Tuesday,

No. 181

September 18, 2012

Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 17





Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 
Species on Oahu and Designation of Critical Habitat for 124 Species; 
Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 181 / Tuesday, September 18, 2012 / 
Rules and Regulations

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043: 4500030114]
RIN 1018-AV49


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status 
for 23 Species on Oahu and Designation of Critical Habitat for 124 
Species

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), list 23 
species on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands as endangered 
under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also 
designate 42,804 acres (17,322 hectares) as critical habitat. This 
designation includes critical habitat for these 23 species, 2 plant 
species that are already listed as endangered, and revised critical 
habitat for 99 plant species that are already listed as endangered or 
threatened. In this final rule we are also recognizing taxonomic 
revision of the scientific names of nine plant species and revising the 
List of Endangered and Threatened Plants accordingly. This final rule 
will implement the Federal protections provided by the Act.

DATES: This rule becomes effective on October 18, 2012.

ADDRESSES: This final rule and final economic analysis are available on 
the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. Comments and materials 
received, as well as supporting documentation used in preparing this 
final rule, are available for public inspection, by appointment, during 
normal business hours, at the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 
300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Box 50088, Honolulu, HI 96850; telephone 808-
792-9400; facsimile 808-792-9581. The coordinates or plot points or 
both from which the critical habitat maps were generated are included 
in the administrative record for this critical habitat designation, and 
are available at http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands, at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043, and at the 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office. Any additional tools or 
supporting information that we developed for this critical habitat 
designation are also available at the Fish and Wildlife Service Web 
site and Field Office set out above, and may also be included in the 
preamble or at http://www.regulations.gov.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Loyal Mehrhoff, Field Supervisor, 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES above). If you 
use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), you may call the 
Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Executive Summary

    Why we need to publish a rule. This is a final rule to list 23 
species as endangered under the Act, including 20 native Hawaiian plant 
species and 3 Hawaiian damselflies. In addition, the rule designates 
critical habitat for these 23 species, critical habitat for 2 
additional plant species that are already listed as endangered, and 
revised critical habitat for 99 plant species that are already listed 
as endangered or threatened. These species are on the island of Oahu, 
in the Hawaiian Islands. In this final rule, we also recognize 
taxonomic revision of the scientific names of nine plant species and 
revise the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants accordingly.
    The basis for our action. Under the Endangered Species Act, we 
determine that a species is endangered or threatened based on any of 
five factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, 
or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) overutilization for 
commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) 
disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory 
mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting its 
continued existence. We have determined that the 23 Oahu species are 
currently in danger of extinction throughout all their ranges, as the 
result of the following current and ongoing threats:
     All of these species face threats from the present 
destruction and modification of their habitats, primarily from 
introduced ungulates, such as feral pigs and goats, and the spread of 
nonnative plants.
     Six of these species face threats from habitat destruction 
and modification from fire.
     Fourteen species face threats from destruction and 
modification of their habitats from hurricanes, landslides, rockfalls, 
and flooding.
     The projected effects of climate change will likely 
exacerbate the effects of the other threats to these species.
     There is a serious threat of widespread impacts of 
predation and herbivory on 19 of the 20 plant species by nonnative 
pigs, goats, rats, and invertebrates; and predation on the three 
damselflies by nonnative fish, bullfrogs, and ants.
     Some of the plant species face the additional threat of 
trampling.
     The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms 
(specifically, inadequate protection of habitat and inadequate 
protection from the introduction of nonnative species) poses a current 
and ongoing threat to all 23 species.
     There are current and ongoing threats to nine plant 
species and the three damselflies due to factors associated with small 
numbers of populations and individuals.
     The three damselflies face further threats from the loss 
of native host plants, from habitat degradation and loss due to 
agriculture and urban development, from stream diversion and 
channelization, and by dewatering of aquifers.
     These threats are exacerbated by these species' inherent 
vulnerability to extinction from stochastic events at any time because 
of their endemism, small numbers of individuals and populations, and 
restricted habitats.
    This rule designates critical habitat for 25 species and revises 
critical habitat for 99 species. Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we 
are required to designate critical habitat based on the best scientific 
data available and after taking into consideration the economic impact 
and other relevant impacts of an area being considered for designation. 
The Secretary (of the Interior) may exclude an area from critical 
habitat if the benefits of exclusion outweigh the benefits of 
designation, unless the exclusion will result in the extinction of the 
species.
     This rule designates a total of 42,804 acres (ac) (17,322 
hectares (ha)) as critical habitat.
     We fully considered comments from the public and peer 
reviewers on the proposed rule and made additional field visits, in 
order to refine our designation and remove areas that are not essential 
to the conservation of the species. We found changes in land use had 
occurred in certain areas within the proposed critical habitat that 
preclude these areas from supporting the primary constituent elements, 
and that these areas do not meet the definition of critical habitat.
     A total of 307 ac (124 ha) have been removed in this final 
designation from the area originally proposed, as a result of 
refinement in unit areas made in response to public comments and 
additional field visits. These areas do

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not meet the definition of critical habitat.
     In addition, Department of Defense lands on Naval Station 
Pearl Harbor Lualualei Branch (NAVMAG PH Lualualei) and Naval Radar 
Transmittal Facility at Lualualei (NRTF Lualualei) (380 acres; 154 
hectares) with a completed and effective integrated natural resource 
management plan (INRMP) have been exempted from this final designation 
under section 4(a)(3) of the Act.
     All lands being designated as critical habitat are either 
(1) currently considered to be occupied by one or more of the 124 
species, and contain physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species by supporting the life-history needs of the 
species and that may require special management, or (2) areas outside 
the geographical areas occupied by the species at the time of listing, 
which the Secretary has determined are essential for the conservation 
of the species.
    Peer reviewers support our methods. We obtained opinions from 
knowledgeable individuals with scientific expertise to review our 
technical assumptions, analysis, and whether or not we had used the 
best available information. These peer reviewers generally concurred 
with our methods and conclusions and provided additional information, 
clarifications, and suggestions to improve this final rule.

Previous Federal Actions

    Federal actions for these species prior to August 2, 2011, are 
outlined in our proposed rule (76 FR 46362), which was published on 
that date. Publication of the proposed rule opened a 60-day comment 
period, which closed on October 3, 2011. In addition, we published a 
public notice of the proposed rule on August 6, 2011, in the local 
Honolulu Star Advertiser newspaper. On April 12, 2012 (77 FR 21936) we 
made available the draft economic analysis (DEA) on proposed critical 
habitat designation, and opened a 30-day comment period on the DEA, as 
well as reopened the comment period on the entire August 2, 2011 
proposed rule (76 FR 46362). This second comment period closed on May 
14, 2012.

Background

An Ecosystem-Based Approach To Listing 23 Species on Oahu

    On the island of Oahu, as on most of the Hawaiian Islands, native 
species that occur in the same habitat types (ecosystems) depend on 
many of the same biological features and on the successful functioning 
of that ecosystem to survive. We have therefore organized the species 
addressed in this final rule by common ecosystems. Although the listing 
determination for each species is analyzed separately, we have 
organized the specific analysis for each species within the context of 
the broader ecosystem in which it occurs, to avoid redundancy. In 
addition, native species that share ecosystems often face a suite of 
common factors that may pose threats to them, and ameliorating or 
eliminating these threats requires similar management actions. 
Effective management of these threats often requires implementation of 
conservation actions at the ecosystem scale, to enhance or restore 
critical ecological processes and provide for long-term viability of 
those species in their native environment. Thus, by taking this 
approach, we hope not only to organize this rule efficiently, but also 
to more effectively focus conservation management efforts on the common 
threats that occur across these ecosystems, restore ecosystem 
functionality for the recovery of each species, and provide 
conservation benefits for associated native species, thereby 
potentially precluding the need to list other species under the Act (16 
U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) that occur in these shared ecosystems.
    We are listing Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea 
lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, Doryopteris 
takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, Melicope 
hiiakae, Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma 
cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and 
Zanthoxylum oahuense; and the blackline (Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum), crimson (M. leptodemas), and oceanic (M. oceanicum) 
Hawaiian damselflies, endemic to the island of Oahu, as endangered 
species. These 23 species (20 plants and 3 damselflies) are found in 7 
ecosystem types: coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, 
montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff (Table 1).

    Table 1--The 23 Species and the Ecosystems Upon Which They Depend
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Ecosystem                             Species
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal...................................  Plants: Bidens amplectens.
Lowland Dry...............................  Plants: Bidens amplectens,
                                             Doryopteris takeuchii,
                                             Pleomele forbesii.
Lowland Mesic.............................  Plants: Cyanea calycina,
                                             Cyanea lanceolata, Melicope
                                             makahae, Platydesma cornuta
                                             var. decurrens, Pleomele
                                             forbesii, Pteralyxia
                                             macrocarpa, Tetraplasandra
                                             lydgatei
                                            Animals: oceanic Hawaiian
                                             damselfly.
Lowland Wet...............................  Plants: Cyanea calycina,
                                             Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea
                                             purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra
                                             gracilis, Cyrtandra
                                             kaulantha, Cyrtandra
                                             sessilis, Cyrtandra
                                             waiolani, Melicope hiiakae,
                                             Platydesma cornuta var.
                                             cornuta, Psychotria
                                             hexandra ssp. oahuensis,
                                             Pteralyxia macrocarpa,
                                             Zanthoxylum oahuense
                                            Animals: blackline Hawaiian
                                             damselfly, crimson Hawaiian
                                             damselfly, oceanic Hawaiian
                                             damselfly.
Montane Wet...............................  Plants: Cyanea calycina,
                                             Melicope christophersenii.
Dry Cliff.................................  Plants: Korthalsella
                                             degeneri, Melicope makahae,
                                             Platydesma cornuta var.
                                             decurrens, Pleomele
                                             forbesii, Pteralyxia
                                             macrocarpa.
Wet Cliff.................................  Plants: Cyanea calycina,
                                             Cyanea purpurellifolia,
                                             Cyrtandra kaulantha,
                                             Cyrtandra sessilis,
                                             Melicope christophersenii,
                                             Psychotria hexandra ssp.
                                             oahuensis, Pterlyxia
                                             macrocarpa
                                            Animals: crimson Hawaiian
                                             damselfly, oceanic Hawaiian
                                             damselfly.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Most of these species are found in multiple ecosystems. For each 
species, we identified and evaluated those factors that pose threats to 
the species and that may be common to all of the species at the 
ecosystem level (see discussion below in Summary of Factors Affecting 
the 23 Species). For example, climate change is considered a threat to 
each species within each ecosystem. As a result, this threat factor is 
considered to be a multiple ecosystem threat, as

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each individual species within each ecosystem faces a threat that is 
essentially identical in terms of the nature of the impact, its 
severity, its imminence, and its scope. We further identified and 
evaluated any threat factors that may be unique to certain species, 
that is, threat factors that do not apply to all species under 
consideration within the same ecosystem. For example, the threat of 
predation by nonnative fish is unique to the three damselflies in this 
rule; it is not applicable to any of the other species being listed. We 
have identified such threat factors, which apply only to certain 
species within the ecosystems addressed here, as species-specific 
threats.

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Determining Physical or Biological 
Features of Critical Habitat

    Under the Act, we are required to designate critical habitat to the 
maximum extent prudent and determinable concurrently with the 
publication of a final determination that a species is endangered or 
threatened. In this rule, we are designating critical habitat for the 
23 Oahu species which we have found to meet the definition of an 
endangered species. We are also designating critical habitat for two 
Oahu plants that are already listed as endangered species but for which 
critical habitat has not been previously designated. In addition, we 
are revising critical habitat for 99 Oahu plants already listed as 
endangered or threatened species. When critical habitat was designated 
for these 99 Oahu plant species in 2003 (68 FR 35950; June 17, 2003), 
it was based primarily on the specific localities where the species 
were known to occur. We are revising critical habitat for these species 
because since then, we have learned that many native Hawaiian plants 
and animals can thrive when reintroduced into historical habitats when 
threats are effectively managed. For this reason, we believe it is 
important to designate unoccupied habitat where it is essential for the 
recovery of the species. Based on new information on plant occurrences 
and a better understanding of the species' biological requirements, the 
physical or biological features have been more precisely identified, 
and now include elevation, precipitation, substrate, canopy, subcanopy, 
and understory characteristics. We believe the added precision will be 
helpful in identifying the special management considerations or 
protections needed in specific occupied areas to recover the species. 
In addition, because the 2003 designation focused on discrete areas 
occupied by the species at the time of listing, the result was an 
overlapping and confusing patchwork of critical habitat areas for the 
99 plant species that was difficult for the public to interpret. 
Although this revision of critical habitat is solely based on our 
determination of the lands that meet the statutory definition of 
critical habitat (16 U.S.C. 1532(5) and other applicable provisions 
(e.g., 16 U.S.C. 1533(4)(b)(2)), we believe the end result will provide 
for greater public understanding of the conservation and recovery needs 
of each of the species in the specific areas addressed in this rule.
    In this rule, we are designating critical habitat for 124 species 
in 62 multiple-species critical habitat units. Although critical 
habitat is identified for each species individually, we have found that 
the conservation of each depends, at least in part, on the successful 
functioning of the physical or biological features of the commonly 
shared ecosystem. Each critical habitat unit identified in this rule 
contains the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of those individual species that occupy that particular 
unit, or contains areas essential to the conservation of those 
individual species that do not presently occupy that particular unit, 
but depend on that ecosystem type for recovery purposes. Where the unit 
is not known to be occupied by a particular species, we believe it is 
still essential for the conservation of that species. The designation 
of unoccupied habitat allows for the expansion of its range and 
reintroduction of individuals into areas where it occurred 
historically, and provides areas for recovery in the case of a 
stochastic event at one or more locations where the species occurs.
    Each of the designated areas represents critical habitat for 
multiple species, based upon their shared habitat requirements, and 
takes into account any species-specific conservation needs as 
appropriate (see discussion below in Methods). For example, the 
presence of a perennial stream is essential for the conservation of the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly, but is not a requirement shared by all 
species within the same ecosystem; however, a functioning ecosystem is 
also essential to the damselfly because the ecosystem provides other 
physical or biological features that support the damselfly's specific 
life-history requirements.

The Island of Oahu

    The island of Oahu is the third oldest and third largest of the 
eight main Hawaiian Islands, located southeast of Kauai and northwest 
of Molokai and Lanai (Foote et al. 1972, p. 19; Department of 
Geography, University of Hawaii at Hilo (UHH) 1998, pp. 7-10). It was 
formed from two shield volcanoes, the Koolau Volcano and the Waianae 
Volcano, that ceased erupting about 1 to 2 million years ago, and is 
about 600 square (sq) miles (mi) (1,557 sq kilometers (km)) in area 
(Macdonald and Abbot 1970, p. 265; Foote et al. 1972, p. 19; Department 
of Geography, UHH 1998, pp. 7-10; Rowland and Garcia 2004, p. 1). Two 
mountain ranges resulted from these eruptions, the western Waianae 
range and eastern Koolau range. Oahu is characterized by the fact that 
the two mountain ranges are aligned perpendicular to the prevailing 
trade winds, so that distinctive leeward and windward climates result, 
with the Waianae range in the rain shadow of the Koolau range 
(Department of Geography, UHH 1998, pp. 7-10; Wagner et al. [adapted 
from Price (1983) and Carlquist (1980) 1999, p. 39). The maximum 
elevation on Oahu is 4,025 feet (ft) (1,225 meters (m)) at the summit 
of Mount Kaala in the Waianae Mountains, and this higher elevation area 
is not affected by the Koolau rain shadow (Blumenstock and Price 1972, 
p. 156; Wagner et al. [adapted from Price (1983) and Carlquist (1980) 
1999, pp. 39-41). The maximum elevation is relatively low compared to 
the higher Hawaiian Islands. Consequently, Oahu does not have dry 
alpine areas, as the mountains do not reach the height of the 
temperature inversion layer (Wagner et al. [adapted from Price (1983) 
and Carlquist (1980)] 1999, pp. 38, 40). Rainfall ranges from less than 
20 inches (in) (50 centimeters (cm)) to more than 250 in (635 cm) per 
year (Department of Geography, UHH 1998, p. 7). Temperatures in the 
Hawaiian Islands differ by an average of 41 degrees Fahrenheit ([deg]F) 
(22 degrees Celsius ([deg]C)) throughout the year. Since temperature 
decreases with increasing elevation, microclimates range from tropical 
to sub-arctic across the island chain (Wagner et al. [adapted from 
Price (1983) and Carlquist (1980)] 1999, pp. 37-38), although the sub-
arctic zone does not occur on Oahu.
    The current soil classification system for the Hawaiian Islands 
distinguishes soil types based on their measurable physical and 
chemical properties, and environmental factors that influenced their 
formation. Widely ranging geological ages of rocks, different rates of 
weathering, and microclimates create these highly variable soils 
(Sherman 1972, pp. 205-207). Most soils are volcanic in origin; a few 
formed from organic material and sand (Foote et al.

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1972, p. 1). On Oahu, sizable areas of highly weathered, red-colored 
oxisols (nutrient-poor soils, red or yellowish) occur on the Schofield 
Plateau; in contrast, the Koolau and Waianae mountain ranges have large 
areas of rocky, unweathered entisols (soils with few or no horizontal 
layers) due to erosion (Gavenda et al. 1998, p. 92).
    Because of its age and relative isolation, species diversity and 
endemism are high in the Hawaiian archipelago (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, 
p. 45). However, the flora and fauna of Oahu have undergone extreme 
alterations because of past and present land use and other activities. 
Land with rich soils was altered by the early Hawaiians and, more 
recently, converted to agricultural use (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45) 
or pasture. Intentional and inadvertent introduction of alien plant and 
animal species has contributed to the reduction in range of native 
species on the island (throughout this rule, the terms ``alien,'' 
``feral,'' ``nonnative,'' and ``introduced'' all refer to species that 
are not naturally native to the Hawaiian Islands). Most of the taxa 
included in this rule persist on steep slopes, precipitous cliffs, 
valley headwalls, and other regions where unsuitable topography has 
prevented urbanization and agricultural development, or where 
inaccessibility has limited encroachment by nonnative plant and animal 
species.

Oahu Ecosystems

    The seven Oahu ecosystems that support the species addressed in 
this rule are described in the following sections.
Coastal
    The coastal ecosystem is found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands, 
with the highest species diversity in the least populated coastal areas 
of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Kauai, and their 
associated islets. On Oahu, the coastal ecosystem includes mixed 
herblands, shrublands, and grasslands, from sea level to 980 ft (300 m) 
in elevation, generally within a narrow zone above the influence of 
waves to within 330 ft (100 m) inland, sometimes extending further 
inland if strong prevailing onshore winds drive sea spray and sand 
dunes into the lowland zone (The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 2006a). The 
coastal vegetation zone is typically dry, with annual rainfall of less 
than 20 in (50 cm), however windward rainfall may be high enough (up to 
40 in (100 cm)) to support mesic-associated and sometimes wet-
associated vegetation (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 54-66). Biological 
diversity is low to moderate in this ecosystem, but may include some 
specialized plants and animals such as nesting seabirds and the rare 
native plant Sesbania tomentosa (ohai) (TNC 2006a). The plant Bidens 
amplectens, which is listed as endangered in this final rule, is 
reported from this ecosystem on Oahu (Hawaii Biodiversity and Mapping 
Program (HBMP) 2008; TNC 2007).
Lowland Dry
    The lowland dry ecosystem includes shrublands and forests generally 
below 3,300 ft (1,000 m) elevation that receive less than 50 in (130 
cm) annual rainfall, or are in otherwise prevailingly dry substrate 
conditions. Areas consisting of predominantly native species in the 
lowland dry ecosystem are now rare; however, this ecosystem is found on 
the islands of Hawaii, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Kauai, and 
is best represented on the leeward sides of the islands (Gagne and 
Cuddihy 1999, p. 67). On Oahu, this ecosystem is typically found on the 
leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, and the leeward southern coast, 
including Diamond Head Crater (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 67; TNC 
2006b). Biological diversity is low to moderate in this ecosystem, and 
includes specialized animals and plants such as the Hawaiian owl or 
pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Santalum ellipticum (iliahialoe) 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,220-1,221; TNC 2006b). The plants Bidens 
amplectens, Doryopteris takeuchii, and Pleomele forbesii, which are 
listed as endangered in this final rule, are reported from this 
ecosystem on Oahu (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Lowland Mesic
    The lowland mesic ecosystem includes a variety of grasslands, 
shrublands, and forests, generally below 3,300 ft (1,000 m) elevation, 
that receive between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm) annual rainfall, or 
are in otherwise mesic substrate conditions (TNC 2006c). In the 
Hawaiian Islands, this ecosystem is found on Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, 
Lanai, and Kauai, on both windward and leeward sides of the islands. On 
Oahu, this ecosystem is typically found on the leeward slopes of both 
the Waianae and Koolau Mountains (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 75; TNC 
2006c). Biological diversity is high in this system (TNC 2006c). The 
plants Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, Melicope makahae, Platydesma 
cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and 
Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, which are 
listed as endangered in this final rule, are reported from this 
ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Lowland Wet
    The lowland wet ecosystem is generally found below 3,300 ft (1,000 
m) elevation on the windward sides of the main Hawaiian Islands, except 
Kahoolawe and Niihau (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 85; TNC 2006d). These 
areas include a variety of wet grasslands, shrublands, and forests that 
receive greater than 75 in (190 cm) annual precipitation, or are in 
otherwise wet substrate conditions (TNC 2006d). On Oahu, this system is 
best developed in wet valleys and slopes along the summit of the Koolau 
Mountains, with a small area located on the windward side of the summit 
of the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2006d). Biological diversity is high in 
this system (TNC 2006d). The plants Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. sessilis, C. 
waiolani, Melicope hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense, and the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
which are listed as endangered in this final rule, are reported from 
this ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Montane Wet
    The montane wet ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(grasslands, shrublands, forests, and bogs) found at elevations between 
3,300 and 6,600 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m), in areas where annual 
precipitation is greater than 75 in (190 cm) (TNC 2006e). This system 
is found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and 
Kahoolawe (only the islands of Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii have areas 
above 4,020 ft (1,225 m) (TNC 2006e). On Oahu, this ecosystem is found 
only at the summit of the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007). Biological 
diversity is moderate to high (TNC 2006e). Due to the restricted 
distribution of this ecosystem on Oahu, only the plants Cyanea calycina 
and Melicope christophersenii, which are listed as endangered in this 
final rule, are reported from this ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Dry Cliff
    The dry cliff ecosystem is composed of vegetation communities 
occupying steep slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas that receive 
less than 75 in (190 cm) of rainfall annually, or are in otherwise dry 
substrate conditions (TNC 2006f). This ecosystem is found on all

[[Page 57652]]

of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau, and on the island of Oahu 
is best represented along the leeward slopes of the Waianae Mountains 
(TNC 2006f). A variety of shrublands occur within this ecosystem (TNC 
2006f). Biological diversity is low to moderate (TNC 2006f). The plants 
Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa, which are 
listed as endangered in this final rule, are reported from this 
ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Wet Cliff
    The wet cliff ecosystem is generally composed of shrublands on 
near-vertical slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas that receive 
more than 75 in (190 cm) of annual precipitation, or in otherwise wet 
substrate conditions (TNC 2006g). This system is found on the islands 
of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai. On Oahu, this 
ecosystem is typically found along the entire length of the summit of 
the Koolau Mountains and at the summit of Mt. Kaala in the Waianae 
Mountains (TNC 2006g). Biological diversity is low to moderate (TNC 
2006g). The plants Cyanea calycina, C. purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, Melicope christophersenii, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and the crimson and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies, which are listed as endangered in this final 
rule, are reported from this ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).

Description of the 23 Species

    Below is a brief description of each of the 23 species, presented 
in alphabetical order by genus. Plants are presented first, followed by 
animals.

Plants

    Bidens amplectens (kookoolau), a perennial or sometimes annual herb 
in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is restricted to windward cliffs 
and crests along the northern portion of the Waianae Mountains on the 
island of Oahu, in the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems, at 
elevations between 300 and 1,400 ft (90 and 430 m) (Ganders and Nagata 
1999, p. 271; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). This species intergrades with B. 
torta and forms hybrid swarms from near Kaena Point along the Waianae 
summit ridges to the head of Makua Valley (a hybrid swarm occurs where 
there is no reproductive barrier between distinct populations, or where 
a barrier has broken down). Pure B. amplectens is restricted to the 
windward cliffs and crests of the Waianae range (Ganders and Nagata 
1999, p. 271). Bidens amplectens was historically known from five 
locations spanning 7 mi (11 km) in the northern Waianae Mountains 
including Makaleha Valley, Uluhulu Gulch, Puu Pueo to Alau Gulch, 
Manini Gulch to Alau Gulch, and Nihoa Gulch (HBMP 2008). At last 
observation, there were fewer than 1,000 individuals in four locations 
separated by less than 4 mi (6 km): Kealia Trail on the east side of 
Haili Gulch; Kapuna-Kamimi Ridge on the road to the Pahole Natural Area 
Reserve (NAR); Kealia east of Kawaiu Gulch; and from Kuaokala to 
Keawaula Ridge (Lau 2001, in litt.; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea calycina (haha), an unbranched shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is found in both the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, and 
wet cliff ecosystems (Lammers 1999, p. 483; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 
17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). In the Waianae Mountains, C. calycina occurs 
in Acacia-Metrosideros-Dicranopteris (koa-ohia-uluhe) forests at 
elevations between 1,800 and 3,920 ft (550 and 1,195 m), and in the 
Koolau Mountains this species occurs in wet Metrosideros-Dicranopteris 
forest and shrubland at elevations between 1,830 and 3,000 ft (558 and 
900 m) (HBMP 2008). Currently, C. calycina is found from Pahole in the 
northern portion of the Waianae Mountains south along the summit to 
Palawai, in 18 occurrences totaling at least 170 individuals (U.S. Army 
2006; HBMP 2008). In the Koolau Mountains, C. calycina was known 
historically from nine locations along the entire length of the range 
(HBMP 2008). Currently, 22 occurrences totaling between 155 and 169 
individuals are known, from the most northern point at Kamananui Gulch 
along the summit ridges south to Konahuanui (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 
2008). The combined 40 occurrences total 325 to 339 individuals.
    Cyanea lanceolata (haha) is an unbranched shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae) that occurs in the southeastern Koolau Mountains 
in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems, at elevations between 
1,000 and 2,500 ft (305 and 760 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 483; Wagner 
and Herbst 2003, p. 17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, this 
species was wide-ranging along the Koolau Mountains, from the northern 
Schofield-Waikane area to Wailupe at the southern end of the range, in 
at least 17 occurrences (HBMP 2008). Currently, there are 4 known 
occurrences, totaling fewer than 60 individuals, sparsely scattered 
over a much smaller area of the southern Koolau range. These 
occurrences include Kului-Hawaii Loa, Wailupe, Mauumae, and Waialae 
Nui, with an unconfirmed report of individuals in Pia Valley (HBMP 
2008; Lau 2008, in litt.).
    Cyanea purpurellifolia (haha) is an unbranched shrub in the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae) that occurs in the Koolau Mountains 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems, at elevations between 
1,860 and 2,160 ft (570 and 660 m) (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, 
this species was known from a few individuals in the vicinity of 
Kaluanui Valley and north to Maakua-Papali Ridge (Lammers 1999, p. 484; 
Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 17; HBMP 2008). Currently, C. 
purpurellifolia occurs in the northern Koolau Mountains from Maakua-
Kaipapau to Punaluu-Kaluanui Ridge, in 5 occurrences totaling 
approximately 20 individuals (Plant Extinction Prevention (PEP) Program 
2008, pp. 20-21; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra gracilis (haiwale) (Gesneriaceae, African violet family) 
is a perennial shrub that is found in Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis forest in the lowland wet ecosystem at 1,600 ft 
(488 m) in elevation, on the leeward side of the southern Koolau 
Mountains (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 755; National Tropical Botanical 
Garden (NTBG) Provenance Report 2004; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEP Program 
2008, p. 16). Presumed extinct since the 1800s, 10 individuals of C. 
gracilis were discovered by botanists in Pia Valley in 2001 (NTBG 
Provenance Report 2002). Between 2001 and 2008, only six to eight 
plants were observed at this location (NTBG Provenance Report 2002; PEP 
Program 2008, p. 16; Bakutis 2008, in litt.). It is apparently 
extirpated from historical locations in Palolo Valley, Konahuanui 
Gulch, and Manoa Valley (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 755; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra kaulantha (haiwale) is a perennial shrub in the African 
violet family (Gesneriaceae) found in dense shade in moist wooded 
gulches at elevations between 840 and 1,050 ft (255 and 320 m), in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 763; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Cyrtandra kaulantha was 
historically known from the Waiahole Ditch Trail and Kahanaiki Stream 
areas. It was considered ``locally common'' and a collection was taken 
from a ``large colony'' in 1985 (Takeuchi 1985, in litt.; Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 763; Lau 2006a, in litt.). Prior to October 2005, there were 
34 wild individuals in 3 occurrences (15, 8, and 11 individuals, 
respectively) in the subgulches of

[[Page 57653]]

Waianu Valley (Bakutis 2005a, in litt.). In 2005, the third occurrence 
was discovered crushed by a tree, leaving six living individuals 
(Bakutis 2005a, in litt.). In March 2006, it was reported that only one 
individual remained at the second occurrence, and that some individuals 
in the other two occurrences had fruit (Bakutis 2006a, in litt.). In 
addition, 4 more individuals were discovered at the site of the first 
occurrence, bringing the total number of wild individuals to 26 
(Bakutis 2006b, in litt.). In May 2006, another tree fall crushed 4 
individuals in the third occurrence, leaving 2 remaining; however, a 
fourth occurrence of 4 individuals was discovered in another subgulch, 
and 1 new individual was found in the first occurrence, bringing the 
total number of wild individuals to 27 (Bakutis 2006a, in litt.; 
Bakutis 2006b, in litt.). All occurrences were visited again in April 
2007, with a total of 28 wild individuals observed (PEP Program 2007, 
p. 17). Outplanting has been conducted in the four subgulches of Waianu 
Valley, but in areas some distance from the known occurrences. A total 
of 28 individuals were outplanted between 2005 and 2007. However, due 
to predation by nonnative slugs, only 12 outplanted individuals 
remained in 2007 (PEP Program 2007, p. 17). Cyrtandra kaulantha is 
therefore currently found in 5 occurrences totaling 28 wild and 12 
outplanted individuals.
    Cyrtandra sessilis (haiwale) (Gesneriaceae, African violet family) 
is a small shrub that was historically known only from a few 
collections in wet gulch bottoms and slopes of mesic valleys in the 
windward Koolau Mountains (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 778). Typical habitat 
is wet Metrosideros forests at elevations between 1,600 and 2,200 ft 
(490 and 670 m) in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; Bakutis 2008, in litt.). In 1993, there were about 200 
individuals in the only known occurrence near the summit of the 
Schofield-Waikane Trail (HBMP 2008). In 2003, there were an estimated 
50 individuals in 2 occurrences (Perlman 2003, in litt.). Cyrtandra 
sessilis is currently known from 4 occurrences totaling approximately 
83 individuals: 75 individuals along the Waikane-Schofield Trail in 
Kahana Valley, 1 individual at Lulumahu Gulch, 2 individuals in 
Wailupe, and 5 individuals at Hawaii Loa Ridge near Pia Valley (Perlman 
2003, in litt.; Bakutis 2006c, in litt.; HBMP 2008; Bakutis 2008, in 
litt.).
    Cyrtandra waiolani (haiwale), a small shrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae), is found in rich, partly sunny gulches; shady, 
moist banks above creeks; and wet gulch bottoms in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 781; HBMP 2008; Lau 2011, in litt.). 
Cyrtandra waiolani was historically known from at least seven 
locations: five in the southern Koolau Mountains and two in the 
northern Koolau Mountains, at elevations between 800 and 3,000 ft (240 
and 900 m) (HBMP 2008). Plants have not been observed in these areas 
since then. Individuals likely representing C. waiolani, based on 
vegetative characteristics, were seen in 1994, along the ridge between 
Kaipapau and Maakua (Lau 2011, in litt.). In 2005, it was thought there 
was a small chance that individuals found on the Kualono Ridge near 
Kaaawa could be C. waiolani, and cuttings were taken for propagation 
and positive identification when flowering and fruiting occurred 
(Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources (HDLNR) 2005a; U.S. 
Army 2006; Bakutis 2008, in litt.; Ching 2009, in litt.; Lau 2009, in 
litt.); however, these plants were found not to be C. waiolani (Lau 
2011, in litt.). Many areas within the lowland wet ecosystem in the 
Koolau Mountains have not been surveyed for this species. The Koolau 
mountain range is over 35 mi (58 km) in length. Historical surveys that 
we have records of from the 1800s did not cover the entire mountain 
range, but collections were made at seven widely distributed locations 
along the 35-mi (58-km) range. In the 1800s, forests in the Koolau 
Mountains were more intact at the summits; therefore, we believe that 
if seven collections were made, there were possibly many more 
individuals in the wild. The plants were only known from a ridge 
between Kaipapau and Maakau in 1994, and from Kahana in 2005, but those 
plants are no longer present, which represents a population decline 
from seven (and possibly more than seven historically) to zero. 
Botanists suggest that the species is likely still extant in these 
areas and may be found with more intensive surveying (Bakutis 2008, in 
litt; Lau 2009 and 2011, in litt.).
    Doryopteris takeuchii (no common name (NCN)) is a fern in the 
Pteridaceae family (Palmer 2003, p. 133). It occurs in dry shrubland on 
the slopes of Diamond Head Crater, a volcanic tuff cone on the southern 
coast of Oahu, at elevations between 140 and 300 ft (43 and 91 m) (NTBG 
2007a, p. 1). This area consists of pockets of native and nonnative 
species in the lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007). Little is known of the 
historical distribution of D. takeuchii. Currently, there are 50 to 100 
plants along the main trail to the summit, with individuals on the 
Kuilei cliffs and the southwest-facing gulches above Munro Trail on the 
outer slopes of the crater, totaling 160 to 200 individuals on Diamond 
Head (NTBG 2007, p. 1; Lau 2011, in litt.).
    Korthalsella degeneri (hulumoa), a subshrub (a perennial with stems 
that are woody at the base) in the mistletoe family (Viscaceae), is 
parasitic on the native trees Sapindus oahuensis (kaulu) and Nestegis 
sandwicensis (olopua) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,339). This species 
occurs in diverse forest in the dry cliff ecosystem at elevations 
between 1,100 and 1,500 ft (335 and 460 m) in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). In 1938, K. degeneri was 
recorded from Makua Valley, but little else is known of its historical 
range (HBMP 2008). Currently, K. degeneri is known from Makaha Valley. 
In addition, individuals of this species may also occur in Makua Valley 
and at Kahanahaiki. Confirmation of the identification of these 
individuals is difficult because another related species, Korthalsella 
platycaula, is also found in Makua Valley (Lau 2001b and 2011, in 
litt.; U.S. Army 2006).
    Melicope christophersenii (alani), a shrub or tree in the rue 
family (Rutaceae), occurs in wet forest and shrubland in the montane 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems at elevations between 2,400 and 4,000 ft 
(730 and 1,200 m) in the Waianae Mountains (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 
1,184-1,185; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, M. 
christophersenii was known from a few scattered locations in the Mt. 
Kaala area of the Waianae Mountains, and as far south as Puu Kaua (HBMP 
2008). Currently, there are 3 occurrences totaling approximately 250 
individuals in the Waianae summit area, with the southernmost 
occurrence at Puu Hapapa (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope hiiakae (alani) is a small tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae) that occurs in wet forest in the lowland wet ecosystem in 
the Koolau Mountains, between elevations of 1,300 and 2,260 ft (400 and 
700 m) (U.S. Army 2006; NTBG 2007, p. 3; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, M. hiiakae was found along the entire length of the 
Koolau range (HBMP 2008). Currently, there are 10 scattered occurrences 
totaling fewer than 60 individuals from Kawailoa to Waimalu (NTBG 2007, 
p. 3; HBMP 2008; Lau 2011, in litt.).
    Melicope makahae (alani), a shrubby tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), occurs in mesic forest and shrubland in the lowland mesic 
and dry cliff ecosystems

[[Page 57654]]

in the Waianae Mountains, at elevations between 2,200 and 2,900 ft (670 
and 890 m) (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1,194; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008; Lau 2011, in litt.). Historically, M. makahae was found in the 
Waianae Mountains on the west side of Mt. Kaala in Makaha Valley (Stone 
1963, p. 410; TNC 2007). Currently, there are 4 occurrences totaling 
fewer than 200 individuals north and west of the summit area of the 
Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008).
    Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta (NCN) is a palmoid (leaves dividing 
or radiating from one point) shrub in the rue family (Rutaceae) (Stone 
et al. 1999, pp. 1,209-1,210). It occurs in wet forest, shrubland, and 
gulches in the lowland wet ecosystem of the Koolau Mountains, at 
elevations between 1,900 and 2,500 ft (580 and 760 m) (U.S. Army 2006; 
TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, this species was found along the 
entire length of the Koolau range, and at elevations below 800 ft, from 
Pupukea to Wailupe Valley (HBMP 2008). Currently, 9 occurrences 
(totaling 32 individuals) are restricted to the summit area of the 
northern Koolau Mountains, with only 1 occurrence (16 individuals) near 
the summit of the southern Koolau Mountains (HBMP 2008).
    Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens (NCN), a palmoid shrub in the rue 
family (Rutaceae), occurs in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems 
of the Waianae Mountains, at elevations between 1,990 and 3,000 ft (600 
and 900 m) (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,209-1,210; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, this species was wide-ranging in the 
Waianae Mountains, from the Mokuleia Forest Reserve south to Kaluaa 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Currently, P. cornuta var. decurrens is found in 
15 occurrences scattered from Pahole to Palawai Gulch, totaling 259 to 
309 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008).
    Pleomele forbesii (hala pepe) is a tree in the asparagus 
(Asparagaceae) family (Smithsonian Department of Botany 2008). It 
occurs in mesic and dry forest and shrubland in the lowland dry, 
lowland mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains, at elevations between 800 and 2,900 ft (240 and 900 m) 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,352; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, P. 
forbesii was found in at least 11 locations, totaling an unknown number 
of individuals, in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008). Currently, there 
are approximately 19 occurrences totaling 290 to 307 individuals, from 
Keawaula, Kaluakauila, Kuaokala, Kahanahaiki, the east and south rim of 
Makua Valley, the rim of Waianae Kai Valley, Keaau, Makaha, Kamaileunu, 
Kolekole Pass, Puu Hapapa, Puukaua, Ekahanui, Halona, Palawai, and 
Nanakuli, in the Waianae Mountains, and one occurrence of a few 
individuals in the Koolau Mountains (Lau 2011, in litt.; HBMP 2008).
    Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis (kopiko), a tree in the coffee 
family (Rubiaceae), occurs in wet forest and shrubland in the lowland 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems of the Koolau Mountains, at elevations 
between 1,080 and 2,000 ft (330 and 600 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,166; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Two varieties of this subspecies, var. 
hosakana and var. oahuensis, were historically known only from the 
northern Koolau Mountains, while var. rockii was known only from the 
southern Koolau Mountains (Lau 2011, in litt.). This species is 
currently known from three occurrences: one occurrence of 8 to 9 
individuals in Maakua Gulch; one individual at Opaeula Gulch; and an 
estimated fewer than 10 individuals scattered between Kaipapau and 
Kaluanui, just south of Maakua Gulch (Bakutis 2005, in litt.; U.S. Army 
2006; PEP Program 2007, p. 25; HBMP 2008). A single individual was 
outplanted within a fenced area in Makaua Valley (February 2007) and 
has been observed to be healthy in subsequent monitoring visits (PEP 
Program 2007, p. 25).
    Pteralyxia macrocarpa (kaulu) is a tree in the dogbane family 
(Apocynaceae). It occurs in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains, in the 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems, at 
elevations between 1,100 and 2,800 ft (340 and 850 m) (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 220; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, this 
species was found along the entire length of the Koolau range and on 
the summit ridges of the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008). Currently, P. 
macrocarpa is found from Kapuhi Gulch to North Palawai Gulch in the 
Waianae Mountains, in approximately 31 occurrences totaling between 233 
and 289 individuals. In the Koolau Mountains, 7 occurrences totaling 47 
individuals occur in the most northern portion of this range, while 
only 11 individuals in 2 occurrences are found in the southernmost 
portion of the range (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008).
    Tetraplasandra lydgatei (NCN), a tree in the ginseng family 
(Araliaceae), is found in mesic forest in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
at elevations between 800 and 1,600 ft (240 and 490 m) in the Koolau 
Mountains (Motley 2005, p. 107; TNC 2007). In 2005, Motley formally 
recognized T. lydgatei as distinct from T. oahuensis (Motley 2005; p. 
105), and all known populations were surveyed at that time (PEP Program 
2007, pp. 27-28). Formerly found from Niu Valley to the Halawa Ridge 
Trail, its distribution is now limited to two wild occurrences: one on 
the eastern slope of Hawaii Loa Ridge and another on Kulepeamoa Ridge. 
These occurrences total 8 individuals (HBMP 2008).
    Zanthoxylum oahuense (ae), a small tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), occurs in wet forest in the lowland wet ecosystem at 
elevations between 2,060 and 2,720 ft (630 and 830 m) (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1,216; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). This species was historically 
known from 17 locations scattered along the entire length of the Koolau 
Mountains (HBMP 2008). Currently, Z. oahuense is found in the Koolau 
Mountains from Halawa-Kalauao ridge to ridges in Moanalua-Kamananui-
Manaiki, and further east at Hawaiiloa Ridge, in 5 occurrences totaling 
21 to 25 individuals (U.S Army 2006; HBMP 2008; Lau 2011, in litt.).

Animals

    The crimson Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas) is a 
medium-sized, slender and delicate species, with adults measuring from 
1.4 to 1.6 in (36 to 41 mm) in length and having a wingspan of 1.5 to 
1.6 in (39 to 42 mm). The species exhibits minimal striping and 
patterns. Males are primarily red and black in color, with females 
appearing somewhat paler and with green coloration present on the 
abdomen laterally (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 65).
    The crimson Hawaiian damselfly breeds in the slow reaches of 
streams and seep-fed pools (Williams 1936, p. 306; Zimmerman 1948a, p. 
369; Polhemus 1994a, p. 7; Polhemus 1994b, p. 37). Crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly naiads, the aquatic life-history stage, frequent open water, 
resting horizontally, or on submerged vegetation (Williams 1936, p. 
309). Adults perch on streamside vegetation and patrol along the stream 
corridor, staying close to breeding pools (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, 
p. 65).
    Between 1991 and 2003, over 150 sites were surveyed on the island 
of Oahu for native damselflies, and results indicate that one lowland 
species, the Pacific Hawaiian damselfly, has been extirpated from Oahu, 
and the orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly has been reduced to a single 
remnant population (Polhemus 2007, pp. 233-235). The crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly was known historically from approximately eight areas where 
it is now extirpated, including the windward side of the Waianae 
Mountains and scattered locations in the Koolau

[[Page 57655]]

Mountains (Polhemus 1994a, p. 7; Polhemus 1994b, pp. 37-38; Englund 
1999, pp. 228-229, 231; Polhemus 2007, pp. 234, 238). In 2003, this 
species was not found during surveys of Kahana Stream and may be 
extirpated from this stream system (Englund et al. 2003, p. 6). 
Currently, only three occurrences of the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are 
known, all from the Koolau Mountains in the lowland wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems at Moanalua, north Halawa, and Maakua (TNC 2007; Polhemus 
2008a, in litt.; HBMP 2008; Preston 2011, in litt.). This species was 
last observed in the lowland wet ecosystem at Waiawa in the late 1990s 
(Englund 1999, p. 229). All colonies of this damselfly are constrained 
to portions of streams not occupied by nonnative predatory fish--that 
is, stream portions above geologic or manmade barriers (e.g., 
waterfalls, steep gradients, dry stream midreaches, or constructed 
diversions). No estimates of population size for the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly are available.
    The blackline Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum) is a moderately-sized and delicate subspecies (Polhemus 
and Asquith 1996, p. 73). It occurs in the slow sections or pools along 
mid-reach and headwater sections of perennial upland streams and in 
seep-fed pools along overflow channels bordering such streams. The 
adults measure from 1.4 to 1.8 in (35 to 45 mm) in length and have a 
wingspan of 1.7 to 1.9 in (45 to 50 mm). Naiads remain concealed and 
are found under stones or in mats of algae (Williams 1936, p. 318; 
Zimmerman 1948a, pp. 371-372).
    The blackline Hawaiian damselfly was known historically from the 
Koolau and Waianae Mountains, from sea level to over 2,400 ft (730 m) 
(Williams 1936, p. 318; Polhemus 1994a, pp. 6-12). Currently, this 
species is found in the lowland wet ecosystem on the windward and 
leeward sides of the Koolau Mountains, in the headwaters and upper 
reaches of 17 streams: Koloa, Kaipapau, Maakua, upper Kaluanui, Palaa, 
Helemano headwaters, Poamoho, Kahana, Waiahole, Waiawa, Kaalaea, 
Waihee, Kahaluu, north Halawa, Heeia, Kalihi, and Maunawili (TNC 2007; 
Polhemus 2008a, in litt.; Wolff 2008, in litt.; HBMP 2008; Preston 
2011, in litt.). Like the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, all colonies of 
the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are constrained to portions of streams 
not occupied by nonnative predatory fish--that is, stream portions 
above geologic or manmade barriers (e.g., waterfalls, steep gradients, 
dry stream midreaches, or constructed diversions). Currently, the 17 
stream colonies are estimated to total 800 to 1,000 individuals, with 
approximately 50 individuals per stream (Polhemus 2008c, in litt.).
    The oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum) is a 
comparatively large and robust species. The adults measure from 1.8 to 
1.9 in (47 to 50 mm) in length and have a wingspan of 2.0 to 2.2 in (51 
to 55 mm). Both sexes exhibit prominent patterns including black 
stripes, but males are bright red in color while females are pale 
green. Immature individuals of this species are also large with long 
grasping legs and dagger-like gills (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 77). 
The oceanic Hawaiian damselfly can be distinguished from other Oahu 
damselfly species by its large size, black stripes, and fast flight 
along flowing sections of streams.
    Individuals of the immature stage of the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly 
are found in swiftly flowing sections of streams, usually amid rocks 
and gravel in stream riffles (stream sections with sufficient gradient 
to create small standing waves) and small cascades on waterfalls 
(Williams 1936, pp. 321-322; Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 106). While 
capable of swimming, the naiads usually crawl among gravel or submerged 
vegetation. Older naiads frequently forage out of the actual stream 
channel and have been observed among wet moss on rocks, and wet rock 
walls and seeps (Williams 1936, pp. 321-323). Adults are very bold and 
strong flyers, and when disturbed frequently fly upward into the forest 
canopy overhanging the stream or waterfall (Williams 1936, p. 323; 
Polhemus 1994b, p. 48).
    Historically, the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly occurred on both the 
leeward and windward sides of the Koolau and Waianae Mountains, and was 
known, but is currently extirpated, from approximately 16 general 
localities, including the Waianae Mountains and all leeward streams of 
the Koolau Mountains (Englund and Polhemus 1994, p. 8). The species now 
currently occupies 12 sites above 300 ft (100 m) in elevation on the 
windward side of the Koolau Mountains at Kahawainui, Wailele, Koloa, 
Kaipapau, Maakua, upper Kaluanui, Kawaiiki, Opaeula, upper Helemano, 
Makaua, Waihee, and Kahaluu, in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet 
cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; Polhemus 2007, pp. 237-239; HBMP 2008; 
Preston 2011, in litt.). Like the crimson and blackline Hawaiian 
damselflies, the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly is constrained to portions 
of streams not occupied by nonnative predatory fish--that is, stream 
portions above geologic or manmade barriers (e.g., waterfalls, steep 
gradients, dry stream midreaches, or constructed diversions). No 
estimates of population size for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly are 
available.

Summary of Comments and Recommendations

    On August 2, 2011, we published a proposed rule to list these 23 
Oahu species as endangered throughout their ranges, and to designate 
critical habitat for 124 species (76 FR 46362). The comment period for 
the proposal opened on August 2, 2011, and closed on October 3, 2011. 
We requested that all interested parties submit comments or information 
concerning the proposed listing and designation of critical habitat for 
the 124 species. We contacted all appropriate State and Federal 
agencies, county governments, elected officials, scientific 
organizations, and other interested parties and invited them to 
comment. In addition, we published a public notice of the proposed rule 
on August 6, 2011, in the local Honolulu Star Advertiser newspaper, at 
the beginning of the comment period. On April 12, 2012, we published a 
document (77 FR 21936) announcing the availability of our draft 
economic analysis, requesting comments on it until May 14, 2012, and 
reopening the comment period on the August 2, 2011, proposed rule (76 
FR 46362) until that time as well.
    During the comment periods, we received a total of 55 comment 
letters. We did not receive any requests for public hearings. Four 
commenters were peer reviewers, 5 were State of Hawaii agencies, 1 was 
a Federal agency (U.S. Navy), and 45 were nongovernmental organizations 
or individuals. Due to the nature of the proposed rule, we received 
combined comments from the public on both the listing action and the 
critical habitat; we have therefore addressed these issues in a single 
comment section.
    Four of the comment letters supported the listing and designation 
of critical habitat for the Oahu species. Thirty-one commenters 
requested that we exclude 695 ac (281 ha) (representing entire or 
portions of five different critical habitat units), based on possible 
economic effects of the designation. We reviewed all comments we 
received for substantive issues and new data regarding the proposed 
listing of 23 species and designation of critical habitat for 124 
species. We have fully considered all substantive comments in this 
final rule. Written comments we received during the comment periods are 
addressed in the following

[[Page 57656]]

summary. For readers' convenience, we have combined similar comments 
into single comments and responses.

Peer Review

    In accordance with our peer review policy published in the Federal 
Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we solicited expert opinions 
from 13 knowledgeable individuals with scientific expertise on the Oahu 
plants and damselflies and their habitats, including familiarity with 
the species, the geographic region in which these species occur, and 
conservation biology principles. We received responses from four of the 
peer reviewers who were solicited. These four peer reviewers generally 
supported our methodology and conclusions. One reviewer supported the 
listing and critical habitat for the Oahu species, one reviewer 
supported protection of the stream habitat essential to the Hawaiian 
damselflies, and all four reviewers provided new information on one or 
more of the Oahu species, which was incorporated into this final rule. 
We reviewed all comments received from the peer reviewers for 
substantive issues and new information regarding the listing of 23 
species and designation of critical habitat for 124 species. Peer 
reviewer comments are addressed in the following summary and 
incorporated into the final rule as appropriate.
Peer Reviewer Comments
    (1) Comment: One peer reviewer suggested that we use the more 
current and accepted terms ``ferns and lycophytes'' instead of ``ferns 
and allies'' in the published rule.
    Our Response: We agree that ``ferns and lycophytes'' is the 
currently accepted terminology; however, changing the term ``ferns and 
allies'' to ``ferns and lycophytes'' at 50 CFR 17.12 and at 50 CFR 
17.99(j) would require a separate rulemaking to amend the Code of 
Federal Regulations (CFR), not only for the Hawaiian species listings, 
but for all previously listed species nationwide. This rulemaking would 
also require an opportunity for public review and comment, which we are 
unable to accommodate in this final rule.
    (2) Comment: One peer reviewer disagreed with our statement that 
``many native Hawaiian plants and animals currently occupy only areas 
of marginal habitat because the threats are reduced in those areas,'' 
and suggested that the areas where the species currently occur 
constitute their prime habitat, not marginal habitat.
    Our Response: Prime habitat and marginal habitat are not terms used 
in the Act. However, we agree that some native Hawaiian plants and 
animals thrive in areas that are ``marginal'' (i.e., not dominated by 
other native species) and have modified our statement in this final 
rule. The areas designated as critical habitat in this final rule 
include both occupied and unoccupied habitat.
    (3) Comment: One peer reviewer expressed concern regarding the 
potential threat to the three proposed Hawaiian damselflies from the 
use of biopesticides (pesticides derived from natural materials such as 
animals, plants, bacteria, and minerals) to combat, for example, 
mosquitoes.
    Our Response: We do not have sufficient data to evaluate the 
effects that biopesticides, in particular, Bacillus thuringiensis 
israelensis (Bti), may have on Hawaiian damselflies. Therefore, Bti is 
not considered a current threat to the three proposed Hawaiian 
damselflies because the specific impacts to these damselflies are 
unknown at this time.
    (4) Comment: Two peer reviewers provided information from their 
recent surveys for species of Megalagrion and stated that survey 
results demonstrated that only streams without nonnative fish provide 
habitat for native damselflies, and that these streams are crucial for 
the continued survival of Megalagrion. The commenters also stated that, 
in addition to predation by nonnative fish, siltation of stream gravel 
beds and other stream modifications resulting from erosion of nearby 
riparian habitat caused by the actions of feral ungulates is a 
significant threat to Megalagrion species. The commenters recommended 
that the Service should try to protect the remaining stream habitat 
that is free of nonnative fish, eliminate nonnative fish in the streams 
in which they occur, and restore streams and surrounding habitat to 
provide suitable habitat for Hawaii's Megalagrion and other native 
aquatic species. They also stated that the positive impacts from the 
removal of nonnative fish and ungulates in aquatic and surrounding 
habitat will improve overall environmental conditions, that native 
Hawaiian damselfly larvae may effectively control mosquitoes in place 
of nonnative fish, and that removal of ungulates in stream areas may 
reduce the incidence of leptospirosis in Hawaii, which has the largest 
number of reported cases of this human-health hazard in the United 
States.
    Our Response: We agree that habitat degradation and destruction by 
feral ungulates and predation of Megalagrion spp. by nonnative fish are 
significant threats to the three species of damselflies in this rule 
(see Factor A and Factor C, below). Listing these species as endangered 
and designating their critical habitat will provide conservation 
benefits including: Protection from being jeopardized by Federal 
activities; protections against the adverse modification of critical 
habitat; restrictions on take and trafficking; a requirement that the 
Service develop and implement recovery plans; authorization to seek 
land purchases or exchanges for important habitat; and Federal aid to 
State conservation departments and cooperative endangered species 
agreements. Listing also lends greater recognition to a species' 
precarious status, encouraging conservation effort by other agencies, 
independent organizations, and concerned individuals.
    The Service has identified high-quality stream habitat in the State 
of Hawaii and participates in several programs that provide for stream 
habitat restoration. One of these programs is the Hawaii Fish Habitat 
Partnership, whose members developed a strategic plan for 
implementation of stream restoration projects. Also, funding for 
implementation of stream restoration activities is available through 
the National Fish Habitat Action Plan (which includes Federal, State, 
and private partners), and through the National Fish Passage Program 
(Service), which will allow for migration of native fish and 
invertebrates (while excluding nonnative fish) into essential headwater 
stream reaches. Currently, there are two stream restoration projects 
funded by these programs on the windward side of Oahu. In 2009, funding 
was provided to restore native habitat in Waihee Stream and provide a 
barrier to prevent nonnative fish passage into the upper reaches of the 
stream where the blackline Hawaiian damselfly occurs. In 2010 and 2011, 
funds were provided to initiate restoration of habitat for native fish 
and the blackline Hawaiian damselfly at the lower elevations of Heeia 
Stream. Additional funding will be pursued to restore the habitat 
further upstream and to construct a barrier to prevent nonnative fish 
passage into the upper elevation watershed.
Comments From the State of Hawaii
    (5) Comment: The Department of Business, Economic Development & 
Tourism (DBEDT), Office of Planning commented that the proposed rule 
for the Oahu species is subject to Hawaii Coastal Zone Management (CZM) 
Program Federal consistency review, pursuant to section 307(c) of the 
Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) and 15 CFR part 
930, subpart C. In their letter, DBEDT stated that Federal consistency 
review is required

[[Page 57657]]

because the Federal agency activity will occur within the Hawaii CZM 
area, which includes all lands of the State (Hawaii Revised Statutes 
Chapter 205A), and will affect coastal uses and resources (i.e., any 
land or water use or natural resource of the coastal zone (15 CFR 
930.11(b))). In addition, DBEDT cited Palila v. Hawaii Department of 
Land and Natural Resources [DLNR], 471 F. Supp. 985 (Haw. 1979), as a 
case where no Federal lands or Federal funds were involved yet Hawaii 
DLNR was held liable for its non-Federal actions within palila critical 
habitat.
    Our Response: The Palila case was based on section 9 of the Act, 
which makes it a crime for anyone to ``take'' (defined as harass, harm, 
pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, collect, or attempt 
any of these actions) an endangered species. This provision of the Act 
can be asserted by private citizens or by the Federal Government. In 
the palila lawsuit, private nonprofit organizations claimed that DLNR 
was taking the Palila by maintaining populations of feral sheep and 
goats in the bird's habitat. The fact that the bird's habitat was 
designated critical habitat had no legal relevance to this allegation; 
the designation played only an informational role in identifying 
habitat important to the species. There is no regulatory connection 
between the Act's section 9 prohibition against ``take'' of a listed 
species and the designation of critical habitat.
    The designation of critical habitat does not physically alter any 
coastal resources or uses, initiate any activity or a series of 
activities with effects on coastal resources or uses, or direct future 
agency actions that affect or alter coastal resources or uses. The 
designation of critical habitat simply requires a Federal agency 
proposing an activity that may itself affect the coastal zone to 
consult with the Service under section 7(a)(2) of the Act to ensure 
that the activity does not destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat. It is the Federal agency activity that results in reasonably 
foreseeable effects on coastal resources or coastal uses that is 
subject to the consistency requirement of the Coastal Zone Management 
Act (CZMA). It is also the responsibility of the Federal agency 
proposing the activity to ensure the agency complies with the CZMA. The 
designation of critical habitat does not affect coastal resources or 
uses in this manner, nor does critical habitat designation affect the 
coastal zone in other ways. Thus, the designation of critical habitat 
is not a ``Federal agency activity'' under the CZMA definition, and a 
consistency determination is not necessary for the designation of 
critical habitat on Oahu.
    (6) Comment: The Department of Hawaiian Homelands (DHHL) expressed 
concerns over the designation of critical habitat on their lands. DHHL 
requested that we remove Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, which overlays 
lands on which they were developing two on-grid 5 megawatt (MW) solar 
power generating facilities (DHHL 2011, in litt.). In addition, they 
requested that we remove any pasture lands from Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 
and any DHHL lands that overlay Oahu--Lowland Wet--Units 9 and 13, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 from the final designation, to ensure there are 
no limitations on their authority over the use and development of their 
landholdings.
    Our Response: We carefully reviewed the areas proposed as critical 
habitat that overlap lands owned by DHHL. We determined that proposed 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 (43 ac; 17 ha) is essential for the 
conservation and recovery of 17 plant species that require the physical 
and biological features of the lowland dry ecosystem. This unit also 
provides the species-specific primary constituent element of coral 
outcrop substrate required for the endangered plant Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (Ewa Plains akoko), which was present in 
the area in 1998, and is endemic only to the Kalaeloa area. The revised 
recovery strategy for akoko (``Recovery Needs and Strategy for 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (Ewa Plains akoko)'') 
(Service 2012, entire) describes the need for several discrete 
populations distributed across the landscape, in order to recover this 
species. For C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, a plant requiring 
another individual for pollination (obligate-outcrosser) and living 10 
years or less (short-lived perennial), we need to establish and 
maintain 7 to 8 populations across the 4 units proposed in the lowland 
dry habitat in Kalaeloa (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Units 8-11), although there 
may be some flexibility within each unit regarding the precise location 
and management of each population within the unit (HPPRCC 2011; 
Guerrant et al. 2004, pp. 419-441; Neel and Cummings 2003).
    We are aware of the planned development of the Kalaeloa Solar One 
and Two alternative energy facilities (DHHL 2011, in litt.) on lands 
within, and adjacent to, this unit. The facilities, which are 
independently owned and operated, are being developed for the purpose 
of reducing Oahu's dependence on fossil-fuel for power generation. The 
January 2011 Draft Environmental Assessment prepared for this project 
states that no Federal funding or Federal authorizations will be 
required to develop this facility. We are also unaware of any Federal 
nexus for this project. Accordingly, since a critical habitat 
designation only triggers a consultation under section 7(a)(2) of the 
Act for activities that have a Federal nexus, the designation of this 
unit as critical habitat is not anticipated to have an impact on this 
project as proposed.
    Another 52 ac (21 ha) of proposed Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 overlap 
DHHL lands in the Waianae Mountains; however, this area is situated on 
a steep cliff (greater than 65 degree slope), and does not include any 
pastureland. Accordingly, the critical habitat designation is not 
expected to affect any pasture operations. This portion of Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8 is essential to the conservation and recovery of 45 plant 
species that require the physical and biological features of the dry 
cliff ecosystem. Based upon landownership information from the State's 
GIS database, we determined that proposed Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 do not overlap any DHHL lands. We removed 86 ac 
(35 ha) from proposed Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13 (which corresponds to 
the critical habitat units Megalagrion leptodemas Unit 8--Lowland Wet; 
M. nigrohamatum nigrolineatum Unit 8--Lowland Wet, and M. oceanicum 
Unit 9--Lowland Wet), portions of which overlap DHHL lands. We 
determined these unoccupied lands, which are too degraded or modified 
by buildings and roads to support the species, are not essential for 
the conservation and recovery of the 45 species for which they were 
proposed as critical habitat. The designation of critical habitat does 
not affect activities on State or private lands absent a Federal nexus 
(a program or project authorized, funded, or carried out by a Federal 
agency), even if such lands are within the geographical boundaries of 
the critical habitat.
    (7) Comment: The Hawaii Department of Transportation (HDOT) opposed 
the designation of critical habitat on lands surrounding the Kalaeloa 
Barber's Point Harbor, specifically in proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
8. The HDOT believes the critical habitat designation will result in a 
significant delay in implementing the expansion of Kalaeloa Barber's 
Point Harbor, which would be detrimental to the State and local 
economy. The HDOT Harbors Division is planning to expand the harbor, 
which would include purchasing 54 ac (22 ha) within the proposed Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 8 area. The HDOT is concerned that designating the 
54-ac

[[Page 57658]]

(22-ha) area will impact planning efforts that have been underway for 
decades, within one of Oahu's and the State of Hawaii's most important 
industrial areas.
    Our Response: When proposed, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 was 
comprised of 292 ac (118 ha). Information gained from site visits and 
from comments we received during the public comment period (76 FR 
46362, August 2, 2011; 77 FR 21936, April 12, 2012) confirmed that 193 
ac (78 ha) of this unit are not essential to the conservation of the 
species because they are too degraded to support the species or be 
functionally restored to support the essential features and habitat for 
which this area was proposed as critical habitat (see ``Summary of 
Changes from Proposed Rule,'' below). The 54-ac (22-ha) area to be 
purchased by HDOT is no longer within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8.
    (8) Comment: In a separate letter, the HDOT requested clarification 
regarding the impact of listing the 23 species on State and federally 
funded highway projects currently undergoing environmental review, 
existing HDOT roadways, and mitigation requirements for future HDOT 
projects in or near designated critical habitat.
    Our Response: The listing of the 23 Oahu species and designation of 
critical habitat would not impact existing HDOT roadways, unless a 
proposed or ongoing federal action (i.e., a federally funded highway 
modification) may affect one or more of the 124 Oahu species or 
designated critical habitat. If an existing or ongoing Federal, 
federally authorized, or federally funded project is likely to 
adversely affect one or more of these species or critical habitat, ESA 
section 7 consultation would be required so the Federal agency can 
ensure the proposed action(s) are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of the species, or result in the destruction or 
adverse modification of designated critical habitat. This would also 
apply to future HDOT project(s) with a Federal nexus. If such projects 
would likely result in jeopardy to the listed species or the adverse 
modification of critical habitat, the Service would identify reasonable 
and prudent alternatives to minimize such impact. Reasonable and 
prudent alternatives are alternative actions identified during formal 
section 7 consultation that can be implemented in a manner consistent 
with the purpose of the action and the Federal agency's legal authority 
and jurisdiction. Reasonable and prudent alternatives must be 
economically and technical feasible, and avoid the likelihood of 
jeopardizing the continued existence of a listed species or destroying 
or adversely modifiying critical habitat.
    (9) Comment: The HDOT, Harbors Division, Planning Office requested 
information on how the designation of critical habitat in Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8 may affect harbor development in the existing Kalaeloa 
Barber's Point Harbor area and the proposed acquisition area for harbor 
expansion.
    Our Response: See also our response to Comment (7), above. The 
designation of critical habitat does not affect activities on State or 
private lands absent a Federal nexus, even if such lands are within the 
geographical boundaries of the critical habitat. However, Federal 
agencies are required to consult with the Service on actions they carry 
out, fund, or authorize to ensure that their actions will not destroy 
or adversely modify critical habitat. In this way, a critical habitat 
designation provides additional protections beyond classifying a 
species as endangered or threatened by requiring consideration of the 
effects of Federal actions on areas essential for the conservation of 
the species. The area being considered for harbor expansion, which was 
within proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, was resurveyed by the 
Service. Those areas that are too degraded to support the species or be 
functionally restored to support the essential features and habitat are 
not essential for the conservation of the species, and have been 
removed from critical habitat. This includes the proposed acquisition 
area for harbor expansion.
    (10) Comment: The Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), 
which expects to acquire lands within the former Barbers Point Naval 
Air Station at Kalaeloa, requested that lands within the Kalaeloa 
Northern Skeet Range, which are overlapped by Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
11, be excluded from critical habitat. According to HCDA, they are 
developing a preservation plan for akoko, which occurs on this land, in 
coordination with the Navy, Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife 
(HDOFAW), and the Service; the planned development of the renewable 
energy project in this area will reduce the State's dependence on 
foreign oil and generate revenue to develop needed infrastructure in 
Kalaeloa and fund akoko preservation activities. The HCDA is developing 
a cadre of volunteers to steward the site.
    The HDOFAW concurred with the proposed listing of the 23 Oahu 
species and the designation of critical habitat for 124 species with 
the exception of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11. Hawaii DOFAW recommended 
that the western third of TMK parcel 91013039 (approximately 60 ac (24 
ha)) within the unit be removed from critical habitat designation. 
According to their letter, this portion of the parcel is the most 
appropriate area for development of a photovoltaic project, because of 
the absence or low numbers of akoko, due to the dense overgrowth of 
weeds and tall grasses. The Hawaii DOFAW is recommending that HCDA and 
the photovoltaic developer enter into a [Hawaii State] Habitat 
Conservation Plan for the site, in order to secure development rights 
and provide assurances of funding for akoko conservation.
    Our Response: We determined that proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
11 (166 ac; 67 ha) is essential for the conservation and recovery of 17 
plant species that require the physical and biological features of the 
lowland dry ecosystem. This unit also provides the species-specific 
primary constituent element of coral outcrop substrate required for the 
endangered Ewa Plains akoko, known only from the Kalaeloa area. This 
area was once the largest known population of akoko and contains the 
last known wild individuals and approximately 600 outplanted 
individuals. The revised recovery strategy for akoko (``Recovery Needs 
and Strategy for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (Ewa Plains 
akoko)'') (Service 2012, entire) describes the need for several 
discrete populations distributed across the landscape, in order to 
recover this species. For C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, a plant 
requiring another individual for pollination (obligate-outcrosser) and 
living 10 years or less (short-lived perennial), we need to establish 
and maintain 7 to 8 populations across the 4 units proposed in the 
lowland dry habitat in Kalaeloa (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Units 8-11), 
although there may be some flexibility within each unit regarding the 
precise location and management of each population within the unit. 
(HPPRCC 2011; Guerrant et al. 2004, pp. 419-441; Neel and Cummings 
2003).
    We are aware and supportive of the efforts underway by State and 
the Navy to develop a long-term preservation or conservation plan for 
C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii within this unit. These include the 
development of a State of Hawaii Habitat Conservation Plan and the 
conditional transfer of some of the Navy lands within this unit to the 
HCDA. The State of Hawaii Endangered Species Act already prohibits the 
take of individual listed plants by the State or any other non-Federal 
entity, without

[[Page 57659]]

State review and authorization. If the lands are transferred by the 
Navy, the deed will require Grantees and successors to enter into a 
legally binding conservation and management plan approved by the Hawaii 
Department of Land and Natural Resources, to ensure protection of C. 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii before conveying the property (U.S. Navy 
2011, in litt.), based on the species being State and federally listed. 
The purpose of this agreement is to ensure the use or development of 
the transferred property does not adversely affect C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, as long as the species remains listed under the Act. If 
the Navy lands are transferred to HCDA, a portion of the lands may be 
used to develop a photovoltaic alternative energy project (HCDA 2012, 
in litt.; HDOFAW 2012, in litt.). The HCDA plans to use a portion of 
the revenue generated by commercial use of HCDA property to fund the 
conservation actions required under a conservation management plan 
(U.S. Navy 2011, in litt.). The Service is committed to working with 
the Navy and HCDA in the development of this conservation plan, to 
ensure it will provide for the long-term conservation of the plant and 
its habitat. Because of this close coordination, and because the deed 
restriction stipulates that C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii will not 
be adversely affected, we believe the development of the photovoltaic 
alternative energy project, as proposed, will not be impacted by the 
designation of critical habitat in this unit, and it is our intent to 
work with our partners to facilitate this project.
Comments From Federal Agencies
    (11) Comment: The Navy requested that the Service exclude Navy 
lands from critical habitat designation under Section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of 
the Act because of benefits provided to the species from the 
implementation of an integrated natural resources management plan 
(INRMP). The Navy advised the Service that is was revising the Joint 
Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH) INRMP, and the finalized plan will 
address conservation measures for plant species for which critical 
habitat is proposed on Navy lands (U.S. Navy 2011, in litt.). The INRMP 
will be fully coordinated with the Service and include an assessment of 
conservation needs of the listed plant species, a statement of goals 
and priorities, and a detailed description of the actions to address 
the needs of the plant species, and will include a monitoring and 
adaptive management plan.
    Our Response: Critical habitat was proposed for 60 plant species 
within 10 units that overlap Navy lands at Lualualei Valley (NAVMAG PH 
Lualualei and NRTF Lualualei) (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Units 3, 4, and 5; 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Units 4, 5, 6, and 7; and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Units 2 and 
5) and at Kalaeloa Barber's Point (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11). The 10 
units are occupied by 28 of the 60 plant species and provide unoccupied 
habitat essential to the conservation of 32 species. Implementation of 
the June 2012 Addendum to the Navy's September 2011 final INRMP JBPHH 
(encompassing Naval facilities of Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Naval 
Magazine Pearl Harbor Lualuaei and West Loch Branches, Naval Computer 
and Telecommunications Area Master Station Pacific Wahiawa, Naval Radio 
Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Navy-retained lands at Kalaeloa, and 
Hickam Air Force Base) will provide a conservation benefit for 59 of 
the 60 plant species for which critical habitat was proposed on Navy 
lands (76 FR 46362). The Navy's final INRMP and Addendum does not 
include conservation measures for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 at Kalaeloa Barber's Point), 
as the Navy is planning on transferring the property as part of the 
closure process (or Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) of the 
Barber's Point Naval Facility. The Navy's INRMP also does not cover 
actions conducted by the Navy on U.S. Coast Guard property. We are 
exempting critical habitat from Navy lands within Lualualei Valley, 
based on the implementation of conservation measures described in the 
2011 final INRMP and the 2012 Addendum. For detailed information 
regarding conservation measures for listed plants and their critical 
habitat provided by the 2011 final INRMP and the 2012 Addendum to the 
INRMP, please see ``Approved INRMPs,'' below). We are retaining Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 11 as critical habitat because the INRMP does not 
provide a benefit to the species for which that critical habitat unit 
is designated and the Navy is in the process of transferring ownership 
of this property.
    (12) Comment: The Navy commented that they agree with the proposed 
critical habitat designation within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Units 9, 10, and 
11, and that the parcel that is within proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
11 is owned by the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), in 
accordance with 2005 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission 
(BRAC) law. The Navy has no planned conservation actions for the listed 
plant species on this site.
    Our Response: A review of tax assessor parcel data for Oahu 
confirms that the Navy does not own lands overlapped by critical 
habitat units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10. 
Accordingly, the Navy is no longer subject to requirements under the 
Act on these lands. Current City and County records indicate that the 
Navy retains ownership of its lands within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 
(City and County Real Property Assessment Division 2011). All lands 
under U.S. Navy ownership or management continue to be subject to 
requirements under the Act until such time as they are conveyed to 
other parties. The Navy's 2011 INRMP and 2012 Addendum provide 
conservation measures that allow exemption of proposed critical habitat 
on Navy lands at Lualualei; however, the last remaining wild population 
of Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii occurs on Navy lands at 
Barber's Point (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11). The Service believes the 
Navy's INRMP does not provide a benefit to the species for which 
critical habitat was proposed, and we therefore cannot exempt this area 
from critical habitat.
    (13) Comment: The Navy commented that the proposed critical habitat 
within Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 slightly overlaps Navy land by a small 
area (0.16 acres (ac) (0.063 hectares (ha)), and that if the intent was 
for the boundary to follow the ridgeline, no Navy lands would be 
included in the unit. If true, the Navy recommends that this unit be 
adjusted to follow the ridge and not overlap Navy property.
    Our Response: We have reexamined proposed critical habitat on Navy 
lands in Lualualei Valley. The Service believes that if conservation 
measures outlined in the 2010 INRMP and the 2012 Addendum are followed, 
fences are constructed for ungulate control, nonnative plants are 
controlled, propagation and outplanting of endangered species on Navy 
lands is allowed, monitoring and adaptive management actions are 
completed, and reporting is provided, including development and 
implementation of a fire management plan, we can exclude areas of Navy 
land in Lualualei Valley from critical habitat. The portion of Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5 on Navy lands at Lualualei referred to in the 
comment above is therefore exempted from critical habitat in this rule.

[[Page 57660]]

Public Comments on Proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8
    Many commenters opposed the designation of critical habitat in 
proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, and we grouped similar comments 
together relating specifically to this proposed unit. These comments 
are addressed in the following summary.
    (14) Comment: Several commenters requested that their specific 
lands within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 be excluded from the final 
designation of critical habitat for akoko due to: Potential significant 
economic impacts, the lands absence of the physical and biological 
features essential to the conservation of akoko, or the social or 
economic benefits of excluding these lands from critical habitat 
outweighs the conservation benefit to the species that may result from 
their inclusion in the final designation.
    Our Response: Following the publication of the proposed rule, the 
Service, in coordination with the property owners, conducted a field 
visit of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 in November 2011, to obtain further 
field verification of the current condition of habitat for akoko. 
Following the field visit, it was determined that approximately 193 
acres of the 292 acres proposed were too degraded to support akoko or 
to be functionally restored to support the essential features and 
habitat for akoko. It was further determined during that field visit 
and a subsequent field visit in June 2012, that 99 acres (40 ha) 
contained the features essential to the conservation of akoko and could 
be adequately restored to allow for a functioning population of akoko 
if re-established. In our April 12, 2012, Notice of Availability of the 
Draft Economic Analysis (DEA) (77 FR 21936), we advised the public that 
we were considering these boundary adjustments and requested comment. 
The DEA did not reflect these revisions to Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8.
    Based on the revisions the final rule makes to Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 8, many of the specific lands that commenters were concerned with 
were removed from the designation due to the lack of features or 
because they were so degraded. These include: (1) Kapolei Harborside, 
(2) the lands where the biofuel farm is planned, (3) the Wastepile 
site, (4) the Maritime Industrial area where the harbor expansion is 
planned, and (5) Ko Olina Resort and Marina property. As a result, we 
will not address any specific comments concerning the inclusion of 
these lands in this final rule or the potential impacts from their 
inclusion. The remaining lands within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 overlap 
two parcels that are part of the Kapolei West planned development area. 
Comments concerning the inclusion of these lands in the final rule have 
been fully considered and are addressed in the ``Public Comments on 
Proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8'' section.
    (15) Comment: The primary constituent elements (PCEs) for 
ecosystems are arbitrary and capricious, and are conflicting for the 
lowland dry area.
    Our Response: We disagree. We consider the PCEs to be the specific 
compositional elements of physical and biological features that are 
essential to the conservation of the species. This final rule 
identifies the appropriate PCEs sufficient to support the life-history 
processes for each species within the ecosystems in which they occur, 
and reflects a distribution that we believe is essential to the 
species' recovery needs within those ecosystems. The ecosystems' 
features include the appropriate microclimatic conditions for 
germination and growth of the plants (e.g., light availability, soil 
nutrients, hydrologic regime, and temperature) and space within the 
appropriate habitats for population growth and expansion, as well as to 
maintain the historical geographical and ecological distribution of 
each species. The PCEs are defined by elevation, annual levels of 
precipitation, substrate type and slope, and the potential to maintain 
characteristic native plant genera in the canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory levels of the vegetative community. The PCEs for the lowland 
dry ecosystem are described in Table 4 of this final rule and were 
derived from several sources, including:
    (a) The Nature Conservancy's Ecoregional Assessment of the Hawaiian 
High Islands (2006) and ecosystem maps (2007);
    (b) Natural Resources Conservation Service's soil type analysis 
data layer for GIS mapping;
    (c) Oahu vegetation analyses by Gagne and Cuddihy (1999, pp. 45-
114);
    (d) Plant databases from the U.S. Army Environmental (2006) and the 
National Tropical Botanical Garden;
    (e) Geographic information system maps of habitat essential to the 
recovery of Hawaiian plants (HPPRCC 1998);
    (f) GAP (geographic analysis program) vegetation data (GAP 2005);
    (g) Federal Register documents such as listing rules and 5-year 
status reviews;
    (h) Final critical habitat designation for the island of Oahu (68 
FR 35950, June 17, 2003); and
    (i) Recent biological surveys and scientific reports regarding 
species and their habitats.
    Where further information was available indicating additional, 
specific, life-history requirements for some species, the primary 
constituent elements (PCEs) relating to these requirements are 
described separately and are termed ``unique'' PCEs for species; for 
example, we have identified coral outcrop substrate as a unique PCE for 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (see Table 5, below).
    (16) Comment: One commenter disputed the number of occurrences and 
individuals reported for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii in 
our proposed rule (76 FR 46362; August 2, 2011), based on a September 
2011 report by a private consultant on C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii at Barber's Point. In addition, the commenter questioned 
why our total number of individuals of C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii did not include the individuals outplanted in the Kalaeloa 
unit of the Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, and why we did not 
include a map of the location of the 1998 C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii observation by Whistler (2008).
    Our Response: In the September 2011 report provided by the 
commenter on Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii at Barber's 
Point, the author summarized status information for this species. 
According to the report, C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii was found at 
the Northern Trap and Skeet Range (NTSR), Building 1527, and at the 
Service's Kalaeloa unit of the Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge 
(Refuge). No information was provided on the total number of 
individuals or the numbers of individuals at each location. However, 
based on the best available information, approximately 700 individuals 
of C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii are present in two occurrences 
within an area previously used by the Navy as a trap and skeet range 
for the Barber's Point Naval Air Station, and at the Refuge (U.S. Navy 
et al. 2012). Of these, fewer than approximately 200 are wild 
individuals. The Whistler (2008) reference mentioned by the commenter 
was used in our analysis, but was inadvertently omitted from the list 
of references for the proposed rule.
    (17) Comment: Designation of critical habitat in Oahu-Lowland Dry-
Unit 8 is a taking of property without just compensation.
    Our Response: The mere promulgation of a regulation, like the 
enactment of a statute, does not take private property, unless the 
regulation on its face denies the property owners

[[Page 57661]]

all economically beneficial or productive use of their land. The 
designation of critical habitat alone does not deny anyone economically 
viable use of their property. The Act does not automatically restrict 
all uses of critical habitat, but only imposes restrictions under 
section 7(a)(2) on Federal agency actions that may result in 
destruction or adverse modification of designated critical habitat. 
Furthermore, if in the course of a consultation with a Federal agency, 
the resulting biological opinion concludes that a proposed action is 
likely to result in destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat, we are required to suggest reasonable and prudent alternatives 
that can be implemented in a manner consistent with the intended 
purpose of the action, that can be implemented consistent with the 
scope of the Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction, and 
that are economically and technologically feasible (Service 1998, p. 
xvii).
    (18) Comment: The Service did not have accurate land ownership 
information for Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8.
    Our Response: During the initial public comment period on our 
proposed rule (76 FR 46362; August 2, 2011), we became aware that there 
were errors in the landownership information for proposed Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8 in the geospatial data sets associated with parcel data 
from Honolulu County (2008), which were used to identify affected 
landowners. However, we subsequently received accurate landownership 
information from the City and County of Honolulu's Real Property 
Assessment Office (2011). We sent letters to all of the affected 
landowners we were able to identify, notifying them that the proposed 
critical habitat designation may overlap some or all of their property. 
In that letter we also provided general information on the proposed 
critical habitat designation and that we were considering a revision 
for proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8.
Public Comments on the Draft Economic Analysis
    Many commenters questioned the draft economic analysis (DEA). These 
comments and our responses are grouped below.
    (19) Comment: Several commenters questioned our assumption that a 
Federal nexus may not exist for the planned development projects in 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, and that by asserting there was no Federal 
nexus, we may be underestimating the potential impacts resulting from 
the inclusion of these lands in the final designation of critical 
habitat for akoko. Commenters further asserted that if there was a 
Federal nexus, there would be many more than one consultation due to 
parcels being subdivided, with individual consultations conducted on 
actions affecting each parcel. One commenter stated they submitted 
permit applications to the Department of the Army for the expansion of 
existing buildings, infrastructure and facilities at Ko Olina Resort 
and Marina within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8. Another commenter (James 
Campbell Company LLC) identified several potential activities that 
could trigger section 7 consultation, including Army Corps of Engineers 
approval of a regional drainage system, Federal funding for a State 
highway project, Federal grants to fund harbor expansion, EPA emission 
permits for energy projects, and Small Business Administration loans. 
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits under the Clean 
Water Act for any storm water discharges associated with any of the 
above development.
    Our Response: Following a review of the information we received 
from public comments and otherwise available to us, we agree there is a 
reasonable probability that a Federal action agency would be involved 
with funding, permitting, or otherwise authorizing the planned 
development project for Kapolei West. Because it now appears that there 
are only two parcels that we are designating as critical habitat in 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 that are part of the larger Kapolei West 
planned development, we anticipate there would likely be only a single 
consultation involved for the entire master planned development. In our 
history with such large development projects, it has generally been the 
case that there is one consultation with the Federal action agency 
covering the entire project, and not smaller individual consultations 
on smaller individual components of the project.
    That being stated, to evaluate potential impacts from the 
designation given the uncertainty of whether there may be a Federal 
nexus and how many specific consultations there may be, we evaluated a 
range in the DEA and our final rule. At one end of the range, we assume 
that there will be no Federal nexus. In this case, because there is no 
regulatory effect under the Act for a designation of critical habitat 
absent a Federal nexus, we assume there will be no impact from the 
designation. This constitutes the lower bound that is identified in the 
DEA, and we still believe this scenario could occur. At the other end 
of the range, where a Federal nexus is assumed, we also assume that the 
consultation resulting from the designation of critical habitat would 
take into consideration the entire master planned project based on past 
comparable examples. For example, one property owner (James Campbell 
Company LLC) commented that the entire 107 acres (43 ha) being 
designated within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 fall within the Kapolei 
West project, which is slated for residential and mixed-use 
development, with development rights vested by several public approval 
processes and County ordinance. They also commented that the land use 
entitlement process for Kapolei West began in the 1980's and was 
assessed in an Environmental Impact Statement prepared under Hawaii 
Revised Statutes Chapter 343 (Kapolei West Expansion Area Final EIS, 
June 2005; James Campbell Company LLC letter dated May 12, 2012). 
Because the consultation is anticipated to be for the entire master 
planned community, then the specific number of parcels may not be 
significant. The final economic analysis rexamined the potential upper-
bound of economic costs, including administrative costs to the Service, 
Federal agencies, and third parties. The estimated combined 
administrative costs in occupied and unoccupied critical habitat is 
$145,000 over a 20-year period ($94, 178 using a 7 percent discount 
rate, $117,075 using a 3 percent discount rate). The total 
administrative costs (i.e., costs related to section 7 consultation) in 
occupied areas are estimated to be $105,000 over a 20-year period (or 
$54,178 using a 7 percent discount rate--$77,075 using a 3 percent 
discount rate). Combined annualized costs over this period are $8,776 
using a 7 percent discount rate, or $7,000 using a 3 percent discount 
rate (Service 2012, Table ES-12).
    (20) Comment: One commenter indicated that the time horizon of the 
DEA, 20-years, was too short a time to evaluate the potential economic 
impacts of the designation.
    Our Response: While Executive Order 12866 and 13563 and Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-4 clarify the importance for the 
government to carefully assess, to the best of its abilities, the 
benefits and costs of proposed rules before making any final 
determinations, neither Executive Order nor Circular A-4 specify a 
specific timeframe for analysis. Recent guidance from OMB indicates 
that if a regulation has no predetermined sunset provision, the agency 
will need to choose the endpoint of its analysis based on the 
foreseeable future or the agency's ability to forecast reliably (Office 
of Management and

[[Page 57662]]

Budget, 2011 p. 5). For most agencies, a standard time period of 
analysis is 10 to 20 years. Additionally, since we identified 21 
parcels of property in unoccupied habitat, and the DEA assumed that 
there would be a single section 7 consultation in each unit, the DEA 
made the further assumption that there would be, on average, one 
consultation each year for the next 21 years. This assumption was 
influenced by the fact that it was unknown when activities would take 
place in the future that would trigger a consultation and that it was 
highly unlikely all 21 supposed consultations would occur in the first 
year (which would provide the most conservative (i.e., highest) 
economic cost after discounting).
    (21) Comment: One commenter stated that the DEA understates the 
economic impact the designation will have on small business.
    Our Response: Section 4(b)(2) of the Act requires us to consider 
the economic impact of designating a particular area as critical 
habitat for an endangered or threatened species. We also evaluate 
potential economic impacts of a rulemaking pursuant to Executive Order 
12866 (E.O. 12866), which states that a rulemaking will be determined 
to be economically significant if it will result in an impact of more 
than $100 million in any given year, and the Regulatory Flexibility Act 
(RFA; 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) as amended by the Small Business Regulatory 
Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA; 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). Under 
the RFA, whenever an agency is required to publish a notice of 
rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make 
available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that 
describes the effects of the rule on small entities (small businesses, 
small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no 
regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of the agency 
certifies the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. The SBREFA amended the RFA to 
require Federal agencies to provide a certification statement of the 
factual basis for certifying that the rule will not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    To understand the potential impacts of a critical habitat 
designation as discussed in the DEA, we evaluate the incremental 
impacts of the designation as identified by evaluating the additional 
protections or conservation measures afforded the species through the 
designation beyond those that the species receives by being federally 
listed (i.e., baseline conservation measures). Under E.O. 12866, we are 
required to evaluate the direct and indirect impacts of the 
designation. The evaluation of these potential impacts is discussed in 
our final economic analysis (FEA).
    Additionally, under the RFA and following recent case law, we are 
to evaluate the potential impacts to small businesses, but this 
evaluation is limited to impacts to only directly regulated entities. 
The designation of critical habitat only has regulatory impact through 
section 7 of the Act, in which a Federal action agency is required to 
consult with us on any project that is funded, permitted, or otherwise 
authorized that may affect designated critical habitat. In other words, 
critical habitat only has a regulatory effect and therefore impact if a 
Federal nexus exists. Critical habitat has no regulatory effect or 
impact under the Act on actions that do not have a Federal nexus. Since 
Federal action agencies are the only directly regulated entities as a 
result of the designation of critical habitat, it is therefore 
reasonable for us to conclude that the designation of critical habitat 
does not directly regulate small business entities and, therefore, does 
not significantly impact them. As a result, we believe that we have 
accurately assessed potential impacts to small business entities in the 
rulemaking, and can reasonably certify that this designation will not 
have a significant impact on a substantial number of small business 
entities. For a further discussion of our rationale, please see the 
Required Determinations section of this final rule, below.
    (22) Comment: The DEA misstates the development planned within 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8. The commenter claims that the DEA part II 
failed to discuss the potential that a critical habitat designation 
could influence the State Land Use Commission to reclassify lands from 
its current status as part of the Urban District to Conservation 
District. Furthermore, the commenter claims that the DEA incorrectly 
assumes that some of the parcels within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 are 
classified as agricultural and that the DEA fails to acknowledge that 
some of the parcels also fall within the Kapolei West project.
    The commenter also states that DEA misstates the intended use of 
parcel 191014041, based on the Kapolei Area Long Range Master Plan, and 
that the DEA needs to provide an assessment for parcel 191015004, which 
the Honolulu Land Information System (HOLIS) database identified as 
having no assessment. The HOLIS database is used to collect, maintain, 
and distribute geo-referenced information necessary to support City of 
Honolulu operations, including land use, permits, tax, infrastructure, 
and environmental data.
    Our Response: Table 3.3 of the DEA and the associated discussion 
identify the zoning status for each parcel within Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 8. None of the parcels are identified in the table as having 
agricultural zoning, but rather as being zoned for commercial or 
industrial purposes. However, in the DEA's introductory description of 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, the DEA did cite the commenter's description 
of the area from its Web site, which stated at that time that some of 
the lands within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 were still zoned as 
agriculture, although a petition was filed with the State Land Use 
Commission to rezone the area for industrial. Since then, the land 
classification on the Web site has been updated, and the FEA has 
factored this into the description and analysis.
    The commenter is correct that part II of the DEA did not discuss 
the potential that a critical habitat designation could have on 
influencing the State Land Use Commission to reclassify its lands to a 
more conservative category. This is because the Service is unaware of 
any instances over the past 10 years, when critical habitat 
designations were initially promulgated across the State of Hawaii, 
where the State Land Use Commission reclassified lands based on 
critical habitat.
    The DEA's discussion of the parcels in Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 
did not acknowledge that some of the parcels may have fallen within the 
Kapolei West project. The discussion in the FEA acknowledges the 
existence of this master plan.
    The commenter did not state what the characterization of TMK (tax 
map key) 91014041 was according to their reading of the Master Plan. 
The commenter stated only that the DEA was incorrect. A review of the 
zoning characteristics identified in the DEA match that in HOLIS. The 
commenter helpfully provided the current TMK for that identified by the 
Service (TMK 91015004) that is no longer in the HOLIS database. The 
correct TMK for this parcel is 91015026. The Honolulu Real Property 
Assessment Division clarified that TMK 91014041 is primarily zoned P-2 
(General Preservation), which typically carries a low value. Since the 
assessment did not take into account the A-2 (Medium Density 
Apartments), B-2 (Community Business), and IMX-1 (Industrial Mixed Use) 
portions, it is undervalued. TMK 91015026 contains a 3-acre common 
element value for a condominium

[[Page 57663]]

project, and eight CPR's carry the remaining condominium value for that 
parcel (Palenske 2012, pers. comm.). The FEA will be updated to reflect 
the characteristics and valuations for this parcel.
    (23) Comment: The DEA misstates land ownership within Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8.
    Our Response: This comment references statements made in the 
Incremental Effects Memorandum that is appended to the DEA. The 
Incremental Effects memorandum is an early, iterative statement as to 
what potential effects may result from critical habitat designation. 
Through the rulemaking process, we received clarifications of land 
ownership, and this information has been incorporated into the FEA and 
final rule.
    (24) Comment: The DEA misstates the status of development within 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8.
    Our Response: The DEA states that of the 13 parcels in Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 8 analyzed, only one, at the time, had an active 
permit. This information came from the HOLIS Web site. This information 
has been updated through the information and clarifications we received 
as a result of the rulemaking process.
    (25) Comment: The DEA fails to consider State and county land use 
plans.
    Our Response: The commenter believes the DEA should also expressly 
consider the General Plan for the City and County of Honolulu (2002) 
and the Ewa Development Plan (2000). The DEA relied on current 
assessment and zoning information from the City and County of Honolulu, 
as well as more recent planning documents, some of which are affiliated 
with the commenter. In summary, the DEA was clear about the planned 
development of all parcels in Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 for commercial 
and industrial purposes, despite their current status as relatively 
undeveloped properties.
    (26) Comment: The DEA understates the economic impact of 
designation. The DEA inappropriately uses property tax assessed values 
rather than market values. The DEA inappropriately uses a ``per acre'' 
approach to determine economic impact potential, and it does not take 
into account the impact on development cost and revenue streams of 
prohibiting development on a portion of land.
    Our Response: In developing our DEA we relied on the publicly 
available information from the Honolulu Land Information System (HOLIS; 
http://gis.hicentral.com). This database contains the latest assessed 
values for real properties originating from the City and County of 
Honolulu Department of Budget and Fiscal Services Real Property 
Assessment Division (https://www.realpropertyhonolulu.com). According 
to the Division's Web site, sec. 8-7.1, Revised Ordinances of Honolulu, 
requires the fair market value of all taxable real property to be 
determined and annually assessed by the market data (sales comparison) 
and cost approaches to value. All properties are valued at 100 percent 
of market value. While actual sales values may deviate from current 
assessed values based on factors such as economic conditions or site 
characteristics, we believe that the City and County of Honolulu's 
database reflects the best available information for our assessment of 
potential economic impacts.
    As explained in the DEA, the current market value for property (as 
best represented by the assessed sales price absent a direct sale) 
reflects the present value of future revenue streams that the property 
would generate under anticipated development scenarios. Lacking any 
information to credibly differentiate within a parcel how development 
may or may not be suitable, given certain land characteristics, the 
analysis reasonably assumed that each parcel analyzed was uniform in 
its physical development characteristics, and, correspondingly that the 
total assessed value of a parcel reflected these uniform 
characteristics for the purposes of this analysis. As explained in the 
DEA, the analysis makes the case that the current market assessment for 
land in this area primarily reflects the discounted future earnings 
that the land is expected to generate after development (i.e., growth 
premium).
    (27) Comment: In section 3.5 of the DEA, the Department's 137-acre 
parcel in Kalaeloa was assessed at approximately $48,000,000 based on 
the Kalaeloa Master Plan and the General Urban land use designation 
under HCDA Chapter 15-215. However, since the Hawaiian Homes Commission 
(HHC) has land use authorities that cannot be superseded by other 
authority, it is not clear that the urban designation used as a basis 
for assessment would be the designation the HHC would choose. For 
example, the HHC could designate these lands at a high or more 
intensive urban, or industrial value, that would result in a higher 
land assessed value.
    Our response: We appreciate the information concerning the 
categorization for the assessed land value; however, in developing our 
DEA, we relied on the publicly available information from HOLIS (http://gis.hicentral.com). This database contains the latest assessed values 
for real properties originating from the City and County of Honolulu 
Department of Budget and Fiscal Services Real Property Assessment 
Division (https://www.realpropertyhonolulu.com). According to the 
Division's Web site, sec. 8-7.1, Revised Ordinances of Honolulu, 
requires the fair market value of all taxable real property to be 
determined and annually assessed by the market data (sales comparison) 
and cost approaches to value. All properties are valued at 100 percent 
of market value. While actual sales values may deviate from current 
assessed values, based on factors such as economic conditions or site 
characteristics, we believe that the City and County of Honolulu's 
database reflects the best available information for our assessment of 
potential economic impacts. Further, any changes in land use by HHC is 
speculative at this time.
Other Public Comments Not Related to Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8
    (28) Comment: All species of Chamaesyce are now recognized as 
species of Euphorbia.
    Our Response: We agree. Steinman and Porter's 2002 (p. 473) 
molecular data for classification of Euphorbieae and the analysis of 
Bruyns et al. (2006, pp. 416-417) found that Chamaesyce is nested among 
species of Euphorbia. However, changing the names for the endangered 
Oahu plants Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, C. deppeana, C. 
herbstii, C. kuwaleana, C. rockii and C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii 
in 50 CFR 17.12 and in 50 CFR 17.99(j) would require a separate 
rulemaking, not only for the Hawaiian species listings, but for all 
previously listed species.
    (29) Comment: One landowner questioned the designation of critical 
habitat in several units, including Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, 
Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, and Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 
5--Lowland Wet, and the existing plant critical habitat designated in 
2003 under and next to Hawaii Interstate H-3, near the summit of the 
Koolau Mountains.
    Our Response: Although no specific objections to the proposed 
critical habitat were given, we provided the commenter with maps of 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 and all three damselfly units (Blackline 
Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--
Unit 4--Lowland Wet, and Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 5--Lowland 
Wet),

[[Page 57664]]

which geographically correspond to the same area (i.e., they completely 
overlap). These units provide critical habitat for 44 plant species and 
3 Hawaiian damselflies. The area consists of 15,728 ac (6,365 ha) on 
the leeward side of the Koolau Mountains, on Federal, State, City and 
County of Honolulu, and privately-owned lands. This area includes the 
wet forest and shrubland, moisture regime and subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as the unique PCEs (e.g., perennial 
streams, slow reaches of streams or pools) for the Hawaiian 
damselflies. This critical habitat is essential for the conservation 
and recovery of these lowland wet species, because it provides suitable 
habitat and space for expansion of populations, and for reintroduction 
of individuals within their current and historical ranges. We have no 
information that would indicate any areas within these units should be 
removed based on economic, national security, or other relevant 
impacts, or new biological information.
    (30) Comment: The Service does not provide justification for 
elimination of 11,549 ac (4,674 ha) of critical habitat. The proposed 
rule eliminates smaller habitat patches and undermines the 2003 
proposal.
    Our Response: The commenter did not provide clarification on the 
statement that 11,549 ac (4,674 ha) of critical habitat were eliminated 
in the August 2011 proposed rule. When 55,040 ac (22,274 ha) of 
critical habitat were designated for 99 Oahu plants in the June 17, 
2003, final rule (68 FR 35950), the designation was based primarily on 
the specific localities where the species were known to occur, and 
focused on discrete areas occupied by the species at the time of 
listing. In this final rule, we have revised critical habitat for these 
99 species based on new information on plant occurrences and a better 
understanding of the species' biological requirements. As a result, we 
are designating both occupied areas with physical or biological 
features essential to the species' conservation, and unoccupied areas 
that are essential to the species' conservation. We are able to do this 
with a designation of 42,804 ac (17,322 ha. Each of the areas provides 
critical habitat for multiple species based upon their shared habitat 
requirements, and takes into account any species-specific conservation 
needs, as appropriate. We have found that some of the areas designated 
as critical habitat in 2003 were not within the historical or current 
ranges of the species, and do not provide the PCEs essential to their 
conservation and recovery (i.e., these areas were not within the 
geographical area occupied at the time of the species' listing, and are 
not essential to their conservation). Accordingly, 17,325 ac (7,011 ha) 
designated in 2003 that fall into this category are not included in 
this critical habitat designation. The critical habitat designated in 
this rule is based on a biological and ecosystem-based approach, and 
provides essential habitat for the conservation and recovery of the 124 
species included in this rule. Therefore, contrary to the commenter's 
assertion, the proposed rule does not undermine the 2003 final critical 
habitat designation for 99 Oahu plants.
    (31) Comment: Given the extremely low population numbers of many of 
the species, it is not scientifically justifiable to eliminate habitat 
that supports individuals of the endangered plants. The proposed rule 
does not state that habitat that is known to support individuals is not 
being removed from critical habitat. Since the 2003 rule is based on 
occurrence data, the public is left to assume that some habitat that is 
known to support individuals will no longer be protected as critical 
habitat. We are concerned that eliminating critical habitat where 
plants currently occur will interfere with the recovery of these 
endangered species.
    Our Response: The only designated critical habitat known to support 
individuals that is being removed from critical habitat in this rule 
are those areas covered by the Navy's INRMP for Lualualei. In this 
final rule, lands under Navy jurisdiction are exempted from critical 
habitat designation under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act (a 2004 
amendment to the Act). Section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act states the 
Secretary shall not designate as critical habitat any lands or other 
geographical areas owned or controlled by the Department of Defense, or 
designated for its use, that are subject to an integrated natural 
resources management plan prepared under section 101 of the Sikes Act 
(16 U.S.C. 670a), if the Secretary determines in writing that such plan 
provides a benefit to the species for which critical habitat is 
proposed for designation. (See ``Approved INRMPs'', below, for further 
discussion).
    (32) Comment: One commenter stated that ``the proposed rule 
expressly fails to provide any detailed narrative description of 
appropriate specificity to allow fair comment'' and cites page 76 FR 
46511 at (12)(i) ``[Reserved for textual description of Unit 8]''. The 
commenter also stated that the proposed rule contains only generalized 
``maps'' to indicate the areas proposed for designation, and this 
failure to provide sufficient information to allow fully informed 
public review and comment is arbitrary, capricious, and otherwise not 
in accordance with law.
    Our Response: The section in brackets was reserved for the UTMs 
(mapping vertices) for unit delineation using GIS, which, until 
recently, were identified and published in the Federal Register in the 
final rule. However, on May 1, 2012 (USFWS 2012a, 77 FR 25611), the 
Service published revised regulations for requirements to publish 
textual descriptions of final critical habitat boundaries in the 
Federal Register. As of May 31, 2012, the Service no longer publishes 
the coordinates for critical habitat boundaries in the Federal 
Register. The coordinates on which each map is based are available to 
the public at the Federal eRulemaking portal (http://www.regulations.gov) using the docket number for the rulemaking (in 
this case, FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043), and at the web site of the field 
office responsible for the critical habitat (http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands) for the final critical habitat for the 124 Oahu 
species. The maps provided in the proposed rule identify the areas 
proposed for critical habitat designation. We believe these maps are 
adequate for regulatory purposes. The proposed rule also directs 
reviewers to contact the Service for further clarification on any part 
of the proposed rule, and provides contact information (76 FR 46362; 
August 2, 2011).
    (33) Comment: The Service did not provide references. Unpublished 
databases are not references.
    Our Response: Complete lists of references cited in the proposed 
rule (76 FR 46362; August 2, 2011) and in this final rule are available 
on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov, and upon request from 
the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES). This 
information was also presented in the proposed rule (76 FR 46470). One 
reference (Whistler 2008) was inadvertently omitted from those provided 
for the proposed rule, and is now available on our Web site. Under 
section 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act, we make a determination whether a 
species is endangered or threatened solely on the basis of the best 
scientific and commercial data available. Under section 4(b)(2), we 
designate, and make revisions to, critical habitat based on the best 
scientific data available and after taking into consideration the 
economic impact, the impact on national security, and any other 
relevant impact. In the

[[Page 57665]]

August 2, 2011, proposed rule and in this final rule, we used the best 
information available, including the State's Hawaii Biodiversity and 
Mapping Program database, the U.S. Army Environmental database from 
2006 for Oahu, and the National Tropical Botanical Garden's plant 
databases. These databases include information from numerous sources 
including, but not limited to, expert field observations, museum 
collections, and published and unpublished literature, and are, in our 
opinion, sources of the best scientific data available.
    (34) Comment: The damselflies should not be protected under the Act 
because flies do not need our protection. Residents should not have to 
fear punishment for removing pests from their homes and property.
    Our Response: Native Hawaiian damselflies (in the genus 
Megalagrion) are endemic (i.e., unique and found nowhere else in the 
world) to Hawaii and are similar to dragonflies in appearance. There 
are 23 species of these damselflies, and they are found almost entirely 
in aquatic habitats (e.g., streams, lowland swamps, and marshes), 
although a few species are considered terrestrial or semi-terrestrial 
and found in moist, damp areas like rock faces, wet leaf litter, or 
water trapped in the leaves of native plants. Native Hawaiian 
damselflies are unlikely to be found in homes or developed property or 
landscaped areas because of their ecological requirements, and are not 
considered pests.

Summary of Changes From Proposed Rule

    We fully considered comments from the public and peer reviewers on 
the proposed rule to develop this final listing for 23 species and 
critical habitat designation for 124 species from Oahu. This final rule 
incorporates the following substantive changes to our proposed listing 
and designation, based on the comments we received:
    (1) We removed 193 ac (78 ha) from proposed Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
8 to exclude areas that are not essential to the conservation of the 
species, based on additional, refined information gained from field 
visits. We observed that changes in land use had occurred in certain 
areas within the proposed critical habitat that would preclude these 
areas from supporting the primary constituent elements, and that these 
areas would not support viable populations of the 17 plants for which 
it was proposed critical habitat. Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 now 
encompasses 99 ac (40 ha) essential to the conservation of 16 lowland 
dry plant species.
    (2) We made revisions to the demographic status and distribution of 
11 species of plants (Cyanea lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra 
sessilis, C. waiolani, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, 
Melicope hiiakae, M. makahae, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense) by correcting their current 
locations or numbers of individuals in Description of the 23 Species, 
based on comments we received.
    (3) We made revisions to the primary constituent elements (PCEs) 
for three plants, based on comments we received, by removing the 
lowland mesic ecosystem from the PCEs for Cyrtandra waiolani and the 
lowland wet ecosystem from the PCEs for Melicope makahae and Pleomele 
forbesii. Accordingly, we removed Cyrtandra waiolani from the list of 
plants in Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Units 4, 5, 6, and 7, and we removed 
Pleomele forbesii and Melicope makahae from the list of plants in 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Units 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, because a peer reviewer 
recommended that these ecosystems were inappropriate for the species. 
We also removed Pleomele forbesii from the list of plants in Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Units 8, 9, 10, and 11 because the elevation of these four 
units is too low to have the ability to provide habitat for this 
species.
    (4) We revised the unit boundaries we proposed Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, which resulted in acreage reductions in these 
units as follows:

Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5: Reduced by 2 ac (1 ha)
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13: Reduced by 86 ac (35 ha)
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4: Reduced by 84 ac (34 ha)
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6: Reduced by 106 ac (43 ha))
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7: Reduced by 102 ac (42 ha)) (combined 7a and 
7b)
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2: Reduced by 4 ac (2 ha))
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5: Reduced by 12 ac (5 ha))

These revisions were based on comments indicating that (a) Changes in 
land use had occurred within the proposed critical habitat units that 
would preclude certain areas from supporting the primary constituent 
elements; (b) adjustments were needed for the adjoining borders of wet 
cliff and lowland wet ecosystem areas; (c) the areas in question were 
not essential to the conservation of the species; or (d) portions of 
the unit were exempted from critical habitat under section 
4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act.
    (5) We are not designating lands within proposed Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, and 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 as critical habitat under section 
4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act.
    (6) Following publication of our proposed rule in August 2011, we 
found that 21 plants (Bidens amplectens, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Cyrtandra dentata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis 
fosbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Schiedea kealiae, S. 
obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, and Tetramolopium filiforme) 
were inadvertently omitted from the discussion of species for which 
critical habitat was initially proposed on Navy lands. We also 
determined that four previously listed plants (Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
Melicope pallida, Stenogyne kanehoana, and Urera kaalae) were 
inadvertently included in this discussion (i.e., critical habitat was 
proposed for these species when it should not have been). Although 
critical habitat is exempted for the above 21 species within one or 
more of the 10 units that overlap Navy lands, none of these species 
presently occupy Navy lands.
    (7) We adjusted critical habitat acreages on Table 7A and Table 7B 
to account for changes in unit areas and to correct arithmetical 
errors. This resulted in the following specific changes:

Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9: reduced by 4 ac (2 ha)
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13: Reduced by 1 ac (0 ha)
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15: Reduced by 1 ac (0 ha)
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9: Reduced by 4 ac (2 ha)
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1: Reduced by 1 ac (0 ha)
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7: Reduced by 6 ac (3 ha)
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7: Reduced by 3 ac (1 ha)

    (8) We added ``coral outcrop substrate'' to the PCEs for Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii.
    (9) We added Plumbago, Sida, and Waltheria to the list of 
understory plants in the lowland dry ecosystem.

[[Page 57666]]

    (10) We removed Cyrtandra waiolani from the list of plants in 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Units 4, 5, 6, and 7, as a peer reviewer 
recommended that this ecosystem was inappropriate for the species.

Summary of Factors Affecting the 23 Species

    Section 4 of the Act and its implementing regulations (50 CFR part 
424) set forth the procedures for adding species to the Federal Lists 
of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. A species may be 
determined to be an endangered or threatened species due to one or more 
of the five factors described in section 4(a)(1) of the Act: (A) The 
present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its 
habitat or range; (B) overutilization for commercial, recreational, 
scientific, or educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the 
inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanism; and (E) other natural or 
manmade factors affecting its continued existence. Listing actions may 
be warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly, or in 
combination. The threats to each of the individual 23 species are 
summarized in Table 2 and discussed in detail below. Factor B 
(overutilization) is not included in the table because we have no 
information on primary threats to the species that would fall under 
this category.

Ecosystem Approach

    Each of the 23 species in this final rule is adversely affected by 
the threats to the ecosystems on which it depends. There is information 
available on many of the threats that act on Hawaiian ecosystems, and 
for some ecosystems, there is a growing body of literature regarding 
these threats (e.g., nonnative ungulates and invasive plant species). 
The best available information on ecosystem threats affecting the 
species therein is discussed below. Table 2 identifies the threats to 
the ecosystems and the individual species within those ecosystems that 
are affected by those threats. Information on threats specific to 
certain species is also discussed where necessary and available; 
however we acknowledge that we do not completely understand all the 
threats to each species. Scientific research directed toward these 
species is limited because of their rarity and the generally 
challenging logistics associated with conducting field work in Hawaii 
(e.g., areas are typically remote and difficult to survey in a 
comprehensive manner, and the target species are exceptionally 
uncommon).
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Ecosystem-Scale Threats That Affect the 23 Species

    The following constitutes a list of ecosystem-scale threats that 
affect the 23 species in all of the seven ecosystems on Oahu:
    (1) Foraging and trampling of native plants by goats (Capra hircus) 
and pigs (Sus scrofa), which results in severe erosion of watersheds 
because these mammals inhabit terrain that is often steep and remote 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63). These events destabilize soils that 
support native plant communities, bury or damage native plants, and 
have adverse water quality effects due to runoff over exposed soils.
    (2) Disturbance of soils by feral pigs, which creates fertile 
seedbeds for alien plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 65).
    (3) Increased nutrient availability as a result of pigs rooting in 
nitrogen-poor soils, which facilitates the establishment of alien 
weeds. Alien weeds are more adapted to nutrient rich soils than native 
plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63), and rooting activity creates 
open areas in forests allowing alien species to completely replace 
native stands.
    (4) Ungulate destruction of seeds and seedlings of native plant 
species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63), which facilitates the 
conversion of disturbed areas from native to nonnative vegetative 
communities.
    (5) Rodent damage to plant propagules, seedlings, or native trees, 
which changes forest composition and structure (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 67).
    (6) Feeding or defoliation of native plants by alien insects, which 
reduces geographic ranges of some species because of damage (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, p. 71).
    (7) Alien insect predation on native insects, which affects 
pollination of native plant species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 71).
    (8) Significant changes in nutrient cycling processes, because of 
large numbers of alien invertebrates such as earthworms, ants, slugs, 
and snails, resulting in the changes to the composition and structure 
of plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 73).
    Each of the above threats is discussed in more detail below, and 
summarized in Table 2 above. The most-often cited effects of nonnative 
plants on native plant species are competition and displacement; 
competition may be for water or nutrients, or it may involve 
allelopathy (chemical inhibition of other plants). Alien plants may 
displace native species of plants by preventing their reproduction, 
usually by shading and taking up available sites for seedling 
establishment. Alien plant invasions may also alter entire ecosystems 
by forming monotypic stands, changing fire characteristics of native 
communities, altering soil-water regimes, changing nutrient cycling, or 
encouraging other nonnative organisms (Smith 1985, pp. 180, 218, 228-
229; Vitousek et al. 1987 in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 74).

A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment 
of Its Habitat or Range

    The Hawaiian Islands are located over 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from the 
nearest continent. This isolation has allowed the few plants and 
animals that arrived in the Hawaiian Islands to evolve into many highly 
varied and endemic species (species that occur nowhere else in the 
world). The only native terrestrial mammals on the Hawaiian Islands are 
two bat taxa, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), and 
an extinct, unnamed insectivorous bat (Ziegler 2002, p. 245). The 
native plants of the Hawaiian Islands therefore evolved in the absence 
of mammalian predators, browsers, or grazers; many of the native 
species lost unneeded defenses against threats such as mammalian 
predation and competition with aggressive, weedy plant species that are 
typical of mainland environments (Loope 1992, p. 11; Gagne and Cuddihy 
1999, p. 45; Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 3-6). For example, Carlquist (in 
Carlquist and Cole 1974, p. 29) notes that ``Hawaiian plants are 
notably nonpoisonous, free from armament, and free from many 
characteristics thought to be deterrents to herbivores (oils, resins, 
stinging hairs, coarse texture).'' In addition, species restricted to 
highly specialized locations or food sources (e.g., some Hawaiian 
damselflies) are particularly vulnerable to changes (from nonnative 
species, hurricanes, fire, and climate change) in their habitat 
(Carlquist and Cole 1974, pp. 28-29; Loope 1992, pp. 3-6; Stone 1992, 
pp. 88-102).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Introduced Ungulates
    Introduced mammals have greatly impacted the native vegetation, as 
well as the native fauna, of the Hawaiian Islands. Impacts to the 
native species and ecosystems of Hawaii accelerated following the 
arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778. The Cook expedition and 
subsequent explorers intentionally introduced a European race of pigs 
or boars and other livestock, such as goats, to serve as food sources 
for seagoing explorers (U.S. Geological Survey 1998, p. 752). The mild 
climate of the islands, combined with the lack of competitors or 
predators, led to the successful establishment of large populations of 
these introduced mammals, to the detriment of native Hawaiian species 
and ecosystems (Cox 1992, pp. 116-117). The presence of introduced 
alien mammals is considered one of the primary factors underlying the 
alteration and degradation of native vegetation and habitats on the 
island of Oahu (Cox 1992, pp. 118-119). Six of the seven ecosystems 
(lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff) and their associated species are currently impacted by 
threats of the destruction or degradation of habitat due to nonnative 
ungulates (hoofed mammals), including pigs (Sus scrofa) and goats 
(Capra hircus) (HBMP 2008). Only the coastal ecosystem on Oahu is not 
currently facing threats by nonnative ungulates (Perlman 2007a, in 
litt.).
    Pigs have been described as the most pervasive and disruptive 
nonnative influence on the unique native forests of the Hawaiian 
Islands, and are widely recognized as one of the greatest current 
threats to forest ecosystems in Hawaii (Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; 
Anderson and Stone 1993, p. 195). European pigs, introduced to Hawaii 
by Captain James Cook in 1778, hybridized with domesticated Polynesian 
pigs, became feral, and invaded forested areas, especially wet and 
mesic forests and dry areas at high elevations. They are currently 
present on Kauai, Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii. The Hawaii 
Territorial Board of Agriculture and Forestry started a feral pig 
eradication project in the early 1900s that continued through 1958, 
removing 170,000 pigs from forests Statewide (Diong 1982 in Loope 1998, 
pp. 752-753).
    These introduced pigs are extremely destructive, and have both 
direct and indirect impacts on native plant communities. While rooting 
in the earth in search of invertebrates and plant material, pigs 
directly impact native plants by disturbing and destroying vegetative 
cover, and trampling plants and seedlings. They may also reduce or 
eliminate plant regeneration by damaging or eating seeds and seedlings. 
Further discussion of predation by nonnative ungulates is under Factor 
C, below. Pigs are a major vector for the establishment and spread of 
competing invasive, nonnative plant species, by dispersing plant seeds 
on their hooves and coats, as well as through the spread of their feces 
(Diong 1982, pp. 169-170), and by fertilizing the disturbed soil with

[[Page 57671]]

their feces (Matson 1990, p. 245; Siemann et al. 2009, p. 547). Pigs 
feed preferentially on the fruits of many nonnative plants, such as 
Passiflora tarminiana (banana poka) and Psidium cattleianum (strawberry 
guava), spreading the seeds of these invasive species through their 
feces as they travel in search of food. In addition, rooting pigs 
contribute to erosion by clearing vegetation and creating large areas 
of disturbed soil, especially on slopes (Smith 1985, pp. 190, 192, 196, 
200, 204, 230-231; Stone 1985, pp. 254-255, 262-264; Medeiros et al. 
1986, pp. 27-28; Scott et al. 1986, pp. 360-361; Tomich 1986, pp. 120-
126; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 64-65; Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; Loope 
et al. 1991, pp. 1-21; Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 52).
    Goats native to the Middle East and India were also successfully 
introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1700s. Actions to 
control goat populations began in the 1920s (Tomich 1986, pp. 152-153). 
Feral goats now occupy a wide variety of habitats on Oahu, where they 
consume native vegetation, trample roots and seedlings, accelerate 
erosion, and promote the invasion of alien plants that have greater 
competitive abilities (van Riper and van Riper 1982, pp. 34-35; Stone 
1985, p. 261). Goats are able to access and forage in extremely rugged 
terrain, and they have a high reproductive capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 
1980, pp. C-19, C-20; Culliney 1988, p. 336; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
64). Because of these factors, goats are believed to have completely 
eliminated some plant species from islands (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, 
p. 21). Goats can be highly destructive to natural vegetation and 
contribute to erosion by: (1) Eating young trees and young shoots of 
plants before they can become established; (2) creating trails that can 
damage native vegetative cover, destabilize substrate, and create 
gullies that convey water; and (3) dislodging stones from ledges that 
can cause rockfalls and landslides that damage vegetation below 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 63-64).
    The 23 species dependent on the lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland 
wet, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems are exposed to 
direct and indirect negative impacts of feral ungulates (pigs and 
goats), which result in the destruction and degradation of habitat for 
these native Oahu species. The effects of these nonnative animals 
include: (1) The destruction of vegetative cover; (2) trampling of 
plants and seedlings; (3) direct consumption of native vegetation; (4) 
soil disturbance; (5) dispersal of alien plant seeds on hooves, coats, 
and through the spread of seeds in feces; and (5) the creation of open, 
disturbed areas conducive to further invasion by nonnative pest plant 
species. All of these impacts lead to the subsequent conversion of a 
plant community dominated by native species to one dominated by 
nonnative species (see ``Habitat Destruction and Modification by 
Nonnative Plants,'' below). In addition, because these mammals inhabit 
terrain that is often steep and remote (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 59), 
foraging and trampling contributes to severe erosion of watersheds and 
degradation of streams. As early as 1900, there was increasing concern 
expressed about the integrity of island watersheds, due to effects of 
ungulates and other factors, leading to establishment of a professional 
forestry program emphasizing soil and water conservation (Nelson 1989, 
p. 3).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative Plants
    Native vegetation on all of the main Hawaiian Islands has undergone 
extreme alteration, because of past and present land management 
practices, including ranching, the deliberate introduction of nonnative 
plants and animals, and agricultural development (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, pp. 27, 58). The original native flora of Hawaii (plant species 
that were present before humans arrived) consisted of about 1,000 taxa, 
89 percent of which were endemic. Over 800 plant taxa have been 
introduced from outside Hawaii, and nearly 100 of these have become 
pests (e.g., injurious plants) (Smith 1985, p. 180; Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 73; Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45). Of these 100 nonnative 
plant species, over 50 species have altered the habitat of 20 of the 23 
species in this final rule. Some of these plants were brought to Hawaii 
by various groups of people, for food or cultural reasons, to reforest 
native forests destroyed by grazing feral and domestic animals, for 
pasture for domestic animals, and for other agricultural purposes. 
Other plants were brought to Hawaii for their potential horticultural 
value (Scott et al. 1986, pp. 361-363; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 73).
    Nonnative plants adversely impact native habitat in Hawaii, 
including the seven Oahu ecosystems and the 20 plant species identified 
in this final rule, by: (1) Modifying the availability of light; (2) 
altering soil-water regimes; (3) modifying nutrient cycling; (4) 
altering fire characteristics of native plant communities (e.g., 
successive fires that burn farther and farther into native habitat, 
destroying native plants and removing habitat for native species by 
altering microclimatic conditions to favor alien species); and (5) 
ultimately, converting native-dominated plant communities to nonnative 
plant communities (Smith 1985, pp. 180-181; Cuddihy and Stone, 1990, p. 
74; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73; Vitousek et al. 1997, p. 6). 
Nonnative plants (and animals) have contributed to the extinction of 
native species in the lowlands of Hawaii and have been a primary cause 
of extinction in upland habitats (Vitousek et al. 1987, in Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 74). The most-often cited effects of nonnative plants on 
native plant species are displacement through competition. Competition 
may be for water or nutrients, or it may involve allelopathy (chemical 
inhibition of other plants) (Smith 1985, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
74). Nonnative plants may also displace native species by preventing 
their reproduction, usually by shading and taking up available sites 
for seedling establishment (Vitousek et al. 1987, in Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 74).
    Alteration of fire regimes clearly represents an ecosystem-level 
change caused by the invasion of nonnative grasses (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 73). The grass life form supports standing dead 
material that burns readily, and grass tissues have large surface-to-
volume ratios and can dry out quickly (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 
73). The flammability of biological materials is determined primarily 
by their surface-to-volume ratio and moisture content, and secondarily 
by mineral content and tissue chemistry (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, 
p. 73). The finest size classes of material (mainly grasses) ignite and 
spread fires under a broader range of conditions than do woody fuels or 
even surface litter (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73). The grass 
life form allows rapid recovery following fire; there is little above-
ground structural tissue, so almost all new tissue fixes carbon and 
contributes to growth (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73). Grass 
canopies also support a microclimate in which surface temperatures are 
hotter, vapor pressure deficits are larger, and the drying of tissues 
occurs more rapidly than in forests or woodlands (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 73). Thus, conditions that favor fire are much more 
frequent in grasslands (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73). In 
summary, nonnative plants directly and indirectly affect the 20 plant 
species in this final rule by modifying or destroying their terrestrial 
habitat. Please refer to the proposed rule (76 FR 46362; August 2,

[[Page 57672]]

2011) for a list of nonnative plants and a discussion of their specific 
negative effects on the 20 plant species.
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Fire
    Fire is a relatively new, human-exacerbated threat to native 
species and natural vegetation in Hawaii. The historical fire regime in 
Hawaii was characterized by infrequent, low-severity fires, as few 
natural ignition sources existed (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91; Smith 
and Tunison 1992, pp. 395-397). Natural fuel beds were often 
discontinuous, and rainfall in many areas on most islands was, and is, 
moderate to high. Fires inadvertently or intentionally ignited by the 
original Polynesians in Hawaii probably contributed to the initial 
decline of native vegetation in the drier plains and foothills. These 
early settlers practiced slash-and-burn agriculture that created open 
lowland areas suitable for the later colonization of nonnative, fire-
adapted grasses (Kirch 1982, pp. 5-6, 8; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 
30-31). Beginning in the late 18th century, Europeans and Americans 
introduced plants and animals that further degraded native Hawaiian 
ecosystems. Pasturage and ranching, in particular, created highly fire-
prone areas of nonnative grasses and shrubs (D'Antonio and Vitousek 
1992, p. 67). Although fires are infrequent in mountainous regions 
today, extensive fires have occurred in lowland mesic areas, leading to 
grass/fire cycles that convert woodland to grassland (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 77).
    Although Vogl (1969, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91) proposed 
that naturally occurring fires, primarily from lightning strikes, have 
been important in the development of the original Hawaiian flora, and 
that many Hawaiian plants might be fire adapted, Mueller-Dombois (1981, 
in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91) points out that most natural 
vegetation types of Hawaii would not carry fire before the introduction 
of alien grasses. Smith and Tunison (in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91) 
state that native plant fuels typically have low flammability. Because 
of the greater frequency, intensity, and duration of fires that have 
resulted from the introduction of nonnative plants (especially 
grasses), fires are now destructive to native Hawaiian ecosystems 
(Brown and Smith 2000, p. 172), and a single grass-fueled fire can kill 
most native trees and shrubs in the burned area (D'Antonio and Vitousek 
1992, p. 74).
    Fire represents a threat to the habitats of six of the plant 
species in this final rule, based on information identifying fire as a 
threat to a particular species at a particular location: Bidens 
amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa (see Table 2). 
These six plant species are found in the coastal, lowland dry, lowland 
mesic, or dry cliff ecosystems. Fire can destroy dormant seeds of the 
six species as well as the plants themselves, even in steep or 
inaccessible areas. Successive fires that burn farther and farther into 
native habitat destroy native plants, and remove habitat for native 
species by altering microclimate conditions favorable to alien plants. 
Alien plant species most likely to be spread as a consequence of fire 
are those that produce a high fuel load, are adapted to survive and 
regenerate after fire, and establish rapidly in newly burned areas. 
Grasses (particularly those that produce mats of dry material or retain 
a mass of standing dead leaves) that invade native forests and 
shrublands provide fuels that allow fire to burn areas that would not 
otherwise easily burn (Fujioka and Fujii 1980, in Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 93; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-74; Tunison et al. 
2002, p. 122). Native woody plants may recover from fire to some 
degree, but fire tips the competitive balance toward alien species 
(National Park Service 1989, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 93).
    On a post-burn survey at Puuwaawaa on the island of Hawaii within 
an area of native Diospyros forest with undergrowth of the nonnative 
grass Pennisetum setaceum, Takeuchi noted that ``no regeneration of 
native canopy is occurring within the Puuwaawaa burn area'' (Takeuchi 
1991, p. 2). Takeuchi also stated that ``burn events served to 
accelerate a decline process already in place, compressing into days a 
sequence which would ordinarily have taken decades'' (Takeuchi 1991, p. 
4), and concluded that in addition to increasing the number of fires, 
the nonnative Pennisetum acted to suppress establishment of native 
plants after a fire (Takeuchi 1991, p. 6). There have been several 
recent fires on Oahu that have impacted rare or endangered species, 
including areas designated as critical habitat in this final rule. 
Between 2004 and 2005, wildfires burned more than 360 ac (146 ha) in 
Honouliuli Preserve, home to more than 90 rare and endangered plants 
and animals, which is located along the windward side of the Waianae 
Mountains (The Nature Conservancy 2005, in litt.). In 2006, a fire at 
Kaena Point State Park burned 60 ac (24 ha), including portions of two 
units designated as critical habitat in this rule, and encroached on 
endangered plants in Makua Military Training Area. In 2007, there was a 
significant fire at Kaukonahua that crossed 12 gulches, eventually 
encompassing 5,655 ac (2,289 ha), and negatively impacted seven 
endangered plant species. Occurrences of three of the species were 
extirpated as a result of the fire. The Kaukonahua fire also provided 
pathways for nonnative ungulates (cattle, goats, and pigs) into 
previously undisturbed areas, and opened up previously densely 
vegetated areas for growth of the invasive grass Panicum maximum 
(guinea grass), which is also used as a food source by cattle and 
goats. An area infested by guinea grass burned, and the grass was 
observed to generate blades over 2 feet in length only 2 weeks after 
the fire (U.S. Army Garrison 2007, Appendices pp. 1-5). In 2009, there 
were two smaller fires that burned 200 ac (81 ha) at Manini Pali (Kaena 
Point State Park) and 4 ac (2 ha) at Makua Cave (at the mouth of Makua 
Valley). Both of these fires burned in designated critical habitat, 
although no individual plants were directly affected (U.S. Army Natural 
Resource Program 2009, Appendix 2, 17 pp.). These examples of recent 
fires illustrate that nonnative grass invasion leads to grass/fire 
cycles that convert native vegetation to grassland (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 77)
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Hurricanes
    Hurricanes adversely impact native Hawaiian terrestrial habitat, 
including each of the seven Oahu ecosystems and their associated 
species identified in this final rule. They do this by destroying 
native vegetation, opening the canopy and thus modifying the 
availability of light, and creating disturbed areas conducive to 
invasion by nonnative pest species (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant 
Species Impacts,'' in our August 2, 2011, proposed rule (76 FR 46362)) 
(Asner and Goldstein 1997, p. 148; Harrington et al. 1997, pp. 539-
540). Canopy gaps allow for the establishment of nonnative plant 
species, which may be present as plants, or as seeds incapable of 
growing under shaded conditions. In addition, hurricanes adversely 
impact native Hawaiian stream habitat by defoliating and toppling 
vegetation, thus loosening the soil around the toppled vegetation. 
Loosened soil, loose vegetation, and other debris can be washed into 
streambeds (by hurricane-induced rain or subsequent rain storms), 
resulting in the scouring of the stream bottoms and

[[Page 57673]]

channels, and catastrophic flooding (Polhemus 1993, 88 pp.). Because 
many Hawaiian plant and animal species, including the 23 species in 
this final rule, persist in low numbers and in restricted ranges, 
natural disasters, such as hurricanes, can be particularly devastating 
(Mitchell et al. 2005, p. 4-3).
    Hurricanes affecting Hawaii were only rarely reported from ships in 
the area from the 1800s until 1949. Between 1950 and 1997, 22 
hurricanes passed near or over the Hawaiian Islands, 5 of which caused 
serious damage (Businger 1998, pp. 1-2). In November 1982, Hurricane 
Iwa struck the Hawaiian Islands, with wind gusts exceeding 100 miles 
per hour (mph) (161 kilometers per hour (kph)), causing extensive 
damage, especially on the islands of Niihau, Kauai, and Oahu (Businger 
1998, pp. 2, 6). Many native forest trees were destroyed (Perlman 1992, 
in litt., pp. 1-9), which opened the canopy and facilitated the 
invasion of nonnative plants (Kitayama and Mueller-Dombois 1995, p. 
671). Historically (prior to the introduction of nonnative, invasive 
plants to the Hawaiian Islands), it is likely that areas affected by 
hurricanes would eventually have been repopulated by native plants. 
However, competition with nonnative plants is exacerbated by 
hurricanes, and represents a threat to each of the 7 ecosystems and the 
20 plant species addressed in this final rule, as described in 
``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' in our August 2, 2011, 
proposed rule (76 FR 46362). In September 1992, Hurricane Iniki, a 
Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained wind speeds recorded at 140 
mph (225 kph), passed directly over the island of Kauai and close to 
the island of Oahu, causing significant damage to areas along Oahu's 
southwestern coast (from Barber's Point or Kalaeloa, to Kaena Point) 
(Blake et al. 2007, p. 20), where the endangered plant Bidens 
amplectens occurs. Biologists have documented hurricane damage (e.g., 
denuded foliage, toppled and uprooted trees and shrubs, landslides) to 
the habitat of six other plant species (Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta 
var. cornuta, and Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis). Polhemus (1993, 
pp. 86-87) documented the extirpation of the scarlet Kauai damselfly 
(Megalagrion vagabundum), a species related to the blackline, crimson, 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies included in this final rule, from the 
entire Hanakapiai Stream system on the island of Kauai as a result of 
the impacts of Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Damage by future hurricanes 
could further decrease the remaining native-plant-dominated habitat 
areas that support rare plants and animals in Oahu ecosystems 
(Bellingham et al. 2005, p. 681).
Habitat Destruction and Modification Due to Landslides, Rockfalls, 
Flooding, and Drought
    Landslides, rockfalls, and flooding destabilize substrates, damage 
and destroy individual plants, and alter hydrological patterns, which 
result in changes to native plant and animal communities. In the open 
sea near Hawaii, rainfall averages 25 to 30 in (63 to 76 cm) per year, 
yet the islands may receive up to 15 times this amount in some places, 
caused by orographic features (Wagner et al. 1999; adapted from Price 
(1983) and Carlquist (1980), pp. 38-39). During storms, rain may fall 
at 3 in (7.6 cm) per hour or more, and sometimes may reach nearly 40 in 
(100 cm) in 24 hours, causing destructive flash-flooding in streams and 
narrow gulches (Wagner et al. 1999; adapted from Price (1983) and 
Carlquist (1980), pp. 38-39). Due to the steep topography of much of 
the area on Oahu where the species remain, erosion and disturbance 
caused by introduced ungulates exacerbate the potential for landslides, 
rockfalls, or flooding, which in turn threaten native plants and some 
of the damselfly species (see Table 2). For those species that occur in 
small numbers in highly restricted geographic areas, such events have 
the potential to eradicate all individuals of a population, or even all 
populations of a species, resulting in extinction.
    Landslides and rockfalls likely adversely impact nine of the 
species addressed in this final rule, including Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Melicope 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, and the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, as 
documented in observations by field botanists and surveyors (HBMP 
2008). Monitoring data from the PEP program and the Hawaii Biodiversity 
and Mapping Program (HBMP) suggest that these nine species face threats 
from landslides or falling rocks, as they are found in landscape 
settings susceptible to these events (e.g., steep slopes and cliffs). 
Since C. kaulantha is known from only a few individuals in steep-walled 
stream valleys, one landslide could lead to near extirpation of the 
species by direct destruction of the individual plants, mechanical 
damage to individual plants that could lead to their death, 
destabilization of the cliff habitat leading to additional landslides, 
and alteration of hydrological patterns (e.g., affecting the 
availability of soil moisture). Landslides can modify and destroy 
riparian and stream habitat by direct physical damage (e.g., rocks and 
debris falling in a stream, mechanical damage to riparian vegetation), 
and create disturbed areas leading to invasion by nonnative plants that 
outcompete the native plants, as well as damage or destroy plants used 
by the crimson and oceanic damselflies for perching. Field survey data 
presented by Bakutis (2006c, in litt.) and the PEP Program (2006, p. 
51) suggest that flooding is a likely threat to two plant species 
included in this final listing, one population of Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, located in a narrow gulch, and one population of 
Cyrtandra sessilis, growing near a stream in a narrow valley. 
Intermittent flooding events likely occurred in the stream habitats of 
the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies in the past, 
due to stochastic events such as storms and hurricanes. However, the 
current low numbers of individuals and populations, combined with their 
breeding, life-history requirements in stream habitats, and reduced 
ranges, of these three Hawaiian damselflies increase their 
vulnerability to the threat of flooding. The impact of flooding events 
may be increased by channelization of stream reaches, or degradation of 
riparian vegetation by feral ungulates. Naiads may be washed out of 
streams into the surrounding terrestrial habitat or washed downstream 
into portions of streams that are occupied by nonnative predatory fish. 
Adults perching on surrounding vegetation may be washed into flooded 
streams and drown.
    The blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies may also 
be affected by temporary habitat loss associated with droughts, which 
are not uncommon in the Hawaiian Islands. Between 1860 and 2002, the 
island of Oahu was affected by 49 periods of drought (Giambelluca et 
al. 1991, pp. 3-4; Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management 2009a 
and 2009b). These drought events often desiccate streams, irrigation 
ditches, and reservoirs; deplete groundwater supplies; and lead to 
forest and brush fires (Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management 
2009a and 2009b). Desiccation of streams, ditches, and reservoirs 
directly removes damselfly hunting and breeding habitat. Drought leads 
to an increase in the

[[Page 57674]]

number of forest and brush fires (Giambelluca et al. 1991, p. v), 
causing a reduction of native plant cover and habitat (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, pp. 77-79), and of plants used by the three Hawaiian 
damselflies for perching and hunting for prey.
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Agriculture and Urban 
Development
    Although we are unaware of any comprehensive, site-by-site 
assessment of wetland loss in Hawaii, Erikson and Puttock (2006, p. 40) 
and Dahl (1990, p. 7) estimated that at least 12 percent of lowland to 
upper-elevation wetlands in Hawaii had been converted to non-wetland 
habitat by the 1980s. If only coastal plain (below 1,000 ft (300 m)) 
marshlands and wetlands are considered, it is estimated that 30 percent 
have been converted to agricultural and urban development (Kosaka 1990, 
in litt.). Historical records show these marshlands and wetlands 
provided habitat for many damselfly species, including the blackline, 
oceanic, and crimson Hawaiian damselflies (Polhemus 2007, pp. 233, 237-
239; HBMP 2008).
    Although filling of wetlands is regulated by permitting today, the 
loss of riparian or wetland habitats utilized by the blackline and 
crimson Hawaiian damselflies may still occur due to Oahu's population 
growth and development, with concurrent demands on limited developable 
land and water resources (Lester 2007, in litt.). The State's 
Commission on Water Resource Management recognized the need for a water 
resource protection plan, which is currently under development 
(Commission on Water Resource Management 2010). In addition, marshes 
have been slowly filled and converted to meadow habitat, as a result of 
sedimentation from increased storm water runoff from upslope 
development, the accumulation of uncontrolled growth of invasive 
vegetation, and blockage of downslope drainage (Wilson Okamoto & 
Associates, Inc. 1993, pp. 3-4, 3-5).
    The threats posed by conversion of wetland and other aquatic 
habitat for agriculture and urban development are ongoing and are 
expected to continue into the future. Hawaii's population has increased 
almost 8 percent in the past 11 years, along with the associated 
increased demands on limited land and water resources (Hawaii 
Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (HDBEDT) 
2012). These modified areas lack the aquatic habitat features that the 
blackline and crimson Hawaiian damselflies require for essential life-
history needs, such as marshes, sidepools along streams, and slow 
sections of perennial streams, and no longer support populations of 
these two species. Agriculture and urban development have thus 
contributed to the present curtailment of the habitat of these two 
Hawaiian damselflies, and we have no indication that this threat is 
likely to be significantly ameliorated in the near future.
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Stream Diversion
    Stream modifications began with the early Hawaiians who diverted 
water to irrigate taro (kalo, Colocasia esculenta). A taro planter's 
share of water was determined by the amount of labor contributed to the 
construction and maintenance of the ditch, and was not proportional to 
their acreage of flooded terraces. Water rights of others taking water 
from the main stream below the dam had to be respected, and no ditch 
was permitted to divert more than half the flow from a stream. Water 
was withdrawn according to a time schedule, from a few hours at a time 
day or night, up to 2 or 3 days, and in times of drought, the ``water 
boss'' had the right to adjust the sharing of available water to meet 
exigencies (Handy and Handy 1972, pp. 58-59).
    The advent of plantation sugarcane cultivation led to far more 
extensive stream diversions, with the first diversion built in 1856 on 
Kauai (Wilcox 1996, p. 54). The first diversion on Oahu, Oahu Ditch, 
was built in 1902 (Wilcox 1996, p. 65). These systems were designed to 
tap water at upper elevations (above 1,000 ft (300 m)) by means of a 
concrete weir in the stream (Wilcox 1996, p. 54). All, or most, of the 
low or average flow of the stream was, and often still is, diverted 
into fields or reservoirs, leaving many stream channels completely dry 
(Takasaki et al. 1969, pp. 27-28; Harris et al. 1993, p. 12; Wilcox 
1996, p. 56).
    By the 1930s, water diversions had been developed on all of the 
main Hawaiian Islands, and by 1978, the stream flow in more than half 
the 366 perennial streams in Hawaii had been altered in some manner 
(Brasher 2003, p. 1,055). Some stream diversion systems are extensive, 
such as the Waiahole Ditch on Oahu, built in the early 1900s, which 
diverts water from 37 streams within the ranges of the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic damselflies, on the windward side of Oahu to the 
dry plains on the leeward side of the island via a tunnel cut through 
the Koolau range (Stearns and Vaksvik 1935, pp. 399-403; Tvedt and 
Oestigaard 2006, pp. 43-44). Historically, damselflies in the genus 
Megalagrion were a common component of Hawaiian streams and wetlands at 
elevations ranging from sea level to the summit of the Koolau range on 
Oahu. This loss of stream habitat may have contributed to the 
extirpation of populations of the three damselflies from lower 
elevations (Polhemus 2007, pp. 233-234, 238-239).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Dewatering of Aquifers
    In addition to the diversion of stream water and the resultant 
downstream dewatering, many streams on Oahu have experienced reduced or 
zero surface flow as a result of the dewatering of their source 
aquifers. Often these aquifers, which previously fed the streams, were 
tapped by tunneling or through the injudicious placement of wells 
(Gingerich and Oki 2000, p. 6; Stearns 1985, pp. 291-305). These 
groundwater sources were diverted for both domestic and agricultural 
use, and in some areas have completely depleted nearby stream and 
spring flows. For example, both the bore tunnels and the contour tunnel 
of the Waiahole Ditch system intersect perched aquifers (aquifers above 
the primary ground water table), which subsequently are drained to the 
elevation of the tunnels (Stearns and Vaksvik 1935, pp. 399-406). This 
has reduced stream habitat available to the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic damselflies. Likewise, the boring of the Haiku tunnel on Oahu 
in 1940 caused a 25 percent reduction in the base flow of Kahaluu 
Stream, which is more than 2.5 mi (4 km) away (Takasaki et al. 1969, 
pp. 31-32), and has impacted available habitat for the blackline and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (HBMP 2008). Many of these aquifers were 
also the sources of springs that contributed flow to Oahu's windward 
streams; draining of these aquifers caused many of the springs to dry 
up, including some more than 0.3 mi (0.5 km) away from the bore tunnels 
(Stearns and Vaksvik 1935, pp. 379-380).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Vertical Wells
    Surface flow of streams has also been affected by vertical wells 
drilled in pre-modern times, because the basal aquifer (lowest 
groundwater layer) and alluvial caprock (sediment-deposited harder rock 
layer) through which the lower sections of streams flow can be 
penetrated and hydraulically connected by wells (Gingerich and Oki 
2000, p. 6; Stearns 1940, p. 88). This allows water in aquifers 
normally feeding the stream to be diverted elsewhere underground. 
Dewatering of the streams by tunneling

[[Page 57675]]

and well placement near or in streams was a significant cause of 
habitat loss, and these effects continue today. Historically, for 
example, there was sufficient surface flow in Makaha and Nanakuli 
Streams on Oahu to support taro loi (artificial ponds for taro 
cultivation) in their lower reaches, but this flow disappeared 
subsequent to construction of vertical wells upstream (Devick 1995, 
pers. comm.). The inadvertent dewatering of streams through the 
penetration of their aquifers (which are normally separated from 
adjacent waterbearing layers by an impermeable layer), by tunneling or 
through placement of vertical wells, caused the loss of habitat of 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies habitat, as these 
species were historically known from these areas.
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Stream Channelization
    Stream degradation has been particularly severe on the island of 
Oahu where, by 1978, 58 percent of the perennial streams and banks had 
been channelized (e.g., concrete lined, partially lined, or altered) to 
control flooding (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 24; Brasher 2003, p. 
1,055). These alterations have resulted in an overall 89 percent loss 
of the total stream length island-wide (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 
24; Parrish et al. 1984, p. 83). The channelization of streams creates 
artificial, wide-bottomed stream beds, and often results in removal of 
riparian vegetation, which reduces shading, increases substrate 
homogeneity, increases temporal water velocity (increased water flow 
speed during times of higher precipitation including minor and major 
flooding), and causes higher water temperatures (Parrish et al. 1984, 
p. 83; Brasher 2003, p. 1,052). Tests conducted on native aquatic 
species showed that the higher water temperatures in channelized 
streams caused stress, and sometimes death (Parrish et al. 1984, p. 
83). Natural streams meander and are lined with rocks, trees, and 
natural debris, and during times of flooding, jump their banks. 
Channelized streams are straightened and often lack natural 
obstructions, and during times of higher precipitation or flooding, 
facilitate a higher water flow velocity. Hawaiian damselflies are 
largely absent from channelized portions of streams (Polhemus and 
Asquith 1996, p. 24), which has likely contributed to a reduction in 
the historical range of Hawaiian damselfly species. In contrast, 
undisturbed Hawaiian stream systems exhibit a greater amount of riffle 
and pool habitat canopy closure, higher consistent flow velocity, and 
lower water temperatures that are characteristic of streams to which 
the Hawaiian damselflies, in general, are adapted (Brasher 2003, pp. 
1,054-1,057).
    Channelization of streams has not been restricted to lower stream 
reaches. For example, there is extensive channelization of Oahu's 
Kalihi Stream above 1,000 ft (300 m) elevation. Extensive stream 
channelization on Oahu has also contributed to the loss of habitat for 
the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (Englund 1999, 
p. 236; Polhemus 2008, in litt.).
    Stream diversion, channelization, dewatering, and vertical wells 
represent serious and ongoing threats to the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies for the following reasons: (1) They reduce 
the amount and distribution of stream habitat available to these 
species; (2) they reduce stream flow, leaving lower elevation stream 
segments completely dry except during storms, or leaving many streams 
completely dry year round, thus reducing or eliminating stream habitat; 
and (3) they indirectly lead to an increase in water temperature that 
results in physiological stress and to the loss of blackline, crimson, 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly naiads. The blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are particularly vulnerable to extinction 
due to such changes (i.e., stream diversion, channelization, and 
dewatering), a vulnerability which is exacerbated by their range and 
habitat constrictions and declines in their population numbers.
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Climate Change
    Climate change will be a particular challenge for biodiversity 
because the introduction and interaction of additional stressors may 
push species beyond their ability to survive (Lovejoy et al. 2005, pp. 
325-326). The synergistic implications of climate change and habitat 
fragmentation are the most threatening facet of climate change for 
biodiversity (Lovejoy et al. 2005, p. 4). The magnitude and intensity 
of the impacts of global climate change and increasing temperatures on 
native Hawaiian ecosystems are unknown. We are not aware of climate 
change studies specifically related to the seven Oahu ecosystems 
described in this final rule, or the 23 species that are associated 
with those ecosystems. Based on the best available information, climate 
change impacts could lead to the decline or loss of native species that 
comprise the communities in which the 23 species occur (Pounds et al. 
1999, pp. 611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610; Benning et al. 2002, pp. 
14,246 and 14,248). In addition, weather regime changes (e.g., 
droughts, floods) will likely result from increased annual average 
temperatures related to more frequent El Ni[ntilde]o episodes in 
Hawaii. These changes may decrease water availability and increase the 
consumptive demand on Oahu's natural streams and reservoirs by Oahu's 
residents (Giambelluca et al. 1991, p. v). The effects of increasing 
temperatures on the aquatic habitat of the three damselfly species are 
not specifically known, but likely include the loss of aquatic habitat 
from reduced stream flow, evaporation of standing water, and increased 
water temperature (Pounds et al. 1999, pp. 611-612; Still et al. 1999, 
p. 610; Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14,246 and 14,248).
    Oki (2004, p. 4) has noted long-term evidence of decreased 
precipitation and stream flow on the Hawaiian Islands, based upon 
evidence collected by stream gauging stations. This long-term drying 
trend, coupled with existing ditch diversions and periodic El 
Ni[ntilde]o-caused drying events, has created a pattern of severe and 
persistent stream dewatering events (Polhemus 2008, in litt.). Future 
changes in precipitation and the forecast of those changes are highly 
uncertain because they depend, in part, on how the El Ni[ntilde]o-La 
Ni[ntilde]a weather cycle (a disruption of the ocean atmospheric system 
in the tropical Pacific having important global consequences for 
weather and climate) might change (Hawaii Climate Change Action Plan 
1998, pp. 2-10).
    The 23 species in this final rule may be especially vulnerable to 
extinction due to anticipated environmental changes that may result 
from global climate change. Environmental changes that may affect these 
species are expected to include habitat loss or alteration and changes 
in disturbance regimes (e.g., storms and hurricanes), in addition to 
direct physiological stress caused by increased streamwater 
temperatures to which the native Hawaiian damselfly fauna are not 
adapted. The probability of a species going extinct as a result of 
these factors increases when its range is restricted, habitat 
decreases, and population numbers decline (Intergovernmental Panel on 
Climate Change 2007, p. 8). The 23 species have limited environmental 
tolerances, limited ranges, restricted habitat requirements, small 
population sizes, and low numbers of individuals. Therefore, we would 
expect these species to be particularly vulnerable to projected

[[Page 57676]]

environmental impacts that may result from changes in climate, and 
subsequent impacts to their habitats (e.g., Pounds et al. 1999, pp. 
611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610; Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14,246 and 
14,248). We believe changes in environmental conditions that may result 
from climate change may impact these 23 species and their habitat, and 
we do not anticipate a reduction in this potential threat in the near 
future.
Summary of Habitat Destruction and Modification
    The threats to the habitats of each of the 23 Oahu species 
addressed in this final rule are occurring throughout the entire range 
of each of the species. These threats include introduced ungulates, 
nonnative plants, fire, natural disasters, and climate change. In 
addition, the habitats of the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies also face threats from agricultural and urban development, 
stream diversion, stream channelization, and stream dewatering.
    The effects from ungulates are ongoing, because ungulates currently 
occur in six of the seven ecosystems on which these species depend. The 
threat posed by introduced ungulates to the species and their habitats 
in this final rule that occur in these six ecosystems (see Table 2) is 
serious, because they cause: (1) Trampling and grazing that directly 
impact the plant communities, which include the 19 of the 20 plant 
species listed in this final rule, and impact plants in riparian areas 
used by the blackline, crimson, and oceanic damselflies for perching, 
reproduction, and hunting for prey; (2) increased soil disturbance, 
leading to mechanical damage to individuals of the plant species listed 
in this final rule, and plants in riparian areas used by the 
damselflies for perching, reproduction, and hunting for prey; (3) 
creation of open, disturbed areas conducive to weedy plant invasion and 
establishment of alien plants from dispersed fruits and seeds, which 
results over time in the conversion of a community dominated by native 
vegetation to one dominated by nonnative vegetation (leading to all of 
the negative impacts associated with nonnative plants, listed below); 
and (4) increased watershed erosion and sedimentation, which affects 
aquatic habitats used by the three Hawaiian damselflies. Although 
plants used for perching by damselflies are not necessarily native 
plants, ungulate activity damages or removes all plants near the 
stream. Damselflies depend on plants near the stream for their daily 
activities, territory establishment, reproduction, and hunting prey. 
These threats are expected to continue or increase without ungulate 
control or eradication.
    Nonnative plants represent a serious and ongoing threat to the 
habitats of all 20 plant species being addressed in this final rule 
through habitat destruction and modification because they: (1) 
Adversely impact microhabitat by modifying the availability of light; 
(2) alter soil-water regimes; (3) modify nutrient cycling processes; 
(4) alter fire characteristics of native plant habitat, leading to 
incursions of fire-tolerant nonnative plant species into native 
habitat; and (5) outcompete, and possibly directly inhibit the growth 
of, native plant species. Each of these threats can convert native-
dominated plant communities to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 74; Vitousek 1992, pp. 33-35). This conversion has 
negative impacts on, and is a threat to, the 20 plant species addressed 
here.
    The threat from fire to the habitats of six species in this final 
rule (Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Doryopteris takeuchii, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa; 
see Table 2) is a serious and ongoing threat, because fire damages and 
destroys native vegetation, including dormant seeds, seedlings, and 
juvenile and adult plants. Many nonnative, invasive plants, 
particularly fire-tolerant grasses, can outcompete native plants and 
inhibit their regeneration (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-74; 
Tunison et al. 2002, p. 122). Successive fires that burn farther and 
farther into native habitat destroy native plants and remove habitat 
for native species by altering microclimatic conditions and creating 
conditions favorable to alien plants. The threat from fire is 
unpredictable but omnipresent in ecosystems that have been invaded by 
nonnative, fire-prone grasses.
    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, represent a serious threat 
to the habitats of 7 of the 20 plant species addressed in this final 
rule (Bidens amplectens, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, Melicope 
christophersenii, M. hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, and 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis), because they open the forest 
canopy, modify available light, and create disturbed areas that are 
conducive to invasion by nonnative pest plants (Asner and Goldstein 
1997, p. 148; Harrington et al. 1997, pp. 346-347). The discussion 
under ``Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative Plants'' 
above provides additional information related to canopy gaps, light 
availability, and the establishment of nonnative plant species. In 
addition, hurricanes are a threat to the habitats of the three Hawaiian 
damselfly species in this final rule, because they alter and cause 
direct damage to streams (Polhemus 1993, pp. 86-87). These habitat 
impacts can be particularly devastating to the seven plant species and 
three Hawaiian damselfly species addressed in this final rule, because, 
due to other threats, they now persist in low numbers or occur in 
restricted ranges, and are therefore less resilient to such 
disturbances. Furthermore, a particularly destructive hurricane holds 
the potential to drive a localized endemic species to extinction in a 
single event. Hurricanes pose an ongoing and ever-present threat, 
because they can occur at any time, although their occurrence is not 
predictable.
    Landslides, rockfalls, and flooding adversely impact the habitats 
of 10 of the species in this final rule (Cyanea lanceolata, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Melicope makahae, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
and the blackline, crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) (see Table 
2) by destabilizing substrates, damaging and destroying individual 
plants and damselflies, and altering hydrological patterns. These 
threats result in habitat destruction or modification, and changes to 
native plant and animal communities. Drought is a threat to all three 
damselfly species' habitats by desiccation of streams, ditches, and 
reservoirs, which eliminates damselfly hunting and breeding habitat. 
These threats are significant and have the potential to occur at any 
time, although their incidence is not predictable.
    The threats caused by conversion of wetland and other aquatic 
habitat to agriculture and urban development are ongoing, expected to 
continue into the future, and affect each of the three damselfly's 
habitats. Twelve percent of the freshwater habitat in Hawaii has 
already been lost, and 30 percent of all coastal plain wetlands in 
Hawaii has been lost to agriculture and urban development (Kosaka 1990, 
in litt.). These modified areas no longer support populations of these 
Hawaiian damselflies. These threats are expected to continue in the 
future.
    Stream diversion, channelization, and dewatering represent serious 
and ongoing threats to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies because they: (1) Reduce the amount and distribution of 
stream habitat; (2) reduce stream flow, which

[[Page 57677]]

leaves lower elevation stream segments either completely dry year 
round, or completely dry except during storms, which reduces or 
eliminates stream habitat; and (3) indirectly lead to an increase in 
water temperature by altering the normal hydrograph patterns, which 
leads to the loss of damselfly naiads, due to direct physiological 
stress. The probability of species extinction increases when ranges are 
restricted, the quality and quantity of habitat decreases, and 
population numbers decline. Accordingly, the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are vulnerable to extinction due to such 
changes in their stream habitat.
    The projected effects of global climate change and increasing 
temperatures on the habitats of the 23 species addressed in this final 
rule are related to changes in microclimatic conditions in their 
habitats. These changes may lead to the loss of native species due to 
direct physiological stress, the loss or alteration of habitat, 
increased competition from nonnative species, and changes in 
disturbance regimes (e.g., fire, storms, and hurricanes). Because the 
specific and cumulative effects of climate change on these 23 species 
are presently unknown, we are not able to determine the magnitude of 
this possible threat with confidence.

B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

    We are not aware of any threats to the 23 species addressed in this 
final rule that are attributable to overutilization for commercial, 
recreational, scientific, or educational purposes.

C. Disease or Predation

Disease
    We are not aware of any threats to the 23 species addressed in this 
final rule that are attributable to disease.
Predation
    Hawaii's plants and animals evolved in nearly complete isolation 
from continental influences. Successful colonization of these remote 
volcanic islands was infrequent, and many organisms never established 
populations. For example, Hawaii lacks any native ants or conifers, has 
very few bird families, and has only a single native land mammal (Loope 
1998, p. 748). Defenses against mammalian herbivory, such as thorns, 
prickles, and production of toxins, were not needed, and the 
evolutionary pressure for plants to produce or maintain them was 
lacking. Therefore, Hawaiian plants either lost or never developed 
these defenses (Carlquist 1980, p. 173). The native flora and fauna of 
the islands are thus particularly vulnerable to the impacts of 
introduced nonnative species, as discussed below.
Introduced Ungulates
    In addition to the habitat impacts discussed above, ungulates pose 
a threat to the following 19 of the 20 plant species in this final rule 
by trampling and eating individual plants (this information is also 
presented in Table 2): Bidens amplectens (feral pigs and goats), Cyanea 
calycina (feral pigs and goats), C. lanceolata (feral pigs), C. 
purpurellifolia (feral pigs), Cyrtandra gracilis (feral pigs), C. 
kaulantha (feral pigs), C. sessilis (feral pigs), C. waiolani (feral 
pigs), Korthalsella degeneri (feral pigs and goats), Melicope 
christophersenii (feral pigs), M. hiiakae (feral pigs), M. makahae 
(feral pigs and goats), Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta (feral pigs), 
P. cornuta var. decurrens (feral pigs and goats), Pleomele forbesii 
(feral pigs and goats), Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis (feral 
pigs), Pteralyxia macrocarpa (feral pigs and goats), Tetraplasandra 
lydgatei (feral pigs), and Zanthoxylum oahuense (feral pigs). Predation 
by feral pigs and goats is also a threat to the host plants (Nestegis 
sandwicensis and Sapindus oahuensis) of Korthalsella degeneri. The fern 
Doryopteris takeuchii grows on the slopes of Diamond Head Crater, an 
area that is not affected by introduced ungulates.
    We have direct evidence of ungulate damage to some of these 
species, but for many, ungulate damage is presumed based on several 
studies conducted in Hawaii and elsewhere. In a study conducted by 
Diong (1982, p. 160) on Maui, feral pigs were observed browsing on 
young shoots, leaves, and fronds of a wide variety of plants, of which 
over 75 percent were endemic species (Diong 1982, p. 160). A stomach 
content analysis in this study showed that 60 percent of the pigs' food 
source consisted of the endemic Cibotium (hapuu, tree fern). Pigs were 
observed to fell plants and remove the bark of the native plant species 
Clermontia, Cibotium, Coprosma, Psychotria, Scaevola, and Hedyotis, 
resulting in larger trees being killed over a few months of repeated 
feeding (Diong 1982, p. 144). A study in Texas conducted by Beach 
(1997, pp. 3-4) revealed that feral pigs spread disease and parasites, 
and that their rooting and wallowing behavior led to spoilage of 
watering holes and loss of soil through leaching and erosion. Rooting 
activities also decreased the survivability of some plant species 
through disruption at root level of mature plants and seedlings (Beach 
1997, pp. 3-4).
    Feral goats thrive on a variety of food plants, and are 
instrumental in the decline of native vegetation in many areas (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, p. 64). Feral goats trample roots and seedlings, cause 
erosion, and promote the invasion of alien plants. They are able to 
forage in extremely rugged terrain and have a high reproductive 
capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 1980, p. C-20; van Riper and van Riper 
1982, pp. 34-35; Tomich 1986, pp. 153-156; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
64). A study of goat predation on a native Acacia koa forest on the 
island of Hawaii has shown that grazing pressure by goats can cause the 
eventual extinction of Acacia koa because it is unable to reproduce 
(Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 876). If goats are maintained at 
constantly high numbers, mature trees will eventually die, including 
the root systems that support suckers and vegetative reproduction 
(Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 876). Another study at Puuwaawaa on 
the island of Hawaii demonstrated that prior to management actions in 
1985, regeneration of endemic shrubs and trees in goat-grazed areas was 
almost totally lacking, contributing to the invasion of the forest 
understory by exotic grasses and weeds. After the removal of grazing 
animals in 1985, A. koa and Metrosideros spp. seedlings were observed 
germinating by the thousands (HDLNR 2002, p. 52). Based on a comparison 
of fenced and unfenced areas, it is clear that goats can devastate 
native ecosystems (Loope et al. 1988, p. 277). Because goats occur in 6 
of the 7 described ecosystems on Oahu, the results of the studies 
described above suggest that goats can also alter these ecosystems and 
directly damage or destroy native plants.
Rats
    There are three species of introduced rats on the Hawaiian Islands. 
The Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) 
are primarily found in the wild, in dry to wet habitats, while the 
Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is typically found in manmade habitats 
such as urban areas or agricultural fields (Tomich 1986, p. 41). 
Studies of Polynesian rat DNA suggest that they first appeared in the 
Hawaiian Islands along with emigrants from the Marquesas about 400 
A.D., with a second cultural interaction around 1100 A.D. (Ziegler 
2002, p. 315). The black rat and the Norway rat most likely arrived in 
the Hawaiian Islands more recently, as stowaways on ships,

[[Page 57678]]

sometime in the 19th century (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 25).
    Rats occur in all 7 of the Oahu ecosystems, and rat predation is a 
threat to 5 of the 20 plant species addressed in this final rule 
(Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Melicope hiiakae, 
and Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis; see Table 2), which have fleshy 
fruits. Rats impact native plants by eating fleshy fruits, seeds, 
flowers, stems, leaves, roots, and other plant parts (Atkinson and 
Atkinson 2000, p. 23), and can seriously affect regeneration. They are 
known to have caused declines or even the total elimination of island 
plant species (Campbell and Atkinson 1999, as cited in Atkinson and 
Atkinson 2000, p. 24). On the Hawaiian Islands, rats may consume as 
much as 90 percent of the seeds produced by some trees, or, in some 
cases, prevent the regeneration of forest species completely (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, pp. 68-69). Plants with fleshy fruits are particularly 
susceptible to rat predation, including several of the plant genera in 
this final rule, for example, the fruits of plants in the bellflower 
(e.g., Cyanea spp.) and African violet (e.g., Cyrtandra spp.) families 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 67-69). Research on rats in forests in New 
Zealand has demonstrated that, over time, rats may alter the species 
composition of forested areas (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 68-69).
Nonnative Fish
    Predation by nonnative fish is a serious and ongoing threat to the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. Crimson and 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly naiads occur in standing or seep-fed pools 
and slow-flowing sections of streams, and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly 
naiads occur under stones or mats of moss and algae in streams, where 
they are each vulnerable to predation by nonnative fish. Information 
suggests that Hawaiian damselflies experience limited natural predation 
pressure from the five species of freshwater fish native to Hawaii--
gobies (Gobiidae) and sleepers (Eleotridae) (Ego 1956, p. 24; Kido et 
al. 1993, pp. 43-44; Englund 1999, pp. 236-237). Hawaii's native fishes 
are benthic (bottom) feeders, and stream-dwelling Hawaiian damselfly 
species, including the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies, avoid these areas in preference for shallow side channels, 
sidepools, and higher velocity riffles and seeps (Englund 1999, pp. 
236-237). While fish predation has been an important factor in the 
evolution of behavior in damselfly naiads in continental systems 
(Johnson 1991, p. 8), it can only be speculated that Hawaii's stream-
dwelling damselflies adapted behaviors to avoid the benthic feeding 
habits of native fish species.
    Over 70 species of nonnative fish have been introduced into 
Hawaiian freshwater habitats (Devick 1991, p. 190; Englund 1999, p. 
226; Englund and Eldredge 2001, p. 32; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054; Englund 
2004, p. 27; Englund et al. 2007, p. 232), with at least 51 species now 
established (Freshwater Fishes of Hawaii 2008). The initial 
introduction of nonnative fish to Hawaii began with the release of food 
stock species by Asian immigrants at the turn of the 20th century; 
however, the impact of these first introductions on Hawaiian 
damselflies cannot be assessed because they predated the initial 
collection of damselflies in Hawaii (Perkins 1899, pp. 64-76). Between 
1905 and 1922, fish were introduced for biological control of 
mosquitoes, including the mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), sailfin 
molly (Poecilia latipinna), green swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri), 
moonfish (Xiphophorus maculatus), and guppy (Poecilia reticulata) (Van 
Dine 1907, p. 9; Englund 1999, p. 225; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054). By 
1935, some Oahu damselflies were becoming less common, and these 
introduced fish were the suspected cause of their decline (Williams 
1936, p. 313; Zimmerman 1948a, p. 341). From 1946 through 1961, several 
additional nonnative fish were introduced for the purpose of 
controlling nonnative aquatic plants and for recreational fishing 
(Brasher 2003, p. 1,054). During the 1980s, additional nonnative fish 
species were established in Oahu waters, including aggressive predators 
and habitat-altering species such as the channel catfish (Ictalurus 
punctatus), cichlids (e.g., Tilapia spp.), sailfin catfish (Liposarcus 
multiradiatus), top minnows (Limia vittata), and piranha (Serrasalmus 
sp.) (Devick 1991, pp. 189, 191-192; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054; Freshwater 
Fishes of Hawaii 2008). Englund (1999, p. 233) found several of these 
species to be abundant in nearly all lowland Oahu streams and water 
systems, although not all were as capable of colonizing higher 
elevation stream reaches as the introduced poeciliid species.
    Geologic or manmade barriers (e.g., waterfalls, steep gradients, 
dry stream midreaches, or constructed diversions) appear to prevent 
access by nonnative fish species to stream areas above these barriers; 
however, there is still a chance of facilitated fish movement. For 
example, in 2000, a maintenance worker introduced Tilapia spp. into 
ponds located on the grounds of Tripler Medical Army Hospital that were 
upslope from the remaining Oahu population of the orangeblack Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion xanthomelas) (Englund 2000, in litt.). The ponds 
were drained and the Tilapia spp. removed. The importance of their 
removal was underscored by the fact that a large storm caused the ponds 
to fill and overflow downslope into the stream supporting the 
damselflies soon after the Tilapia spp. were removed (Preston et al. 
2007, p. 263).
    Current literature indicates that the extirpation of Hawaiian 
damselflies from nearly all of their historical lowland habitat sites 
on Oahu is the result of predation by introduced nonnative fish (Moore 
and Gagne 1982, p. 4; Liebherr and Polhemus 1997, p. 502; Englund 1999, 
pp. 235-237; Brasher 2003, p. 1,055; Englund et al. 2007, p. 215; 
Polhemus 2007, pp. 238-239). The threats posed by continued 
introduction and establishment of nonnative fish in Hawaiian waters, 
and the possible movement of those nonnative species to new streams and 
other aquatic habitat, are ongoing and expected to continue into the 
future. This represents a serious threat to the survival of the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies.
Bullfrogs and Toads
    Currently there are three species of introduced aquatic amphibians 
on the Hawaiian Islands: the North American bullfrog (Rana 
catesbeiana), the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and the Japanese wrinkled 
frog (Rana rugosa). Native to the eastern United States and the Great 
Plains region (Moyle 1973, pp. 18-19; Bury and Whelan 1985, p. 1; Lever 
2003, p. 203), the bullfrog was first introduced to Hawaii in 1899 
(Bryan 1931, pp. 62-63) to help control insects, specifically the 
nonnative Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), a significant pest of 
ornamental plants (Bryan 1931, p. 62). First released on the island of 
Hawaii, bullfrogs have demonstrated great success in establishing new 
populations on all the main islands (Bryan 1931, p. 63; Moyle 1973, p. 
19; USGS 2008, p. 8). This species is flexible in both habitat and food 
requirements (McKeown 1996, pp. 24-27; Bury and Whelan 1984, pp. 3-7; 
Lever 2003, pp. 203-204), and can utilize any water source within its 
temperature range, 60[deg]F to 75 [deg]F (16 [deg]C to 24 [deg]C) 
(DesertUSA 2008). In other areas outside its native range, the 
bullfrog's primary impact is the elimination of native frog species 
(Moyle 1973, p. 21). Englund et al. (2007, pp. 215, 219) found a strong

[[Page 57679]]

correlation between the presence of bullfrogs and the absence of 
Hawaiian damselflies in their study of streams on all the main Hawaiian 
Islands. Bullfrogs are a threat to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies because they are omnivorous feeders that occur in 
the same habitat as the damselflies on Oahu (McKeown 1996, pp. 24-27; 
Bury and Whelan 1984, pp. 3-7; Lever 2003, pp. 203-204). They have a 
negatively correlated pattern of occurrence with native damselflies, 
including the three species described in this final rule (Polhemus 
2012, in litt.).
    The effects of possible predation by the cane toad and the Japanese 
wrinkled frog on the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies are unknown at this time, and we are not able to determine 
the magnitude or the significance of this potential threat.
Invertebrates
    Predation by nonnative invertebrate pests adversely impacts 11 of 
the plant species (see Table 2) through mechanical damage, destruction 
of plant parts, parasitism, and mortality. Those introduced 
invertebrate pests with the greatest effect on these native plant 
species include at least 14 different species of slugs (Joe 2006, p. 
10), the black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) (Davis 1970, pp. 38-
39), and the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia) (Fukada 1996, 
pp. 1-12; Hawaii Department of Agriculture 2006). The blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies face the threat of predation 
by ants (Borror et al. 1989, pp. 737-741).
Slugs
    Predation by nonnative slugs is a threat to individuals of the 
three species of Cyanea (Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, and C. 
purpurellifolia) and the four species of Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra gracilis, 
C. kaulantha, C. sessilis, and C. waiolani) (Joe 2006, p. 10) in this 
final rule. On Oahu, slugs have been reported to destroy Cyanea 
calycina and Cyrtandra kaulantha in the wild, and have been observed 
eating leaves and fruit of cultivated individuals of Cyanea (Mehrhoff 
1995, in litt.; U.S. Army Garrison 2005a, pp. 3-34, 3-51). In addition, 
slugs have damaged individuals of Cyrtandra and individuals of other 
species of Cyanea in the wild (Wood et al. 2001, p. 3; Sailer and Kier 
2002, p. 3; PEP 2007, p. 38; PEP 2008, pp. 23, 49, 52, 53, 57). Little 
is known about predation of certain rare plants by slugs; however, 
information in the U.S. Army's 2005 ``Status Report for the Makua 
Implementation Plan'' indicates that slugs can be a threat to all 
species of Cyanea, based on laboratory studies (U.S. Army Garrison 
2005a, p. 3-51). Research investigating slug herbivory and control 
methods shows that slug impacts on Cyanea spp. seedlings result in up 
to 80 percent seedling mortality (U.S. Army Garrison 2005a, p. 3-51). 
Direct evidence of slug predation has been reported for Cyanea calycina 
and Cyrtandra kaulantha in the wild (see above). Although we do not 
have direct evidence of slug predation on the species of Cyanea and 
Cyrtandra that are addressed in this final rule, research and field 
observations indicate that predation by slugs is a threat to species of 
Cyanea and Cyrtandra in the wild, the five species have similar life 
forms (e.g., fleshy stems, fruit, and leaves) and occur in habitat 
similar to that of the species that have been impacted by slug 
herbivory in the wild and under laboratory conditions, and slugs are 
found in the ecosystems on Oahu in which these plants occur. It is 
therefore reasonable to assume Cyanea lanceolata and C. 
purpurellifolia, and Cyrtandra gracilis, C. sessilis, and C. waiolani 
are exposed to similar impacts from slug predation.
Black Twig Borer
    The black twig borer is known to infest a wide variety of common 
plant taxa, including native species of Melicope (Davis 1970, pp. 38-
39; Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management 
Program 2006, p. 1). This insect pest burrows into branches, introduces 
a pathogenic fungus as food for its larvae, and lays its eggs (Davis 
1970, p. 39). Twigs, branches, and entire plants can be damaged or 
killed from an infestation (Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR 
Integrated Pest Management Program 2006, p. 2). Black twig borer damage 
is typically observed on plants in mesic or dry forests or shrublands, 
and not usually observed on plants in wet forest or shrubland (Lau 
2012, in litt.). On the Hawaiian Islands, the black twig borer has many 
hosts, disperses easily, and is probably present at most elevations up 
to 2,500 ft (762 m) (Howarth 1985, pp. 152-153). The black twig borer 
is a threat to M. makahae, the only species of Melicope that occurs in 
mesic forest and shrubland.
Two-Spotted Leafhopper
    The effects of predation by the two-spotted leafhopper have been 
observed on three plant species included in this final rule, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum oahuense (HBMP 2008). 
This nonnative insect damages the leaves it feeds on, typically causing 
chlorosis (yellowing due to disrupted chlorophyll production) to 
browning and death of foliage (Hawaii Department of Agriculture 2006). 
The damage to plants can result in the death of affected leaves or the 
whole plant, owing to the combined action of its feeding and 
oviposition behavior (Alyokhin et al. 2004, p. 1). In addition to the 
mechanical damage caused by the feeding process, the insect may 
introduce plant pathogens that lead to eventual plant death (Extension 
Entomology and UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program 2006, p. 2). 
The two-spotted leafhopper is a highly polyphagous insect (it feeds on 
many different types of food). Sixty-eight percent of its recorded host 
plant species in Hawaii are fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops, and 
22 percent are endemic plants, over half of which are rare and 
endangered (Alyokhin et al. 2004, p. 6). Its range is limited to below 
4,000 ft (1,200 m) in elevation, unless there is a favorable 
microclimate. While there has been a dramatic reduction in the number 
of two-spotted leafhopper populations in the past few years (possibly 
due to egg parasitism), this nonnative insect has not been eradicated, 
and predation by this nonnative insect remains a threat (Fukada 2007, 
pers. comm.).
Ants
    Ants are not a natural component of Hawaii's arthropod fauna, and 
native species evolved in the absence of predation pressure from ants. 
Ants can be particularly destructive predators because of their high 
densities, recruitment behavior, aggressiveness, and broad range of 
diet (Reimer 1993, pp. 14, 17-18). The threat of ant predation on the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies is amplified by 
the fact that most ant species have winged reproductive adults (Borror 
et al. 1989, p. 738) and can quickly establish new colonies in 
additional suitable habitats (Staples and Cowie 2001, pp. 53-55). These 
attributes allow some ants to destroy otherwise geographically isolated 
populations of native arthropods (Nafus 1993, pp. 19, 22-23).
    At least 47 species of ants are known to be established on the 
Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii Ants 2008, pp. 1-11), and at least four 
particularly aggressive species, the big-headed ant (Pheidole 
megacephala), the long-legged ant (also known as the yellow crazy ant, 
Anoplolepis gracilipes), Solenopsis papuana (NCN), and Solenopsis 
geminata (NCN) have severely impacted the native insect fauna, likely 
including

[[Page 57680]]

native damselflies (Zimmerman 1948b, p. 173; Reimer 1993, pp. 11-13; 
Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) database 2007). Numerous other species 
of ants are recognized as threats to Hawaii's native invertebrates, and 
an unknown number of new species are established every few years 
(Staples and Cowie 2001, p. 53). Due to their preference for drier 
habitat sites, ants are less likely to occur in high densities in the 
aquatic habitat currently occupied by the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. However, some species of ants (e.g., the 
long-legged ant and Solenopsis papuana) have increased their range into 
this aquatic habitat. Furthermore, the presence of ants in nearly all 
of the lower elevation, historical habitat sites may preclude the 
future recolonization of these areas by damselflies, including the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. Damselfly naiads 
may be particularly susceptible to ant predation while perching on 
vegetation or rocks when they crawl out of the water or seek a 
terrestrial location for their metamorphosis into the adult stage 
(Polhemus 2008b, in litt.). Newly emerged adult damselflies are also 
susceptible to predation until their wings have sufficiently hardened 
to permit flight (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 4).
    The long-legged ant appeared in Hawaii in 1952, and now occurs on 
Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii (Reimer et al. 1990, p. 42). It inhabits 
low- to mid-elevation (less than 2,000 ft (600 m)) rocky areas of 
moderate rainfall (less than 100 in (250 cm) annually) (Reimer et al. 
1990, p. 42). Direct observations indicate that Hawaiian arthropods are 
susceptible to predation by this species (Hardy 1979, p. 34; Gillespie 
and Reimer 1993, p. 21). Solenopsis papuana is the only abundant, 
aggressive ant that has invaded intact mesic and wet forest from sea 
level to 3,600 ft (1,100 m) on all the main Hawaiian Islands. Colonies 
reach dense populations, and ranges of this species are expanding on 
all islands (Reimer 1993, p. 14). The blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies' historical ranges were from sea level to over 
2,400 ft (732 m) (Williams 1936, p. 318; Englund 1999, pp. 229-230), 
and they are currently found between 80 and 2,500 ft (24 and 760 m) in 
elevation (Polhemus 2008a, in litt.; Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 77; 
HBMP 2008). It is likely, based on our knowledge of the expanding range 
of Solenopsis papuana, that it threatens all populations of these three 
Hawaiian damselflies. The rarity or disappearance of the native 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic damselfly species from historical 
observation sites is due to a variety of factors. While there is no 
documentation that conclusively ties the decrease in the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly observations to the 
establishment of nonnative ants in the lowland mesic and lowland wet 
habitats, the presence of ants in these habitats, the knowledge that 
they prey on native invertebrates, and the decline of damselfly 
observations in some areas in these habitats suggest that nonnative 
ants play a role in the decline of some populations of these 
damselflies.
Summary of Disease or Predation
    We are unaware of any information that indicates that disease is a 
threat to the 23 species. We consider predation and parasitism by 
nonnative animal species (pigs, goats, rats, fish, bullfrogs, and 
invertebrates) to pose an ongoing threat to 22 of the 23 species in 
this final rule throughout their ranges, and will continue to be so in 
the foreseeable future, for the following reasons:
    (1) Observations and reports have documented that pigs and goats 
browse on and trample 19 of the 20 plant species, and browse on and 
trample the host plants of the other species (see Table 2); other 
studies demonstrate the negative impacts of ungulate browsing and 
trampling on native plant species of the Hawaiian islands (Spatz and 
Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 874; Diong 1982, p. 160; Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 67).
    (2) Nonnative invertebrates and rats cause mechanical damage to 
plants and destruction of plant parts (branches, fruits, seeds), 
affecting 13 of the 20 plant species in this final rule (see Table 2).
    (3) The absence of Hawaiian damselflies (including the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) in streams and other aquatic 
habitat on the main Hawaiian Islands is strongly correlated with the 
presence of predatory nonnative fish as documented in numerous 
observations and reports (Englund 1999, p. 237; Englund 2004, p. 27; 
Englund et al. 2007, p. 215), which suggests nonnative predatory fishes 
eliminate native Hawaiian damselflies from these aquatic habitats. 
There are 70 introduced species of nonnative fishes, with over 51 
species established in freshwater habitats on the Hawaiian Islands from 
sea level to over 3,800 ft (1,150 m) in elevation (Devick 1991, p. 190; 
Englund and Eldredge 2001, p. 32; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054; Englund 1999, 
p. 226; Englund 2004, p. 27; Englund et al. 2007, p. 232). Accordingly, 
predation by nonnative fishes is a serious and ongoing threat to the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (see Table 2).
    (4) Damselfly naiads are vulnerable to predation by ants, and the 
ranges of the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
overlap that of particularly aggressive, nonnative, predatory ant 
species that currently occur from sea level to 2,000 ft (610 m) in 
elevation on all of the main Hawaiian Islands. We therefore consider 
the three Hawaiian damselflies in this final rule to be facing the 
threat of predation by these nonnative ants.
    (5) Englund et al. (2007, pp. 215, 219) found a strong correlation 
between the presence of nonnative bullfrogs and the absence of Hawaiian 
damselflies. Bullfrogs are reported from riparian habitat on all the 
main Hawaiian Islands, except Kahoolawe and Niihau. Bullfrogs prey on 
almost anything that moves, including a wide variety of insects, 
invertebrates, and vertebrates (McKeown 1996, p. 24). The blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies also use riparian habitat, 
and face the threat of predation by bullfrogs.

D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

Feral Ungulates
    Nonnative ungulates pose a major ongoing threat to 19 of the 20 
plant species through destruction and degradation of terrestrial 
habitat, and through direct predation of 19 of the 20 plant species. 
The State of Hawaii provides game mammal (feral pigs and goats) hunting 
opportunities on 12 State-designated public hunting areas on the island 
of Oahu (H.A.R. sec. 13-123; HDLNR 2009, pp. 25-30). The State's 
management objectives for game animals range from maximizing public 
hunting opportunities (e.g., sustained yield) in some areas to removal 
by State staff, or their designees, in other areas (H.A.R. sec. 13-
123). Approximately 23 percent (10,168 ac (4,119 ha)) of the critical 
habitat being designated in this final rule is in State hunting areas. 
Fifteen of the 20 plant species and all three damselfly species have 
populations in areas where terrestrial habitat may be managed for game 
enhancement, and where game populations are maintained at certain 
levels through public hunting (HBMP 2008; H.A.R. sec. 13-123). Public 
hunting areas are not fenced, and game mammals have unrestricted access 
to most areas across the landscape, regardless of underlying land use 
designation. While fences are sometimes built to provide protection 
from game mammals, the current number and

[[Page 57681]]

locations of fences are not adequate to prevent habitat destruction and 
degradation of the terrestrial habitat of 22 of the 23 species, and 
direct predation of 19 of the 20 plant species on Oahu. However, the 
State game animal regulations are not designed nor intended to provide 
habitat protection, and there are no other regulations designed to 
address habitat protection from ungulates.
Stream Flow
    In Hawaii, instream flow is regulated by establishing standards on 
a stream-by-stream basis. The standards currently in effect represent 
flow conditions in 1988, the year the administrative rules were adopted 
(State Water Code, Haw. Rev. Stat. 174C-71, and Administrative Rules of 
the State Water Code, Title 13, Chapter 169-44-49). The State of Hawaii 
considers all natural flowing surface water (streams, springs, and 
seeps) as State property (Haw. Rev. Stat. 174C), and the Hawaii 
Department of Land and Natural Resources (HDLNR) has management 
responsibility for the aquatic organisms in these waters (Haw. Rev. 
Stat. Annotated, 1988, Title 12; 1992 Cumulative Supplement). 
Accordingly, damselfly populations in all natural flowing surface 
waters are under jurisdiction of the State of Hawaii, regardless of 
property ownership. This includes the blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly populations.
    The State of Hawaii manages the use of surface and ground water 
resources through the Commission on Water Resource Management (Water 
Commission), as mandated by the 1987 State Water Code (State Water 
Code, Haw. Rev. Stat. 174, and Administrative Rules of the State Water 
Code, Title 13, Chapters 168 and 169). Because of the complexity of 
establishing instream flow standards (IFS) for approximately 376 
perennial streams, the Water Commission established interim IFS at 
status quo levels in 1987 (Hawaii Commission on Water Resource 
Management 2009c). In the Waiahole Ditch Combined Contested Hearing on 
Oahu (1997-2006), the Hawaii Supreme Court determined that status quo 
interim IFS were not adequate, and required the Water Commission to 
reassess the IFS for Waiahole Ditch and other streams Statewide (Case 
No. CCH-OA95-1). The Water Commission has been gathering information to 
fulfill this requirement since 2006, but no IFS recommendations have 
been made to date (Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management 
2009c). Therefore, we find that the existing State regulations are 
inadequate to maintain stream flow year round for the different life 
stages of the three damselflies. These threats are ongoing and are 
expected to continue into the future.
Introduction of Nonnative Species
    The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) is the lead State 
agency in protecting Hawaii's agricultural and horticultural 
industries, animal and public health, natural resources, and 
environment from the introduction of nonnative, invasive species (HDLNR 
2003, p. 3-10). While there are several State agencies (HDOA, HDLNR, 
Hawaii Department of Health) authorized to prevent the entry of pest 
species into the State, the existing regulations are inadequate for the 
reasons discussed in the sections below.
    In 1995, a partnership, Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species 
(CGAPS), comprised primarily of managers from every major Federal, 
State, county, and private agency and organization involved in invasive 
species work in Hawaii, was formed in an effort to influence policy and 
funding decisions, improve communication, increase collaboration, and 
promote public awareness (CGAPS 2009). This group facilitated the 
formation of the Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC), which was 
created by gubernatorial executive order in 2002, to coordinate local 
initiatives for the prevention and control of invasive species by 
providing policy level direction and planning for the State departments 
responsible for invasive species issues. In 2003, the governor signed 
into law Act 85, which conveys statutory authority to the HISC to 
continue to coordinate approaches among the various State and Federal 
agencies, and international and local initiatives, for the prevention 
and control of invasive species (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-15; HISC 2009a; Haw. 
Rev. Stat. sec. 194-2(a)). Some of the recent priorities for the HISC 
include interagency efforts to control nonnative species such as the 
plants Miconia calvescens (miconia) and Cortaderia sp. (pampas grass), 
coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui), and ants (HISC 2009a). Since 
2009, State funding for HISC has been cut by approximately 50 percent 
(total funding dropped from $4 million in FY 2009 to $2 million in FY 
2010, and to $1.8 mil in FY 2011 (Atwood 2012, in litt.)). 
Congressional earmarks made up some of the shortfall in State funding 
in 2010 and into 2011. These funds supported ground crew staff that 
would have been laid off due to the shortfall in State funding (Clark 
2012, in litt.). Currently (in 2012) the HISC budget is relatively flat 
(i.e., State funding is equal to funding provided in 2009). Current 
positions supported by HISC are fewer than those supported in 2009; 
most of the positions have been lost through attrition and have not 
been refilled (Atwood 2012, in litt.; Clark 2012, in litt.). In 
addition, HISC funds fewer projects and provides fewer services (Atwood 
2012, in litt.; Clark 2012, in litt.) than in 2009 and earlier. Many 
projects (such as invasive species and biological control research) 
that were previously funded by HISC are receiving negligible HISC 
funding or remain unfunded (Atwood 2012, in litt.; Clark 2012, in 
litt.).
    Nonnative Aquatic Species--The importation of nondomestic animals, 
including aquatic species, is regulated by a permit system (H.A.R. sec. 
4-71) managed through the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA). The 
HDOA's Board of Agriculture maintains lists of nondomestic animals that 
are prohibited from entry, animals with entry restrictions, and those 
that require a permit for import and possession. The HDOA requires a 
permit to import animals, and conditionally approves entry for 
individual possession, businesses (e.g., pet/resale trade, retail 
sales, food consumption), or institutions.
    The Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), within the State's HDLNR, 
manages the aquatic resources of the State (Hawaii DAR 2009) and is 
responsible for conserving, protecting, and enhancing the State's 
renewable resources of aquatic life and habitat (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-13). 
The release of live nonnative fish or other live nonnative aquatic life 
into any waters of the State is prohibited (Haw. Rev. Stat. sec. 187A-
6.5). The DAR has the authority to seize, confiscate, or destroy as a 
public nuisance, any fish or other aquatic life found in any waters of 
the State and whose importation is prohibited or restricted pursuant to 
rules of the HDOA (section 187A-2 (4 Haw. Rev. Stat. sec. 187A-6.5)). 
State and Federal regulations are in place to prevent the unauthorized 
entry of nonnative aquatic animals such as fish and amphibians into the 
State of Hawaii; however, their intentional or inadvertent introduction 
and movement between islands and between watersheds continues, although 
prohibited (HDOA 2003, pp. 2-12-2-14). Further, there is insufficient 
regulatory capacity to adequately enforce such regulations or to 
provide for sufficient inspection services and monitoring, although 
this priority need is recognized (Cravalho and Wilson 2009, in litt.).

[[Page 57682]]

    Nonnative Invertebrate Species--Predation by nonnative invertebrate 
pests (e.g., slugs, black twig borer, two-spotted leafhopper) adversely 
impacts 13 of the plant species (see Table 2). In addition, naiads of 
the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are vulnerable 
to predation by ants. The decline of damselfly observations and the 
establishment of ants in lowland mesic and lowland wet habitats on Oahu 
suggest that the presence of nonnative ants in these habitats may 
preclude their occupancy by native damselflies (see Factor C. Disease 
or Predation). The prevention and control of introduction of pest 
species in Hawaii is the responsibility of Hawaii State government and 
Federal agencies, along with a few private organizations. Even though 
these agencies have regulations and some controls in place, the 
introduction and movement of nonnative invertebrate pest species 
between islands and from one watershed to the next continues. For 
example, an average of 20 new alien invertebrate species were 
introduced to Hawaii per year since 1970, an increase of 25 percent 
over the previous totals between 1930 to 1970 (The Nature Conservancy 
of Hawaii (TNCH) 1992, p. 8).
    Nonnative Plant Species--Nonnative plants destroy and modify 
habitat throughout the ranges of each of the 20 plant species being 
addressed in this final rule. As such, they represent a serious and 
ongoing threat to each of these plant species. In addition, nonnative 
plants have been shown to outcompete native plants and convert native-
dominated plant communities to nonnative plant communities (see 
``Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative Plants,'' under 
Factor A, above). The HDOA regulates the import of plants into the 
State from domestic origins under Hawaii State law (Haw. Rev. Stat. Ch. 
150A). While all plants require inspection upon entry into the State 
and must be ``apparently free'' of insects and diseases, not all plants 
require import permits. Parcels brought into the State by mail or cargo 
must be clearly labeled as ``plant materials'' or ``agricultural 
commodities,'' but it is unlikely that all of these parcels are 
inspected or monitored prior to delivery in Hawaii. Shipments of plant 
material into Hawaii must be accompanied by an invoice or packing 
manifest listing the contents and quantities of the items imported, 
but, again, it is unclear if all of these shipments are inspected or 
monitored prior to delivery (HDOA 2009).
    There are only 12 plant crops that are regulated (H.A.R. 4-70) to 
some degree, including sugarcane and grasses, pineapple and other 
bromeliads, coffee, cruciferous vegetables, orchids, banana, passion 
fruit, pine, coconut, hosts of European corn borer, palms, and hosts of 
Caribbean fruit fly (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-11). The HDOA also maintains the 
State list of noxious weeds, and these plants are restricted from entry 
into the State except by permit from the HDOA's Plant Quarantine 
Branch. Although the State has general guidelines for the importation 
of plants, and regulations are in place regarding the plant crops 
mentioned above, the intentional or inadvertent introduction of 
nonnative plants outside the regulatory process and movement of species 
between islands and from one watershed to the next continues, which 
represents a threat to native flora for the reasons described above. In 
addition, government funding is inadequate to provide for sufficient 
inspection services and monitoring. One study concluded that the plant 
importation laws virtually ensure new invasive plants will be 
introduced via the nursery and ornamental trade, and that outreach 
efforts cannot keep up with the multitude of new invasive plants being 
distributed. The author states the only thing that wide-scale public 
outreach can do in this regard is to let the public know new invasive 
plants are still being sold, and they should ask for noninvasive or 
native plants instead (Martin 2007, in litt.).
    On the basis of the above information, existing State and Federal 
regulatory mechanisms are not adequately preventing the introduction of 
nonnative species into Hawaii via interstate and international 
mechanisms, or via intrastate movement of nonnative species between 
islands and watersheds in Hawaii. Therefore, State and Federal 
regulatory mechanisms do not adequately protect the 23 species being 
addressed in this final rule from the threat of new introductions of 
nonnative species or the continued expansion of nonnative species 
populations on and between islands and watersheds. Nonnative species 
may prey upon, modify or destroy habitat of, or directly compete with 
one or more of the 23 species for food, space, and other necessary 
resources. The impacts from these introduced threats are ongoing and 
are expected to continue in the foreseeable future.
Summary of Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms
    The State Water Code does not provide for permanent or minimum IFS 
for the protection of aquatic ecosystems upon which the three damselfly 
species in this final rule depend, and does not contain a regulatory 
mechanism for identifying and protecting damselfly habitat (Factor A). 
Existing State and Federal regulatory mechanisms are not preventing the 
introduction into Hawaii of nonnative species or the spread of 
nonnative species between islands and watersheds. Habitat-altering 
nonnative plant species (Factor A) and predation by nonnative animal 
species (Factor C) pose a major ongoing threat to the 23 species being 
addressed in this final rule. Because these regulatory mechanisms are 
inadequate to maintain habitat for the 23 species, and to prevent the 
spread of nonnative species, the inadequacy of existing regulatory 
mechanisms is considered to be a serious threat, both now and in the 
foreseeable future. Each of the 20 plant species experiences threats 
from habitat degradation and loss by nonnative plants (Factor A), and 
19 of the 20 plants experience threats from nonnative animals (Factor A 
and Factor C). The three damselflies experience threats from habitat 
degradation and loss by stream channeling, conversion, and similar 
activities (Factor A), and by predation by nonnative fish and ants 
(Factor C). Therefore, the inadequacy of the regulatory mechanisms to 
address stream flow management and nonnative species is a threat to all 
23 species.

E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued Existence

    Other factors that pose threats to some or all of the 23 species 
include small number of populations and small population sizes, human 
trampling as a result of hiking and other activities, loss of host 
plants, and lack of regeneration. Each threat is discussed in detail 
below, along with identification of which species are affected by these 
threats.
Small Number of Populations and Individuals
    Species that are endemic to single islands are inherently more 
vulnerable to extinction than are widespread species, because of the 
increased risk of genetic bottlenecks; random demographic fluctuations; 
climate change effects; and localized catastrophes such as hurricanes, 
landslides, rockfalls, drought, and disease outbreaks (Pimm et al. 
1988, p. 757; Mangel and Tier 1994, p. 607). These problems are further 
magnified when populations are few and restricted to a very small 
geographic area, and when the number of individuals of each population 
is very small. Populations with these characteristics face an increased 
likelihood of stochastic

[[Page 57683]]

extinction, due to changes in demography, the environment, genetics, or 
other factors (Gilpin and Soul[eacute] 1986, pp. 24-34). Small, 
isolated populations often exhibit reduced levels of genetic 
variability, which diminishes the species' capacity to adapt and 
respond to environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of 
long-term persistence (e.g., Barrett and Kohn 1991, p. 4; Newman and 
Pilson 1997, p. 361). The problems associated with small population 
size and vulnerability to random demographic fluctuations or natural 
catastrophes are further magnified by synergistic interactions with 
other threats, such as those discussed above (see discussions under 
Factors A and C).
    Very small plant populations may experience reduced reproductive 
vigor due to ineffective pollination or inbreeding depression. This is 
particularly true for functionally unisexual plants like Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis, in which staminate (male) and pistillate 
(female) flowers occur on separate individuals. Isolated individuals 
have difficulty achieving natural pollen exchange, which decreases the 
production of viable seed. Populations are also impacted by demographic 
stochasticity, through which populations are skewed toward either male 
or female individuals by chance.
    The following nine plant species in this final rule face the threat 
of limited numbers (e.g., they total fewer than 50 individuals): Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. waiolani, 
Melicope hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense. We 
consider small population size to be a threat to these species for the 
following reasons:
     Cyanea purpurellifolia is susceptible to reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the low number (20) of individuals remaining 
(DLNR 2005b, p. 2). Although facing severe threats from feral pigs, 
none of the individuals of this species are protected from ungulate 
predation (PEP 2007, p. 13).
     Cyrtandra gracilis is known only from a single occurrence, 
with six to eight individuals (NTBG Provenance Reports 2002, p. 1 and 
2004, p. 1; PEP 2007, p. 16).
     The only known wild populations of Cyrtandra kaulantha and 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis are facing imminent threats from 
flooding, landslides, and rock falls because of their locations in 
steep gulches (PEP 2006, p. 46, 51; PEP 2007, p. 25).
     The last confirmed observation of Cyrtandra waiolani in 
the wild was approximately 40 years ago. The identification of a 
possible wild individual of C. waiolani in 2005 was confirmed not to be 
this species. In addition, there are no tissues, propagules, or seeds 
in storage or propagation that have positively been identified (PEP 
2007, p. 19; Bakutis 2008, in litt.; Lau 2011, in litt.).
     Melicope hiiakae is susceptible to reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the lack of pollination and seed predation (NTBG Report 
2007b, p. 4; Perlman, 2007b, in litt.).
     Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta individuals are widely 
scattered in the Koolau Mountains, and are susceptible to reduced 
reproductive vigor (HBMP 2008).
     The range of known occurrences of Tetraplasandra lydgatei 
has been reduced from 10 mi (16 km) to 2 mi (3 km) since 2005, and 
consists of 2 occurrences totaling 8 individuals (HBMP 2008). These 
individuals are showing a decline in health (Bakutis 2008, in litt.).
     Botanists have observed a steady decline in the numbers of 
individuals of Zanthoxylum oahuense over the last 9 years. This species 
is also susceptible to infestation by the two-spotted leafhopper 
(Garnett and Obata 1999, in litt.).
    The blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies face the 
threat of limited numbers. Jordan et al. (2007, p. 247) conducted a 
genetic and comparative phylogeography analysis (study of historical 
processes responsible for genetic divergence within a species) of four 
Hawaiian Megalagrion species, including Pacific Hawaiian damselfly 
(Megalagrion pacificum), an endangered species (75 FR 35990; June 24, 
2010), and the orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly, a candidate species (76 
FR 66370; October 26, 2011). This analysis demonstrated Megalagrion 
populations with low genetic diversity are at greater risk of decline 
and extinction than those with high genetic diversity. The authors 
found that low genetic diversity was observed in populations known to 
be bottlenecked or relictual (groups of animals or plants that exist as 
a remnant of a formerly widely distributed group), including Oahu and 
Maui populations of orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly and Pacific Hawaiian 
damselfly. Although this study did not include an analysis of the 
blackline, crimson, or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, given that these 
five species have similar habitat, breeding, and life-history 
requirements, are related phylogenetically (same genus), and have low 
numbers of populations and individuals, it is reasonable to assume that 
populations of the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
(each known from fewer than 20 populations) are also at great risk of 
decline and extinction.
Human Trampling and Hiking
    Visitors on foot, horseback, and motorbikes may pose threats to 
Cyanea calycina directly due to trampling and other direct damage, and 
indirectly due to being a source of fire ignition in areas in the 
southern Waianae Mountains (TNCH 1997, p. 10). Human impacts, such as 
trampling by hikers, has been documented as a threat to C. calycina in 
the northern Waianae Mountains, between Kaala and Puu Kalena summits 
(Wood 2001, in litt.). The largest known population of Cyrtandra 
sessilis is located along a popular hiking trail in the Koolau 
Mountains, and individuals climbing and hiking off the established 
trail to visit this occurrence could trample individual plants and 
contribute to soil compaction and erosion, preventing growth and 
establishment of seedlings (Bakutis 2008). This type of activity has 
been observed with other native species (Wood 2001, in litt.; Hawaii 
Rare Plant Restoration Group (HRPRG) 2007, p. 2). Doryopteris takeuchii 
occurs on the slopes of Diamond Head crater, a popular location for 
visitation by tour groups and hikers (HBMP 2008). Individuals leaving 
established trails will inadvertently trample plants and contribute to 
erosion of the steep hillsides where the plants are found. Field 
biologists have also observed trampling of vegetation near populations 
of Melicope hiiakae in the Koolau Mountains, suggesting that hikers 
could also be a threat to this species (HRPRG 2007, p. 2).
Loss of Host Plants and Loss of Regeneration
    One species in this final rule, Korthalsella degeneri, is an 
obligate parasite on two native host plants, Sapindus oahuensis and 
Nestegis sandwicensis, which occur in the dry cliff ecosystem of the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Introduced ungulates are a threat to the 
host plants, because of trampling and topsoil disruption, leading to 
erosion and the establishment and spread of nonnative plants (Factor 
A). Nonnative plants are a threat to K. degeneri, because they: (1) 
Degrade habitat and outcompete native plants; (2) can increase the 
intensity, extent, and frequency of fire, converting native shrubland 
and forest to land dominated by alien grasses; and (3) may

[[Page 57684]]

cause the loss of the native host plants upon which K. degeneri depends 
(Factor A). In addition, the host plants are at risk of predation by 
feral ungulates, although ungulates are unlikely to be a direct threat 
to K. degeneri (Factor C), because of its parasitic characteristics.
    Lack of regeneration or low levels of regeneration (i.e., 
reproduction) in the wild has been documented, and represents a threat 
to, Melicope makahae and Pleomele forbesii (HBMP 2008; Lau 2001, in 
litt.). There are four scattered populations of Melicope makahae in the 
Waianae Mountains. Two of these populations are at risk of extirpation 
because only one adult plant has been observed at one location and one 
adult plant and a single juvenile plant have been observed at the 
second location. There are 19 populations of P. forbesii in the Waianae 
Mountains, and only one population in the Koolau Mountains. The Koolau 
population is at risk of extirpation because of very few (if any) 
seedlings or juvenile plants have been observed, which indicates a lack 
of reproduction.
Summary of Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued 
Existence
    We consider the limited numbers of populations and few (fewer than 
50) individuals to be serious and ongoing threat to at least nine plant 
species in this final rule because: (1) These species may experience 
reduced reproductive vigor due to ineffective pollination or inbreeding 
depression; (2) they may experience reduced levels of genetic 
variability, leading to diminished capacity to adapt and respond to 
environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of long-term 
persistence; and (3) a single catastrophic event may result in 
extirpation of remaining populations and extinction of the species. 
This threat applies to the entire range of each species.
    The threat to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies from limited numbers of populations and individuals is 
ongoing and is expected to continue into the future because: (1) These 
species may experience reduced reproductive vigor due to inbreeding 
depression; (2) they may experience reduced levels of genetic 
variability, leading to diminished capacity to adapt and respond to 
environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of long-term 
persistence; (3) a single catastrophic event (e.g., hurricane, 
landslide) may result in extirpation of remaining populations and 
extinction of these species; and (4) species with few known locations, 
such as the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, are 
less resilient to threats that might otherwise have a relatively minor 
impact on widely distributed species. For example, the reduced 
availability of breeding habitat or an increase in predation of naiads 
that might be absorbed in widely distributed species could result in a 
significant decrease in survivorship or reproduction of a species with 
limited distribution. The limited distribution of these three species 
thus magnifies the severity of the impact of the other threats 
discussed in this final rule.
    In addition, the threat to Cyanea calycina, Cyrtandra sessilis, 
Doryopteris takeuchii, and Melicope hiiakae from human activities 
(e.g., trampling and hiking) is ongoing and expected to continue into 
the future because populations of all of these species are located near 
hiking trails or in areas used for recreational activities, and the 
effect of these activities could lead to injury and death of individual 
plants.
    The threat to Korthalsella degeneri from loss of its host plants is 
ongoing and expected to continue into the future because threats to its 
host plants from nonnative plants and feral ungulates are uncontrolled. 
Finally, we consider the threat to Melicope makahae and Pleomele 
forbesii from lack of regeneration to be ongoing and expected to 
continue into the future because, with their small numbers in the wild, 
any competition from nonnative plants or habitat modification or 
predation by ungulates could lead to the extirpation of these species.

Determination

    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding threats to each of the 23 Oahu species. 
We find that all of these species face threats, which are ongoing and 
expected to continue into the future throughout their ranges, from the 
present destruction and modification of their habitats, primarily from 
introduced ungulates and nonnative plants. Six of these species (Bidens 
amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa) experience 
threats from habitat destruction and modification from fire, and 14 
species (Bidens amplectens, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, 
M. makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, P. cornuta var. decurrens, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, and the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) experience threats from the destruction 
and modification of their habitats from hurricanes, landslides, 
rockfalls, and flooding. In addition, we are concerned about the 
effects of projected climate change but recognize there is limited 
information on the exact nature of impacts from climate change (Factor 
A). There is a serious threat of widespread impacts of predation and 
herbivory on 19 of the 20 plant species (all plant species except 
Doryopteris takeuchii) by nonnative pigs, goats, rats, and 
invertebrates; and likely by predation on the three damselflies 
(blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) by nonnative 
fish, bullfrogs, and ants (Factor C). The inadequacy of existing 
regulatory mechanisms (e.g., inadequate protection of habitat and 
inadequate protection from the introduction of nonnative species) poses 
a current and ongoing threat to all 23 species (Factor D). There are 
current and ongoing threats to nine plant species (Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. waiolani, 
Melicope hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense) and 
the three damselflies due to factors associated with small numbers of 
populations and individuals (Factor E); to Melicope makahae and 
Pleomele forbesii from the lack of regeneration (Factor E); to Cyanea 
calycina, Cyrtandra sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, and Melicope 
hiiakae from trampling (Factor E); and to Korthalsella degeneri from 
the loss of native host plants (Factor E) (see Table 2). In addition, 
the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies experience 
threats from habitat degradation and loss due to agriculture and urban 
development, by stream diversion and channelization, and by dewatering 
of aquifers (Factor A). These threats are exacerbated by these species' 
inherent vulnerability to extinction from stochastic events at any time 
because of their endemism, small numbers of individuals and 
populations, and restricted habitats.
    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range'' and a threatened species as any species that is ``likely to 
become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout 
all or a significant portion of its range.'' We find that each of these 
endemic species is presently in danger of extinction throughout its 
entire range, based on the immediacy, severity, and scope of the 
threats described above. Based on our analysis, we have no

[[Page 57685]]

reason to believe that population trends for any of the species 
addressed in this final rule will improve, nor will the effects of 
current threats acting on the species be ameliorated in the foreseeable 
future. Therefore, on the basis of the best available scientific and 
commercial information, we are listing the following 23 species as 
endangered in accordance with section 3(6) of the Act: Bidens 
amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, 
Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
waiolani, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope 
christophersenii, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope makahae, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pterlyxia macrocarpa, 
Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense; and the blackline 
Hawaiian damselfly, crimson Hawaiian damselfly, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly.
    Under the Act and our implementing regulations, a species may 
warrant listing if it is endangered or threatened throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range. Each of the 23 endemic Oahu species 
in this final rule is highly restricted in its range, and the threats 
occur throughout its range. Therefore, we assessed the status of each 
species throughout its entire range. In each case, the threats to the 
survival of these species occur throughout the species' entire range 
and are not restricted to any particular portion of that range. 
Accordingly, our assessment and determination applies to each species 
throughout its entire range.

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
activities. Recognition through listing results in public awareness and 
conservation by Federal, State, and local agencies, private 
organizations, and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection measures required of Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities involving listed animals and 
plants are discussed, in part, below.
    The primary purpose of the Act is the conservation of endangered 
and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The 
ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these 
listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of 
the Act. Subsection 4(f) of the Act requires the Service to develop and 
implement recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species unless it would not promote the conservation of the 
species. The recovery planning process involves the identification of 
actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the species' decline by 
addressing the threats to its survival and recovery. The goal of this 
process is to restore listed species to a point where they are secure, 
self-sustaining, and functioning components of their ecosystems.
    Recovery planning includes the development of a recovery outline at 
the same time or shortly after a species is listed, preparation of a 
draft and final recovery plan, and revisions to the plan as significant 
new information becomes available. The recovery outline guides the 
immediate implementation of urgent recovery actions and describes the 
process to be used to develop a recovery plan. The recovery plan 
identifies site-specific management actions that will achieve recovery 
of the species, measurable criteria that determine when a species may 
be downlisted or delisted, and methods for monitoring recovery 
progress. Recovery plans also establish a framework for agencies to 
coordinate their recovery efforts and provide estimates of the cost of 
implementing recovery tasks. Recovery teams are often established to 
develop recovery plans. When completed, the recovery outlines, draft 
recovery plans, and the final recovery plans will be available from our 
Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered), or from our Pacific Islands 
Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES).
    Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the 
participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal 
agencies, States, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and 
private landowners. Examples of recovery actions include habitat 
restoration (e.g., restoration of native vegetation), research, captive 
propagation and reintroduction, and outreach and education. The 
recovery of many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on 
Federal lands because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-
Federal lands. To achieve recovery of these species requires 
cooperative conservation efforts on private and State lands.
    Funding for recovery actions are available from a variety of 
sources, including Federal budgets, State programs, and cost share 
grants for non-Federal landowners, the academic community, and 
nongovernmental organizations. In addition, under section 6 of the Act, 
the State of Hawaii will be eligible for Federal funds to implement 
management actions that promote the protection and recovery of the 23 
species in this rule. Information on our grant programs that are 
available to aid species recovery can be found at: http://www.fws.gov/grants.
    Please let us know if you are interested in participating in 
recovery efforts for these listed species. Additionally, we invite you 
to submit any new information on these species whenever it becomes 
available and any information you may have for recovery planning 
purposes (see ADDRESSES).
    Section 7(a) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies to 
evaluate their actions with respect to any species that is proposed or 
listed as endangered or threatened and with respect to its critical 
habitat, if any is designated. Regulations implementing this 
interagency cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR 
part 402. Section 7(a)(1) of the Act mandates that all Federal agencies 
shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the 
Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species listed under section 4 of the Act. Section 7(a)(2) 
of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities they 
authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of a listed species or result in destruction or 
adverse modification of critical habitat. If a Federal action may 
affect the continued existence of a listed species or its critical 
habitat, the responsible Federal agency must enter into consultation 
with the Service.
    For the 23 plants and animals listed as endangered in this final 
rule, Federal agency actions that may require consultation as described 
in the preceding paragraph include, but are not limited to, actions 
within the jurisdiction of the Natural Resources Conservation Service, 
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
and branches of the Department of Defense (DOD). Examples of these 
types of actions include activities funded or authorized under the Farm 
Bill Program, Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Ground and 
Surface Water Conservation Program, Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et 
seq.), Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, and DOD construction 
activities related to training or other military missions.
    The Act and its implementing regulations set forth a series of 
general prohibitions and exceptions that apply to all endangered 
wildlife and plants.

[[Page 57686]]

The prohibitions, codified at 50 CFR 17.21 for wildlife and 17.61 for 
plants, apply. For listed wildlife species, these prohibitions, in 
part, make it illegal for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the 
United States to take (includes harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, 
wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect; or to attempt any of these), 
import, export, ship in interstate commerce or foreign commerce in the 
course of commercial activity, or sell or offer for sale in interstate 
or foreign commerce any listed wildlife species. It is also illegal to 
possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship any such wildlife 
that has been taken illegally. In addition, for plants listed as 
endangered, the prohibitions include import or export, malicious damage 
or destruction on areas under Federal jurisdiction, and the removal, 
cutting, digging up, or damaging or destroying of such plants in 
knowing violation of any State law or regulation, including State 
criminal trespass law. Certain exceptions to the prohibitions apply to 
agents of the Service and State conservation agencies.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving endangered or threatened wildlife and plant species under 
certain circumstances. Regulations governing permits are codified at 50 
CFR 17.22 and 17.62 for endangered wildlife and plants, respectively. 
With regard to endangered wildlife, a permit must be issued for the 
following purposes: for scientific purposes, to enhance the propagation 
and survival of the species, and for incidental take in connection with 
otherwise lawful activities. With regard to endangered plants, a permit 
must be issued for the following purposes: for scientific purposes or 
for the enhancement of propagation or survival. Requests for copies of 
the regulations regarding listed species and inquiries about 
prohibitions and permits may be addressed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Ecological Services, Eastside Federal Complex, 911 NE. 11th 
Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181 (telephone 503-231-6158; facsimile 503-
231-6243).
    It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 
1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at 
the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not 
constitute a violation of section 9 of the Act. The intent of this 
policy is to increase public awareness of the effect of a listing on 
proposed and ongoing activities within the range of a listed species. 
The following activities could potentially result in a violation of 
section 9 of the Act; this list is not comprehensive:
    (1) Unauthorized collecting, handling, possessing, selling, 
delivering, carrying, or transporting of the species, including import 
or export across State lines and international boundaries, except for 
properly documented antique specimens of these taxa at least 100 years 
old, as defined by section 10(h)(1) of the Act.
    (2) Introduction of nonnative species that compete with or prey 
upon the 23 species, such as the introduction of competing, nonnative 
plants or animals to the State of Hawaii.
    (3) The unauthorized release of biological control agents that 
attack any life stage of these 23 species.
    (4) Unauthorized modification of the channel or water flow of any 
stream, or removal or destruction of emergent aquatic vegetation in any 
body of water in which the blackline, crimson, or oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly is known to occur.
    (5) Unauthorized discharge of chemicals or fill material into any 
waters in which the blackline, crimson, or oceanic Hawaiian damselfly 
is known to occur.
    Questions regarding whether specific activities would constitute a 
violation of section 9 of the Act should be directed to the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES). Requests for copies 
of the regulations concerning listed species and general inquiries 
regarding prohibitions and permits may be addressed to the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Permits, Ecological Services, 
Eastside Federal Complex, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, OR 87232-4181 
(telephone 503-231-6158; facsimile 503-231-6243).
    The State of Hawaii's endangered species law (State of Hawaii 2009) 
is automatically invoked when a species is listed, and provides 
supplemental protection, including prohibiting take of these species 
and encouraging conservation by State government agencies. Further, the 
State may enter into agreements with Federal agencies to administer and 
manage any area required for the conservation, management, enhancement, 
or protection of endangered species (State of Hawaii 2009). Funds for 
these activities could be made available under section 6 of the Act 
(Cooperation with the States). Thus, Federal protection afforded to 
listed species is reinforced and supplemented by protection under State 
law.
Taxonomic Name Changes for Nine Plant Species Since Listing
    In 1982, we listed Euphorbia skottsbergii var. kalaeloana (47 FR 
36846; August 24, 1982) as endangered following the taxonomy of Sherff 
(1936), although in 1959, Degener and Degener had moved this species to 
Chamaesyce (Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana). In both 
publications, the range for this species included only the ``Ewa Plains 
of Oahu, Hawaii, in the vicinity of Barber's Point'' (also known as 
Kalaeloa). In 1990, Koutnik (p. 615) placed Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. kalaeloana in synonymy with C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. 
According to Koutnik, the range for C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii 
included southwestern Oahu (the Ewa Plains) and northwestern Molokai. 
However, in 2005, based on genetic analysis, Morden and Gregoritza 
(2005, p. 969) found that the Oahu and Molokai populations of C. 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii are genetically distinct, and they 
supported the recognition of these two populations as distinct 
varieties. The authors suggested that the variety on Molokai should be 
recognized by the previously used variety name, C. skottsbergii var. 
audens. The scientific community and the Service currently accept 
Morden and Gregoritza's taxonomic clarification of C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, the range of which includes only southwestern Oahu, and 
C. skottsbergii var. audens, the range of which includes only Molokai.
    We are aware of Steinman and Porter's 2002 (p. 473) molecular data 
for classification of Euphorbieae and the analysis of Bruyns et al. 
(2006, pp. 416-417), who found that Chamaesyce is nested among species 
of Euphorbia. Changing the names for the endangered Oahu plants 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, C. deppeana, C. herbstii, C. 
kuwaleana, C. rockii and C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii at 50 CFR 
17.12 and at 50 CFR 17.99(j) would require a separate amendment to the 
CFR, not only for the Hawaiian species listings, but for all previously 
listed species nationwide. This amendment requires a separate notice 
and opportunity for public comment, and although we are unable to 
address this change in this final rule, we will initiate proposed 
taxonomic name changes for these five endangered plants in a future 
proposed rule.
    At the time we listed Alsinidendron obovatum (56 FR 55770; October 
29, 1991), A. trinerve (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991), Hedyotis 
coriacea (57 FR 20772; May 15, 1992), H. degeneri (56 FR 55770; October 
29, 1991), H. parvula (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991), and Lipochaeta 
tenuifolia (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991) as endangered, we followed 
the taxonomic treatment of Wagner et al. (1990, pp. 343, 501,

[[Page 57687]]

1,141-1,142, 1,148-1,150). Subsequently, Wagner et al. (2005, pp. 57-
63) recognized and published new combinations (new genus and species 
names) for Alsinidendron obovatum (now Schiedea obovata) and A. 
trinerve (now Schiedea trinervis) based on phylogenetic analyses. These 
new combinations are currently accepted by the scientific community and 
by the Service. Terrell et al. (2005, pp. 832, 833) published new 
combinations for Hedyotis coriacea (now Kadua coriacea), H. degeneri 
(now Kadua degeneri, and includes K. degeneri var. coprosmifolia and K. 
degeneri var. degeneri), and placed Hedyotis parvula in synonymy with 
Kadua parvula, an earlier and validly published name. Wagner and 
Robinson (2001, p. 554) recognized and published new combinations for 
several Hawaiian species of Lipochaeta, including Lipochaeta tenuifolia 
(now Melanthera tenuifolia). At the time we listed Phlegmariurus nutans 
(59 FR 14482; March 28, 1994), we followed Ollgaard's Index of the 
Lycopodiaceae (1989, 135 pp.). Most recently, Palmer placed 
Phlegmariurus nutans in synonymy with Huperzia nutans (Palmer 2003, p. 
257). We listed Mariscus pennatiformis (which included M. pennatiformis 
ssp. bryanii and M. pennatiformis ssp. pennatiformis) as endangered in 
1994 (59 FR 56333) following the taxonomic treatment of Koyama (in 
Wagner et al. 1990, pp. 1,421-1,422). Since then, Strong and Wagner 
(1997, p. 39), and more recently Wagner and Herbst (2003, pp. 52-53), 
moved all Hawaiian species of Mariscus to Cyperus. The accepted epithet 
for this species is Cyperus pennatiformis and includes C. pennatiformis 
var. bryanii and C. pennatiformis var. pennatiformis. The range of the 
species at the time of listing and now has not changed.
    All of the aforementioned name changes are currently accepted by 
the scientific community, and, in accordance with the references cited 
above, we are revising the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants at 
50 CFR 17.12 (see Table 3). In addition, we made editorial revisions to 
a limited number of units and species descriptions in 50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1) and (b) (Kauai), 50 CFR 17.99(e)(1) and (f) (Maui), and 50 
CFR 17.99(g) and (h) (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) to adopt the 
taxonomic revisions.

                          Table 3--Name Changes for 9 Listed Endangered Hawaiian Plants
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Listing                             Currently listed name         Accepted name change
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
56 FR 55770..........................................  Alsinidendron obovatum......  Schiedea obovata.
56 FR 55770..........................................  Alsinidendron trinerve......  Schiedea trinervis.
47 FR 36846..........................................  Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.  Chamaesyce skottsbergii
                                                        kalaeloana.                   var. skottsbergii.
57 FR 20772..........................................  Hedyotis coriacea...........  Kadua coriacea.
56 FR 55770..........................................  Hedyotis degeneri...........  Kadua degeneri.
56 FR 55770..........................................  Hedyotis parvula............  Kadua parvula.
56 FR 55770..........................................  Lipochaeta tenuifolia.......  Melanthera tenuifolia.
59 FR 14482..........................................  Phlegmariurus nutans........  Huperzia nutans.
59 FR 56333..........................................  Mariscus pennatiformis......  Cyperus pennatiformis.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Critical Habitat

Background

    Critical habitat is defined in section 3 of the Act as:
    (i) The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by the 
species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the Act, on which 
are found those physical or biological features
    (I) Essential to the conservation of the species and
    (II) Which may require special management considerations or 
protection; and
    (ii) Specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by the 
species at the time it is listed, upon a determination that such areas 
are essential for the conservation of the species.
    Conservation, as defined under section 3 of the Act, means to use 
and the use of all methods and procedures that are necessary to bring 
an endangered or threatened species to the point at which the measures 
provided under the Act are no longer necessary. Such methods and 
procedures include, but are not limited to, all activities associated 
with scientific resources management, such as research, census, law 
enforcement, habitat acquisition and maintenance, propagation, live 
trapping, transplantation, and, in the extraordinary case where 
population pressures within a given ecosystem cannot be otherwise 
relieved, may include regulated taking.
    Critical habitat receives protection under section 7 of the Act 
through the prohibition against Federal agencies carrying out, funding, 
or authorizing the destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat. Section 7(a)(2) requires consultation on Federal actions that 
may affect critical habitat. The designation of critical habitat does 
not affect land ownership or establish a refuge, wilderness, reserve, 
preserve, or other conservation area. Such designation does not allow 
the government or public access to private lands. Such designation does 
not require implementation of restoration, recovery, or enhancement 
measures by the landowner. Where a landowner seeks or requests Federal 
agency funding or authorization that may affect a listed species or 
critical habitat, the consultation requirements of section 7(a)(2) of 
the Act would apply, but even in the event of a destruction or adverse 
modification finding, the Federal action agency's and the applicant's 
obligation is not to restore or recover the species, but to implement 
reasonable and prudent alternatives to avoid destruction or adverse 
modification of critical habitat.
    For inclusion in a critical habitat designation, the habitat within 
the geographical area occupied by the species at the time of listing 
must contain physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species, and be included only if those features may 
require special management considerations or protection. Critical 
habitat designations identify, to the extent known using the best 
scientific and commercial data available, habitat areas that provide 
for the necessary life cycle needs of the species (areas on which are 
found the physical or biological features essential for the 
conservation of the species). Under the Act and regulations at 50 CFR 
424.12(e), we can designate critical habitat in areas outside the 
geographical area occupied by the species at the time it is listed only 
when we determine that those areas are essential for the conservation 
of the species and that designation limited to those areas occupied at 
the time of listing would be

[[Page 57688]]

inadequate to ensure the conservation of the species.
    Section 4 of the Act requires that we designate critical habitat on 
the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available. 
Further, our Policy on Information Standards Under the Endangered 
Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 
34271)), the Information Quality Act (section 515 of the Treasury and 
General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Pub. L. 
106-554; H.R. 5658)), and our associated Information Quality 
Guidelines, provide criteria, establish procedures, and provide 
guidance to ensure that our decisions are based on the best scientific 
data available. They require our biologists, to the extent consistent 
with the Act and with the use of the best scientific data available, to 
use primary and original sources of information as the basis for 
recommendations to designate critical habitat.
    When we are determining which areas we should designate as critical 
habitat, our primary source of information is generally the information 
developed during the listing process for the species. Additional 
information sources may include the recovery plan for the species, 
articles in peer-reviewed journals, conservation plans developed by 
States and counties, scientific status surveys and studies, biological 
assessments, or other unpublished materials and expert opinion or 
personal knowledge.
    Habitat is often dynamic, and species may move from one area to 
another over time. Furthermore, we recognize that critical habitat 
designated at a particular point in time may not include all of the 
habitat areas that we may later determine to be necessary for the 
recovery of the species, as additional scientific information may 
become available in the future. For these reasons, a critical habitat 
designation does not signal that habitat outside the designated area is 
unimportant or may not be required for recovery of the species.
    The information currently available on the effects of global 
climate change and increasing temperatures does not make sufficiently 
precise estimates of the location and magnitude of the effects. We are 
currently not aware of any climate change information specific to the 
habitat of any of the species addressed in this rule that would 
indicate what areas may become important to the species in the future. 
Therefore, we were unable to determine what additional areas, if any, 
may be appropriate to include in the critical habitat designation for 
these species.
    Areas that are important to the conservation of the species, but 
are outside the critical habitat designation, will continue to be 
subject to conservation actions we implement under section 7(a)(1) of 
the Act. These areas are also subject to the regulatory protections 
afforded by the section 7(a)(2) jeopardy standard, as determined on the 
basis of the best available scientific information at the time of the 
agency action. Federally funded or permitted projects affecting listed 
species outside their designated critical habitat areas may still 
result in jeopardy findings in some cases. Similarly, critical habitat 
designations made on the basis of the best available information at the 
time of designation will not control the direction and substance of 
future recovery plans, habitat conservation plants (HCPs), section 7 
consultations, or other species conservation planning efforts if new 
information available to these planning efforts calls for a different 
outcome.

Prudency Determination for 25 Oahu Species

    Section 4(a)(3) of the Act, as amended, and implementing 
regulations (50 CFR 424.12) require that, to the maximum extent prudent 
and determinable, the Secretary designate critical habitat at the time 
a species is determined to be endangered or threatened. Our regulations 
at 50 CFR 424.12(a)(1) state that designation of critical habitat is 
not prudent when one or both of the following situations exist: (1) The 
species is threatened by taking or other activity, and the 
identification of critical habitat can be expected to increase the 
degree of threat to the species; or (2) the designation of critical 
habitat would not be beneficial to the species.
    As we have discussed under the Factor B analysis, there is 
currently no documentation that the 23 species listed in this rule are 
threatened by taking or other human activity. At the time we listed the 
plant Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata as endangered, we found that 
designation of critical habitat was not prudent because this plant was 
threatened by taking for lei-making, and the publication of critical 
habitat descriptions would make this plant more vulnerable (51 FR 
10518; March 26, 1986). However, we have examined the best available 
information, and found no information to indicate that this plant is 
currently threatened by overcollection for lei-making, or is otherwise 
used for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes. 
Moreover, we have no information to indicate that identification of 
critical habitat is expected to initiate such a threat to any of the 
species addressed in this final rule. Accordingly, this designation 
will provide information to individuals, local and State governments, 
and other entities engaged in activities or long-range planning in 
areas essential to the conservation of these species. Conservation of 
these species and their essential habitat will require habitat 
management, protection, and restoration, which will be facilitated by 
knowledge of habitat locations and the physical or biological features 
of the habitat. Other potential benefits include: (1) Triggering 
consultation under section 7 of the Act in new areas for actions with a 
Federal nexus where it would not otherwise occur; (2) focusing 
conservation activities on the most essential features and areas; and 
(3) preventing individuals from causing inadvertent harm to the 
species. Based on this information, we believe critical habitat will be 
beneficial, and have determined the designation of critical habitat is 
prudent for each of the species addressed in this final rule.
    The primary regulatory effect of critical habitat is the section 
7(a)(2) requirement that Federal agencies refrain from taking any 
action that destroys or adversely modifies critical habitat. We find 
that the designation of critical habitat for each of the 23 species 
listed listing in this final rule and the endangered plants Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata and Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii 
will benefit them by serving to focus conservation efforts on the 
restoration and maintenance of ecosystem functions that are essential 
for attaining their recovery and long-term viability. In addition, the 
designation of critical habitat serves to inform management and 
conservation decisions by identifying any additional physical or 
biological features of the ecosystem that may be essential for the 
conservation of certain species, such as the availability of sufficient 
instream flow for the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies, or specific host plants such as Nestegis sandwicensis and 
Sapindus oahuensis for Korthalsella degeneri. Therefore, because we 
have determined that the designation of critical habitat will not 
likely increase the degree of threat to the species, and may provide 
some measure of benefit, we find that designation of critical habitat 
is prudent for the following 25 species, as critical habitat will be 
beneficial and there is no evidence that the designation of critical 
habitat will result in an increased threat

[[Page 57689]]

from taking or other human activity for these species:
    (1) Plants--Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, Cyanea calycina, 
Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, 
Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope 
christophersenii, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope makahae, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense;
    (2) Animals--Megalagrion leptodemas, Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum, and Megalagrion oceanicum.

Critical Habitat Determinability

    As stated above, section 4(a)(3) of the Act requires the 
designation of critical habitat concurrently with the species' listing 
``to the maximum extent prudent and determinable.'' Our regulations at 
50 CFR 424.12(a)(2) state that critical habitat is not determinable 
when one or both of the following situations exist:
    (i) Information sufficient to perform required analyses of the 
impacts of the designation is lacking, or
    (ii) The biological needs of the species are not sufficiently well 
known to permit identification of an area as critical habitat.
    When critical habitat is not determinable, the Act provides for an 
additional year to publish a critical habitat designation (16 U.S.C. 
1533(b)(6)(C)(ii)).
    At the time we listed the plant Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii (see ``Taxonomic Name Changes for Nine Plant Species Since 
Listing,'' above) as endangered, we were unable to identify the 
biological needs of this species, and, therefore were unable to 
identify areas essential for its conservation (critical habitat) (47 FR 
36846; August 24, 1982). We reviewed the information available (since 
it was listed in 1982) pertaining to the biological needs of Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii and available information pertaining to 
the biological needs of the 23 species listed in this final rule and 
habitat characteristics where these species are located. This and other 
information represent the best scientific data available and led us to 
conclude that the designation of critical habitat is both prudent and 
determinable for these 25 species.

Revision of Critical Habitat for 99 Oahu Plants and Designation for 2 
Previously-Listed Plants

    This section discusses the revision of currently designated 
critical habitat for 99 Oahu plant species, based on new information. 
This section also provides a brief description of the two additional 
plant species (Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata and Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii) that were previously listed without 
designation of critical habitat, for which we are now designating 
critical habitat. This information represents the best scientific and 
commercial information available.
Revision of Critical Habitat for 99 Oahu Plants
    Under section 4(a)(3)(A)(ii) of the Act we may, as appropriate, 
revise a critical habitat designation. In 2003, we designated critical 
habitat for 99 Oahu plants on 55,040 ac (22,274 ha) in 303 units, based 
on their known locations (68 FR 35950; June 17, 2003). Based on new 
information and scientific data available since 2003, we have revised 
critical habitat for these 99 plant species. In addition, since 
critical habitat was designated in 2003, we have learned that many 
native Hawaiian plants and animals can thrive when reintroduced into 
historical habitats, when threats are effectively managed. For this 
reason, we believe it is important to designate unoccupied habitat when 
it is essential for the recovery of the species. Approximately 93 
percent of the area designated as critical habitat in this rule 
overlaps with the area designated in the 2003 final critical habitat 
rule. In some areas, the footprint of the revision is larger than the 
2003 designation, to accommodate the expansion of species' ranges 
within the particular ecosystem in which they occur (e.g., expansion 
into unoccupied habitat). In other areas, we are reducing critical 
habitat, based on updated information on the historical ranges of 
certain species. The revision simply correlates to each species' 
physical or biological requirements with the characteristics of the 
ecosystems within which they occur (e.g., elevation, rainfall, species 
associations, etc.), and also includes areas unoccupied by the species, 
which are essential for their conservation. The revision will enable 
managers to focus conservation management efforts on common threats 
that occur across shared ecosystems and facilitate the restoration of 
the ecosystem function and species-specific habitat needs for the 
recovery of each of the 99 species. An added benefit includes the 
publication of more comprehensive maps that should be more useful to 
the public and conservation managers.
Background for 99 Listed Oahu Plants
    It is our intent to discuss only those topics directly relevant to 
the designation of critical habitat. For additional information on 
these 99 Oahu plants, refer to the final critical habitat rule for Oahu 
plants published in the Federal Register on June 17, 2003 (68 FR 
35950).
Current Status of the 99 Plant Species With Revised Critical Habitat 
and the 2 Previously-Listed Plant Species
    Abutilon sandwicense (no common name (NCN)), a member of the mallow 
family (Malvaceae), is a perennial shrub endemic to the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu (Bates 1999, pp. 873-875). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, the 30 known occurrences contained an 
estimated 253 to 263 individuals (68 FR 35950; June 17, 2003). This 
species currently occurs in the Waianae Mountains in the dry cliff and 
lowland mesic ecosystems in 17 to 19 occurrences totaling between 296 
and 515 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata (round-leaved chaff flower), a 
shrub in the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), occurred historically on 
Oahu, Lanai, and Molokai. In 1986, at the time of listing, four 
occurrences containing approximately 400 individuals were known from 
southwestern and western Oahu in the coastal ecosystem at Barber's 
Point and Kaena Point, respectively (51 FR 10518, March 26, 1986; HBMP 
2008). Subsequently, three additional occurrences were documented in 
Keawaula, Makaha, and Waianae Kai (HBMP 2008). Currently, this species 
is found in 8 occurrences in the coastal, lowland dry, and dry cliff 
ecosystems totaling approximately 700 individuals (Kane 2004, in litt.; 
Phillipson 2007, in litt.; HBMP 2008; Silbernagle 2010, in litt.).
    Adenophorus periens (pendent kihi fern), a fern in the grammitis 
family (Grammitidaceae), occurs on the islands of Hawaii, Molokai, and 
Kauai, and was known historically from the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Palmer 2003, p. 39). This species is an epiphyte found in the lowland 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The last recorded 
observances of this fern on Oahu were in the early 1900s (HBMP 2008).
    Alectryon macrococcus (mahoe), a member of the soapberry family 
(Sapindaceae), is a tree found on the

[[Page 57690]]

islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,225). This species is known from two varieties, A. macrococcus var. 
auwahiensis (Maui) and A. macrococcus var. macrococcus (Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, and Maui). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
A. macrococcus var. macrococcus was known from 82 occurrences on Oahu 
containing approximately 300 individuals. Currently, A. macrococcus 
var. macrococcus is found in the Waianae Mountains in the dry cliff, 
lowland mesic, and montane wet ecosystems, in 15 occurrences totaling 
between 366 and 371 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
This variety was historically known from the lowland mesic ecosystem in 
the Koolau Mountains.
    Bonamia menziesii (NCN), a perennial vine in the morning glory 
family (Convolvulaceae), is found on Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and 
Hawaii (Austin 1999, p. 550). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 18 occurrences on Oahu 
totaling fewer than 100 individuals. Currently, this species is 
declining on Oahu, with approximately 12 to 13 occurrences totaling 
fewer than 60 individuals, located in both the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains, in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cenchrus agrimonioides (kamanomano), a perennial in the grass 
family (Poaceae), occurred historically on Oahu, Lanai, and Maui 
(O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,511-1,512). This species is known from two 
varieties, C. agrimonioides var. agrimonioides (Oahu, Lanai, and Maui) 
and C. agrimonioides var. laysanensis (Kure Atoll, Midway Atoll, and 
Laysan). C. agrimonioides var. laysanensis may be extinct. At the time 
we designated critical habitat in 2003, C. agrimoniodies var. 
agrimonioides was known from 7 occurrences in the Waianae Mountains on 
Oahu, containing between 113 and 118 individuals. This variety is 
currently found on Oahu and Maui, and has been outplanted on Kahoolawe 
(USFWS 2007a; 2007b). On Oahu, 3 to 6 occurrences totaling 
approximately 300 wild individuals are found in the lowland mesic and 
dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; USFWS 2007a; 2007b).
    Centaurium sebaeoides (awiwi), an annual herb in the gentian family 
(Gentianaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and west 
Maui (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 725). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 2 occurrences in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains, totaling between 60 and 80 individuals. 
Currently, C. sebaeoides occurs on Oahu in the coastal ecosystem at 
Kaena Point and Halona (Waianae and Koolau Mountains), in 2 occurrences 
totaling between 40 and 50 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana (akoko), a shrub in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to Oahu (Koutnik 1999, pp. 605-606). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was 
known from 15 occurrences containing 569 individuals. Historically 
known from both the Waianae and Koolau Mountains, C. celastroides var. 
kaenana is currently found in the coastal, lowland dry, and lowland 
mesic ecosystems only in the Waianae Mountains, in 8 occurrences 
totaling more than 900 individuals (Makua Implementation Team 2003, pp. 
16-32--16-38; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce deppeana (akoko), a perennial subshrub in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Koutnik 1999, p. 607). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from one occurrence of approximately 50 
individuals. Currently, the same occurrence in the wet cliff ecosystem 
in the Koolau Mountains is estimated to contain as many as 100 
individuals (Lau 2006b, in litt.; Perlman 2006, pers. comm.; TNC 2007).
    Chamaesyce herbstii (akoko), a small tree in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Koutnik 
1999, p. 609). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 4 occurrences totaling between 162 and 164 
individuals. Chamaesyce herbstii is declining in numbers, and is 
currently found in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains, in 2 occurrences totaling fewer than 60 individuals 
(Makua Implementation Team 2003, pp. 16-39--16-44; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce kuwaleana (akoko), a shrub in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to Oahu. At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 5 occurrences containing 
approximately 2,000 individuals in the Waianae Mountains, with one 
individual known from Mokumanu, an islet off the windward coast of the 
Koolau Mountains (Koutnik 1999, p. 611). Chamaesyce kuwaleana was found 
historically in the coastal and dry cliff ecosystems, but is currently 
found only in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains in 2 
occurrences of approximately 1,200 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce rockii (akoko), a shrub or small tree in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Koutnik 1999, p. 614). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 20 occurrences containing between 641 
and 733 individuals. Currently, this species is found in 6 occurrences 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains, 
totaling between 576 and 710 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (formerly Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. kalaeloana) (Ewa Plains akoko), a small shrub in the 
spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to Oahu. Historically, this 
species was known only from the Ewa Plains on southwestern Oahu in the 
vicinity of Barber's Point (also known as Kalaeloa). The precise 
natural range of this taxon was unknown, but probably did not go beyond 
the coralline plains of southwestern Oahu (47 FR 36846, August 24, 
1982). In 1982, at the time of listing, this species was known from 4 
occurrences containing approximately 1,000 to 1,500 individuals (Char 
and Balakrishnan 1979, p.67; HBMP 2008). Surveys conducted between 1983 
and 1984 in the vicinity of the former Barber's Point Naval Air Station 
indicated there was a total of approximately 5,000 plants (HINHP 1991; 
USFWS 1993, pp. 13-15). However, surveys conducted a decade later 
located only several hundred plants in the same location (USFWS 1993, 
pp. 13-15). Currently, this species is found in 2 occurrences in the 
lowland dry ecosystem on the Ewa Plain in southwestern Oahu, totaling 
approximately 200 wild individuals and 600 outplanted individuals 
(Guinther and Withrow 2008, pp. 6, 9-10; Whistler 2008, pp. 7-9; U.S. 
Navy et al. 2012, pp. 19-20).
    Colubrina oppositifolia (kauila), a tree in the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and the island of Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,094). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was found in 5 occurrences in the Waianae 
Mountains containing 61 individuals. Currently, on Oahu, C. 
oppositifolia is found in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains, in 4 occurrences totaling approximately 50 individuals (U.S. 
Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).

[[Page 57691]]

    Ctenitis squamigera (pauoa), a medium to large-sized fern in the 
spleenwort family (Aspleniaceae), is found on all the major islands 
except Hawaii. It is possibly now extinct on Kauai (Palmer 2003, pp. 
100-102). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 8 known occurrences with more than 80 individuals in the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently there are 4 occurrences 
totaling approximately 100 individuals, in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea acuminata (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 444). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were fewer than 200 individuals in 20 occurrences. Currently, 
there are 15 occurrences totaling between 149 and 175 individuals in 
the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems 
in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea crispa (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, pp. 481-482; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 11 occurrences 
containing a total of 56 individuals. Currently, this species is found 
in 7 occurrences, totaling 56 individuals, in the lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. 
Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (haha), a shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is found on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, pp. 451-452). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were seven occurrences totaling nine individuals in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains in the lowland mesic and lowland wet 
ecosystems (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The last known wild 
individual in Kupaua died in 2005. Propagules are in cultivation and 
will be outplanted in protected areas (PEP 2008, p. 19; Lau 2011, in 
litt.).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae (haha), a shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae) is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, pp. 451-452). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 8 occurrences containing 16 individuals. Currently, 
there are 8 occurrences totaling 41 individuals in the dry cliff, 
lowland mesic, and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea humboldtiana (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 483; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 9 occurrences totaling 
between 133 and 239 individuals. Currently, this species occurs in 9 
occurrences totaling between 160 to 260 individuals in the lowland wet 
and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea koolauensis (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 481; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 42 occurrences with 
fewer than 80 individuals. Currently, this species is found in 15 
occurrences with approximately 100 individuals in the lowland wet 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyanea longiflora (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), occurs in the Waianae Mountains, and was historically 
known from the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 1999, p. 484; Wagner 
and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 4 occurrences of fewer than 220 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 4 occurrences totaling fewer 
than 170 individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea pinnatifida (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 459). The last known wild individual died in 2001, although 
the species remains in cultivation, and 70 individuals have been 
outplanted within historical range in the lowland mesic ecosystem in 
the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2006h, p. 6).
    Cyanea st.-johnii (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 484; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,871). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 7 occurrences 
containing 57 individuals. Currently, 6 occurrences are found in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems, with approximately 70 
individuals, in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyanea superba (NCN), a palm-like tree in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the lowland mesic ecosystem of the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 1999, p. 465). This species is known 
from two subspecies, C. superba ssp. regina (southern Koolau Mountains) 
and C. superba ssp. superba (northern Waianae Mountains). The last 
known wild individual of C. superba ssp. superba died in 2002; however, 
propagules are in cultivation, and more than 400 individuals have been 
outplanted over the past 10 years in the Waianae Mountains. Currently a 
total of at least 200 mature outplanted individuals survive (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008). Cyanea superba ssp. regina has not been observed since the 
1930s (Lammers 1999, p. 465).
    Cyanea truncata (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, in the 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems (Lammers 1999, p. 
466). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
only two known individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Koolau 
Mountains. Currently, these individuals survive along with 4 outplanted 
occurrences totaling 37 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyperus pennatiformis (formerly Mariscus pennatiformis) (NCN), a 
perennial in the sedge family (Cyperaceae), was found on Kauai, Oahu, 
east Maui, the island of Hawaii, and Laysan Island in the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,421-1,423). This species is 
known from two varieties, C. pennatiformis var. bryanii (Laysan) and C. 
pennatiformis var. pennatiformis (Kauai, Oahu, east Maui, and Hawaii). 
The last known individual of C. pennatiformis var. pennatiformis on 
Oahu was observed in the 1930s, in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the 
Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyperus trachysanthos (puukaa), a perennial in the sedge family 
(Cyperaceae), was known from Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Lanai; 
and is currently extant on Niihau, Kauai, and Oahu (Koyama 1999, p. 
1,399). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
6 occurrences totaling 40 individuals on Oahu. Currently, there are 3 
occurrences totaling approximately 400 individuals in seasonal wetlands 
in the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems in both the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra dentata (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet family

[[Page 57692]]

(Gesneriaceae), is endemic to Oahu, and is known from both the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 753). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 11 known occurrences 
totaling 136 individuals. Currently, due to an increase in survey 
efforts over the last 6 years in potentially suitable habitat for this 
species, there are 6 occurrences totaling approximately 1,640 
individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems of both 
mountain ranges, and in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra polyantha (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 774-775). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, there was one known occurrence of three individuals. Currently, 
there are two occurrences of seven to nine individuals in the lowland 
mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra subumbellata (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 779). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences totaling 12 individuals. 
Currently, there are 3 occurrences totaling a little more than 100 
individuals in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra viridiflora (haiwale), a small shrub in the African 
violet family (Gesneriaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 780). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 23 occurrences totaling 52 individuals. 
Currently, there are 5 occurrences totaling 75 individuals in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Delissea subcordata (oha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, p. 471). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 21 occurrences containing fewer than 
70 individuals, in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 9 
occurrences totaling between 28 and 40 individuals in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Diellia erecta (asplenium-leaved diellia), a fern in the spleenwort 
family (Aspleniaceae), occurs on Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii 
(Palmer 2003, p. 117). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, and 
there was only 1 known occurrence of 20 individuals on Oahu. This 
occurrence on Oahu persists, with approximately 20 to 30 individuals, 
in the lowland mesic ecosystem of the Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Diellia falcata (NCN), a fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Palmer 2003, p. 119). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was found in 30 occurrences totaling fewer than 
6,000 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, D. falcata is 
found in 13 occurrences (totaling between 4,000 and 7,000 individuals) 
in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Diellia unisora (NCN), a fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Palmer 
2003, p. 122). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 4 occurrences containing fewer than 800 
individuals. Currently, D. unisora is known from 4 occurrences totaling 
approximately 700 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Diplazium molokaiense (NCN), a fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), was known from all the major islands except Hawaii 
(Palmer 2003, p. 125). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species had not been documented on Oahu since 1945, and was 
present only at one site on east Maui. On Oahu, this species was known 
from the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae 
Mountains (Wood 2006, p. 32; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Dubautia herbstobatae (naenae), a shrub in the sunflower family 
(Asteraceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Carr 1999, 
pp. 297-298). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 12 occurrences totaling fewer than 100 
individuals. Currently, D. herbstobatae is found in 2 occurrences 
totaling over 2,000 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008). The increase in the number of individuals is possibly due to the 
recent removal of feral goats from surrounding areas through fencing 
and eradication efforts (Makua Implementation Team 2003, pp. 2-98-2-
104).
    Eragrostis fosbergii (Fosberg's lovegrass), a perennial in the 
grass family (Poaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,541-1,542). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were only four occurrences known, each of a 
single individual. Currently, these individuals remain, with no reports 
of regeneration, in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Eugenia koolauensis (nioi), a small tree or shrub in the myrtle 
family (Myrtaceae), is known from Oahu and Molokai (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 960). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
12 occurrences totaling fewer than 70 individuals in the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, this species is found in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (2 occurrences) and in 
the Koolau Mountains (11 occurrences), totaling approximately 500 
mature individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). These 
individuals are currently threatened by Puccinia psidii, a rust fungus 
that infests plants in the Myrtaceae family (Loope and LaRosa 2007, 
p.1).
    Euphorbia haeleeleana (akoko), a small tree in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is known from Kauai and Oahu (Koutnik and Huft 1999, 
p. 619). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 8 occurrences of approximately 134 individuals, 
in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 6 occurrences 
totaling 65 individuals in the lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Flueggea neowawraea (mehamehame), a tree in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is known from Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii, and was 
possibly historically found on Molokai (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 620-
621). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species 
was found in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu, in 23 occurrences with a 
total of 31 individuals. Currently, there are 18 occurrences totaling 
36 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Gardenia mannii (nanu), a tree in the coffee family (Rubiaceae), is 
endemic to Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,133). At

[[Page 57693]]

the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 49 
occurrences in both the Waianae and Koolau Mountains, totaling between 
69 and 80 individuals. Currently, 18 occurrences are known (totaling 
108 to 110 individuals) in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems 
in both mountain ranges (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Gouania meyenii (NCN), a shrub in the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu and Kauai (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 
1,095-1,096; NTBG Provenance Report 1994, 2 pp.). On Oahu, this species 
was historically found in the lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems 
of the Waianae Mountains, and the lowland dry ecosystem at Diamond Head 
(HBMP 2008). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, the 4 
known occurrences in the Waianae Mountains contained 63 individuals. 
Currently, this species is found in 3 occurrences totaling fewer than 
70 individuals in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Gouania vitifolia (NCN), a climbing shrub in the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu, west Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1,097). This species is endemic to the Waianae Mountains 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,097), and was thought to be extirpated from 
Oahu in the 1990s. However, at the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, G. vitifolia was found in 2 occurrences totaling 44 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 2 
occurrences totaling 58 to 64 individuals, within the lowland dry, 
lowland wet, and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 
2008). This species was also historically known from the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008).
    Hesperomannia arborescens (NCN), a small tree in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is found on Maui, Molokai, and the Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu, and was historically found on Lanai (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 325). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 36 occurrences containing between 86 and 93 individuals on 
Oahu. Currently, there are 19 occurrences totaling approximately 130 
individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the 
Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Hesperomannia arbuscula (NCN), a small tree or shrub in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is found on Oahu and Maui (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 325). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 6 occurrences containing between 90 and 92 individuals in 
the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 5 occurrences 
totaling 14 individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Hibiscus brackenridgei (mao hau hele), a shrub in the mallow family 
(Malvaceae), includes 3 subspecies and is known from Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii (Bates 1999, pp. 883-884). At the time 
we designated critical habitat in 2003, H. brackenridgei ssp. 
brackenridgei was known from Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii. Hibiscus 
brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus was known from Oahu and Kauai. On Oahu, 
there were fewer than 206 individuals in 5 occurrences in the Waianae 
Mountains. Also at that time, H. brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana was 
known from one occurrence of five individuals in the Waianae Mountains. 
Currently, H. brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus is known from 7 
occurrences totaling between 47 and 50 individuals in the lowland dry 
and lowland mesic ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008; TNC 
2007; U.S. Army 2006). Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana is known 
from 1 occurrence of 32 individuals in the lowland dry and lowland 
mesic ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Huperzia nutans (formerly Phlegmariurus nutans) (wawaeiole), a fern 
ally in the hanging fir-moss family (Lycopodiaceae), is known from 
Kauai and Oahu (Palmer 2003, p. 257). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, there were 3 occurrences containing 7 
individuals in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 2 
occurrences totaling between 10 to 15 individuals in the lowland wet 
and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Isodendrion laurifolium (aupaka), a shrub in the violet family 
(Violaceae), is known from Kauai and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,329). This species was historically known from both the Koolau and 
Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences totaling between 22 and 23 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 5 
known occurrences totaling between 24 and 64 individuals in the dry 
cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Isodendrion longifolium (aupaka), a shrub in the violet family 
(Violaceae), is known from Kauai and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 
1,329-1,331). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 7 occurrences totaling 30 individuals in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 4 
occurrences of I. longifolium totaling between 32 and 36 individuals in 
the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Isodendrion pyrifolium (wahine noho kula), a shrub in the violet 
family (Violaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Niihau, Molokai, 
and Lanai (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,331). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was no longer extant on Oahu. 
Currently, there are no known occurrences on Oahu; however, I. 
pyrifolium was documented in the lowland dry and dry cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Kadua coriacea (formerly Hedyotis coriacea) (kioele), a shrub in 
the coffee family (Rubiaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,141). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known only from historical 
occurrences on Oahu. Currently, there are no known occurrences on Oahu; 
however, K. coriacea is historic to the lowland mesic ecosystem in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Kadua degeneri (formerly Hedyotis degeneri) (NCN), a shrub in the 
coffee family (Rubiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,141-1,142). Two varieties have been 
recognized. Kadua degeneri var. coprosmifolia occurred in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem until the late 1980s; however, this occurrence may no 
longer be extant (Motley 2006, pers. comm.; HBMP 2008). Kadua degeneri 
var. degeneri was known from 4 occurrences, totaling 60 individuals at 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, and currently there 
are 4 to 5 occurrences totaling between 280 and 370 individuals, in the 
lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. 
Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Kadua parvula (formerly Hedyotis parvula) (NCN), a small shrub in 
the coffee family (Rubiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,149-1,150). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 7 occurrences 
totaling between 116 and 131 individuals. Currently, K.

[[Page 57694]]

parvula is found in 2 occurrences totaling approximately 240 
individuals, in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2003, pp. 16-91--16-95; U.S. Army 2006; 
TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; U.S. Army Garrison 2008, p. 2-45).
    Labordia cyrtandrae (kamakahala), a shrub in the logania family 
(Loganiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 854-855). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, L. cyrtandrae was known from the Waianae Mountains, in 
10 occurrences containing 20 individuals. Currently, due to an increase 
in survey efforts over the last 6 years in potentially suitable habitat 
for this species, there are 3 occurrences totaling 44 individuals in 
the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains; and one individual in the lowland wet 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains, with historical occurrences in the 
lowland mesic and wet cliff ecosystems of the Koolau Mountains (U.S. 
Army 2006a; U.S. Army 2006b, pp. 3-2-13--3-2-17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lepidium arbuscula (anaunau), a shrub in the mustard family 
(Brassicaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 406). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 10 occurrences totaling approximately 1,000 individuals. 
Currently, there are 9 occurrences totaling fewer than 900 individuals 
in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; 
TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla (nehe), a perennial herb in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 337-338). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 4 occurrences 
totaling 147 individuals. Currently, there are 4 occurrences of 
approximately 150 individuals in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (NCN), a shrub in the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains 
of Oahu (Lammers 1999, p. 476). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences totaling fewer than 270 
individuals. Currently, this species is known from 2 occurrences 
totaling approximately 280 individuals in the lowland wet ecosystem in 
the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lobelia monostachya (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 478). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, L. 
monostachya was known from one occurrence of three individuals. 
Currently, there are two occurrences (eight individuals) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; PEP 2007, p. 
33; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lobelia niihauensis (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is known from Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau (Lammers 1999, 
pp. 478-479). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 40 occurrences containing between 362 and 397 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 14 occurrences totaling 
approximately 400 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Lobelia oahuensis (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, p. 479). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 12 occurrences totaling 42 
individuals. Currently, L. oahuensis is found in 7 occurrences totaling 
41 individuals in the lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains; and in the lowland wet and wet 
cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Lysimachia filifolia (NCN), a small shrub in the primrose family 
(Primulaceae), is found on Kauai and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,080). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 1 occurrence containing 50 individuals in the 
Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, L. filifolia is found in 2 to 3 
occurrences totaling between 50 and 160 individuals in the wet cliff 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Marsilea villosa (ihi ihi), a fern in the water clover fern family 
(Marsileaceae), is known from Niihau, Molokai, and Oahu (Palmer 2003, 
pp. 180-182). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from five occurrences of an unknown number of 
individuals on Oahu. Currently, M. villosa is found in five to six 
occurrences of an unknown number of individuals in seasonal wetlands of 
the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems in the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Chau 2009, in litt.).
    Melanthera tenuifolia (formerly Lipochaeta tenuifolia) (nehe), a 
perennial herb in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 343). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 41 
occurrences containing between 759 and 1,174 individuals. Currently, M. 
tenuifolia is found in 11 occurrences totaling as many as 4,000 
individuals in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope lydgatei (alani), a small shrub in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Stone et al. 
1999, p. 1,193). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was known from 18 occurrences containing an unknown number 
of individuals. Currently, M. lydgatei is found in 5 occurrences 
totaling 26 individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems 
in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope pallida (alani), a tree in the rue family (Rutaceae), is 
known from Kauai and Oahu (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,198-1,199). At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known 
from one individual in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, one 
individual is found in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope saint-johnii (alani), a tree in the rue family (Rutaceae), 
is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Stone et al. 
1999, pp. 1,203-1,204). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, there were no individuals in the Koolau Mountains, and 6 
occurrences totaling fewer than 170 individuals in the Waianae 
Mountains. Currently, M. saint-johnii is found in the lowland mesic and 
dry cliff ecosystems of the Waianae Mountains, in 2 occurrences 
totaling as many as 162 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, this species also occurred in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
in the Koolau Mountains.
    Myrsine juddii (kolea), a shrub in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 940-941). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 3 occurrences with an estimated 5,000 
individuals. Currently, there is a single wide-ranging occurrence, 
estimated to contain 3,000 individuals,

[[Page 57695]]

in the lowland wet ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 
Garrison 2005b, p. 16-123; HBMP 2008).
    Neraudia angulata (NCN), a shrub in the nettle family (Urticaceae), 
is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 
1,302-1,303). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, the 
two recognized varieties, N. angulata var. angulata and N. angulata 
var. dentata, were found in 27 occurrences totaling 51 individuals. 
Currently, there are 4 occurrences (106 individuals) considered to be 
N. angulata var. angulata, and 2 occurrences (3 individuals) considered 
to be N. angulata var. dentata. Intermediate forms of the two varieties 
are found in 2 occurrences totaling over 100 individuals. The six 
occurrences are found in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains. The numbers of individuals in each 
occurrence vary widely from year to year (U.S. Army Garrison 2003, pp. 
16-116--16-119; U.S. Army 2006, pp. 3-1-129--3-1-139; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Nototrichium humile (kului), a shrub in the amaranth family 
(Amaranthaceae), is known from Oahu and east Maui (Wagner et al. 1999, 
pp. 193-194). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 25 occurrences containing between 775 and 995 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 12 occurrences totaling 
over 1,000 individuals in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; U.S. Army Garrison 
2006, pp. 3-1-140--3-1-146; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Peucedanum sandwicense (makou), a perennial herb in the parsley 
family (Apiaceae), is known from Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Oahu 
(Constance and Affolter 1999, p. 208; HBMP 2008). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was found in 4 
occurrences containing 51 individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. 
Currently, there are 2 occurrences totaling 61 individuals in the dry 
cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia hirsuta (NCN), a subshrub or vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 817). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 26 occurrences totaling 
between 214 and 277 individuals in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains. 
Currently, there are 9 occurrences totaling approximately 160 
individuals in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems 
in both the Waianae and Koolau Mountains; and in the montane wet 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; U.S. Army Garrison 
2006, pp. 3-2-24--3-2-28; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia kaalaensis (NCN), an herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner 1999, 
p. 270). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 7 occurrences containing fewer than 45 
individuals. All of those occurrences (in the lowland mesic and dry 
cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains) have since then been 
extirpated. However, there are 14 individuals outplanted in 4 locations 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army Garrison 2006, pp. 3-1-147--3-1-
152).
    Phyllostegia mollis (NCN), a perennial herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is known from Molokai, Maui, and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 821). This species was historically known from both the Koolau and 
Waianae Mountains. At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was found in 5 occurrences totaling between 85 and 105 
individuals only in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, P. mollis 
is known from 6 occurrences totaling between 42 and 92 individuals in 
the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia parviflora (NCN), a perennial herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and the island of Hawaii (Wagner 
et al. 1999, pp. 821-822; Wagner 1999, p. 273). There are three 
recognized varieties: Phyllostegia parviflora var. glabriuscula is 
known only from the island of Hawaii, P. parviflora var. parviflora is 
found on Maui and the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, and P. parviflora var. 
lydgatei is known from Oahu's Waianae Mountains. At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, P. parviflora var. parviflora was 
known from 30 individuals in 1 occurrence in the Koolau Mountains, and 
P. parviflora var. lydgatei was known from 4 individuals in the Waianae 
Mountains. Currently, all four wild individuals of P. parviflora var. 
lydgatei in the Waianae Mountains are extirpated; however, 100 
individuals have been outplanted (TNCH 1997, p. A-10; Sailer 2006, in 
litt.). Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora is known from 
approximately 100 individuals in the lowland wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (NTBG 2009).
    Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi), a small shrub or perennial 
herb in the plantain family (Plantaginaceae), is known from Kauai, 
Oahu, Maui, and Molokai, and occurred historically on the island of 
Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,054-1,055). Plantago princeps is 
subdivided into four varieties: P. princeps var. anomala (Kauai), P. 
princeps var. laxifolia (Molokai, Maui, Hawaii), P. princeps var. 
longibracteata (Kauai and Oahu), and P. princeps var. princeps (Oahu). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, P. princeps var. 
longibracteata, known from the lowland wet ecosystem, was no longer 
extant on Oahu (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Plantago princeps var. princeps 
was known from 11 occurrences containing between 130 and 180 
individuals. Currently, only P. princeps var. princeps is extant on 
Oahu, in 7 occurrences totaling between 159 and 232 individuals, in the 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae 
Mountains, and in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the 
Koolau Mountains. This taxon historically also occurred in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Platanthera holochila (NCN), an herb in the orchid family 
(Orchidaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 1,474). This species was last collected on Oahu in 1938, 
in the lowland wet ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Pteris lidgatei (NCN), a terrestrial fern in the maidenhair fern 
family (Adiantaceae), is known from Maui, Molokai, and Oahu (Palmer 
2003, pp. 227-229). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was found in 9 occurrences totaling 13 individuals in the 
Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 5 occurrences totaling 
between 17 and 24 individuals in the lowland wet ecosystem in the 
Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Sanicula mariversa (NCN), a perennial herb in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Constance and 
Affolter, pp. 209-210). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 4 occurrences containing 
approximately 170 individuals. Currently, S. mariversa is found in 2 
occurrences totaling as many as 188 individuals in the lowland mesic 
and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 200a; U.S. 
Army Garrison 2006, pp. 3-1-169--3-1-174; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).

[[Page 57696]]

    Sanicula purpurea (NCN), a stout perennial herb in the parsley 
family (Apiaceae), is known from Maui and Oahu (Constance and Affolter 
1999, p. 210). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 5 occurrences totaling 21 individuals in the Koolau 
Mountains. Currently, S. purpurea is found in 5 occurrences totaling 24 
individuals in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea hookeri (NCN), a perennial herb in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Oahu and from a fragmentary collection 
from Maui that may represent a different species (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 514). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 17 occurrences containing between 328 and 378 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, S. hookeri is 
found in 17 occurrences totaling approximately the same number of 
individuals, in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, dry cliff, 
and wet cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea kaalae (NCN), a nearly stemless plant in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 515). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 7 occurrences totaling 49 
individuals in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains. Currently, S. kaalae 
is found in 9 occurrences totaling 40 individuals, in the lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains, 
and in the lowland mesic and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea kealiae (maolioli), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 515). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 4 occurrences totaling between 265 
and 315 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, S. kealiae is 
found in 1 occurrence totaling between 50 and 100 individuals, in the 
coastal and lowland dry ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea nuttallii (NCN), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Wagner 
et al. 1999, pp. 517-519; Wagner et al. 2005). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was found in 7 
occurrences with 49 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, 
there are 2 occurrences totaling between 41 and 54 individuals in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008). Historical occurrences of this species were also 
known from the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea obovata (formerly Alsinidendron obovatum) (NCN), a 
subshrub in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 501). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, S. obovata was known from 6 
occurrences containing 8 to 10 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. 
Currently, this species is found in 2 to 3 occurrences, totaling 
between 14 and 44 individuals, in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; U.S. Army Garrison 
2006, pp. 3-1-190--3-1-197; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea trinervis (formerly Alsinidendron trinerve) (NCN), a 
subshrub in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 501). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 13 
occurrences totaling between 18 and 34 individuals. Currently, S. 
trinervis is found in 2 occurrences, totaling 192 individuals, in the 
montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; U.S. Army Garrison 2005b, pp. 16-151--16-
153; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Sesbania tomentosa (ohai), a shrub in the pea family (Fabaceae), is 
known from all of the main Hawaiian Islands, and from the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands of Necker and Nihoa (Geesink et al. 1999, pp. 704-
705). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species 
was known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Maui, Hawaii, Nihoa, 
and Necker. On Oahu, S. tomentosa was found in 3 occurrences totaling 
55 individuals. Currently on Oahu, there are 2 outplanted occurrences 
totaling approximately 30 individuals in the coastal ecosystem at Kaena 
Point and Kaohikaipu islet (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Silene lanceolata (NCN), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, and 
Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 523). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 4 occurrences with 62 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, S. lanceolata is found in 3 
occurrences totaling between 100 and 130 individuals, in the dry cliff 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Silene perlmanii (NCN), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner 
et al. 1999, pp. 523-524). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, this species was presumed extirpated. Currently, S. perlmanii 
is in propagation, and 15 individuals were outplanted in the Honouliuli 
Preserve between 2003 and 2006. However, as of 2007, only three plants 
were extant (Sailer 2007, pers. comm.).
    Solanum sandwicense (popolo aiakeakua), a shrub in the nightshade 
family (Solanaceae), is known from Kauai and the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Symon 1999, p. 
1,275). This species was last observed on Oahu in 2000, in the Waianae 
Mountains. Currently, there are at least six outplantings of this 
species totaling an unknown number of individuals in the Waianae 
Mountains (PEP 2007, p. 27; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Spermolepis hawaiiensis (NCN), an annual herb in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is known from Oahu and Maui (Constance and Affolter 1999, 
p. 212). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
6 occurrences totaling between 110 and 910 individuals in the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains (Diamond Head), in the lowland dry and dry cliff 
ecosystems. Currently, S. hawaiiensis is found in 4 occurrences 
totaling several hundred to thousands of individuals, depending on 
annual weather conditions (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Stenogyne kanehoana (NCN), a vine in the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Weller and Sakai 1999, pp. 
838-839). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from a recently extirpated occurrence of two 
individuals, and a newly discovered occurrence (in 2000) of one to six 
individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains. 
Currently, the occurrence discovered in 2000 is no longer extant; 
however, another individual was discovered in 2004, and may persist at 
this time (U.S. Army Garrison 2005b, pp. 16-155--16-157; U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Tetramolopium filiforme (NCN), a dwarf shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999,

[[Page 57697]]

p. 366). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
21 occurrences containing approximately 250 individuals. Currently, 
this species is found in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains, in 6 occurrences totaling almost 3,000 individuals (U.S. 
Army Garrison 2006b, pp. 3-1-198--3-1-204; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The 
large increase in the number of individuals is likely due to an 
increase in survey efforts over the past 6 years in potentially 
suitable habitat for this species (U.S. Army Garrison 2006b, p. 3-1-
202).
    Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (NCN), a shrub in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from Lanai, Maui, and Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 367). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences of approximately 15 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, this species 
is found in 3 occurrences totaling 65 individuals, in the lowland mesic 
and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa (ohe ohe), a tree in the ginseng family 
(Araliaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, and was 
historically known from one location in the Waianae Mountains (Lowry 
1999, p. 234). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 30 occurrences totaling fewer than 100 individuals in the 
Koolau Mountains. Currently, there are 13 occurrences totaling 
approximately 140 individuals in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and 
wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Trematolobelia singularis (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 488). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 3 occurrences totaling 165 individuals. Currently, T. 
singularis is found in 4 occurrences totaling approximately 360 
individuals in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Urera kaalae (opuhe), a small tree or shrub in the nettle family 
(Urticaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 1,313-1,314). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 12 occurrences containing 41 individuals. 
Currently, U. kaalae is found in 4 occurrences totaling between 49 and 
60 individuals, in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Vigna o-wahuensis (NCN), a twining annual or perennial herb in the 
pea family (Fabaceae), is known from Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, 
Kahoolawe, Maui, and Hawaii (Geesink et al. 1999, p. 720). The last 
collection from Oahu was made on the Mokulua Islets and North Islet, 
off Oahu's northeastern coast, in 1938, in the coastal ecosystem. At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were no known 
occurrences, and currently, there are still no known occurrences on 
Oahu's offshore islets (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana (pamakani), a shrub in the 
violet family (Violaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,333). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 15 occurrences containing 59 individuals. 
Currently, this species is found in 8 occurrences totaling slightly 
more than 600 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army Garrison 2006b, pp. 3-1-205--3-1-
210; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Viola oahuensis (NCN), a subshrub in the violet family (Violaceae), 
is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,336). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
18 occurrences totaling fewer than 200 individuals. Currently, there 
are 8 occurrences totaling approximately 170 individuals in the lowland 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; 
TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).

Methods

    As required by section 4(b) of the Act, we used the best scientific 
data available in determining those areas that contain the physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the 124 species, 
and for which designation of critical habitat is considered prudent, by 
identifying the occurrence for each species and determining the 
ecosystems upon which they depend. This information was developed by 
using:
     The known locations of the 124 species, including site-
specific species information from the HBMP database (HBMP 2008), the 
Army Environmental Division database (U.S. Army 2006), and our own rare 
plant database;
     Species information from the plant databases housed at 
NTBG;
     Oahu map of important habitat for the recovery of plants 
protected under the Act (Service 1999, p. F-7);
     Geographic Information System (GIS) map layer of habitat 
essential to the recovery of Hawaiian plants as determined by the 
Hawaii and Pacific Plant Recovery Coordinating Committee (HPPRCC 1998);
     Geodatabase feature dataset for Oahu soils (NRCS 2007);
     The Nature Conservancy's Ecoregional Assessment of the 
Hawaiian High Islands (2006) and ecosystem maps (2007);
     Color mosaic 1:19,000 scale digital aerial photographs for 
the Hawaiian Islands (April to May 2005);
     Island-wide GIS coverage (e.g., Gap Analysis Program 
(GAP)) vegetation data of 2005;
     1:24,000 scale digital raster graphics of U.S. Geological 
Survey (USGS) topographic quadrangles;
     Geospatial data sets associated with parcel data from 
Honolulu County (2012);
     Final critical habitat designation for listed plant 
species on the island of Oahu (68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003);
     The FWS report (June 2012) ``Recovery Needs and Strategy 
for `Akoko''';
     Recent biological surveys and reports; and
     Discussions with qualified individuals familiar with these 
species and ecosystems (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007; NTBG 2007; PEP 2007; 
Polhemus 2008, pers. comm.; Bakutis, 2006, in litt.).

Physical or Biological Features

    In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) and 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act and 
regulations at 50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas within the 
geographical area occupied at the time of listing to designate as 
critical habitat, we consider the physical or biological features 
essential to the conservation of the species and which may require 
special management considerations or protection. These physical or 
biological features provide the necessary life-history requirements of 
the species and include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Space for individual and population growth and for normal 
behavior;
    (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or 
physiological requirements;
    (3) Cover or shelter;
    (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, or rearing (or development) 
of offspring; and
    (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or are 
representative of the historical, geographical, and ecological 
distributions of a species.


[[Page 57698]]


For plant species, ecosystems that provide appropriate seasonal wetland 
and dry land habitats, host species, pollinators, soil types, and 
associated plant communities are taken into consideration when 
determining the physical or biological features essential for a 
species.
    Under section 4(a)(3)(A)(ii) of the Act we may, as appropriate, 
revise a critical habitat designation. For the reasons described above, 
we revise critical habitat for 99 Oahu plants based on new information 
received since 2003, and the need to designate unoccupied habitat to 
conserve the species. We have derived the specific physical or 
biological features required for each of the 99 Oahu plants based on 
studies of their habitat, ecology, and life history; information in the 
2003 critical habitat designations; and new scientific information that 
has become available since that time. In addition, the Recovery Plan 
for the Oahu Plants (Service 1998, p. vii) identifies several actions 
needed to recover these species, including expanding existing wild 
populations and reestablishing wild populations within the historic 
range. In accordance with the recovery plan, we have determined that 
designating certain unoccupied habitat is essential to the conservation 
of the species and that designation limited to occupied areas would be 
inadequate to ensure the conservation of the species. The physical or 
biological features for occupied areas, in conjunction with the 
unoccupied areas needed to expand and reestablish wild populations 
within the historical range, provide a more comprehensive view of the 
recovery needs and relevant geographic areas for each species. We 
believe this information will be helpful to Federal agencies and our 
other partners, as we collectively work to recover these imperiled 
species.
    In 2003, the physical or biological features for each plant species 
were defined on the basis of habitat features of the areas actually 
occupied by the plants, which included plant community, associated 
native plant species, locale information (e.g., steep rocky cliffs, 
talus slopes, gulches, stream banks), and elevation (68 FR 35950; June 
17, 2003). However, since 2003, we have found that many areas where 
these species are currently or recently reported are marginal habitat; 
the species occurs in these areas due to remoteness or inaccessibility 
to feral ungulates. In this final rule, the physical or biological 
features have been categorized into the ecosystem types on which these 
species depend. They have also been more precisely identified, and now 
include elevation, precipitation, substrate, canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory characteristics.
    We identify these features in areas occupied by the species at the 
time of listing, focusing on the features' primary constituent 
elements. We consider the primary constituent elements (PCEs) to be the 
elements of physical and biological features that, provide for a 
species' life-history processes and are essential to the conservation 
of the species. In this rule, PCEs for each of the 124 species are 
defined based on those physical or biological features essential to 
support the successful functioning of the ecosystem upon which each 
species depends, and which may require special management 
considerations or protection. As the conservation of each species is 
dependent upon a functioning ecosystem to provide its fundamental life 
requirements, such as a certain soil type, minimum level of rainfall, 
or suitable water quantity (in the case of the three damselflies), we 
consider the physical or biological features present in the ecosystems 
described in this rule to provide the necessary PCEs for each species. 
The ecosystems' features collectively provide the suite of 
environmental conditions within each ecosystem essential to meeting the 
requirements of each species, including the appropriate microclimatic 
conditions for germination and growth of the plants (e.g., light 
availability, soil nutrients, hydrologic regime, temperature); adequate 
instream flows and upland habitat for cover and foraging for the 
damselfly species; maintenance of upland habitat so that it provides 
for the proper ecological functioning of streams for the damselflies 
(e.g., water quality, water temperature); and in all cases, space 
within the appropriate habitats for population growth and expansion, as 
well as to maintain the historical, geographical, and ecological 
distribution of each species. In many cases, due to our limited 
knowledge of the specific life-history requirements for these species, 
which are little-studied and occur in remote and inaccessible areas, 
the more general description of the physical or biological features 
that provide for the successful function of the ecosystem that is 
essential to the conservation of the species represents the best 
scientific information available. Accordingly, for purposes of this 
rule, the physical or biological features of a properly functioning 
ecosystem are the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the 124 species in this rule that occur in those 
ecosystems.
    Table 4 identifies the physical or biological features of a 
functioning ecosystem for each of the ecosystem types identified in 
this rule, and each species identified in this rule requires the 
physical or biological features for each ecosystem in which that 
species occurs, as noted in Table 5. These physical or biological 
features provide the PCEs for the individual species in each ecosystem. 
The physical or biological features are defined here by elevation, 
annual levels of precipitation, substrate type and slope, and the 
ability to support viable populations of characteristic native plant 
genera that are found in the canopy, subcanopy, and understory levels 
of the vegetative community where applicable. If further information is 
available indicating additional, specific life-history requirements for 
some species, PCEs relating to these requirements are described 
separately and are termed ``unique PCEs for species,'' and are 
identified in Table 5. The PCEs for each species are therefore composed 
of the physical or biological features found in its functioning 
ecosystem(s), in combination with additional unique requirements, if 
any, as shown in Table 4. Note that the PCEs identified in Table 5 for 
each species are directly related to the physical or biological 
features presented in detail in Table 4; thus, both Tables 4 and 5 must 
be read together to fully describe all of the PCEs for each species.

[[Page 57699]]



                                               Table 4--Physical or Biological Features in Each Ecosystem
                                                           [Read in association with table 5]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                Capable of Supporting Viable Populations of Associated
                                                            Annual                                                Native Plant Genera
            Ecosystem                  Elevation         precipitation         Substrate     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Canopy             Subcanopy          Understory
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Physical or Biological Features
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal \1\.....................  < 980 ft (< 300 m)  < 20 in (50 cm)...  Well-drained,       Hibiscus,           Gossypium, Sida,    Eragrostis,
                                                                           calcareous, talus   Myoporum,           Vitex.              Jacquemontia,
                                                                           slopes; weathered   Santalum,                               Lyceum, Nama,
                                                                           clay soils;         Scaevola.                               Sesuvium,
                                                                           ephemeral pools;                                            Sporobolus, Vigna
                                                                           mudflats.
Lowland Dry \2\.................  < 3,300 ft (<1,000  < 50 in (130 cm)..  Weathered silty     Diospyros,          Chamaesyce,         Alyxia, Artemisia,
                                   m).                                     loams to stony      Myoporum,           Dodonaea,           Bidens,
                                                                           clay, rocky         Pleomele,           Leptecophylla,      Chenopodium,
                                                                           ledges, little-     Santalum,           Osteomeles,         Nephrolepis,
                                                                           weathered lava.     Sapindus.           Psydrax,            Peperomia,
                                                                                                                   Scaevola,           Plumbago, Sicyos,
                                                                                                                   Wikstroemia.        Sida, Waltheria
Lowland Mesic \3\...............  < 3,300 ft (<1,000  50-75 in (130-190   Shallow soils,      Acacia, Diospyros,  Dodonaea,           Carex,
                                   m).                 cm).                little to no        Metrosideros,       Freycinetia,        Dicranopteris,
                                                                           herbaceous layer.   Myrsine,            Leptecophylla,      Diplazium,
                                                                                               Pouteria,           Melanthera,         Elaphoglossum,
                                                                                               Santalum.           Osteomeles,         Peperomia
                                                                                                                   Pleomele, Psydrax.
Lowland Wet \4\.................  < 3,300 ft (<1,000  > 75 in (> 190 cm)  Clays; ashbeds;     Antidesma,          Cibotium,           Alyxia, Cyrtandra,
                                   m).                                     deep, well-         Metrosideros,       Claoxylon, Kadua,   Dicranopteris,
                                                                           drained soils;      Myrsine, Pisonia,   Melicope.           Diplazium,
                                                                           lowland bogs.       Psychotria.                             Machaerina,
                                                                                                                                       Microlepia
Montane Wet \5\.................  3,300 to 6,600 ft   > 75 in (> 190 cm)  Well-developed      Acacia,             Broussaisia,        Ferns, Carex,
                                   (1,000 to 2,000                         soils, montane      Charpentiera,       Cibotium, Eurya,    Coprosma,
                                   m).                                     bogs.               Cheirodendron,      Ilex, Myrsine.      Leptecophylla,
                                                                                               Metrosideros.                           Oreobolus,
                                                                                                                                       Rhynchospora,
                                                                                                                                       Vaccinium
Dry Cliff \6\...................  Unrestricted......  < 75 in (< 190 cm)  > 65 degree slope,  none..............  Antidesma,          Bidens,
                                                                           rocky talus.                            Chamaesyce,         Eragrostis,
                                                                                                                   Diospyros,          Melanthera,
                                                                                                                   Dodonaea.           Schiedea
Wet Cliff \7\...................  unrestricted......  > 75 in (> 190 cm)  > 65 degree slope,  none..............  Broussaisia,        Ferns, Bryophytes,
                                                                           shallow soils,                          Cheirodendron,      Coprosma,
                                                                           weathered lava.                         Leptecophylla,      Dubautia, Kadua,
                                                                                                                   Metrosideros.       Peperomia
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The physical or biological features for species in the Coastal ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Coastal-Units 1-15.
\2\ The physical or biological features for species in the Lowland Dry ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Lowland Dry-Units 1-
  11.
\3\ The physical or biological features for species in the Lowland Mesic ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Lowland Mesic-
  Units 1-7, and to the following damselfly ecosystem units Megalagrion oceanicum Unit 1-Lowland Mesic.
\4\ The physical or biological features for species in the Lowland Wet ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Lowland Wet-Units 1-
  16, and to the following damselfly ecosystem units Megalagrion leptodemas Units 1-11-Lowland Wet, M. nigrohamatum nigrolineatum Units 1-11-Lowland
  Wet, and M. oceanicum Units 2-12-Lowland Wet.
\5\ The physical or biological features for species in the Montane Wet ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Montane Wet-Unit-1.
\6\ The physical or biological features for species in the Dry Cliff ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Dry Cliff-Units 1-8.
\7\ The physical or biological features for species in the Wet Cliff ecosystem apply to the following plant ecosystem units: Oahu-Wet Cliff-Units 1-8,
  and to the following damselfly ecosystem units Megalagrion leptodemas Units 12-14-Wet Cliff, and M. oceanicum Units 13-15-Wet Cliff.


[[Page 57700]]


   Table 5--Primary Constituent Elements for the Oahu Species are a Combination of the Physical or Biological Features (See Table 4) in the Applicable
                                         Ecosystem(S) as Well as Unique PCES for Species, if Any Are Identified
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        Lowland     Lowland     Lowland     Montane
                                            Coastal       dry        mesic        wet         wet     Dry  cliff  Wet  cliff   Unique PCEs for  species
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Plants
 
Abutilon sandwicense....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata....          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Adenophorus periens.....................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Alectryon macrococcus...................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........................
Bidens amplectens.......................          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Bonamia menziesii.......................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Cenchrus agrimonioides..................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Centaurium sebaeoides...................          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana....          X           X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Chamaesyce deppeana.....................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Chamaesyce herbstii.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Chamaesyce kuwaleana....................          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Chamaesyce rockii.......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.              ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  coral outcrop substrate.
 skottsbergii.
Colubrina oppositifolia.................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Ctenitis squamigera.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea acuminata........................  ..........  ..........          X           X           X   ..........          X   ..........................
Cyanea calycina.........................  ..........  ..........          X           X           X   ..........          X   ..........................
Cyanea crispa...........................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana.......  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae...........  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Cyanea humboldtiana.....................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyanea koolauensis......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea lanceolata.......................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea longiflora.......................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea pinnatifida......................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea purpurellifolia..................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyanea st.-johnii.......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyanea superba..........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyanea truncata.........................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyperus pennatiformis...................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyperus trachysanthos...................          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  seasonal wetlands.
Cyrtandra dentata.......................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Cyrtandra gracilis......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyrtandra kaulantha.....................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyrtandra polyantha.....................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Cyrtandra sessilis......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyrtandra subumbellata..................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyrtandra viridiflora...................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Cyrtandra waiolani......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Delissea subcordata.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Diellia erecta..........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Diellia falcata.........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Diellia unisora.........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Diplazium molokaiense...................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Doryopteris takeuchii...................  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Dubautia herbstobatae...................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Eragrostis fosbergii....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Eugenia koolauensis.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Euphorbia haeleeleana...................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Flueggea neowawraea.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Gardenia mannii.........................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Gouania meyenii.........................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Gouania vitifolia.......................  ..........          X           X           X   ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Hesperomannia arborescens...............  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Hesperomannia arbuscula.................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Hibiscus brackenridgei..................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Huperzia nutans.........................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Isodendrion laurifolium.................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Isodendrion longifolium.................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Isodendrion pyrifolium..................  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................

[[Page 57701]]

 
Kadua coriacea..........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Kadua degeneri..........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Kadua parvula...........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Korthalsella degeneri...................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  host plants Sapindus
                                                                                                                               oahuensis and Nestegis
                                                                                                                               sandwicensis.
Labordia cyrtandrae.....................  ..........  ..........          X           X           X   ..........          X   ..........................
Lepidium arbuscula......................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla......  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis...  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  bogs.
Lobelia monostachya.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Lobelia niihauensis.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Lobelia oahuensis.......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........          X   ..........................
Lysimachia filifolia....................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Marsilea villosa........................          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  seasonal wetlands.
Melanthera tenuifolia...................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Melicope christophersenii...............  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........          X   ..........................
Melicope hiiakae........................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Melicope lydgatei.......................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Melicope makahae........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Melicope pallida........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Melicope saint-johnii...................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Myrsine judii...........................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Neraudia angulata.......................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Nototrichium humile.....................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Peucedanum sandwicense..................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Phyllostegia hirsuta....................  ..........  ..........          X           X           X   ..........          X   ..........................
Phyllostegia kaalaensis.................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Phyllostegia mollis.....................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei...  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora.  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Plantago princeps var. longibracteata...  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Plantago princeps var. princeps.........  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........          X           X   ..........................
Platanthera holochila...................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  bog hummocks.
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta.........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens.......  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Pleomele forbesii.......................  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis......  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Pteralyxia macrocarpa...................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........          X           X   ..........................
Pteris lidgatei.........................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Sanicula mariversa......................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Sanicula purpurea.......................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   Bogs.
Schiedea hookeri........................  ..........          X           X           X   ..........          X           X   ..........................
Schiedea kaalae.........................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Schiedea kealiae........................          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Schiedea nuttallii......................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Schiedea obovata........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Schiedea trinervis......................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X           X           X   ..........................
Sesbania tomentosa......................          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Silene lanceolata.......................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Silene perlmanii........................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Solanum sandwicense.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.................  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Stenogyne kanehoana.....................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Tetramolopium filiforme.................  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum..  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa...............  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Tetraplasandra lydgatei.................  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Trematolobelia singularis...............  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................

[[Page 57702]]

 
Urera kaalae............................  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Vigna o-wahuensis.......................          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana..  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........................
Viola oahuensis.........................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   ..........................
Zanthoxylum oahuense....................  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Animals
 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly............  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........  ..........  perennial stream, slow
                                                                                                                               reaches of streams or
                                                                                                                               pools.
crimson Hawaiian damselfly..............  ..........  ..........  ..........          X   ..........  ..........          X   perennial stream, slow
                                                                                                                               reaches of streams or
                                                                                                                               pools.
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly..............  ..........  ..........          X           X   ..........  ..........          X   perennial stream, swift-
                                                                                                                               flowing sections and
                                                                                                                               riffles of streams.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Note: Total number of species in table is greater than 124 because we identify the applicable ecosystems and unique PCEs for the Oahu varieties of
  Phyllostegia parviflora and Plantago princeps.

    Some of the species addressed in this rule occur in more than one 
ecosystem. The PCEs for these species are described separately for each 
ecosystem in which they occur. The reasoning behind this approach is 
that each species requires a different suite of environmental 
conditions, depending upon the ecosystem in which it occurs. For 
example, Cyanea calycina will occur in association with different 
native plant species, depending on whether it is found within the 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, or wet cliff ecosystems. Each 
of the physical or biological features described in each ecosystem in 
which the species occurs are essential to the conservation of the 
species, to retain its geographical and ecological distribution across 
the different ecosystem types in which it may occur. Each physical or 
biological feature is also essential to retaining the genetic 
representation that allows this species to successfully adapt to 
different environmental conditions in various native ecosystems. 
Although some of these species occur in multiple native ecosystems, 
their declining abundance in the face of ongoing threats, such as 
increasing numbers of nonnative plant competitors, indicates that they 
are not such broad habitat generalists as to be able to persist in 
highly altered habitats. Based on an analysis of the best available 
scientific information, functioning native ecosystems provide the 
fundamental biological requirements for the narrow-range endemics 
addressed in this rule.
    Some examples may help to clarify our approach to describing the 
PCEs for each individual species. If we want to determine the PCEs for 
the plant Zanthoxylum oahuense, we look at Table 5 to see that the PCEs 
for Z. oahuense are provided by the physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem. Table 4 indicates that the physical or 
biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem include elevations of 
less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m); annual precipitation of more than 75 in 
(190 cm); clays, ashbeds, deep, well-drained soils, and lowland bogs; 
and one or more genera of the subcanopy and understory plants Alyxia, 
Cibotium, Claoxylon, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Kadua, 
Machaerina, Melicope, Microlepia; and one or more of the genera of the 
canopy species Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, and 
Psychotria. As we do not specifically know the unique PCEs for Z. 
oahuense, and this plant is found only in the lowland wet ecosystem, 
the physical or biological features that characterize the lowland wet 
ecosystem are the physical and biological features required by Z. 
oahuense.
    As another example, Table 5 tells us that the physical or 
biological features for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly include the 
physical or biological features for the lowland wet or wet cliff 
ecosystems, depending on the location, and also that this species has a 
species-specific PCE, which is a perennial stream with slow reaches. 
The PCEs for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are thus composed of the 
physical or biological features for each of the two ecosystems it 
occupies, as described in Table 4 for the lowland wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems, as well as perennial streams with slow reaches (i.e., 
stream areas with no riffles or rapids). Table 5 is read in a similar 
fashion in conjunction with Table 4 to describe the PCEs for each of 
the 124 species for which we are designating critical habitat in this 
rule.

Criteria Used To Identify Critical Habitat Boundaries

    We considered several factors in the selection of specific 
boundaries for critical habitat for these 124 species. We are 
designating critical habitat on lands that contain the physical or 
biological features essential to conserving multiple species, based on 
their shared dependence on the functioning ecosystems they have in 
common. Because each of the seven ecosystems addressed in this rule 
does not form a single contiguous area, the ecosystems are divided into 
geographic units. The 7 ecosystem areas are divided into 62 critical 
habitat units.
    The designated critical habitat is a combination of areas currently 
occupied by the species in that ecosystem, as well as areas that may be 
currently unoccupied. Due to the extremely remote and inaccessible 
nature of some of the areas, surveys are relatively infrequent and may 
be limited in scope; therefore, it is difficult to say with certainty 
whether individual representatives of a rare species may or may not be 
present. However, the best available scientific information suggests 
that these species are occupying or have occupied these habitats. A 
properly functioning ecosystem provides the life-

[[Page 57703]]

history requirements of the species that make up that ecosystem, and 
the physical and biological features found in such an ecosystem are the 
PCEs essential for the conservation of the species that occur there. In 
other words, the occupied areas provide the physical or biological 
features essential to the conservation of the species that occur in the 
ecosystems we analyzed, by providing for the successful functioning of 
the ecosystem on which the species depend. However, due to the small 
population sizes, few numbers of individuals, and reduced geographic 
range of each of the 124 species for which critical habitat is 
designated, we have determined that a designation limited to known 
present range of each species would be inadequate to achieve the 
conservation of those species. The areas believed to be unoccupied have 
been determined to be essential for the conservation and recovery of 
the species and will promote conservation actions to restore their 
historical, geographical, and ecological representation on Oahu.
    Based on the best information available at this time, we have 
determined that the current size and distribution of the extant 
populations are not sufficient to expect a reasonable probability of 
long-term survival and recovery. For each of the 99 plant species for 
which critical habitat was designated in 2003 (and for which critical 
habitat is being revised in this rule), the overall recovery strategy 
outlined in approved recovery plans includes: (1) Stabilizing existing 
wild populations; (2) protection and management of habitat; (3) 
enhancement of existing small populations and reestablishment of new 
populations with historic range; and (4) research on species biology 
and ecology (Service 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996d, 1997, 
1998a, 1998b, 1999). The overall recovery goal in the short-term is a 
successful population that can carry on basic life history processes, 
such as establishment, reproduction, and dispersal, at a level where 
the probability of extinction is low. In the long-term, the species and 
its populations should be at a reduced risk of extinction and be 
adaptable to environmental change. In general, longlived woody 
perennial species would be expected to be viable at population levels 
of 50 to 250 individuals or more per population, while short-lived 
perennial species would be viable at levels of 1,500 to 2,500 
individuals or more per population. In general, the larger the number 
of populations and the larger the size of each population, the lower 
the probability of extinction (Meffe and Carroll 1996, pp. 218-219, 
Raup 1991, pp. 124, 126-127). The draft recovery plan for Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii and Achranthes splendens var. rotundata 
identifies the augmentation of existing populations and reestablishing 
both species in areas where they are no longer extant (Service 1994, p. 
58) as a recovery strategy. The survival and recovery potential for the 
three Hawaiian damselflies for which critical habitat is being 
designated is compromised by a combination of threats exacerbated by 
their inherent vulnerability to extinction. Each of these species faces 
threats from limited numbers (less than 20 populations exist for each 
species), and susceptibility to stochastic events such as drought and 
flooding. The key to survival and recovery of these species relies on 
the effective use of measures to keep nonnative species, particularly 
fish, out of currently occupied habitats, and the reestablishment of 
populations within their historic range to reduce the possibility of 
extinction due to stochastic events or other threats. Protecting and 
properly managing occupied and unoccupied critical habitat areas is 
necessary to provide for the persistence of viable populations of these 
species.
    In summary, the long-term survival and conservation of these 
species requires the designation of sufficient critical habitat units 
with suitable habitat. Some of the habitat being designated in this 
final rule is currently not known to be occupied. However, to recover 
these species, it is essential to conserve suitable habitat in both 
occupied and unoccupied units, which will in turn allow for the 
establishment of additional populations through natural recruitment or 
managed reintroductions. Establishment of these additional populations 
will increase the likelihood that the species will survive and recover 
in the face of normal and stochastic events (e.g., hurricanes, fire, 
and nonnative species introductions) (Mangel and Tier 1994, p. 612; 
Pimm et al. 1998, p. 777; Stacey and Taper 1992, p. 27). In this 
regard, the designation of critical habitat limited to the geographic 
areas occupied by the species at the time of listing would be 
insufficient to achieve these recovery objectives.
    For seven of the plant species reported from Oahu and other 
Hawaiian Islands, Adenophorus periens (extant on Kauai, Molokai, and 
Hawaii), Cyperus pennatiformis (formerly Mariscus pennatiformis) 
(extant on Maui and Kauai), Diplazium molokaiense (extant on Maui), 
Isodendrion pyrifolium (extant on Hawaii), Kadua coriacea (formerly 
Hedyotis coriacea) extant on Maui and Kauai), Platanthera holochila 
(extant on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui), and Vigna o-wahuensis (extant on 
Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, and Maui), we are designating 
unoccupied areas only, as these species are not believed to be extant 
on Oahu. For Cyrtandra waiolani, a plant known only from Oahu, we are 
designating potentially unoccupied areas only. Critical habitat 
boundaries for all species were delineated to clearly depict and 
promote the recovery and conservation of these species by incorporating 
the functioning ecosystems on which they depend.
    With the exception of the seven above plant species believed to no 
longer be extant on Oahu, and Cyrtandra waiolani, which may no longer 
be extant in the wild, each of the critical habitat units in these 
ecosystems contain both occupied areas and areas that are currently 
unoccupied but essential for the conservation of the species. Because 
of their small numbers or low population sizes, each of the 124 species 
requires suitable habitat and space for the expansion of existing 
populations to achieve a level that could approach recovery. For 
example, although Cyanea calycina is found in multiple critical habitat 
units across four ecosystem types, its entire distribution is comprised 
of only 325 to 339 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008). The 
unoccupied areas within each unit where the species occurs are 
essential for the expansion of this species to achieve viable 
population numbers and maintain its historical geographical and 
ecological distribution.
    Current and historical species location information was used to 
develop initial critical habitat boundaries (polygons) in each of the 7 
ecosystems that would individually and collectively provide for the 
conservation of the 124 species addressed in this rule. While all 3 
damselfly species are historically known from both the Koolau and 
Waianae Mountains, 83 of the 122 plant species for which we are 
designating critical habitat are historically known from only one 
mountain range on Oahu. Forty-nine plant species (Abutilon sandwicense, 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides var. agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, C. pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus pennatiformis var. 
pennatiformis, C. trachysanthos, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia

[[Page 57704]]

herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niiahuensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
christophersenii, M. makahae, M. pallida, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kealiae, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. 
perlmanii, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana) are known only from the Waianae Mountains. Thirty-six 
plant species (Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, C. rockii, 
Cyanea crispa, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. 
kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, 
C. waiolani, Diellia erecta, Doryopteris takeuchii, Huperzia nutans, 
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. monostachya, Lysimachia 
filifolia, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, T. lydgatei, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
and Zanthoxylum oahuense) are known only from the Koolau Mountains. For 
these species, we are designating critical habitat only in the mountain 
range of their historical occurrence. The initial polygons were 
superimposed over digital topographic maps of the island of Oahu and 
further evaluated. In general, land areas that were identified as 
highly degraded were not included in the critical habitat units, and 
natural or manmade features (e.g., ridge lines, valleys, streams, 
coastlines, roads, obvious land features, etc.) were used to delineate 
critical habitat boundaries. Two species, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii and Doryopteris takeuchii are not reported from either 
mountain range, and we are designating critical habitat only in their 
known geographic areas, the Ewa plain (Kalaeloa; represented by ``W'' 
for Waianae in Table 7A) and Diamond Head (represented by ``K'' for 
Koolau in Table 7A), respectively.
    The critical habitat areas described below constitute our best 
assessment of the areas occupied at the time of listing containing the 
physical or biological features essential for the recovery and 
conservation of the 124 species, including unoccupied areas essential 
for the conservation of the species because they, for example, provide 
for the needed for expansion of reduced populations. The approximate 
size of each of the 62 plant critical habitat units and the 40 
damselfly critical habitat units, and the status of their land 
ownership, are identified in Tables 6A and 6B, respectively. The 
species that currently occupy each of the 62 plant and 40 damselfly 
units are identified in Table 7A, along with areas determined to be 
exempt from critical habitat designation under section 4(a)(3) of the 
Act (Table 7B; see Exemptions, below, for further information). Table 
7A also identifies the areas designated for Cyrtandra waiolani (a 
species that may no longer be extant in the wild) and may be currently 
unoccupied by this species. All 40 damselfly critical habitat units 
overlap areas also designated as plant critical habitat.
    When determining critical habitat boundaries within this rule, we 
made every effort to avoid including developed areas, such as buildings 
and paved areas, that lack the physical or biological features 
essential for the conservation of the 124 species. The scale of the 
maps we prepared under the parameters for publication within the Code 
of Federal Regulations may not reflect the exclusion of such developed 
areas. Any such structures and the land under them inadvertently left 
inside critical habitat boundaries shown on the maps of this rule have 
been excluded by text in the rule and are not designated as critical 
habitat. Therefore, Federal actions involving these areas would not 
trigger section 7 consultation with respect to critical habitat unless 
the specific action would affect the adjacent critical habitat or its 
primary constituent elements.
    The critical habitat designation is defined by the map or maps, as 
modified by any accompanying regulatory text, presented at the end of 
this document in the rule portion. We include more detailed information 
on the boundaries of the critical habitat designation in the preamble 
of this document. The coordinates or plot points, or both, on which 
each map is based, is available to the public at http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands, at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-
2010-0043, and at the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see 
ADDRESSES, above).

                        Table 6A--Critical Habitat Designated for 121 OAHU Plant Species
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Land ownership (acres)
                                      Size of      Size of   ---------------------------------------------------
       Critical habitat area          unit in      unit in                                City and
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       county      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Coastal
--Unit 1..........................          958          388          946           11            0            2
--Unit 2..........................           12            5           12            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           15            6           15            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................            3            1            3            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           12            5           12            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................            9            4            9            0            0            0
--Unit 7..........................           67           27           67            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................           10            4           10            0            0            0
--Unit 9..........................           80           33           80            0            0            0
--Unit 10.........................           74           30            0            0           74            0
--Unit 11.........................           20            8            0            0            0           20
--Unit 12.........................           11            5            0            0            0           11
--Unit 13.........................           23            9            1            0           19            3
--Unit 14.........................            4            2            0            2            2            0
--Unit 15.........................           33           13            9           21            0            2
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 57705]]

 
    TOTAL Coastal.................        1,332          539        1,164           34           95           38
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Lowland Dry
--Unit 1..........................          102           41           49            0            0           53
--Unit 2..........................           29           12            0           29            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          287          116          287            0            0            0
--Unit 7..........................           15            6           15            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................           99           40            3            0            0           96
--Unit 9..........................           37           15            1           16           17            3
--Unit 10.........................           43           17           43            0            0            0
--Unit 11.........................          166           67            0          166            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Lowland Dry.............          778          314          398          211           17          152
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Lowland Mesic
--Unit 1..........................        4,448        1,800        3,565           22          583          277
--Unit 2..........................        1,062          430        1,062            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................          353          143          353            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           20            8           20            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           29           12           29            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          247          100           12            0            0          235
--Unit 7..........................        1,663          673          681            0          129          852
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Lowland Mesic...........        7,822        3,166        5,722           22          712        1,364
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Lowland Wet
--Unit 1..........................          541          219          428            0          112            0
--Unit 2..........................           19            8           19            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           29           12           29            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           27           11           27            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           74           30           74            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 7..........................        1,786          723        1,499            0            0          288
--Unit 8..........................        3,041        1,231        1,386            0            0        1,655
--Unit 9..........................       15,728        6,365        3,827        4,509          147        7,245
--Unit 10.........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 11.........................          123           50            0            0          123            0
--Unit 12.........................           53           21            0            0           28           26
--Unit 13.........................           75           30            1            0           74            0
--Unit 14.........................          478          193          274            0          195            9
--Unit 15.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 16.........................        2,507        1,014        1,533            0          365          608
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Lowland Wet.............       25,802       10,442        9,504        4,509        1,044      10, 745
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Montane Wet
--Unit 1..........................          370          150          352            0           18           <1
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Montane Wet.............          370          150          352            0           18           <1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Dry Cliff
--Unit 1..........................           49           20           49            0            0            0
--Unit 2..........................          412          167          320            0           91            0
--Unit 3..........................          450          182          101            0          349            0
--Unit 4..........................           24           10           24            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          149           60          149            0            0            0
--Unit 7a.........................           68           27           68            0            0            0
--Unit 7b.........................           38           16           38            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................          259          105          259            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Dry Cliff...............        1,449          587        1,008            0          440            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Wet Cliff
--Unit 1..........................          235           95          167            0           68           <1
--Unit 2..........................            3            1            3            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           16            6           16            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           23            9           23            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           31           13           31            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          151           61          151            0            0            0

[[Page 57706]]

 
--Unit 7..........................          144           58          144            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................        4,649        1,881        1,479            5        1,281        1,884
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Wet Cliff...............        5,252        2,124        2,014            5        1,349        1,884
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL ALL UNITS...............       42,804       17,322       20,162        4,871        3,675       14,183
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                       Table 6B--Critical Habitat Designated for 3 OAHU Damselfly Species
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Landownership (acres)
                                      Size of      Size of   ---------------------------------------------------
       Critical habitat unit          unit  in     unit  in                               City and
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       county      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Wet
--Unit 1..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 2..........................        1,786          723        1,499            0            0          288
--Unit 3..........................        3,041        1,231        1,386            0            0        1,655
--Unit 4..........................       15,728        6,365        3,827        4,509          147        7,245
--Unit 5..........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 6..........................          123           50            0            0          123            0
--Unit 7..........................           53           21            0            0           28           26
--Unit 8..........................           75           30            1            0           74            0
--Unit 9..........................          478          193          274            0          195            9
--Unit 10.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 11.........................        2,507        1,014        1,533            0          365          608
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Crimson Hawaiian               25,112       10,162        8,927        4,509          932       10,745
     Damselfly--Lowland Wet.......
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Wet
 Cliff
--Unit 12.........................          151           61          151            0            0            0
--Unit 13.........................          144           58          144            0            0            0
--Unit 14.........................        4,649        1,881        1,479            5        1,281        1,884
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Crimson Hawaiian                4,944        2,000        1,774            5        1,281        1,884
     Damselfly--Wet Cliff.........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Wet
--Unit 1..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 2..........................        1,786          723        1,499            0            0          288
--Unit 3..........................        3,041        1,231        1,386            0            0        1,655
--Unit 4..........................       15,728        6,365        3,827        4,509          147        7,245
--Unit 5..........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 6..........................          123           50            0            0          123            0
--Unit 7..........................           53           21            0            0           28           26
--Unit 8..........................           75           30            1            0           74            0
--Unit 9..........................          478          193          274            0          195            9
--Unit 10.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 11.........................        2,507        1,014        1,533            0          365          608
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Blackline Hawaiian             25,112       10,162        8,927        4,509          932       10,745
     Damselfly--Lowland Wet.......
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Mesic
--Unit 1..........................          247          100           12            0            0          235
    TOTAL Oceanic Hawaiian                  247          100           12            0            0          235
     Damselfly--Lowland Mesic.....
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly --
 Lowland Wet
--Unit 2..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 3..........................        1,786          723        1,499            0            0          288
--Unit 4..........................        3,041        1,231        1,386            0            0        1,655
--Unit 5..........................       15,728        6,365        3,827        4,509          147        7,245
--Unit 6..........................          123           50            0            0            0          124

[[Page 57707]]

 
--Unit 7..........................          124           50            0            0          123            0
--Unit 8..........................           53           21            0            0           28           26
--Unit 9..........................           75           30            0            1           74            0
--Unit 10.........................          478          193          274            0          195            9
--Unit 11.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 12.........................        2,507        1,014        1,533            0          365          608
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Oceanic Hawaiian               25,112       10,162        8,927        4,509          932       10,745
     Damselfly--Lowland Wet.......
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly --Wet
 Cliff
--Unit 13.........................          151           61          151            0            0            0
--Unit 14.........................          144           58          144            0            0            0
--Unit 15.........................        4,649        1,881        1,479            5        1,281        1,884
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Oceanic Hawaiian                4,944        2,000        1,774            5        1,281        1,884
     Damselfly--Wet Cliff.........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                     Table 7A--Species for Which Critical Habitat Is Designated in Each Ecosystem, and Section 4(A)(3) Exempt Areas
                                                                 [See discussion below]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                           Exempt from
                                                           Lowland      Lowland     Montane                           Critical habitat  critical habitat
           Species               Coastal    Lowland dry     mesic         wet         wet      Dry cliff   Wet cliff       ac (ha)        ac (ha) under
                                                                                                                                             4(a)(3)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Plants
 
Abutilon sandwicense.........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Achyranthes splendens var.     XW           XW           ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     2,941 (1,190)         932 (377)
 rotundata.
Adenophorus periens..........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK	H        ..........  ..........  XK	H         30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Alectryon macrococcus........  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  XW          XW          ..........     9,641 (3,902)       2,250 (911)
Bidens amplectens............  XW           XW           ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,493 (604)           67 (27)
Bonamia menziesii............  ...........  XW           XW, K        ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     9,747 (3,944)       1,919 (777)
Cenchrus agrimonioides.......  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Centaurium sebaeoides........  XW, K        ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,332 (539)             0 (0)
Chamaesyce celastroides var.   XW           XW           XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     9,315 (3,770)       1,504 (427)
 kaenana.
Chamaesyce deppeana..........  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  XK             4,944 (2,001)           60 (24)
Chamaesyce herbstii..........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Chamaesyce kuwaleana.........  XK	H         ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,764 (714)         865 (350)
Chamaesyce rockii............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.   ...........  XW           ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........         345 (139)             0 (0)
 skottsbergii.
Colubrina oppositifolia......  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
Ctenitis squamigera..........  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (349)
Cyanea acuminata.............  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       XW          ..........  XW, K        39,247 (15,883)     7,548 (3,055)
Cyanea calycina..............  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       XW          ..........  XW, K        39,247 (15,883)     7,548 (3,055)
Cyanea crispa................  ...........  ...........  XK           XK          ..........  ..........  XK           31,995 (12,948)     6,027 (2,439)
Cyanea grimesiana ssp.         ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       ..........  ..........  ..........   33,624 (13,607)     6,989 (2,828)
 Grimesiana.
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae  ...........  ...........  XW           XW          ..........  XW          ..........     8,022 (3,246)       1,887 (764)
Cyanea humboldtiana..........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyanea koolauensis...........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
Cyanea lanceolata............  ...........  ...........  XK           XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   27,051 (10,947)     5,966 (2,415)
Cyanea longiflora............  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (399)
Cyanea pinnatifida...........  ...........  ...........  XW	H         ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
Cyanea purpurellifolia.......  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyanea st.-johnii............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyanea superba...............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
Cyanea truncata..............  ...........  ...........  XK           XK	H        ..........  ..........  XK	H         31,995 (12,948)     6,027 (2,439)
Cyperus pennatiformis........  ...........  ...........  XW	H         ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
Cyperus trachysanthos........  XW, K        XW, K        ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          112 (45)           50 (20)
Cyrtandra dentata............  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       ..........  XW          ..........   35,073 (14,194)     7,854 (3,178)
Cyrtandra gracilis...........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,634)
Cyrtandra kaulantha..........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyrtandra polyantha..........  ...........  ...........  XK           XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   27,051 (10,947)    65,966 (2,415)
Cyrtandra sessilis...........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyrtandra subumbellata.......  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyrtandra viridiflora........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Cyrtandra waiolani*..........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK	H        ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
Delissea subcordata..........  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (399)
Diellia erecta...............  ...........  ...........  XK           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,939 (785)          126 (51)
Diellia falcata..............  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     9,271 (3,752)       1,534 (621)
Diellia unisora..............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)

[[Page 57708]]

 
Diplazium molokaiense........  ...........  ...........  XW	H         XW	H        ..........  ..........  ..........     6,573 (2,660)       1,023 (414)
Doryopteris takeuchii........  ...........  XK           ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........         301 (122)             0 (0)
Dubautia herbstobatae........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Eragrostis fosbergii.........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Eugenia koolauensis..........  ...........  ...........  XW, K        ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (399)
Euphorbia haeleeleana........  ...........  XW           XW           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     6,359 (2,573)         929 (376)
Flueggea neowawraea..........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Gardenia mannii..............  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       ..........  ..........  ..........   33,624 (13,607)     6,989 (2,828)
Gouania meyenii..............  ...........  XW, K	H      XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     8,109 (3,281)       1,793 (726)
Gouania vitifolia............  ...........  XW           XW	H         XW          ..........  XW          ..........     8,497 (3,439)       1,955 (791)
Hesperomannia arborescens....  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   32,935 (13,328)     6,827 (2,763)
Hesperomannia arbuscula......  ...........  ...........  XW           XW          ..........  ..........  ..........     6,573 (2,660)       1,023 (414)
Hibiscus brackenridgei.......  ...........  XW           XW           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     6,359 (2,573)         929 (376)
Huperzia nutans..............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Isodendrion laurifolium......  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     9,271 (3,752)       1,852 (749)
Isodendrion longifolium......  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       ..........  ..........  ..........   33,624 (13,607)     6,989 (2,828)
Isodendrion pyrifolium.......  ...........  XW	H         ...........  ..........  ..........  XW	H        ..........       1,924 (779)         932 (377)
Kadua coriacea...............  ...........  ...........  XW	H, K	H    ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (399)
Kadua degeneri...............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Kadua parvula................  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Korthalsella degeneri........  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,449 (586)         865 (350)
Labordia cyrtandrae..........  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       XW          ..........  XW, K        39,247 (15,883)     7,548 (3,055)
Lepidium arbuscula...........  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,449 (586)         865 (350)
Lipochaeta lobata var.         ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,449 (586)         865 (350)
 leptophylla.
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp.      ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
 koolauensis.
Lobelia monostachya..........  ...........  ...........  XK           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,939 (785)          126 (51)
Lobelia niihauensis..........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,372 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Lobelia oahuensis............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XW, K       XW          ..........  XW, K        31,425 (12,717)     6,562 (2,655)
Lysimachia filifolia.........  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  XK             4,944 (2,001)           60 (24)
Marsilea villosa.............  XW, K        XW, K        ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........          127 (51)           50 (20)
Melanthera tenuifolia........  ...........  XW           XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,808 (3,160)       1,793 (726)
Melicope christophersenii....  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  XW          ..........  XW                 679 (275)         499 (202)
Melicope hiiakae.............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
Melicope lydgatei............  ...........  ...........  XK           XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   27,051 (10,947)     5,966 (2,415)
Melicope makahae.............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Melicope pallida.............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
Melicope saint-johnii........  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     9,271 (3,752)       1,852 (749)
Myrsine juddii...............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
Neraudia angulata............  ...........  XW           XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,808 (3,160)       1,793 (726)
Nototrichium humile..........  ...........  XW           XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,808 (3,160)       1,793 (726)
Peucedanum sandwicense.......  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,449 (586)         865 (350)
Phyllostegia hirsuta.........  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       XW          ..........  XW, K        39,247 (15,883)     7,548 (3,055)
Phyllostegia kaalaensis......  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Phyllostegia mollis..........  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      XW          ..........  ..........  ..........     8,512 (3,445)       1,148 (465)
Phyllostegia parviflora var.   ...........  ...........  XW	H         ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
 lydgatei.
Phyllostegia parviflora var.   ...........  ...........  XK	H         XK          ..........  ..........  XK           31,995 (12,948)     6,027 (2,439)
 parviflora.
Plantago princeps var.         ...........  ...........  ...........  XK	H        ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
 longibracteata.
Plantago princeps var.         ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      XW, K       ..........  XW          XK           35,382 (14,319)     7,954 (3,219)
 princeps.
Platanthera holochila........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
Platydesma cornuta var.        ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
 cornuta.
Platydesma cornuta var.        ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
 decurrens.
Pleomele forbesii............  ...........  XW           XW, K        ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     9,747 (3,944)       1,919 (777)
Psychotria hexandra ssp.       ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
 oahuensis.
Pteralyxia macrocarpa........  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW, K       ..........  XW          XW, K        40,326 (16,320)     8,014 (3,243)
Pteris lidgatei..............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
Sanicula mariversa...........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Sanicula purpurea............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Schiedea hookeri.............  ...........  XW           XW           XW          ..........  XW          XW             8,806 (3,564)       2,055 (832)
Schiedea kaalae..............  ...........  ...........  XW, K        XW          ..........  ..........  XW, K         13,765 (5,571)       1,309 (529)
Schiedea kealiae.............  XW           XW           ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,493 (604)           67 (27)
Schiedea nuttallii...........  ...........  ...........  XW, K	H      ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (399)
Schiedea obovata.............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Schiedea trinervis...........  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  XW          XW          XW               2,127 (861)       1,364 (552)
Sesbania tomentosa...........  XW, K        ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,332 (539)             0 (0)
Silene lanceolata............  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,449 (586)         865 (350)
Silene perlmanii.............  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
Solanum sandwicense..........  ...........  ...........  XW	H, K	H    ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     7,823 (3,166)         987 (399)
Spermolepis hawaiiensis......  ...........  XW, K        ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       2,225 (900)         932 (377)
Stenogyne kanehoana..........  ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........     5,884 (2,381)         861 (349)
Tetramolopium filiforme......  ...........  ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  XW          ..........       1,449 (586)         865 (350)
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.   ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
 lepidotum.
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa....  ...........  ...........  XK           XK          ..........  ..........  XK           31,995 (12,948)     6,027 (2,439)
Tetraplasandra lydgatei......  ...........  ...........  XK           ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,939 (785)          126 (51)
Trematolobelia singularis....  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)

[[Page 57709]]

 
Urera kaalae.................  ...........  ...........  XW           XW          ..........  ..........  ..........     6,573 (2,660)       1,023 (414)
Vigna o-wahuensis............  XW	H, K	H    ...........  ...........  ..........  ..........  ..........  ..........       1,332 (539)             0 (0)
Viola chamissoniana ssp.       ...........  ...........  XW           ..........  ..........  XW          ..........     7,332 (2,967)       1,726 (699)
 chamissoniana.
Viola oahuensis..............  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
Zanthoxylum oahuense.........  ...........  ...........  ...........  XK          ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Animals
 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly.  ...........  ...........  ...........  XW	H, K     ..........  ..........  ..........   25,112 (10,163)     5,841 (2,364)
crimson Hawaiian damselfly...  ...........  ...........  ...........  XW	H, K     ..........  ..........  XK           30,056 (12,163)     5,901 (2,388)
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly...  ...........  ...........  XK           XW	H, K     ..........  ..........  XK           30,303 (12,263)     6,027 (2,439)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Designated CH ac (ha)........  1,332        776          7,823        25,802      370         1,449       5,253
                               (539)        (314)        (3,166)      (10,442)    (150)       (586)       (2,126)
Exempt Area ac (ha)..........  0            335          987          6,002       399         865         161
                               (0)          (136)        (399)        (2,429)     (161)       (350)       (65)
                              ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Area Designated as       1,332        1,111        8,810        31,804      769         2,314       5,414
 Critical Habitat (including   (539)        (450)        (3,565)      (12,871)    (311)       (936)       (2,191)
 Exempt Area) ac (ha).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W = occurs within indicated ecosystem in the Waianae Mountain caldera complex.
K = occurs within indicated ecosystem in the Koolau Mountain caldera complex.
W-H = known historically (last observed > 20 yrs ago) from indicated ecosystem in the Waianae Mountain caldera complex.
K-H = known historically (last observed > 20 yrs ago) from indicated ecosystem in the Koolau Mountain caldera complex.
The area known to be occupied by species for which the unit is designated also provides area essential to the conservation of all of the species that
  occur in that particular ecosystem. Unoccupied habitat provides space and appropriate environmental conditions for activities such as seed dispersal
  and reproduction that will serve to expand the existing populations.
* This species may no longer occur in the wild.
 
Note: Total number of species in table is greater than 124 because we identify the applicable ecosystems and section 4(A)(3) exempt areas for the Oahu
  varieties of Phyllostegia parviflora and Plantago princeps.


     Table 7B--Areas by Ecosystem Determined To Be Exempt From Designation Under Section 4(a)(3) of the Act
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Designated critical     Acres (hectares) exempt    Total area considered
                                             habitat            from critical habitat  -------------------------
             Ecosystem             ----------------------------------------------------
                                         Ac           Ha           Ac           Ha           Ac           Ha
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal...........................        1,332          539            0            0        1,332          539
Lowland Dry.......................          776          314          335          136        1,111          450
Lowland Mesic.....................        7,823        3,166          987          399        8,810        3,565
Lowland Wet.......................       25,802       10,442        6,002        2,429       31,804       12,871
Montane Wet.......................          370          150          399          161          769          311
Dry Cliff.........................        1,449          586          865          350        2,314          936
Wet Cliff.........................        4,649        1,881          161           65        5,414        2,191
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Special Management Considerations or Protections

    The term critical habitat is defined in section 3(5)(A) of the Act, 
in part, as geographic areas on which are found the physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the species and 
``which may require special management considerations or protection.''
    In identifying critical habitat in occupied areas, we determine 
whether those areas that contain the features essential to the 
conservation of the species require any special management actions. 
Although the determination that special management may be required is 
not a prerequisite to designating critical habitat in unoccupied areas, 
special management is needed throughout all of the critical habitat 
units. The following discussion of special management needs is 
therefore applicable to each of the 124 Oahu species for which we are 
designating critical habitat.
    The 124 Oahu species for which we are designating critical habitat 
include 116 species that are currently found in the wild on Oahu; 7 
plant species found currently only on other Hawaiian Islands, but which 
were historically found on Oahu; and 1 plant species, Cyrtandra 
waiolani, which may not be extant in the wild. For each of the 123 
species currently found in the wild, we have determined that the 
features essential to their conservation are primarily dependent on the 
successful functioning of the ecosystem(s) in which they occur (see 
Tables 4 and 5). As described earlier, in some cases, additional 
species-specific primary constituent elements were also identified (see 
Table 5). Special management considerations or protections are 
necessary throughout the critical habitat areas designated to avoid 
further degradation or destruction of the habitat that provides those 
features essential to their conservation. The primary threats to the 
physical or biological features essential to the conservation of all of 
these species include habitat destruction and modification by feral 
ungulates, competition with nonnative species,

[[Page 57710]]

hurricanes, landslides, rockfalls, flooding, fire, drought, and climate 
change. The Hawaiian damselflies are additionally threatened by 
destruction and modification of their aquatic habitat due to conversion 
and fill for agriculture and development, and stream alterations 
(diversions, channelization, and dewatering). The reduction of these 
threats will require the implementation of special management actions 
within each of the critical habitat areas identified in this rule.
    All critical habitat, except in the coastal ecosystem on Oahu, 
requires active management to address the ongoing degradation and loss 
of native habitat caused by feral ungulates (pigs and goats). Feral 
ungulates also impact the habitat through predation and trampling. 
Without this special management, habitat containing the features that 
are essential for the conservation of these species will continue to be 
degraded and destroyed.
    All critical habitat requires active management to address the 
ongoing degradation and loss of native habitat caused by nonnative 
plants. Special management is also required to prevent the introduction 
of new alien plant species into native habitats. Particular attention 
is required during nonnative plant control efforts to avoid creating 
additional disturbances that may facilitate the further introduction 
and establishment of invasive plant seeds. Precautions are also 
required to avoid the inadvertent trampling of listed plant species in 
the course of management activities.
    The active control of nonnative plant species will help to address 
the threat posed by fire to 25 of the designated ecosystem critical 
habitat units in particular: Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
12, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7 (Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b), 
and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8. This threat is largely a result of the 
presence of nonnative plant species such as the grasses Cenchrus 
ciliaris and Melinis minutiflora that increase the fuel load and 
quickly regenerate after a fire. These nonnative grass species can 
outcompete native plants that are not adapted to fire, creating a 
grass-fire cycle that alters ecosystem functions (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, pp. 64-66; Brooks et al. 2004, p. 680).
    Thirty-four of the ecosystem critical habitat units (Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 7 (Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b), Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8) may require 
special management to reduce the threat of landslides, rockfalls, and 
flooding. These threaten to further degrade habitat conditions in these 
units and have the potential to eliminate some populations of 23 plants 
(e.g., Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, C. kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Huperzia 
nutans, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lysimachia filifolia, 
Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps, P. cornuta var. decurrens, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea kealiae, S. obovata, Solanum 
sandwicense, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Urera kaalae, and Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana) and the 3 damselfly species found on 
steep slopes and cliffs, or in narrow gulches. In addition, perennial 
streams in 40 of the overlapping ecosystem units (blackline Hawaiian 
damselfly Lowland Wet units 1-11; crimson Hawaiian damselfly Lowland 
Wet units 1-11 and Wet Cliff units 12-14; and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly critical habitat Lowland Mesic unit 1, Lowland Wet units 2-
12, and Wet Cliff units 13-15) may require special management to reduce 
the threats to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
from diversions, dewatering, vertical wells, and stream channelization.
    In summary, we find that each of the areas we are designating as 
critical habitat contains features essential for the conservation of 
the species that may require special management considerations or 
protection to ensure the conservation of the 124 Oahu species. These 
special management considerations and protections are required to 
preserve and maintain the essential features provided to these species 
by the ecosystems upon which they depend. The specific areas designated 
as critical habitat that are outside the geographical areas occupied by 
these species have been determined to be essential for their 
conservation.

Critical Habitat Designation

    We are designating 42,804 ac (17,322 ha) as critical habitat in 7 
ecosystem types for 124 species. The critical habitat is comprised of 
62 critical habitat units for the plants and 40 critical habitat units 
for the damselflies (see Tables 6A and 6B, above, for details). The 
critical habitat includes land under State, City and County of 
Honolulu, Federal (Department of Defense-Navy; Department of Homeland 
Security-Coast Guard; Department of the Interior-Fish and Wildlife 
Service), and private ownership. The critical habitat units we describe 
below constitute our current best assessment of those areas that meet 
the definition of critical habitat for the 124 species of plants and 
animals.

Descriptions of Critical Habitat Units

    The unit descriptions presented here represent the 7 essential 
ecosystem areas that we have identified for all 124 species. Critical 
habitat for the 121 Oahu plant species and critical habitat for the 3 
Oahu damselflies are published in separate sections of the Code of 
Federal Regulations (CFR); critical habitat is published at 50 CFR 
17.99(i) for Oahu plants and at 50 CFR 17.95(i) for the 3 damselfly 
species. However, the same geographic area represents designated 
critical habitat for both plants and damselflies in some portions of 
Oahu. For example, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic correspond to the same geographic 
area. Therefore, because the unit boundaries are the same, we are 
describing them only once to avoid redundancy, as indicated in the unit 
descriptions by the

[[Page 57711]]

inclusion of ``(and)'' following the unit name.
    As provided under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, some or portions of 
each of these areas were considered for exclusion from critical habitat 
in this final rule. Exclusions are considered based weighing the 
benefits of inclusion against the benefits of excluding such area in 
critical habitat after considering all relevant impacts, including 
information provided during the public comment period on potential 
economic impacts of this critical habitat designation. The 
consideration of potential economic impacts applies solely to the 
designation of critical habitat, and is not a factor in our assessment 
of whether a species warrants listing as endangered or threatened under 
the Act.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 consists of 946 ac (383 ha) of State land, 11 
ac (4 ha) of Federal land, and 2 ac (1 ha) of privately owned land in 
the coastal ecosystem along the northwestern coast of Oahu from Kaena 
Point east to Kauhao Pali and southeast to Keawaula. This unit is 
partially within Kaena Point State Park. It is occupied by the plants 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, and Sesbania tomentosa, and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied 
by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Schiedea kealiae, or Vigna 
o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space 
for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 consists of 12 ac (5 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem on Mokuaula, an islet east of Kalanai Point on the 
northeastern coast of Oahu. This unit is State-owned and is classified 
as a State Seabird Sanctuary. It includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 consists of 15 ac (6 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the larger of two islets (Moku Manu) off the windward 
coast of Oahu near Mokapu Peninsula. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as PCEs in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 consists of 3 ac (1 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, the smaller of two islets (Moku Manu) off the windward coast 
of Oahu near Mokapu Peninsula. This unit is State-owned, classified as 
a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 consists of 12 ac (5 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, the larger of two islands (Mokulua Islands) off the windward 
coast of Oahu near Wailea Point. This unit is State-owned, classified 
as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6 consists of 9 ac (4 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the smaller of two islands (Mokulua Islands) off the 
windward coast of Oahu near Wailea Point. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 6 is not currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7 consists of 67 ac (27 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the larger of two islands (Manana Island) off the 
windward coast of Oahu near Makapuu Point. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory

[[Page 57712]]

native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7 is 
not currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8 consists of 10 ac (4 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the smaller of two islands (Kaohikaipu Island) off the 
windward coast of Oahu near Makapuu Point. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is occupied 
by the plant Sesbania tomentosa and contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of this species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8 is not currently occupied by Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9 consists of 80 ac (33 ha) of State land in 
the coastal ecosystem on the leeward side of Makapuu Point 
(Puuokipahulu). This unit is occupied by the plants Cyperus 
trachysanthos and Marsilea villosa, and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem, as well as PCEs unique for the plants C. 
trachysanthos and M. villosa (see Tables 4 and 5). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 consists of 74 ac (30 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, owned by the City and County of Honolulu at Halona Point on 
the leeward side of Koko Crater, extending from Sandy Beach to 
Kahauloa. It is occupied by the plant Centaurium sebaeiodes and 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 is not 
known to be occupied by Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 consists of 20 ac (8 ha) of privately owned 
land in the coastal ecosystem, at Ihiihilauakea on Koko Head 
(Kaihuokapuaa). This unit is occupied by the plant Marsilea villosa, 
and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the coastal ecosystem, as well as PCEs unique 
for this species (see Tables 4 and 5). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of this 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 consists of 11 ac (5 ha) of City and County 
land in the coastal ecosystem, at Nonoula on Koko Head (Kaihuokapuaa). 
This unit is occupied by the plant Marsilea villosa, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem, as well as PCEs unique for this 
species (see Tables 4 and 5). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 is not currently occupied 
by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyperus trachysanthos, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13 consists of 19 ac (8 ha) of City and County 
land, 1 ac (0.5 ha) of State land, and 3 ac (1 ha) of privately owned 
land in the coastal ecosystem at Kalaeloa. This unit is occupied by the 
plant Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild

[[Page 57713]]

populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13 is not known to be 
occupied by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14 consists of 2 ac (1 ha) of City and County 
of Honolulu land, and 2 ac (1 ha) of Federal land (U.S. Coast Guard) in 
the coastal ecosystem at Kalaeloa. This unit is occupied by the plant 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, and includes the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14 is not known to be 
occupied by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 consists of 9 ac (4 ha) of State land, 2 ac 
(1 ha) of privately owned land, and 21 ac (9 ha) of Federal (Pearl 
Harbor NWR) land at Kalaeloa. This unit is occupied by the plant 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, and includes the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 is not known to be 
occupied by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 consists of 49 ac (20 ha) of State land 
and 53 ac (22 ha) of privately owned land in the Waianae Mountains, 
extending from Haili Gulch to Kawaipahai. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Bidens amplectens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Nototrichium humile, 
and Schiedea kealiae, and includes the dry forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, 
Neraudia angulata, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, or Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 consists of 29 ac (12 ha) in the lowland 
dry ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, on Federal land within Kaena 
Point State Park. This unit is occupied by the plants Bonamia 
menziesii, Melanthera tenuifolia, Nototrichium humile, and Pleomele 
forbesii, and includes the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland dry 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
Neraudia angulata, Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 consists of 287 ac (116 ha) of State land 
in the lowland dry ecosystem, on the outer rim of Leahi (Diamond Head) 
Crater within Diamond Head State Monument. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Doryopteris takeuchii and Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and includes 
the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 6 is not known to be occupied by the plant Gouania meyenii, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of this lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical range of the species. Due to its small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, this species requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7 consists of 15 ac (6 ha) of State land in 
the lowland dry ecosystem, in Leahi (Diamond Head) Crater within 
Diamond Head State Monument. This unit is

[[Page 57714]]

occupied by the plant Cyperus trachysanthos and includes the dry forest 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland dry ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this 
plant (see Tables 4 and 5). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Doryopteris takeuchii, Gouania meyenii, Marsilea villosa, or 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because 
it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species, and the unique 
PCEs for the species M. villosa (see Table 5). Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species require 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve 
population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 consists of 96 ac (40 ha) of privately 
owned land and 3 ac (1 ha) of State land as part of the old railroad 
right-of-way in the lowland dry ecosystem, at the Kalaeloa Barber's 
Point Harbor area. The area was occupied by Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii at the time the species was listed (see 47 FR 36846, 
August 24, 1982), although it is not currently known to be occupied by 
C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. The species was last observed on 
this site in 1989. However, even though the site is degraded, during 
two recent field surveys (November 2011 and June 2012), we verified 
that the area being designated contains the physical and biological 
features of the lowland dry ecosystem and the coral outcrop substrate 
that is essential for the conservation of C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii (see Tables 4 and 5). Based on the field visits, the 
boundaries of the unit were revised to remove areas that were modified 
by construction and excavation activities, and do not contain essential 
features. This resulted in the reduction of the unit from the 292 ac 
(118 ha) that were originally proposed to the 99 ac (40 ha) that are 
included in this final rule.
    These physical and biological features are essential to the 
conservation of the species in this location because the conservation 
of the species requires re-establishment of populations of this species 
in areas where it once occurred. Based on our evaluation of the 
conservation needs for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, a 
plant requiring another individual for pollination (obligate-
outcrosser) and living 10 years or less (short-lived perennial), we 
will need 7 to 8 populations containing a total of 10,000 mature 
individuals with at least 1,000 mature individuals per population in 
order to recover the species. The numbers of individuals and numbers of 
populations calculated for the 4 Lowland Dry units for akoko was based 
on our analysis (white paper) ``Recovery Needs and Strategy for 
Akoko'', June 20, 2012. This analysis incorporated data from the 
Recovery Plan for C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii and Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata (1993), surveys/species reports from 1979, 
1981, 1984, and 2012, the Revised Recovery Objective Guidelines as 
determined by the Hawaii and Pacific Plants Recovery Coordinating 
Committee (HPPRCC) 2011, and plant genetics information from Guerrant 
et al. (2004, pp. 419-441) and Neel and Cummings (2003).
    Currently, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii is found in 2 
occurrences in the lowland dry ecosystem on the Ewa Plain in 
southwestern Oahu, totaling approximately 200 wild individuals and 600 
outplanted individuals (Guinther and Withrow 2008, pp. 6, 9-10; 
Whistler 2008, pp. 7-9; U.S. Navy et al. 2012, pp. 19-20). In our 
review of areas on the Ewa Plain where the features essential to the 
conservation of this species are still present, we were only able to 
find four sites that still had the essential features; were not already 
modified by construction, development, or excavation activities; were 
large enough to provide habitat for at least one self-sustaining 
population; and provided adequate distribution across the historical 
range of the species. To the extent that portions of this unit may not 
have been occupied at the time of listing, they are essential to the 
conservation of the species because, as discussed above, conservation 
of this species will require establishment of additional populations 
and this is one of the few suitable locations. Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
8 is one of four locations included in this final critical habitat 
designation that is essential to the conservation of Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. It was previously occupied by the 
species and still contains the features essential to its conservation, 
such as the unique coral outcrop substrate. Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 
may be able to provide for two separate populations of C. skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii. A designation limited to areas presently occupied by 
the species would be inadequate to ensure the conservation of the 
species because the one occupied unit (only Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, 
see below, is occupied by wild individuals; Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 
contains outplanted, propagated individuals) would not provide enough 
area to support 7 to 8 populations needed for recovery, as determined 
in the ``Recovery Needs and Strategy for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii (Ewa Plains akoko)'' (Service 2012, entire).There are no 
other geographic areas that are both undeveloped and contain the 
species-specific PCE of coral outcrop substrate.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 is not known to be occupied by Bidens 
amplectens, one of the plants being listed in this rule as endangered. 
However, we have determined the lands within this unit are essential 
for the conservation of this lowland dry species, because they provide 
the habitat necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species (see Table 4). Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, this species 
requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery. Additionally, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 was not occupied by the endangered plants 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Schiedea hookeri, 
S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis (see 51 FR 10518, March 26, 
1986, and 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003, for previous Federal actions), at 
the time they were listed, and is not currently known to be occupied by 
these 14 species. However, we have determined the lands within this 
unit are essential for the conservation of these lowland dry species, 
because they provide the habitat necessary for the reestablishment of 
wild populations within the historical ranges of the species (see Table 
4). Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 consists of 17 ac (7 ha) of City and 
County land,

[[Page 57715]]

3 ac (1 ha) of privately owned land, 1 ac (0.5 ha) of State land, and 
16 ac (6 ha) of Federal (Pearl Harbor NWR) land in the lowland dry 
ecosystem at Kalaeloa. This unit was not occupied by Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii at the time the species was listed (see 
47 FR 36846, August 24, 1982). As noted in the description of Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 8 above, we have determined that for C. skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii, a plant requiring another individual for pollination 
(obligate-outcrosser) and living 10 years or less (short-lived 
perennial), we will need 7 to 8 populations containing at least a total 
of 10,000 mature individuals with at least 1,000 mature individuals per 
population in order to recover the species HPPRCC 2011; Guerrant et al. 
2004, pp. 419-441; Neel and Cummings 2003). Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 
is one of the four locations included in this final critical habitat 
designation that is essential to the conservation of C. skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii; please see discussion of the importance of these 
areas on the Ewa Plain, above, in the description of Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8. This unit is currently occupied by recently outplanted 
individuals of Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, and includes 
the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem, and the unique PCEs 
for the species C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (see Tables 4 and 5). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing populations. Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 may be 
able to provide for one separate population of C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii. Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 is not known to be occupied by 
another plant being listed as endangered in this rule, Bidens 
amplectens. We have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of both of these lowland dry species because 
it provides the habitat necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species (see Table 4). 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery. A designation limited to areas presently occupied by the 
species would be inadequate because the one occupied unit (only Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 11, see below, is occupied by wild individuals; 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 contains outplanted, propagated individuals) 
would not provide enough area to support 7 to 8 populations needed for 
recovery, as determined in the ``Recovery Needs and Strategy for 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (Ewa Plains akoko)'' (Service 
2012, entire). There are no other geographic areas that are both 
undeveloped and contain the species-specific PCE of coral outcrop 
substrate.
    Additionally, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 was not occupied by the 
endangered plants Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia 
menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis (see 
51 FR 10518, March 26, 1986 and 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003), at the 
time they were listed, and is not currently known to be occupied by 
these 14 species. We have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species (see Table 4). Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 consists of 43 ac (17 ha) of State land 
(DHHL) in the lowland dry ecosystem at Kalaeloa. This unit was not 
occupied by Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii at the time the 
species was listed (see 47 FR 36846, August 24, 1982); however, C. 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii was observed in the area in 1998, but 
has not been re-observed since that time. As noted in the description 
of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, above, we have determined that C. 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, a plant requiring another individual 
for pollination (obligate-outcrosser) and living 10 years or less 
(short-lived perennial), we will need 7 to 8 populations containing a 
total of 10,000 mature individuals with at least 1,000 mature 
individuals per population in order to recover the species (HPPRCC 
2011; Guerrant et al. 2004, pp. 419-441; Neel and Cummings 2003). 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 is one of the four locations included in 
this final critical habitat designation that is essential to the 
conservation of C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii; please see 
discussion of the importance of these areas on the Ewa Plain, above, in 
the description of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8. This unit was previously 
occupied by Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii and still 
contains the features essential to its conservation, such as the unique 
coral outcrop substrate (see Tables 4 and 5). In the future, Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 10 may be able to provide for one separate population 
of C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. A designation limited to areas 
presently occupied by the species would be inadequate to ensure the 
conservation of the species, because the one occupied unit (Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 11) would not provide enough area to support 7 to 8 
populations needed for recovery, as determined in the ``Recovery Needs 
and Strategy for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (Ewa Plains 
akoko)'' (Service 2012, entire). There are no other geographic areas 
that are both undeveloped and contain the species-specific PCE of coral 
outcrop substrate.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 is not known to be occupied by another 
plant being listed as endangered in this rule, Bidens amplectens. 
However, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of this lowland dry species, because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species (see Table 4). Due to its 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, this species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery. Additionally, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 was not occupied by the endangered plants 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Schiedea hookeri, 
S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis (see 51 FR 10518, March 26, 
1986, and 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003), at the time they were listed, 
and is not currently known to be occupied by these 14 species. We have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species (see Table 4). Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, these species require

[[Page 57716]]

suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve 
population levels that could achieve recovery.
    We are aware of the planned development of the Kalaeloa Solar One 
and Two alternative energy facilities (DHHL 2011, in litt.) on lands 
within, and adjacent to, this unit. The facilities, which are 
independently owned and operated, are being developed for the purpose 
of reducing Oahu's dependence on fossil-fuel for power generation. The 
January 2011 Draft Environmental Assessment prepared for this project 
states that no Federal funding or Federal authorizations will be 
required to develop this facility. We are also unaware of any Federal 
nexus for this project. Accordingly, since a critical habitat 
designation only triggers a consultation under section 7(a)(2) of the 
Act for activities that have a Federal nexus, the designation of this 
unit as critical habitat is not anticipated to have an impact on this 
project as proposed.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 consists of 166 ac (67 ha) of federal 
land (U.S. Navy) in the lowland dry ecosystem at Kalaeloa. The area was 
occupied by Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii at the time the 
species was listed (47 FR 36846, August 24, 1982), and is currently 
occupied by C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. As noted in the 
description of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, above, we have determined 
that for C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, a plant requiring another 
individual for pollination (obligate-outcrosser) and living 10 years or 
less (short-lived perennial), we will need 7 to 8 populations 
containing a total of 10,000 mature individuals with at least 1,000 
mature individuals per population in order to recover the species 
(HPPRCC 2011; Guerrant et al. 2004, pp. 419- 441; Neel and Cummings 
2003). Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 is one of the four locations included 
in this final critical habitat designation that is essential to the 
conservation of C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii; please see 
discussion of the importance of these areas on the Ewa Plain, above, in 
the description of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 includes the dry forest and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
dry ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii (see Tables 4 and 5). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the habitat necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. A designation limited to areas presently occupied by the 
species would be inadequate to ensure the conservation of the species 
because this occupied unit (only Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 is occupied 
by wild individuals; Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 (see above) contains 
outplanted, propagated individuals, not wild plants) would not provide 
enough area to support 7 to 8 populations needed for recovery, as 
determined in the ``Recovery Needs and Strategy for Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (Ewa Plains akoko)'' (Service 2012, 
entire). There are no other geographic areas that are both undeveloped 
and contain the species-specific PCE of coral outcrop substrate. In the 
future, Lowland Dry--Unit 11 may be able to provide for three or four 
separate populations of C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 is not known to be occupied by another 
plant being listed as endangered in this rule, Bidens amplectens. 
However, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species (see Table 4). Due to its 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, this species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery. Additionally, 
Lowland Dry--Unit 11 was not occupied by the endangered plants 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Schiedea hookeri, 
S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis (see 51 FR 10518, March 26, 
1986, and 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003) at the time they were listed, and 
is not currently known to be occupied by these 14 species. We have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species (see Table 4). Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space 
for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    We are aware and supportive of the efforts underway by State and 
the Navy, in coordination with the Service, to develop a long-term 
preservation or conservation plan for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii within this unit. These include the development of a State 
of Hawaii Habitat Conservation Plan and the conditional transfer of 
some of the Navy lands within this unit to the Hawaii Community 
Development Authority (HCDA). The State of Hawaii Endangered Species 
Act already prohibits the take of individual listed plants by the State 
or any other non-Federal entity, without State review and 
authorization. If the lands are transferred by the Navy, the deed will 
require Grantees and successors to enter into a legally binding 
conservation and management plan approved by the Hawaii Department of 
Land and Natural Resources, to ensure protection of C. skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii before conveying the property (U.S. Navy 2011, in 
litt.), based on the species being State and federally listed. The 
purpose of this agreement is to ensure the use or development of the 
transferred property does not adversely affect C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, as long as the species remains listed under the Act. If 
the Navy lands are transferred to HCDA, a portion of the lands may be 
used to develop a photovoltaic alternative energy project (HCDA 2012, 
in litt.; HDOFAW 2012, in litt.). The HCDA plans to use a portion of 
the revenue generated by commercial use of HCDA property to fund the 
conservation actions required under a conservation management plan 
(U.S. Navy 2011, in litt.). The Service is committed to working with 
the Navy and HCDA in the development of this conservation plan, to 
ensure it will provide for the long-term conservation of the plant and 
its habitat. Because of this close coordination, and because the deed 
restriction stipulates that C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii will not 
be adversely affected, we believe the development of the photovoltaic 
alternative energy project, as proposed, will not be impacted by the 
designation of critical habitat in this unit, and it is our intent to 
work with our partners to facilitate this project.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 consists of 3,565 ac (1,443 ha) of 
State land, 583 ac (236 ha) of City and County of Honolulu land, 22 ac 
(9 ha) of Federal land, and 277 ac (112 ha) of privately owned land in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, encompassing a 
large area including the north slopes of Mt. Kaala, from the Pahole NAR 
to the Kaala NAR, and south to the Waianae Kai Forest Reserve (FR). 
This unit is occupied by the plants Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon

[[Page 57717]]

macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. grimesiana 
ssp. obatae, C. longiflora, C. superba, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis 
fosbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, H. arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua degeneri, Lobelia niihauensis, 
Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. pallida, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, 
S. kaalae, S. nuttallii, S. obovata, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana, and includes the mesic forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Cyanea 
pinnatifida, Cyperus pennatiformis, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, G. 
vitifolia, Kadua coriacea, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Melicope 
saint-johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Urera 
kaalae, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 consists of 1,063 ac (430 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
from Puuhapapa south to Puukaua. This area was part of the Honouliuli 
Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently 
acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plants Abutilon 
sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, Cyanea calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Gardenia mannii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
kaalaensis, P. mollis, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, Solanum 
sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, and Urera kaalae, and includes the 
mesic forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Bonamia 
menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. longiflora, C. pinnatifida, C. superba, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, K. degeneri, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. pallida, M. 
saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia 
parviflora, Plantago princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea nuttallii, 
S. obovata, Silene perlmanii, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, 
or Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 consists of 353 ac (143 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
from Pohakea Pass to Kaiakuakai Gulch. This area was part of the 
Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and 
was recently acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plants 
Alectryon macrococcus, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Delissea subcordata, 
Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Melicope saint-
johnii, Phyllostegia mollis, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Silene perlmanii, and 
Urera kaalae, and includes the mesic forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (see Table 5). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides 
var. kaenana, C. herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, C. longiflora, C. pinnatifida, 
C. superba, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, K. degeneri, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. pallida, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, 
Schiedea hookeri, S. nuttallii, S. obovata, Solanum sandwicense, 
Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes,

[[Page 57718]]

these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4 consists of 20 ac (8 ha) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, between 
the Waipilopilo and Hanaimoa gulches, on State-owned land within the 
Hauula Forest Reserve. This unit includes the lowland mesic forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, C. longiflora, C. truncata, 
Cyrtandra dentata, C. polyantha, Delissea subcordata, Diellia erecta, 
D. falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua coriacea, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-
johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, S. 
nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, or T. 
lydgatei, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5 consists of 29 ac (12 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, 
in Maakua Gulch and ridge; is State-owned; and within the Hauula FR. 
This unit includes the mesic forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see 
Table 4). Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
lanceolata, C. longiflora, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
polyantha, Delissea subcordata, Diellia erecta, D. falcata, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, S. nuttallii, Solanum 
sandwicense, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, or T. lydgatei, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 1--
Lowland Mesic
    This area consists of 12 ac (5 ha) State land and 235 ac (95 ha) of 
privately owned land in the lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward 
side of the Koolau Mountains, inland of Kaaawa Point, and is partially 
within Ahupuaa O Kahana State Park. This area is occupied by the plants 
Cyanea acuminata, C. crispa, C. truncata, Gardenia mannii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, and Schiedea kaalae; and the invertebrate, the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly. This area includes the lowland mesic forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the damselfly 
(see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland foraging and cover 
areas required by the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem, the lowland mesic ecosystem's physical or 
biological features are essential to the damselfly because they provide 
for the proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, C. longiflora, 
Cyrtandra dentata, C. polyantha, Delissea subcordata, Diellia erecta, 
D. falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, Pleomele 
forbesii, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, or T. lydgatei, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 consists of 681 ac (276 ha) of State 
land, 129 ac (52 ha) of City and County of Honolulu land, and 852 ac 
(345 ha) of privately-owned land in the lowland mesic ecosystem on the 
leeward side of the Koolau Mountains, on Waialae Nui ridge. This unit 
is occupied by the plants Bonamia menziesii, Cyanea acuminata, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Diellia 
erecta, Lobelia monostachya, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
and Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and includes the mesic forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of this 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea calycina, C. 
crispa, C. longiflora, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, 
Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-
johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Schiedea kaalae, S. nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, or 
Tetraplasandra

[[Page 57719]]

gymnocarpa, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 consists of 428 ac (173 ha) of State land 
and 112 ac (46 ha) of City and County of Honolulu land in the lowland 
wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains, and 
partially within the Mokuleia and Waianae Kai Forest Reserves. This 
unit is occupied by the plants Gouania vitifolia, Schiedea hookeri, and 
Urera kaalae, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
mollis, Plantago princeps, Pterlyxia macrocarpa, or Schiedea kaalae, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 consists of 19 ac (8 ha) of State land in 
the lowland wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains 
at Puuhapapa. This area was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by 
The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the 
State. This unit is occupied by the plants Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
mollis, and Urera kaalae, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Plantago princeps, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, or S. 
kaalae, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 consists of 29 ac (12 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains at 
Puukanehoa. This area was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by 
The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the 
State. This unit is occupied by the plants Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
mollis, and Schiedea hookeri, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Plantago princeps, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
kaalae, or Urera kaalae, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because 
it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 consists of 27 ac (11 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains on State 
land at Puukaua. A portion of this area was part of the Honouliuli 
Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently 
acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plant Phyllostegia 
mollis and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 
4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Plantago princeps, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, or Urera kaalae, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 consists of 74 ac (30 ha) of State land 
in the lowland wet ecosystem, on the windward side of the Waianae 
Mountains at Palikea. A portion of this area was part of the Honouliuli 
Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently 
acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plants Cyanea 
calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Hesperomannia arbuscula, and 
Schiedea kaalae, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the 
moisture

[[Page 57720]]

regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Cyanea acuminata, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, Plantago princeps, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, or Urera kaalae, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 
1--Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 1--Lowland Wet 
(and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 2--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 790 ac (320 ha) of privately owned land in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, in privately owned land on the windward side 
of the Koolau Mountains, and includes Kahawainui, Ihiihi, Wailele, and 
Koloa gulches. This area is occupied by the plant Hesperomannia 
arborescens and by the blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, and 
includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique 
PCEs for the Hawaiian damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the 
streams and upland foraging and cover areas required by the blackline 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or biological features 
are essential to the damselfly species because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, 
C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope 
hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum 
oahuense, or the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 2--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 2--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 3--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,499 ac (606 ha) of State land and 288 ac 
(117 ha) of privately-owned land in the lowland wet ecosystem on the 
windward side of the Koolau Mountains, within the Kaipapau and Haula 
Forest Reserves and Sacred Falls State Park, from Puukainapuaa to 
Kaluanui (Sacred Falls). This unit is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. truncata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Gardenia mannii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Myrsine juddii, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Viola 
oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense, and by the blackline and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies. This area includes the wet forest and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian damselflies (see 
Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland foraging and cover 
areas required by the blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are 
dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. The streams, foraging areas, and cover areas that are 
occupied contain the essential PCEs, and the streams and upland areas 
that are not occupied are essential to the conservation of the species 
because they support the proper ecological functioning of the occupied 
areas within the ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although this area is not currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus 
periens, Cyanea crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. koolauensis, 
C. lanceolata, C. st.-johnii, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. 
kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. waiolani, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Phyllostegia 
parviflora, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Sanicula purpurea, or Trematolobelia 
singularis, or by the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 3--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 3--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,386 ac (561 ha) of State land and 1,655 ac 
(670 ha) of privately-owned land in the lowland wet ecosystem on the 
windward side of the Koolau Mountains, partially within the Ahupuaa O 
Kahana State Park, including Waihoi Springs, and Punaluu,

[[Page 57721]]

Kahana, Waikane, Waikeekee, and Uwao streams. This area is occupied by 
the plant Cyrtandra kaulantha, and by the invertebrates, the blackline 
and crimson Hawaiian damselflies. This area includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland 
foraging and cover areas required by the blackline and crimson Hawaiian 
damselflies are dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet 
ecosystem's physical or biological features are essential to the 
damselfly species because they provide for the proper ecological 
functioning of this ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although this area is not currently occupied by the plants 
Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, 
C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. 
koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. 
subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. 
oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, 
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 4--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 5--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 3,827 ac (1,545 ha) of State land, 147 ac (60 
ha) of City and County of Honolulu land, 4,509 ac (1,825 ha) of Federal 
land (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), and 7,245 ac (2,932 ha) of 
privately owned land in the lowland wet ecosystem on the leeward side 
of the Koolau Mountains, partially within the Ewa FR Waimano Section 
and the Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge. This area extends along 
the Koolau summit from Waipio to Manaiki Stream, and is occupied by the 
plants Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. 
koolauensis, C. st.-johnii, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Gardenia mannii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Pteris lidgatei, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense, 
and by the blackline and crimson Hawaiian damselflies. This area 
includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique 
PCEs for the Hawaiian damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the 
streams and upland foraging and cover areas required by the blackline 
and crimson Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's physical or biological features 
are essential to the damselfly species because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by the plants Adenophorus periens, Cyanea acuminata, C. crispa, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. waiolani, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Myrsine juddii, 
Platanthera holochila, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, or Trematolobelia singularis, or by the 
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 5--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 5--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 6--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 124 ac (50 ha) of privately-owned land in the 
lowland wet ecosystem in private land on the windward side of the 
Koolau Mountains, along Kaalaea Stream. This area is occupied by the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the blackline 
Hawaiian damselfly (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland 
foraging and cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly 
are dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to this damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for 
the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is 
not currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. 
viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula

[[Page 57722]]

purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola 
oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the crimson or oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 6--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 6--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 7--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 124 ac (50 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem, 
owned by the City and County of Honolulu on the windward side of the 
Koolau Mountains, along Waihee Stream. This area is occupied by the 
blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, and includes the wet forest 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the 
Hawaiian damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and 
upland foraging and cover areas required by the blackline and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the 
lowland wet ecosystem's physical or biological features are essential 
to these damselfly species because they provide for the proper 
ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, 
C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, 
Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, 
Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the crimson 
Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 7--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 7--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 8--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 28 ac (11 ha) of City and County of Honolulu 
land and 26 ac (10 ha) of privately-owned land in the lowland wet 
ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, along Kahaluu 
Stream and tributary. This area is occupied by the blackline Hawaiian 
damselfly, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this Hawaiian damselfly (see 
Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland foraging and cover 
areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed in the 
lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's physical or 
biological features are essential to this damselfly species because 
they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. 
This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. 
viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the crimson 
or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 8--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 8--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 9--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 74 ac (30 ha) of City and County of Honolulu 
land and 1 ac (0.5 ha) of State land in the lowland wet ecosystem on 
the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, along Heeia Stream and 
tributaries. This area is occupied by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, 
and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well 
as unique PCEs for this Hawaiian damselfly (see Tables 4 and 5). 
Because the streams and upland foraging and cover areas required by the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's physical or biological features 
are essential to this damselfly species because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, 
C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C.

[[Page 57723]]

viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the crimson 
or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 9--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 9--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 10--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 274 ac (111 ha) of State land, 195 ac (79 ha) 
of City and County of Honolulu land, and 9 ac (4 ha) of privately owned 
land in the lowland wet ecosystem on the leeward side of the Koolau 
Mountains, extending from the Wilson Tunnel area southeast to Moole 
Stream. This area is occupied by the plant, Cyanea koolauensis, and by 
the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselfly (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland foraging 
and cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are 
dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary 
for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area 
is not currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-
johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. 
polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, 
Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, 
Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the crimson 
or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 
10--Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 10--Lowland Wet 
(and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 11--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 407 ac (165 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem 
in State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Land 
Division land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains in Maunawili 
Valley, including Omao and Maunawili streams and Kapakahi and Pikoakea 
Springs. This area is occupied by the plant, Cyanea crispa, and by the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselfly (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and upland foraging 
and cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are 
dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to this damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary 
for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area 
is not currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, 
C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, 
C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. 
waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago princeps, 
Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria 
hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, 
Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the crimson 
or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16 (and) Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 
11--Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 11--Lowland Wet 
(and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 12--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,533 ac (621 ha) of State land, 365 ac (148 
ha) of City and County of Honolulu land, and 608 (246 ha) of privately 
owned land in the lowland wet ecosystem in on the leeward side of the 
Koolau Mountains, partly within the Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve, 
extending from the eastern side of Nuuanu Valley southeast along the 
Koolau summit to Kulepeamoa Ridge. This area is occupied by the plants 
Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. humboldtiana, C. 
koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. st.-johnii, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. 
polyantha, C. sessilis, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia aborescens, 
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Sanicula purpurea, and Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa. This area

[[Page 57724]]

includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique 
PCEs for the Hawaiian damselfly (see Tables 4 and 5). This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. purpurellifolia, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
kaulantha, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Huperzia 
nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Trematolobelia singularis, 
Viola oahuensis, or Zanthoxylum oahuense, or by the blackline, crimson 
or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 consists of 18 ac (7 ha) of City and 
County of Honolulu land, 352 ac (142 ha) of State land, and less than 1 
ac (less than one ha) of privately-owned land in the montane wet 
ecosystem at the summit of the Waianae Mountains at Kaala, and 
partially within the Mokuleia Forest Reserve and the Kaala Natural Area 
Reserve. This unit is occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. 
calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Melicope christophersenii, and Schiedea 
trinervis, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the montane wet 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Alectryon macrococcus, Lobelia oahuensis, or Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 consists of 49 ac (20 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem, on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along the rim 
of Makua Valley. This unit is on State land within the Pahole Natural 
Area Reserve, and includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit 
is occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Kadua degeneri, Plantago princeps var. princeps, and 
Schiedea obovata. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 is not currently occupied by Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia 
herbtsobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua 
parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata 
var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta 
var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. 
perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, T. 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these dry cliff species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 consists of 320 ac (130 ha) of State land 
and 91 ac (37 ha) of City and County of Honolulu land in the dry cliff 
ecosystem, on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along the 
ridge from Keaau to Ohikilolo. This unit is almost entirely within the 
Makua Keaau Forest Reserve, and includes the shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). Dry Cliff--Unit 2 is occupied by the plants Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Dubautia herbstobatae, Gouania vitifolia, Kadua 
parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Tetramolopium filiforme, and 
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana. This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 is not 
currently occupied by Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. 
unisora, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, 
Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Melicope saint-johnii, 
Neraudia angulata, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea obovata, S. trinervis, Silene 
lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, or Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require

[[Page 57725]]

suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve 
population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 consists of 349 ac (141 ha) of City and 
County of Honolulu land and 101 ac (41 ha) of State land in the dry 
cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along the 
eastern rim of Makaha Valley along Kamaileunu Ridge. This unit is 
partially within the Waianae Kai Forest Reserve, and includes the 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the dry 
cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is occupied by the plants 
Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Diellia 
falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Isodendrion laurifolium, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
kaalaensis, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, 
Silene lanceolata, Tetramolopium filiforme, and Viola chamissoniana 
ssp. chamissoniana. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, 
C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia 
unisora, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. 
parvula, Melicope saint-johnii, Plantago princeps, Platydesma cornuta 
var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea obovata, S. trinervis, 
Silene perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, or Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 consists of 24 ac (10 ha) of State land in 
the dry cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
along Kauaopuu ridge, which divides Waianae Kai and Lualualei valleys. 
This unit is partially within the Waianae Kai Forest Reserve, and 
includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 is not currently occupied by Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua 
degeneri, K. parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Plantago princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, 
S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. perlmanii, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 consists of 149 ac (60 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, on State land 
along the rim of Lualualei Valley from Puukanehoa to Puukaua. This area 
was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy 
of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the State. This unit includes 
the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the dry 
cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). The unit is occupied by the plants 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Diellia unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lobelia niihauensis, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia 
angulata, Plantago princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
and Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum. This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 is not 
currently occupied by Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, 
Kadua degeneri, K. parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lipochaeta lobata 
var. leptophylla, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Nototrichium 
humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Platydesma 
cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. 
obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, or Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a consists of 68 ac (27 ha) of State land in 
the dry cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
along the rim of Lualualei Valley to Pohakea. This area was part of the 
Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and 
was recently acquired by the State. This unit includes the shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the dry cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4), and is occupied by the plants Flueggea 
neowawraea, Kadua parvula, Melicope saint-johnii, Plantago princeps, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens,

[[Page 57726]]

Pleomele forbesii, Silene perlmanii, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a is not currently occupied by Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis 
fosbergii, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. 
pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene 
lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, or T. 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b consists of 38 ac (16 ha) of State land in 
the dry cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
along the rim of Lualualei Valley at Palikea. This area was part of the 
Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and 
was recently acquired by the State. This unit includes the shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the dry cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b is not 
currently occupied by Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua 
degeneri, K. parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Plantago princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, 
S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or 
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to 
be essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 consists of 259 ac (105 ha) in the dry 
cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, on State 
land along the rim of Nanakuli Valley from Palehua to Puumanawanua, and 
partially within the Nanakuli Forest Reserve. A small portion of this 
area was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature 
Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the State. This 
unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is 
occupied by the plants Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Lobelia niihauensis, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, and Pleomele forbesii. This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 is not 
currently occupied by Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon 
macrococcus, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Gouania meyenii, 
G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, 
K. parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta 
lobata var. leptophylla, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. 
saint-johnii, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene 
lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium 
filiforme, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 consists of 167 ac (68 ha) of State land, 
68 ac (28 ha) of City and County of Honolulu land, and less than 1 ac 
(less than 1 ha) of privately owned land in the wet cliff ecosystem in 
the Waianae Mountains, near the summit of Kaala, and partially within 
the Mokuleia and Waianae Kai FRs and the Kaala Natural Area Reserve. 
This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1 is occupied by the plants Cyanea calycina, Melicope 
christophersenii, and Schiedea trinervis. This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 is not 
currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, or S. kaalae, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 consists of 3 ac (1 ha) of State land in 
the wet cliff

[[Page 57727]]

ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains at Puuhapapa, within a small area 
that was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature 
Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the State. This 
unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Wet Cliff--Unit 2 is 
occupied by the plants Cyanea calycina and Melicope christophersenii. 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 2 is not currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 consists of 16 ac (6 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State land in the Waianae Mountains at Puukanehoa, 
partially within an area that was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, 
managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired 
by the State. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by 
Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet 
cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 consists of 23 ac (9 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State land in the Waianae Mountains at Puukaua, partially 
overlapping an area that was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed 
by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and recently acquired by the 
State. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit 
is occupied by the plants Phyllostegia hirsuta and Schiedea hookeri. 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 4 is not currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 consists of 31 ac (13 ha) of State land in 
the wet cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, at Palikea and north 
of Palikea. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 is not currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope 
christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 12--
Lowland Wet (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 13--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 151 ac (61 ha) in the wet cliff ecosystem on 
State land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains in Kaipapau 
Gulch, entirely within the Kaipapau Forest Reserve. This area includes 
the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem, and the unique features identified as PCEs for the 
Hawaiian damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams and 
upland foraging and cover areas required by the crimson and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the wet cliff ecosystem, the wet 
cliff ecosystem's physical or biological features are essential to the 
damselfly species because they provide for the proper ecological 
functioning of this ecosystem. This area is occupied by the plants 
Cyanea crispa, Huperzia nutans, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Schiedea 
kaalae, and by the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly. This area also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, C. rockii, 
Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, C. 
subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, or Viola 
oahuensis, or by the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.

[[Page 57728]]

Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7 (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 13--
Lowland Wet (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 14--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 144 ac (58 ha) in the wet cliff ecosystem in 
State land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains in Hauula 
Gulch, entirely within the Hauula Forest Reserve. This unit includes 
the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem, and the unique features identified as PCEs for the 
crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because 
the streams and upland foraging and cover areas required by the crimson 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the wet cliff 
ecosystem, the wet cliff ecosystem's physical or biological features 
are essential to the damselfly species because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area is occupied 
by the plants Cyanea crispa, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, and 
Schiedea kaalae, and by the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. 
This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
deppeana, C. rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Huperzia nutans, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, P. parviflora, P. princeps, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, or 
Viola oahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 14--
Lowland Wet (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 15--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,479 ac (598 ha) of State land, 1,281 ac 
(519 ha) of City and County of Honolulu land, 5 ac (2 ha) of Federal 
land, and 1,884 ac (762 ha) of privately owned land, in the wet cliff 
ecosystem along the summit of the Koolau Mountains, overlapping 
portions of Sacred Falls State Park, the Waiahole FR (Waiahole and 
Iolekaa sections), the Kaneohe and Honolulu Watershed FRs, and the 
Nuuana Pali State Wayside. This unit includes the shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the wet cliff 
ecosystem, as well as unique for the species PCEs for the crimson and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (see Tables 4 and 5). Because the streams 
and upland foraging and cover areas required by the crimson and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the wet cliff ecosystem, the wet 
cliff ecosystem's physical or biological features are essential to the 
damselfly species because they provide for the proper ecological 
functioning of this ecosystem. This area is occupied by the plants 
Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
st.-johnii, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. 
viridiflora, Huperzia nutans, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis. This unit 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently 
occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, C. 
rockii, Cyanea crispa, C. truncata, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
or Schiedea kaalae, or by the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.

Effects of Critical Habitat Designation

Section 7 Consultation

    Section 7(a)(2) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies, 
including the Service, to ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or 
carry out are not likely to destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat. Decisions by the Fifth and Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals have 
invalidated our regulatory definition of ``destruction or adverse 
modification'' (50 CFR 402.02) (see Gifford Pinchot Task Force v. U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, 378 F. 3d 1059 (9th Cir. 2004) and Sierra 
Club v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service et al., 245 F.3d 434, 442 (5th 
Cir. 2001)), and we do not rely on this regulatory definition when 
analyzing whether an action is likely to destroy or adversely modify 
critical habitat. Under the statutory provisions of the Act, we 
determine destruction or adverse modification on the basis of whether, 
with implementation of the proposed Federal action, the affected 
critical habitat would remain functional (or retain those physical or 
biological features that relate to the ability of the area to 
periodically support the species) to serve its intended conservation 
role for the species.
    If a species is listed or critical habitat is designated, section 
7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities 
they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of the species or to destroy or adversely modify 
its critical habitat. If a Federal action may affect a listed species 
or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency (action agency) 
must enter into consultation with us. As a result of this consultation, 
we issue:
    (1) A concurrence letter for Federal actions that may affect, but 
are not likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat; 
or
    (2) A biological opinion for Federal actions that may affect, and 
are likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat.
    If we issue a biological opinion concluding that a project is 
likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat, we also provide 
reasonable and prudent alternatives to the project, if any are 
identifiable. We define ``reasonable and prudent alternatives'' at 50 
CFR 402.02 as alternative actions identified during consultation that:
     Can be implemented in a manner consistent with the 
intended purpose of the action;

[[Page 57729]]

     Can be implemented consistent with the scope of the 
Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction;
     Are economically and technologically feasible; and
     Would, in the Director's opinion, avoid jeopardizing the 
continued existence of the listed species or destroying or adversely 
modifying critical habitat.
    Reasonable and prudent alternatives can vary from slight project 
modifications to extensive redesign or relocation of the project. Costs 
associated with implementing a reasonable and prudent alternative are 
similarly variable.
    Regulations at 50 CFR 402.16 require Federal agencies to reinitiate 
formal consultation on previously reviewed actions in instances where 
we have listed a new species or subsequently designated critical 
habitat that may be affected and the Federal agency has retained 
discretionary involvement or control over the action (or the agency's 
discretionary involvement or control is authorized by law). 
Consequently, Federal agencies may sometimes need to request 
reinitiation of consultation with us on actions for which formal 
consultation has been completed, if those actions with discretionary 
involvement or control may affect subsequently listed species or 
designated critical habitat.
    Federal activities that may adversely affect the species included 
in this final rule or their designated critical habitat require section 
7 consultation under the Act. This includes activities on State, 
tribal, local, or private lands requiring a Federal permit (such as a 
permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under section 404 of the 
Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) or a permit from us under 
section 10 of the Act), or activities involving some other Federal 
action (such as funding from the Federal Highway Administration, 
Federal Aviation Administration, or the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency). These types of activities are subject to the section 7 
consultation process. Federal actions not affecting listed species or 
critical habitat, and actions on State, tribal, local, or private lands 
that are not federally funded, authorized, or permitted, do not require 
section 7 consultations.

Application of the Jeopardy and Adverse Modification Standards

    The jeopardy analysis usually expresses the survival and recovery 
needs of a listed species in a qualitative fashion without making 
distinctions between what is necessary for survival and what is 
necessary for recovery. Generally, the jeopardy analysis focuses on the 
status of a species, the factors responsible for that condition, and 
what is necessary for the species to survive and recover. An emphasis 
is also placed on characterizing the condition of the species in the 
area affected by the proposed Federal action. That context is then used 
to determine the significance of adverse and beneficial effects of the 
proposed Federal action and any cumulative effects for purposes of 
making the jeopardy determination. The jeopardy analysis also considers 
any conservation measures that may be proposed by a Federal action 
agency to minimize or compensate for adverse project effects to the 
species or to promote its recovery.
Application of the Adverse Modification Standard
    The key factor related to the adverse modification determination is 
whether, with implementation of the proposed Federal action, the 
affected critical habitat would continue to serve its intended 
conservation role for the species, or would retain its current ability 
for the essential features to be functionally established. Activities 
that may destroy or adversely modify critical habitat are those that 
alter the physical or biological features to an extent that appreciably 
reduces the conservation value of critical habitat for the 124 species 
identified in this rule.
    Section 4(b)(8) of the Act requires us to briefly evaluate and 
describe, in any proposed or final regulation that designates critical 
habitat, activities involving a Federal action that may destroy or 
adversely modify such habitat, or that may be affected by such 
designation. Activities that, when carried out, funded, or authorized 
by a Federal agency, may destroy or adversely modify critical habitat 
for the 124 species, and therefore may be affected by this final 
designation, include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Activities that might appreciably degrade or destroy the 
physical or biological features for the species including, but not 
limited to, the following: Overgrazing; maintaining or increasing feral 
ungulate levels; clearing or cutting native live trees and shrubs 
(e.g., woodcutting, bulldozing, construction, road building, mining, 
herbicide application); and taking actions that pose a risk of fire.
    (2) Activities that may alter watershed characteristics in ways 
that would appreciably reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, 
wetland, aquatic, or vegetative communities. Such activities include 
new water diversion or impoundment, excess groundwater pumping, and 
manipulation of vegetation through activities such as the ones 
mentioned in (1) above.
    (3) Recreational activities that may appreciably degrade 
vegetation.
    (4) Mining sand or other minerals.
    (5) Introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative plant 
species.
    (6) Importing nonnative species for research, agriculture, and 
aquaculture, and releasing biological control agents.

Application of Section 4(a)(3) of the Act

    The Sikes Act Improvement Amendment of 1997 (Sikes Act) (16 U.S.C. 
670a) required each military installation that includes land and water 
suitable for the conservation and management of natural resources to 
complete an integrated natural resources management plan (INRMP) by 
November 17, 2001. An INRMP integrates implementation of the military 
mission of the installation with stewardship of the natural resources 
found on the base. Each INRMP includes:
     An assessment of the ecological needs on the installation, 
including the need to provide for the conservation of listed species;
     A statement of goals and priorities;
     A detailed description of management actions to be 
implemented to provide for these ecological needs; and
     A monitoring and adaptive management plan.
    Among other things, each INRMP must, to the extent appropriate and 
applicable, provide for fish and wildlife management; fish and wildlife 
habitat enhancement or modification; wetland protection, enhancement, 
and restoration where necessary to support fish and wildlife; and 
enforcement of applicable natural resource laws.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (Pub. 
L. 108-136) amended the Act to limit areas eligible for designation as 
critical habitat. Specifically, section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act (16 
U.S.C. 1533(a)(3)(B)(i)) provides: ``The Secretary shall not designate 
as critical habitat any lands or other geographical areas owned or 
controlled by the Department of Defense, or designated for its use, 
that are subject to an integrated natural resources management plan 
prepared under section 101 of the Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. 670a), if the 
Secretary determines in writing that such plan provides a benefit to 
the species for which critical habitat is proposed for designation.''
    We consult with the military on the development and implementation 
of INRMPs for installations with listed

[[Page 57730]]

species. We analyzed INRMPs developed by military installations located 
within the areas that were being considered for critical habitat 
designation during the development of this rule to determine if these 
installations may warrant consideration for exemption under section 
4(a)(3) of the Act. Each of the Department of Defense (DOD) 
installations identified below owns or manages such lands, which have 
been analyzed for exemption under the authority of section 4(a)(3) of 
the Act.

Approved INRMPs

Lands Under U.S. Army Jurisdiction
    The U.S. Army has six training installations under its jurisdiction 
on the island of Oahu: Dillingham Military Reservation (DMR), Kawailoa 
Training Area (KLOA), Kahuku Training Area (KTA), Makua Military 
Reservation (MMR), Schofield Barracks Military Reservation (SBMR), and 
Schofield Barracks-East Range (SBER). These lands are administered by 
the Army Garrison Hawaii for various types of military training. In our 
2003 final rule to designate critical habitat for 99 plant species on 
Oahu (68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003), we did not designate critical 
habitat on areas managed by the Army that met the following criteria: 
(1) The area was subject to a current and final INRMP that provides a 
conservation benefit to the species; (2) there were assurances the 
conservation management strategies will be implemented; and (3) there 
were assurances the conservation management strategies will be 
effective. These determinations were based primarily on section 4(b)(2) 
of the Act.
    Our previous analysis determined the ongoing and proposed 
management activities described in the 2002 INRMP provide a 
conservation benefit to the plant species, and that the INRMP provided 
assurances the conservation plan would be implemented and effective (68 
FR 35950, June 17, 2003). After applying the above three criteria, we 
determined in the 2003 final rule that 26,946 ac (10,905 ha) of Army 
lands were excluded from critical habitat designation. Our exclusion 
analysis of Army lands determined that the benefits of excluding these 
lands based on impacts to national security and other relevant factors 
outweighed the benefits of designating these lands as critical habitat. 
The exclusion of Army lands in the 2003 final rule was based on our 
review and analysis of the Army's INRMP (U.S. Army 2002), Ecosystem 
Management Plan (U.S. Army 1998), and Endangered Species Management 
Plan (Research Corporation of Hawaii 1998). We also evaluated the 
monthly and annual summary reports describing natural resources 
management projects performed under the Ecosystems Management Programs 
for each of the six Oahu installations, reviewed the Army's Wildland 
Fire Management Plan for Makua Military Installation (U.S. Army 2000) 
and the Draft Wildland Fire Management Plan for the other five Oahu 
installations (U.S. Army 2003).
    Subsequent to publication of the 2003 final rule, the National 
Defense Authorization Act of 2004 (Pub. L. 108-136) was enacted, which 
amended the Act. The Army's 2001 INRMP was updated in 2010 (see below), 
and we have reevaluted the conservation and management activities for 
the species that occur on Army lands within this statutory framework 
for purposes of this rule.
    The Army recently updated its 2001 INRMP, which was finalized in 
August 2010 (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010). The INRMP identifies 
management actions during 2010-2014 for threatened, endangered, and 
candidate species, and for critical habitat for the Oahu elepaio (an 
endangered flycatcher) on all of their Oahu training installations 
(U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, p. 4-1). The INRMP incorporates 
management actions developed as implementation plans by a team of 
biologists and field experts from State, Federal, and private agencies 
and organizations, who are familiar with the species and their habitats 
(U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2003; 2008, U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2005c, 
Addendum). The implementation plans and addendum were prepared under 
the terms of biological opinions issued by the Service (USFWS 1999b, 
USFWS 2003b, 356 pp.; USFWS 2007c, 776 pp.).
    Species conservation/management activities conducted under the Army 
INRMP include: (1) Propagation and outplanting of plants to augment 
existing populations and reintroduce species and populations to areas 
where they no longer occur; (2) construction of fences to protect 
plants from feral ungulates; (3) nonnative rodent, slug, and snail 
control to protect plants from fruit and seed predation and reduce 
predation of elepaio nests (by rats); (4) habitat restoration (e.g., 
restoration of fire-altered native habitats to native vegetation, 
erosion control); (5) control of nonnative plants, nonnative 
invertebrates (e.g., black-twig borer), and feral ungulate populations; 
(6) surveys and monitoring of rare plants and animals; (7) monitoring 
for weeds; and (8) monitoring fenced areas for ungulate activity (U.S. 
Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, pp. 4-3--4-29). In addition, the Army 
contracts with field experts to monitor rare plants and conduct 
predator control on their lands, and supports several important 
research projects (e.g., developing methods to control nonnative slugs 
and snails; developing methods to restore nonnative, highly flammable 
grasslands to native forest vegetation; and determining home range and 
density of rats (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, p. 4-28)). The Army 
provides monthly and annual summary reports to the Service regarding 
the natural resources management projects implemented under the 
implementation plans and the addendum, which are integrated in the 
INRMP for the six installations. These summary reports provide 
information on management actions implemented and whether they have 
proven beneficial to listed species and species proposed for listing. 
Examples of ecosystem management activities that protect rare species' 
habitat and provide conservation benefits include fence construction, 
removal of feral ungulates from within fenced areas, and minimizing the 
threat of fire through the control and eradication of fire-tolerant 
nonnative plant species, construction of fuel breaks, maintenance of 
existing roads, roadside weed clearing, and investing in firefighting 
equipment and training fire crews (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, pp. 
4-14, 4-65--4-66).
    In 2003, the Army completed an integrated wildland fire management 
plan (WFMP) for all of its Oahu training installations, which is 
integrated in the 2010 INRMP (U.S. Army 2010, p. 4-65). The goal of the 
WFMP is to reduce the threat of wildfire, which represents a threat to 
listed and other rare species, including 6 of the 23 species listed in 
this final rule and 34 previously listed plant species that occur on 
one or more of Oahu's six Army training installations. Specific 
conservation/management activities for individual plant species are 
detailed in the implementation plans and the addendum, and are 
integrated in the INRMP (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, pp. 4-20-4-22; 
Appendix 4). Each of these documents is available online at ``U.S. Army 
Garrison Hawaii Natural Resource Program Reports,'' http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/dpw.htm. We reviewed the management activities 
described in these plans, and have determined that they provide 
conservation benefits to 14 plant species that are listed in this final 
rule and 63 previously listed plant species that have been reported on 
one or more of Oahu's six Army training installations.

[[Page 57731]]

Accordingly, we have determined that 8,310 ac (3,364 ha) of land on 
Oahu's six Army training installations (see Figures 1-4) are exempt 
from critical habitat designation in accordance with section 
4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act. The conservation actions identified in the 
2010-2014 INRMP for the Army's Oahu installations, which incorporates 
the 2003 and 2008 implementation plans, the 2005 Addendum (USFWS 2003b, 
356 pp.; U.S. Army Garrison 2005c; USFWS 2007c, 776 pp.), and the 2003 
WFMP, provide conservation benefits to 14 plant species listed in this 
final rule that occur within the six Oahu training areas, which include 
Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, M. 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, P. cornuta var. decurrens, 
Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum oahuense. The 2010-2014 INRMP also provides 
conservation benefits to 63 previously listed plant species that occur 
within the six Oahu training areas, which include Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, C. herbstii, C. rockii, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, C. 
humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. longiflora, C. st.-johnii, C. superba, 
Cyrtandra dentata, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion laurifolium, Kadua 
degeneri, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium arbuscula, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. niihauensis, L. oahuensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, Plantago 
princeps, Pritchardia kaalae, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula mariversa, S. 
purpurea, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, S. nuttallii, S. obovata, S. 
trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Solanum sandwicense, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and 
V. oahuensis (see Table 7A and 7B, above) (U.S. Army Garrison 2003, 
2005b, 2008, 2010; USFWS 2003b, 356 pp.; USFWS 2007c, 776 pp.). Figures 
1 through 4 identify the above areas on Army-managed lands that were 
evaluated under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act.
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.004


[[Page 57732]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.005


[[Page 57733]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.006


[[Page 57734]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.007

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
Lands Under U.S. Navy Jurisdiction
    The U.S. Navy (Navy) owns or leases much of Lualualei Valley, on 
Oahu's leeward coast, which is operated as a naval magazine and radio 
transmitting facility. The Navy lands at Lualualei are composed of two 
contiguous facilities, Naval Station Pearl Harbor Lualualei Branch 
(NAVMAG PH Lualualei) and Naval Radar Transmittal Facility at Lualualei 
(NRTF Lualualei). In addition, the Navy still retains ownership of land 
within the former Barber's Point Naval Air Station at Kalaeloa on 
Oahu's southwestern coast, including 166 ac (67 ha) that are within 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11. We are aware that the Navy plans to 
transfer ownership of these 166 ac (67 ha) to the Hawaii Community 
Development Authority (HCDA), although this transfer has not yet 
occurred (City and County Real Property Assessment Division 2011). Due 
to the pending land transfer, these lands were not considered for 
exemption from this final designation of critical habitat under section 
4(a)(3)(B)(i), as the revised INRMP discussed below would not cover 
those lands once ownership is transferred. However, we understand that 
as part of the land transfer negotiations, a draft conservation plan is 
being specifically developed for this area.
    In our June 17, 2003, final rule (68 FR 35950) to designate 
critical habitat for 99 plant species on Oahu, we designated 
approximately 972 ac (approximately 393 ha) of Navy lands as critical 
habitat for 21 species (Abutilon sandwicense, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Gouania meyenii, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Kadua parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta 
lobata var. leptophylla, Marsilea villosa, Melicope pallida, M. saint-
johnii, Neraudia angulata, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Schiedea hookeri, 
Silene perlmanii, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana). 
We determined that the benefits of designating Navy lands as critical 
habitat outweighed the benefits of excluding these lands under section 
4(b)(2) of the Act.
    Subsequent to publication of our 2003 final rule, the Navy 
developed a revision to their 2001 INRMP, which was completed in 
September 2011 (2011 Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam INRMP), following 
the publication of our August 2011 proposed rule (76 FR 46362). Since 
it was not completed at the time of our August 2011 proposed rule, we 
conducted an analysis of the Navy's 2001 INRMP to determine whether it 
provided a conservation benefit to the plant species for which critical 
habitat was proposed on Navy lands, for purposes of section 
4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act. In our proposed, rule we determined that the 
Navy's 2001 INRMP did not provide a conservation benefit for previously 
listed species or for those species proposed for listing for which we 
found critical habitat to be

[[Page 57735]]

both prudent and determinable. As a result, we proposed critical 
habitat for 60 plant species within 9 units that overlap Navy lands at 
Lualuaei Valley (Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 2, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5) and in 1 unit that overlaps 
Navy lands at Kalaeloa Barber's Point (Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11). 
Within these 10 units, 28 species occur within one or more of the units 
(occupied units) and 32 species are not currently known to occur within 
one or more of the units (unoccupied units) (Table 8).

  TABLE 8--Species for Which Critical Habitat Was Proposed at Navmag PH
          Lualualei, NRTF Lualualei And Kalaeloa Barber's Point
------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Species                Unit occupied          Unoccupied
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abutilon sandwicense........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 7.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Achyranthes splendens var.    ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
 rotundata.                                          Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7,
                                                     Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry --Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     11
Alectryon macrococcus.......  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 5.        Cliff--Unit 7
Bidens amplectens...........  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry --Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     11
Bonamia menziesii...........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7,
                                                     Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry --Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     11
Cenchrus agrimonioides......  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 6.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Chamaesyce celastroides var.  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
 kaenana.                                            Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry --Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     11
Chamaesyce herbstii.........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Chamaesyce kuwaleana........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 4.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.  Oahu--Lowland Dry--   Oahu--Lowland Dry--
 skottsbergii.                 Unit 11.              Unit 11
Cyanea acuminata............  ....................  Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Cyanea calycina.............  Oahu--Wet Cliff--     Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                               Unit 2.               Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Cyanea grimesiana ssp.        ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
 obatae.                                             Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Cyperus trachysanthos.......  Oahu--Lowland Dry--   Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 5.               Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5
Cyrtandra dentata...........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Diellia falcata.............  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Diellia unisora.............  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 6, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 7.        Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Dubautia herbstobatae.......  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Eragrostis fosbergii........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Euphorbia haeleeleana.......  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry --Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry --Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11
Flueggea neowawraea.........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 5, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 6,        Cliff--Unit 5,
                               Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 7.               Unit 6
Gouania meyenii.............  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Gouania vitifolia...........  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Hibiscus brackenridgei......  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11

[[Page 57736]]

 
Isodendrion laurifolium.....  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Isodendrion pyrifolium......  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Kadua degeneri..............  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Kadua parvula...............  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 7.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Korthalsella degeneri.......  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Labordia cyrtandrae.........  ....................  Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Lepidium arbuscula..........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 6, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 7.        Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Lipochaeta lobata var.        Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
 leptophylla.                  Unit 5.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Lobelia niihauensis.........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 5, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 6.        Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Lobelia oahuensis...........  ....................  Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Marsilea villosa............  Oahu--Lowland Dry--   Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 3, Oahu--        Unit 3, Oahu--
                               Lowland Dry --Unit    Lowland Dry --Unit
                               4.                    4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5
Melanthera tenuifolia.......  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Melicope christophersenii...  Oahu--Wet Cliff--     Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                               Unit 2.               Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Melicope makahae............  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Melicope saint-johnii.......  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 6, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 7.        Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Neraudia angulata...........  Oahu--Lowland Dry--   Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 3, Oahu--        Unit 3, Oahu--
                               Lowland Dry--Unit     Lowland Dry--Unit
                               4, Oahu--Lowland      4, Oahu--Lowland
                               Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--   Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                               Dry Cliff--Unit 6,    Dry Cliff--Unit 4,
                               Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 7.               Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Nototrichium humile.........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 5.               Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Peucedanum sandwicense......  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Phyllostegia hirsuta........  ....................  Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Phyllostegia kaalaensis.....  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Plantago princeps...........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 6, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 7.        Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Platydesma cornuta var.       Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
 decurrens.                    Unit 5, Oahu--Dry     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                               Cliff--Unit 7.        Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Pleomele forbesii...........  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 5, Oahu--Dry     Unit 3, Oahu--
                               Cliff--Unit 6,        Lowland Dry--Unit
                               Oahu--Dry Cliff--     4, Oahu--Lowland
                               Unit 7.               Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Pteralyxia macrocarpa.......  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 6.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7,
                                                     Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Sanicula mariversa..........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Schiedea hookeri............  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 5.               Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 2,
                                                     Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5
Schiedea kaalae.............  ....................  Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5

[[Page 57737]]

 
Schiedea kealiae............  ....................  Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                                                     Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11
Schiedea obovata............  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Schiedea trinervis..........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7,
                                                     Oahu--Wet Cliff--
                                                     Unit 2, Oahu--Wet
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5
Silene lanceolata...........  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Silene perlmanii............  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                               Unit 7.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.....  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Lowland Dry--
                               Unit 4.               Unit 3, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     4, Oahu--Lowland
                                                     Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--
                                                     Lowland Dry--Unit
                                                     11, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 4,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 5, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 6,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 7
Tetramolopium filiforme.....  ....................  Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.  Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
 lepidotum.                    Unit 6.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
Viola chamissoniana ssp.      Oahu--Dry Cliff--     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
 chamissoniana.                Unit 7.               Unit 4, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 5,
                                                     Oahu--Dry Cliff--
                                                     Unit 6, Oahu--Dry
                                                     Cliff--Unit 7
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    On June 8, 2012, the Navy provided an Addendum to its 2011 Joint 
Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam INRMP. In the Addendum, the Navy provides 
additional information regarding primary strategies of the INRMP to 
meet management goals at Lualualei and additional details regarding 
progress made on planned projects for endangered plants found on Navy 
lands at Lualualei. These additional objectives or amended action or 
actions in progress include: (1) A survey documenting numbers and 
locations of endangered plant species; (2) identification of an 
additional population of Marsilea villosa in the Radio Transmitting 
Facility; (3) development of a M. villosa management plan based on 
recommendation strategies outlined in a dissertation, partly funded by 
the Navy; (4) expansion of funding for a fencing plan and fence 
construction for ungulate control; (5) completion of aerial surveys for 
feral goats, with plans for their removal beginning in 2013; (6) 
nonnative plant removal within exclosures at Halona and Mikiula 
management areas; (7) allocation of funding for research on black twig 
borer control methods; (8) prioritization of production of a wildfire 
management plan; (9) request of permission through the chain of command 
to outplant endangered and threatened species to augment and stabilize 
populations within Navy property at Lualualei; and (10) allocated 
funding for development and implementation of a Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii management plan on Navy lands at Kalaeloa. In 
summary, the Navy has made progress in identifying needed management 
actions, recognizing the need for monitoring plans, increasing initial 
determinations of funding required for natural resource management, and 
recognizing the need for propagation and outplanting of endangered and 
threatened plant species on their lands.
    The exemption of Navy lands from this final rule is based on our 
review and analysis to determine whether the area was subject to a 
current and final INRMP that provides a conservation benefit to the 
species. To evaluate whether the INRMP provides a benefit to the 
species, we considered (1) whether the INRMP covered the areas 
identified as critical habitat for the species. After applying the 
above three criteria, we determine that the Navy's 2011 INRMP for Joint 
Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam and 2012 addendum provide conservation 
benefits to 60 listed plant species that occur within the NAVMAG PH 
Lualualei and NRTF Lualualei. As a result, we have exempted 380 ac (154 
ha) of Navy lands within the NAVMAG PH Lualualei and NRTF Lualualei 
from this final designation of critical habitat for those species under 
section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act. Figure 5 identifies the above areas 
on Navy-managed lands that were evaluated under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) 
of the Act.

[[Page 57738]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.008

Exclusions

Application of Section 4(b)(2) of the Act

    Section 4(b)(2) of the Act states that the Secretary must designate 
and revise critical habitat on the basis of the best available 
scientific data after taking into consideration the economic impact, 
national security impact, and any other relevant impact of specifying 
any particular area as critical habitat. The Secretary may exclude an 
area from critical habitat if he determines that the benefits of such 
exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such area as part of the 
critical habitat, unless he determines, based on the best scientific 
data available, that the failure to designate such area as critical 
habitat will result in the extinction of the species. The Secretary may 
exclude an area from designated critical habitat based on economic 
impacts, impacts on national security, or any other relevant impacts.
    When considering the benefits of inclusion for an area, we consider 
the additional regulatory benefits under section 7 of the Act the area 
would receive from the protection from adverse modification or 
destruction as a result of actions with a Federal nexus, the 
educational benefits of mapping essential habitat for recovery of the 
listed species, and any benefits that may result from a designation due 
to State or Federal laws that may apply to critical habitat. Benefits 
could include public awareness of the presence of listed species and 
the importance of habitat protection, and in cases where a Federal 
nexus exists, increased habitat protection due to the protection from 
adverse modification or destruction of critical habitat.
    When considering the benefits of excluding an area from critical 
habitat, we consider whether exclusion is likely to result in 
conservation; the continuation, strengthening, or encouragement of 
partnerships; or implementation of a management plan that provides 
equal to or more conservation than a critical habitat designation would 
provide.
    In evaluating the existence of a conservation plan when considering 
the benefits of exclusion, we consider a variety of factors, including, 
but not limited to, whether the plan is finalized; how it provides for 
the conservation of essential physical or biological features; whether 
there is a reasonable expectation that the conservation management 
strategies and actions contained in the plan are likely to be 
implemented into the future; whether the conservation strategies in the 
plan are likely to be effective; and whether the plan contains a 
monitoring program or adaptive management to ensure that the 
conservation measures are effective and can be adapted in the future in 
response to new information.
    After evaluating the benefits of inclusion and the benefits of 
exclusion, the two sides are carefully weighed to determine whether the 
benefits of exclusion outweigh those of inclusion. If they do, we then 
determine whether exclusion of the particular area would result in the 
extinction of the species. If exclusion of an area from critical 
habitat

[[Page 57739]]

will result in extinction, it will not be excluded from the 
designation.

Exclusions Based on Economic Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider the economic impacts 
of specifying any particular area as critical habitat. In order to 
consider economic impacts, we prepared a draft economic analysis (DEA) 
of the critical habitat designation and related factors (77 FR 21936, 
April 21, 2012). The DEA, dated April 12, 2012, was made available for 
public review from April 12 through May 14, 2012 (77 FR 21936). 
Following the close of the comment period, a final analysis (dated July 
27, 2012) of the potential economic effects of the designation was 
developed taking into consideration the public comments and any new 
information (USFWS 2012b). Substantive comments and information 
received on the DEA are summarized in the Summary of Comments and 
Recommendations section above.
    The intent of the final economic analysis (FEA) is to quantify the 
economic impacts of all potential conservation efforts for the 124 
species; some of these costs will likely be incurred regardless of 
whether we designate critical habitat (baseline). The economic impact 
of the final critical habitat designation is analyzed by comparing 
scenarios both ``with critical habitat'' and ``without critical 
habitat.'' The ``without critical habitat'' scenario represents the 
baseline for the analysis, considering protections already in place for 
the species (e.g., under the Federal listing and other Federal, State, 
and local regulations). The baseline, therefore, represents the costs 
incurred regardless of whether critical habitat is designated. The 
``with critical habitat'' scenario describes the incremental impacts 
associated specifically with the designation of critical habitat for 
the species. The incremental conservation efforts and associated 
impacts are those not expected to occur absent the designation of 
critical habitat for the species. In other words, the incremental costs 
are those attributable solely to the designation of critical habitat 
above and beyond the baseline costs; these are the costs we consider in 
the final designation of critical habitat. The analysis looks at 
baseline impacts expected to occur due to listing of these 124 species, 
and forecasts both baseline and incremental impacts likely to occur 
with the designation of critical habitat for 25 species and revision of 
critical habitat for 99 plant species.
    The FEA also addresses how potential economic impacts are likely to 
be distributed, including an assessment of any local or regional 
impacts of habitat conservation and the potential effects of 
conservation activities on government agencies, private businesses, and 
individuals. The FEA measures lost economic efficiency associated with 
residential and commercial development and public projects and 
activities, such as economic impacts on water management and 
transportation projects, Federal lands, small entities, and the energy 
industry. Decision-makers can use this information to assess whether 
the effects of the designation might unduly burden a particular group 
or economic sector. Finally, the FEA looks and considers those costs 
that may occur in the 20 years following listing of the 23 species; 
designation of critical habitat for these 23 species and Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata and Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii; 
and costs attributed to revision of critical habitat for the 99 plant 
species which was determined to be the appropriate period for analysis 
because limited planning information was available for most activities 
to forecast activity levels for projects beyond a 20-year timeframe. 
The FEA quantifies economic impacts of conservation efforts for the 124 
species associated with the following categories of activity, which 
represent typical conservation measures or conservation recommendations 
the Service may request or suggest during section 7 consultation for 
projects that may affect critical habitat for listed plants at 
Kalaeloa: Installation of silt fencing to control erosion on 
construction sites; containment of construction site surface runoff to 
avoid contamination of native plants; establishement of buffer zones 
around fenced areas where plants are located; cleaning procedures to 
reduce the introduction of non-native plants; and prohibiting the 
importation of earthen soil from off-site to reduce the introduction of 
non-native seeds (USFWS 2012b, p. 12). Baseline impacts include the 
potential economic impacts of all actions relating to the conservation 
of the 124 species, including costs associated with sections 7, 9, and 
10 of the Act. Baseline impacts also include the economic impacts of 
protective measures taken as a result of other Federal, State, and 
local laws that aid habitat conservation in the area evaluated in the 
DEA. In other words, baseline impacts include those impacts associated 
with the listing of the 23 species and not associated with critical 
habitat, costs associated with the already listed Achyranthes splendens 
var. rotundata and Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, and costs 
associated with critical habitat designated in 2003 for the 99 plants. 
Incremental impacts are those potential future economic impacts of 
conservation actions relating to the designation of critical habitat 
for the 25 species; these impacts would not be expected to occur 
without the designation of critical habitat. In addition, incremental 
impacts include potential future economic impacts of conservation 
actions relating to the revised critical habitat for the 99 plants.
    Baseline economic impacts are those impacts that result from 
listing and conservation efforts for the 23 species, listed status of 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata and Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, and from the designation of critical habitat for the 99 
plant species in 2003. The upper bound of administrative costs and 
conservation efforts to the Service, Federal agency, and third parties 
related to section 7 consultation in occupied critical habitat 
constitute the majority of total baseline costs (approximately 72 
percent). Total future baseline impacts are estimated to be $105,000, 
which equates to (1) $54,178 in present value terms using a 7 percent 
discount rate over the next 20 years (2011 to 2031); (2) $77,075 in 
present value terms using a 3 percent discount rate over the next 20 
years; or (3) $5000 annualized over the next 20 years.
    The upper bound of administrative costs and conservation efforts to 
the Service, Federal agency, and third parties related to section 7 
consultation in unoccupied critical habitat constitute the majority of 
total incremental costs (approximately 28 percent). Total future 
incremental impacts are estimated to be $40,000 over the next 20 years 
(2011 to 2031). Annualized incremental administrative in present value 
terms using a 7 percent discount rate over the next 20 years is $3,692, 
or $1,905 using a 3 percent discount rate.
    The FEA estimates total upper bound potential economic impacts in 
areas proposed as critical habitat over the next 20 years (2011 to 
2031) to be $145,000, which equates to (1) $94,178 in present value 
terms using a 7 percent discount rate over the next 20 years (2011 to 
2031); (2) $117,075 in present value terms using a 3 percent discount 
rate over the next 20 years; (3) $5000 annualized using a 7 percent 
discount rate over the next 20 years, or (4) $6,905 using a 3 percent 
discount rate over the next 20 years. This value is based on an 
assumption of total avoidance of designated acres and thus represents 
the upper-bound potential cost for each project. As such, it likely 
overstates the expected absolute cost of future actions to protect 
critical habitat.

[[Page 57740]]

    The FEA considers both economic efficiency and distributional 
effects. In the case of habitat conservation, efficiency effects 
generally reflect the ``opportunity costs'' associated with the 
commitment of resources to comply with habitat protection measures 
(such as lost economic opportunities associated with restrictions on 
land use). The FEA also addresses how potential economic impacts are 
likely to be distributed, including an assessment of any local or 
regional impacts of habitat conservation and the potential effects of 
conservation activities on government agencies, private businesses, and 
individuals. Decision-makers can use this information to assess whether 
the effects of critical habitat designation might unduly burden a 
particular group or economic sector.
    Our economic analysis did not identify any disproportionate costs 
that are likely to result from the designation. Consequently, the 
Secretary has determined not to exercise his discretion to exclude any 
areas from this designation of critical habitat for the 124 species 
based on economic impacts.
    A copy of the FEA with supporting documents may be obtained by 
contacting the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES) 
or by downloading from the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov.

Exclusions Based on National Security Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider whether there are 
lands owned or managed by the Department of Defense (DOD) where a 
national security impact might exist. In preparing this final rule, we 
have exempted from the designation of critical habitat those DOD lands 
with completed INRMPs determined to provide a benefit to the 124 
species. We have determined that certain lands owned or managed by the 
DOD (Department of the Navy) at Kalaeloa Barber's Point are not being 
exempted from the designation of critical habitat (see discussion under 
``Approved INRMPs, above''); however, Navy lands at NAVMAG PH Lualuaei 
Branch and NRFT Lualualei are exempted from designation as critical 
habitat under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act. There are also lands 
owned or managed at six Department of the Army training installations 
(see discussion under ``Approved INRMPs, above'') that are exempted 
from designation as critical habitat under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the 
Act. We are unaware of any potential impacts to national security on 
any DOD lands; therefore, we are not excluding any areas from critical 
habitat designation based on impacts to national security.

Exclusions Based on Other Relevant Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider any other relevant 
impacts, in addition to economic impacts and impacts on national 
security. We consider a number of factors including whether the 
landowners have developed any conservation plans or other management 
plans for the area, or whether there are conservation partnerships that 
would be encouraged by designation of, or exclusion from, critical 
habitat. We also consider any social impacts that might occur because 
of the designation.
    In preparing this rule, we have determined that the landowners have 
not developed conservation plans or other management plans for the 99 
previously listed plant species, the two previously listed plant 
species without designated critical habitat, or the 23 species listed 
as endangered in this rule. In addition, we have determined there are 
no conservation partnerships that would be encouraged by the exclusion 
from critical habitat. We anticipate no impact to partnerships, habitat 
conservation plants (HCPs), or other management plans from this 
critical habitat designation. Accordingly, we do not exert our 
discretion to exclude any areas from final critical habitat designation 
based on other relevant impacts.
    In conclusion, the Secretary will not be exercising his discretion 
under section 4(b)(2) of the Act to exclude any particular area from 
this final rule, based on the conservation value of these areas.

Required Determinations

    These required determinations relate to the portion of this rule 
designating critical habitat. Listing determinations must be made 
solely on the basis of the best scientific and commercial data 
available. 16 U.S.C. 1533(b)(1)(A).

Regulatory Planning and Review--Executive Orders 12866 and 13563

    Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) will review all significant 
rules. The OIRA has determined that this rule is not significant.
    E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866 while calling for 
improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote 
predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most 
innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. 
The executive order directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches 
that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for 
the public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and 
consistent with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further 
that regulations must be based on the best available science and that 
the rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open 
exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in a manner consistent 
with these requirements.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA; 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), 
as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), an agency must prepare and 
make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis 
that describes the effects of the rule on small entities (small 
businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). 
However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of 
an agency certifies the rule will not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. The SBREFA amended 
the RFA to require Federal agencies to provide a certification 
statement of the factual basis for certifying that the rule will not 
have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. In this final rule, we are certifying that the critical 
habitat designation for the 124 Oahu species will not have a 
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. 
The following discussion explains our rationale.
    According to the Small Business Administration, small entities 
include small organizations, such as independent nonprofit 
organizations; small governmental jurisdictions, including school 
boards and city and town governments that serve fewer than 50,000 
residents; and small businesses (13 CFR 121.201). Small businesses 
include manufacturing and mining concerns with fewer than 500 
employees, wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, 
retail and service businesses with less than $5 million in annual 
sales, general and heavy construction businesses with less than $27.5 
million in annual business, special trade contractors doing less than 
$11.5 million in annual business, and agricultural businesses with 
annual sales less than $750,000. To determine if potential economic 
impacts to these small entities are significant, we considered the 
types of activities that

[[Page 57741]]

might trigger regulatory impacts under this designation as well as 
types of project modifications that may result. In general, the term 
significant economic impact is meant to apply to a typical small 
business firm's business operations.
    Designation of critical habitat only affects activities authorized, 
funded, or carried out by Federal agencies. Some kinds of activities 
are unlikely to have any Federal involvement and so will not be 
affected by critical habitat designation. In areas where one or more of 
the 124 species are present, Federal agencies already are required to 
consult with us under section 7 of the Act on activities they 
authorize, fund, or carry out that may affect the species. Federal 
agencies also must consult with us if their activities may affect 
critical habitat. Designation of critical habitat, therefore, could 
result in an additional economic impact on small entities due to the 
requirement to reinitiate consultation for ongoing Federal activities 
(see Application of the ``Adverse Modification'' Standard section).
    Under the RFA, as amended, and following recent court decisions, 
Federal agencies are only required to evaluate the potential 
incremental impacts of rulemaking on those entities directly regulated 
by the rulemaking itself, and not the potential impacts to indirectly 
affected entities. The regulatory mechanism through which critical 
habitat protections are realized is section 7 of the Act, which 
requires Federal agencies, in consultation with the Service, to insure 
that any action authorized, funded, or carried by the Agency is not 
likely to adversely modify critical habitat. Therefore, only Federal 
action agencies are directly subject to the specific regulatory 
requirement (avoiding destruction and adverse modification) imposed by 
critical habitat designation. Under these circumstances, it is our 
position that only Federal action agencies will be directly regulated 
by this designation. Therefore, because Federal agencies are not small 
entities, the Service may certify that the proposed critical habitat 
rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities.
    We acknowledge, however, that in some cases, third-party proponents 
of the action subject to permitting or funding may participate in a 
section 7 consultation, and thus may be indirectly affected. We believe 
it is good policy to assess these impacts if we have sufficient data 
before us to complete the necessary analysis, whether or not this 
analysis is strictly required by the RFA. While this regulation does 
not directly regulate these entities, in our final economic analysis, 
we have conducted an evaluation of the potential third parties 
participating in consultations on an annual basis, in order to ensure a 
more complete examination of the incremental effects of this rule in 
the context of the RFA.
    We are specifically aware of some potential development activities 
in the Barber's Point area, which could potentially affect the 
following critical habitat units: Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8; 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 11. These potential development activities were 
evaluated in the final economic analysis. Kapolei West is a master 
planned development within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 that includes 
resort, mixed use residential, and commercial components. Kapolei 
Harborside is also within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, and is part of a 
larger Kapolei Business-Industrial Park development. Within units 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, there are plans 
to construct approximately 28,000 square feet of non-residential 
development over the next 7 to 20 years. The Kalaeloa Master Plan 
classifies this area as eco-industrial for planning purposes, targeting 
environmentally compatible industries (e.g., solar or hybrid energy 
generation, bio-filtration, or other related types of industries). 
Property owners within Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 have active permits 
to construct a large scale solar array field, and the Kalaeloa Master 
Plan projects this parcel to support approximately 137,000 square feet 
of non-residential development within the next 7 to 20 years. Oahu--
Lowland Dry--Unit 11 is identified as a location for residential and 
non-residential development, and an energy generation project.
    None of the other designated critical habitat units contains 
significant residential, commercial, industrial, or golf-course 
projects; crop farming; or intensive livestock operations, and few 
projects are planned for locations in the other designated critical 
habitat areas. This situation reflects the fact that:
    (1) Most of the land is unsuitable for development, farming, or 
other economic activities due to the rugged mountain terrain, lack of 
access, and remote locations; and
    (2) Existing land-use controls severely limit development and most 
other economic activities in the mountainous interior of Oahu.
    Existing planned projects, land uses, and activities that could 
affect the critical habitat but have no Federal involvement would not 
require section 7 consultation with the Service, so they are not 
restricted by the requirements of the Act. Further, although some 
existing and continuing activities involve the operation and 
maintenance of existing manmade features and structures in certain 
areas, these areas do not contain the PCEs for the species, and would 
not be impacted by the designation. Finally, for the anticipated 
projects and activities that will have Federal involvement, many are 
conservation efforts that will not negatively impact the species or 
their habitats, so they will not be subject to a minimal level of 
informal section 7 consultation. We anticipate that a developer or 
other project proponent could modify a project or take measures to 
protect the 124 Oahu species. The kinds of actions that may be included 
if future reasonable and prudent alternatives become necessary include 
conservation set-asides, management of competing non-native species, 
restoration of degraded habitat, and regular monitoring. These measures 
are not likely to result in a significant economic impact to project 
proponents, because nearly all of the lands designated as critical 
habitat are unsuitable for development, as well as for most commercial 
projects, land uses, and activities. This is due to their remote 
location, lack of access, and rugged terrain.
    In addition, Federal agencies may also need to reinitiate a 
previous consultation if discretionary involvement or control over the 
Federal action has been retained or is authorized by law and the 
activities may affect critical habitat. Since critical habitat was 
designated on Oahu in June 2003 (for 99 Oahu plants), and, most 
recently in December 2008 (for 12 picture-wing flies, 73 FR 73795), we 
have conducted 28 formal consultations and 137 informal consultations 
on this island, in addition to consultations on Federal grants to State 
wildlife programs that do not affect small entities. Of these, 13 
formal consultations and 34 informal consultations were primarily 
consultations regarding Federal permits to Service employees to 
implement conservation actions for listed species. The remainder, 15 
formal consultations and 103 informal consultations, involved the U.S. 
Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Marine 
Corps Base of Hawaii, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, Department of 
Commerce, Department of Homeland

[[Page 57742]]

Security, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Aviation 
Administration, Federal Highways Administration, Department of 
Agriculture (USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS); USDA-
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service), General Services 
Administration, Housing and Urban Development, National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaii Department 
of Transportation, State of Hawaii, Housing and Community Development 
Corporation of Hawaii, and the University of Hawaii. The majority of 
formal consultations were related to project effects on seabird 
flyways, nesting by endangered waterbirds, human disturbance such as 
fire from military training exercises, and research permits. The 
majority of informal consultations were related to project effects on 
seabird flyways and nesting by endangered waterbirds. About a quarter 
of the informal consultations were conducted with the USDA-NRCS for 
proposed funding for habitat restoration projects under the auspices of 
the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program.
    Seven of the formal consultations concerned designated critical 
habitat, and we concurred with each agency's determination that the 
project, as proposed, was not likely to adversely affect critical 
habitat. Of these seven formal consultations, one was conducted on 
behalf of the Navy in upper Halawa Valley, one was conducted on behalf 
of the Army regarding routine military training and transformation of 
the 2nd Brigade 25th Infantry (Light) at six Army installations, and 
five were conducted on behalf of the Army regarding reinitiation for 
routine military training at Makua Military Reservation. The Navy 
consultation involved a retrieval of remains from a remote area crash 
site in designated plant critical habitat, and although it was carried 
out in an area that is also designated critical habitat in this rule, 
it was a single, one-time action that is not ongoing. The project 
regarding training at six Army installations on Oahu is being 
implemented on lands that we are exempting from critical habitat in 
this rule. Five of the Army consultations, those that involve routine 
military training at Makua Military Reservation, involve actions that 
are still ongoing. Because these five Federal actions were subject to 
previous section 7 consultations, there may be a requirement to 
reinitiate consultation for listed species for ongoing Federal projects 
on these lands.
    Sixteen of the 103 informal consultations concerned designated 
critical habitat, and in all cases we concurred with each agency's 
determination that the project, as proposed, was not likely to 
adversely affect critical habitat. These projects were evenly divided 
between conservation actions that would benefit listed species, changes 
in labeling on pesticides for use throughout the State to manage 
conservation areas, and effects on listed species by routine training 
actions on the Army's Makua Military Reservation. For the 87 informal 
consultations that did not concern designated critical habitat, we 
concurred with each agency's determination that the project, as 
proposed, was not likely to adversely affect listed species.
    In this rule, we are designating critical habitat on a total of 
42,804 ac (17,322 ha) of land. Ninety-three percent (40,447 ac (16,369 
ha)) of this critical habitat designation is already designated 
critical habitat for one or more species and 7 percent (3,044 ac (1,231 
ha)) of the designation is on land newly designated as critical 
habitat. Some of the Federal actions that were subject to previous 
section 7 consultation are on the lands we are designating as critical 
habitat in this final rule. Therefore, there may be a requirement to 
reinitiate consultation for some ongoing Federal projects. However, as 
the consultations described above do not generally involve small 
entities, the requirement to reinitiate existing consultations is not 
likely to affect a significant number of small entities.
    In the 2001, 2002, and 2008 economic analyses of the designation of 
critical habitat for the Oahu elepaio, 99 species of Oahu plants, and 
12 picture-wing flies, we evaluated the potential economic effects on 
small business entities resulting from the protection of these species 
and their habitats related to the proposed designation of critical 
habitat and determined that it would not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. The RFA defines 
``small governmental jurisdiction'' as the government of a city, 
county, town, school district, or special district with a population of 
less than 50,000. By this definition, Honolulu County is not a small 
governmental jurisdiction because its population was 876,156 residents 
in 2000. Certain State agencies, such as the Department of Land and 
Natural Resources and the State Department of Transportation, may be 
affected by the critical habitat designation. However, for the purposes 
of the RFA, State governments are considered independent sovereigns, 
not small governments. The significant overlap between the critical 
habitat designations for the Oahu elepaio, 99 plant species, and the 12 
picture-wing flies and this critical habitat designation is further 
evidence that this designation will not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    In our final economic analysis of the critical habitat designation, 
we evaluated the potential economic effects on small business entities 
resulting from implementation of conservation actions related to the 
designation of critical habitat for 124 Oahu species. The analysis 
identifies the estimated incremental impacts associated with the 
proposed rulemaking, as described in the Small Business Analysis 
Appendix Part II of the analysis, and evaluates the potential for 
economic impacts related to the building construction industry. The 
analysis concludes that it is unlikely that every affected developer 
would be a small business as defined by the Small Business 
Administration. However, because it is difficult to predict which 
developers would be specifically impacted by the designation of 
critical habitat, the analysis conservatively assumes that every 
developer impacted is a small business, likely overstating the economic 
impacts of the designation. The analysis also conservatively assumes 
that one developer is associated with each affected land parcel. The 
analysis concluded that two small business developers would be affected 
within in the unoccupied unit Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, and 21 small 
business developers would be affected in the other occupied units. Key 
assumptions used in the Small Business Impact Analysis were that (1) 
Every parcel would have one formal section 7 consultation; (2) parcels 
in the unoccupied unit Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 would incur property 
value losses; (3) a unique developer is associated with each parcel; 
and (4) each established reported in census data reflects a unique 
business. However, it is highly unlikely that every parcel would have a 
formal consultation because some parcels may have no consultations or 
only informal consultations, and every parcel is unlikely to have a 
Federal nexus. It is also highly unlikely the parcels in the unoccupied 
unit Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 would incur property value losses, since 
development activities that with a Federal nexus that do not adversely 
modify critical habitat are not

[[Page 57743]]

prohibited. Likewise, it is highly unlikely that a unique developer is 
associated with each parcel, since more than one parcel is likely to be 
included in a single action and developers are likely to be involved in 
more than a single project. It is unlikely that each establishment 
reported in census data reflects a unique business, since a single 
business can be composed of one or more establishments. Accordingly, 
the effect of taking the above assumptions into consideration in the 
final economic analysis overestimates the effect of the designation on 
small businesses (i.e., reflects the upper bound of economic impact). 
Table 4 in Part II of the Final Economic Analysis concludes that the 
upper bound of economic impacts to small businesses as follows: (1) 
Property Value Impacts (based on a total property value impact (upper-
bound) of $7,620,971 for the two unoccupied parcels in LDU8)--2 firms 
could potentially be affected, and realize a $351,666 average 
annualized property value impact at a 7 percent discount rate ($247,193 
at a 3 percent discount rate), based on average receipts of 
$14,673,156. This equates to an annualized property value impact of 2.4 
percent at a 7% discount rate, or 1.7 percent at a 3 percent discount 
rate. Two businesses is not a substantial number of businesses 
impacted, and the annualized property impacts are not significant; (2) 
Administrative Impacts--23 firms could potentially be affected, 
accruing a $3,500 cost related to section 7 consultation (2 percent of 
their averaged annualized receipts), which is not a significant impact. 
Incremental impacts are either not expected for the other types of 
activities considered or, if expected, will not be borne by small 
entities.
    In summary, we considered whether the rule will result in a 
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. 
For the above reasons and based on currently available information, we 
conclude that this rule will not result in a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. Therefore, we are 
certifying that the designation of critical habitat for 124 Oahu 
species will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of 
small entities, and a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.)

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 
1501), we make the following findings:
    (a) This rule will not produce a Federal mandate. In general, a 
Federal mandate is a provision in legislation, statute, or regulation 
that would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal 
governments, or the private sector, and includes both ``Federal 
intergovernmental mandates'' and ``Federal private sector mandates.'' 
These terms are defined in 2 U.S.C. 658(5)-(7). ``Federal 
intergovernmental mandate'' includes a regulation that ``would impose 
an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal governments'' with two 
exceptions. It excludes ``a condition of Federal assistance.'' It also 
excludes ``a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal 
program,'' unless the regulation ``relates to a then-existing Federal 
program under which $500,000,000 or more is provided annually to State, 
local, and tribal governments under entitlement authority,'' if the 
provision would ``increase the stringency of conditions of assistance'' 
or ``place caps upon, or otherwise decrease, the Federal Government's 
responsibility to provide funding,'' and the State, local, or tribal 
governments ``lack authority'' to adjust accordingly. At the time of 
enactment, these entitlement programs were: Medicaid; Aid to Families 
with Dependent Children work programs; Child Nutrition; Food Stamps; 
Social Services Block Grants; Vocational Rehabilitation State Grants; 
Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Independent Living; Family 
Support Welfare Services; and Child Support Enforcement. ``Federal 
private sector mandate'' includes a regulation that ``would impose an 
enforceable duty upon the private sector, except (i) a condition of 
Federal assistance; or (ii) a duty arising from participation in a 
voluntary Federal program.''
    The designation of critical habitat does not impose a legally 
binding duty on non-Federal Government entities or private parties. 
Under the Act, the only regulatory effect is that Federal agencies must 
ensure that their actions do not destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat under section 7. While non-Federal entities that receive 
Federal funding, assistance, or permits, or that otherwise require 
approval or authorization from a Federal agency for an action, may be 
indirectly impacted by the designation of critical habitat, the legally 
binding duty to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat rests squarely on the Federal agency. Furthermore, to the 
extent that non-Federal entities are indirectly impacted because they 
receive Federal assistance or participate in a voluntary Federal aid 
program, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act does not apply, nor does 
critical habitat shift the costs of the large entitlement programs 
listed above onto State governments.
    (b) We do not believe that this rule will significantly or uniquely 
affect small governments. The lands we are designating as critical 
habitat are owned by the City and County of Honolulu, the State of 
Hawaii, private citizens, and the Federal Government. None of these 
entities fit the definition of ``small governmental jurisdiction.'' 
Therefore, a Small Government Agency Plan is not required.

Takings--Executive Order 12630

    In accordance with E.O. 12630 (``Government Actions and 
Interference with Constitutionally Protected Private Property 
Rights''), we have analyzed the potential takings implications of 
designating 42,804 ac (17,322 ha) of lands in Honolulu County, Hawaii, 
as critical habitat for the 124 species in a takings implications 
assessment. The takings implications assessment concludes that this 
designation of critical habitat for each of these 124 species does not 
pose significant takings implications for lands within or affected by 
the designation.

Federalism--Executive Order 13132

    In accordance with E.O. 13132 (Federalism), this rule does not have 
significant Federalism effects. A federalism summary impact statement 
is not required. In keeping with Department of the Interior and 
Department of Commerce policy, we requested information from, and 
coordinated development of, this critical habitat designation with 
appropriate State resource agencies in Hawaii. The critical habitat 
designation may have some benefit to these governments because the 
areas that contain the features essential to the conservation of the 
species are more clearly defined, and the essential features themselves 
are specifically identified. While making this definition and 
identification does not alter where and what federally sponsored 
activities may occur, it may assist local governments in long-range 
planning (rather than having them wait for case-by-case section 7 
consultations to occur).
    Where State and local governments require approval or authorization 
from a Federal agency for actions that may affect critical habitat, 
consultation under section 7(a)(2) will be required. While non-Federal 
entities that receive Federal funding, assistance, or permits, or that 
otherwise require approval or authorization from a Federal agency for 
an action, may be indirectly impacted

[[Page 57744]]

by the designation of critical habitat, the legally binding duty to 
avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat rests 
squarely on the Federal agency.

Civil Justice Reform--Executive Order 12988

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988 (Civil Justice Reform), 
the Office of the Solicitor has determined that the rule does not 
unduly burden the judicial system and that it meets the requirements of 
sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of the Order. We have designated critical 
habitat in accordance with the provisions of the Act. This final rule 
uses standard property descriptions and identifies the features 
essential to the conservation of the species within the designated 
areas to assist the public in understanding the habitat needs of each 
of the 124 species considered in this rule.

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)

    This rule does not contain any new collections of information that 
require approval by OMB under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). This rule does not impose recordkeeping or 
reporting requirements on State or local governments, individuals, 
businesses, or organizations. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and 
a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information 
unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    It is our position that, outside the jurisdiction of the Circuit 
Court of the United States for the Tenth Circuit, we do not need to 
prepare environmental analyses as defined by NEPA (42 U.S.C. 4321 et 
seq.) in connection with designating critical habitat under the Act. We 
published a notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the 
Federal Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244). This position was 
upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Douglas 
County v. Babbitt, 48 F.3d 1495 (9th Cir. 1995), cert. denied 516 U.S. 
1042 (1996)).

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994 
(Government-to-Government Relations With Native American Tribal 
Governments; 59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175 (Consultation and 
Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments), and the Department of the 
Interior's manual at 512 DM 2, we readily acknowledge our 
responsibility to communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal 
Tribes on a government-to-government basis. In accordance with 
Secretarial Order 3206 of June 5, 1997 (American Indian Tribal Rights, 
Federal-Tribal Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act), 
we readily acknowledge our responsibilities to work directly with 
tribes in developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to acknowledge 
that tribal lands are not subject to the same controls as Federal 
public lands, to remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to make 
information available to tribes.
    We have determined that there are no tribal lands that are 
essential for the conservation of the 124 Oahu species. Therefore, we 
have not designated critical habitat for any of the 124 species on 
tribal lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, and Use--Executive Order 13211

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued an Executive Order (E.O. 
13211; Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use) on regulations that significantly affect 
energy supply, distribution, and use. E.O. 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
This rule designating critical habitat for 124 species is not a 
significant regulatory action under E.O. 12866, and we do not expect it 
to significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use. 
Regarding the proposed solar development project in Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 10, we do not foresee a Federal nexus for the specific project 
proposal, and, therefore, the designation of critical habitat is not 
anticipated to impact that project. Regarding the additional solar 
development project in Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, we support the 
development of a balanced conservation plan or State habitat 
conservation plan, which the Navy requires as a deed transfer 
restriction, in order to complete the proposed land transfer to the 
State of Hawaii. Further, we support the balanced approach planned by 
the Navy and the State that will allow the solar project to go forward 
in a portion of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, as well as the conservation 
of Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii on the site. Therefore, 
since this designation of critical habitat is not anticipated to impact 
any of the proposed renewable energy projects, this action is not a 
significant energy action, and no Statement of Energy Effects is 
required.

Clarity of the Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the 
Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain 
language. This means that each rule we publish must:
    (a) Be logically organized;
    (b) Use the active voice to address readers directly;
    (c) Use clear language rather than jargon;
    (d) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and
    (e) Use lists and tables wherever possible.
    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us 
comments by one of the methods listed in the ADDRESSES section. To 
better help us revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as 
possible. For example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections 
or paragraphs that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences 
are too long, the sections where you feel lists or tables would be 
useful, etc.

References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited in this rulemaking is 
available on the http://www.regulations.gov and upon request from the 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES).

Authors

    The primary authors of this rulemaking are staff members of the 
Pacific Island Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES).

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Regulation Promulgation

    Accordingly, we amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter I, title 50 
of the Code of Federal Regulations, as set forth below:

PART 17--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 
4201-4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500; unless otherwise noted.

0
2. Amend Sec.  17.11(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife 
by adding entries for ``Damselfly, blackline Hawaiian'', ``Damselfly, 
crimson Hawaiian'', and ``Damselfly, oceanic Hawaiian'', in 
alphabetical order under INSECTS, to read as follows:

[[Page 57745]]

Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          Species                                                     Vertebrate
------------------------------------------------------------                          population
                                                                                        where                                     Critical     Special
                                                                 Historic range       endangered       Status      When listed    habitat       rules
            Common name                  Scientific name                                  or
                                                                                      threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
              Insects
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Damselfly, blackline Hawaiian......  Megalagrion             U.S.A. (HI)...........           NA  E                ...........     17.95(i)           NA
                                      nigrohamatum
                                      nigrolineatum.
Damselfly, crimson Hawaiian........  Megalagrion leptodemas  U.S.A. (HI)...........           NA  E                ...........     17.95(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Damselfly, oceanic Hawaiian........  Megalagrion oceanicum.  U.S.A. (HI)...........           NA  E                ...........     17.95(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


0
3. Amend Sec.  17.12(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants, 
as follows:
0
a. By removing the entries for Alsinidendron obovatum, Alsinidendron 
trinerve, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana, Hedyotis coriacea, 
Hedyotis degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, and 
Mariscus pennatiformis under FLOWERING PLANTS;
0
b. By revising the entry for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata under 
FLOWERING PLANTS to read as set forth below;
0
c. By adding entries for Bidens amplectens, Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, Kadua coriacea, 
Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope christophersenii, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea obovata, Schiedea trinervis, 
Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense in alphabetical order 
under FLOWERING PLANTS to read as set forth below;
0
d. By removing the entry for Phlegmariurus nutans under FERNS AND 
ALLIES; and
0
e. By adding entries for Doryopteris takeuchii and Huperzia nutans in 
alphabetical order under FERNS AND ALLIES to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Species
--------------------------------------------------------    Historic range            Family            Status     When listed    Critical     Special
         Scientific name                Common name                                                                               habitat       rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Flowering Plants
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Achyranthes splendens var.         Round-leaved chaff    U.S.A. (HI).........  Amaranthaceae.......  E                     220     17.99(i)           NA
 rotundata.                         flower.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bidens amplectens................  Kookoolau...........  U.S.A. (HI).........  Asteraceae..........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.       Ewa plains akoko....  U.S.A. (HI).........  Euphorbiaceae.......  E                     120     17.99(i)           NA
 skottsbergii.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea calycina..................  Haha................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Campanulaceae.......  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea lanceolata................  Haha................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Campanulaceae.......  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea purpurellifolia...........  Haha................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Campanulaceae.......  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 

[[Page 57746]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyperus pennatiformis............  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Cyperaceae..........  E                     559  17.99(a)(1)           NA
                                                                                                                                  , (e)(1),
                                                                                                                                   (g), and
                                                                                                                                        (i)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra gracilis...............  Haiwale.............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Gesneriaceae........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
Cyrtandra kaulantha..............  Haiwale.............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Gesneriaceae........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra sessilis...............  Haiwale.............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Gesneriaceae........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra waiolani...............  Haiwale.............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Gesneriaceae........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua coriacea...................  Kioele..............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rubiaceae...........  E                     467  17.99(e)(1)           NA
                                                                                                                                    and (i)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua degeneri...................  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rubiaceae...........  E                     448     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua parvula....................  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rubiaceae...........  E                     448     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Korthalsella degeneri............  Hulumoa.............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Viscaceae...........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melanthera tenuifolia............  Nehe................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Asteraceae..........  E                     448     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope christophersenii........  Alani...............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rutaceae............  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope hiiakae.................  Alani...............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rutaceae............  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope makahae.................  Alani...............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rutaceae............  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta..  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rutaceae............  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rutaceae............  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pleomele forbesii................  Hala pepe...........  U.S.A. (HI).........  Asparagaceae........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Psychotria hexandra ssp.           Kopiko..............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rubiaceae...........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 oahuensis.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pteralyxia macrocarpa............  Kaulu...............  U.S.A. (HI).........  Apocynaceae.........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea obovata.................  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Caryophyllaceae.....  E                     448     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea trinervis...............  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Caryophyllaceae.....  E                     448     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Tetraplasandra lydgatei..........  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Araliaceae..........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Zanthoxylum oahuense.............  Ae..................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Rutaceae............  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 

[[Page 57747]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
         Ferns and Allies
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Doryopteris takeuchii............  None................  U.S.A. (HI).........  Pteridaceae.........  E                     806     17.99(i)           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Huperzia nutans..................  Wawaeiole...........  U.S.A. (HI).........  Lycopodiaceae.......  E                     467  17.99(e)(1)           NA
                                                                                                                                    and (i)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


0
4. Amend Sec.  17.95(i), by adding critical habitat for ``Blackline 
Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum),'' 
``Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas),'' and ``Oceanic 
Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum)'', in the same alphabetical 
order as these species occur in the table at Sec.  17.11(h), to read as 
set forth below.


Sec.  17.95  Critical habitat--fish and wildlife.

* * * * *
    (i) Insects.
* * * * *
Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Honolulu County, 
Hawaii, on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements. The primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum) are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (vii) Perennial streams.
    (viii) Slow reaches of streams.
    (ix) Pools.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, existing trails, campgrounds and their 
immediate surrounding landscaped area, scenic lookouts, remote 
helicopter landing sites, and existing fences are not included in the 
critical habitat designation. Federal actions limited to those areas, 
therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of the Act 
unless they may affect the species or adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83). The maps in this entry, as modified by any 
accompanying regulatory text, establish the boundaries of the critical 
habitat designation. The coordinates or plot points or both on which 
each map is based are available to the public at the Service's internet 
site, http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands; at http://www.regulations.gov 
at Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043: and at the field office responsible 
for the designation. You may obtain field office location information 
by contacting one of the Service regional offices, the addresses of 
which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2.
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the blackline Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P

[[Page 57748]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.009


[[Page 57749]]


    (6) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (790 ac; 320 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (1,787 ac; 
723 ha); and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 3--Lowland 
Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (3,041 ac; 1,231 ha). These units are 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum. Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 3--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.010


[[Page 57750]]


    (7) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha). This unit is critical 
habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum. Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 4--
Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.011


[[Page 57751]]


    (8) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (123 ac; 50 
ha); and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (53 ac; 21 ha). These units are critical 
habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum. Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 5--
Lowland Wet, Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 6--Lowland 
Wet, and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.012


[[Page 57752]]


    (9) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (75 ac; 30 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (478 ac; 
193 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (407 ac; 165 ha); and Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 11--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (2,507 ac; 
1,014 ha). These units are critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian 
damselfly, Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum. Map of Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 11--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.013

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Honolulu County, 
Hawaii, on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Slow reaches of streams or ponds.
    (ii) In units 12, 13, and 14, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Slow reaches of streams or ponds.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, existing trails, campgrounds and their 
immediate surrounding landscaped area, scenic lookouts, remote 
helicopter landing sites, and existing fences are not

[[Page 57753]]

included in the critical habitat designation. Federal actions limited 
to those areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under 
section 7 of the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or 
biological features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83). The maps in this entry, as modified by any 
accompanying regulatory text, establish the boundaries of the critical 
habitat designation. The coordinates or plot points or both on which 
each map is based are available to the public at the Service's internet 
site, http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands; at http://www.regulations.gov 
at Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043; and at the field office responsible 
for the designation. You may obtain field office location information 
by contacting one of the Service regional offices, the addresses of 
which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2.
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.014


[[Page 57754]]


    (6) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (790 ac; 320 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (1,787ac; 723 ha); and Megalagrion leptodemas--
Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (3,041 ac; 1,231 ha). 
These units are critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, 
Megalagrion leptodemas. Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 1--Lowland 
Wet, Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 3--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.015


[[Page 57755]]


    (7) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha). This unit is critical habitat for the 
crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion leptodemas. Map of Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 4--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.016


[[Page 57756]]


    (8) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (123 ac; 50 ha); and Megalagrion leptodemas--
Unit 7--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (53 ac; 21 ha). These 
units are critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, 
Megalagrion leptodemas. Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 5--Lowland 
Wet, Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 7--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.017


[[Page 57757]]


    (9) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (75 ac; 30 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (478 ac; 193 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 
10--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (407 ac; 165 ha); and 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 11--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii 
(2,507 ac; 1,014 ha). These units are critical habitat for the crimson 
Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion leptodemas. Map of Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 9--
Lowland Wet, Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, and 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 11--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.018


[[Page 57758]]


    (10) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 12--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (151 ac; 61 ha) and Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 13--Wet Cliff, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (144 ac; 58 ha). These units are critical 
habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion leptodemas. Map 
of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 12--Wet Cliff and Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 13--Wet Cliff follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.019

    (11) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 14--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (4,649 ac; 1,881 ha). This unit is critical habitat for the 
crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion leptodemas. Map of Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 14--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 57759]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.020

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Honolulu County, 
Hawaii, on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In unit 1, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum) are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Swift-flowing sections and riffles of streams.
    (ii) In units 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum) are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Swift-flowing sections and riffles of streams.
    (iii) In units 13, 14, and 15, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion 
oceanicum) are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Swift-flowing sections and riffles of streams.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, existing trails, campgrounds and their 
immediate surrounding landscaped area, scenic lookouts, remote 
helicopter landing sites, and existing fences are not included in the 
critical habitat designation. Federal actions limited to those areas, 
therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of the Act 
unless they may affect the species or

[[Page 57760]]

physical and biological features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83). The maps in this entry, as modified by any 
accompanying regulatory text, establish the boundaries of the critical 
habitat designation. The coordinates or plot points or both on which 
each map is based are available to the public at the Service's internet 
site, http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands; at http://www.regulations.gov 
at Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043; and at the field office responsible 
for the designation. You may obtain field office location information 
by contacting one of the Service regional offices, the addresses of 
which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2.
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.021


[[Page 57761]]


    (6) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (247 ac; 100 ha). This unit is critical habitat for the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion oceanicum. Map of Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic (Map 2) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.022


[[Page 57762]]


    (7) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (790 ac; 320 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (1,787 ac; 723 ha); and Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (3,041 ac; 1,231 ha). 
These units are critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, 
Megalagrion oceanicum. Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 2--Lowland 
Wet, Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 4--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.023


[[Page 57763]]


    (8) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha). This unit is critical habitat for the 
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion oceanicum. Map of Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 5--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.024


[[Page 57764]]


    (9) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (123 ac; 50 ha); and Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (53 ac; 21 ha). These 
units are critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, 
Megalagrion oceanicum. Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 6--Lowland 
Wet, Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 8--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.025


[[Page 57765]]


    (10) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (75 ac; 30 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (478 ac; 193 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 
11--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (407 ac; 165 ha); and 
Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 12--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii 
(2,507 ac; 1,014 ha). These units are critical habitat for the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion oceanicum. Map of Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 10--Lowland 
Wet, Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 11--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 12--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.026


[[Page 57766]]


    (11) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 13--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (151 ac; 61 ha) and Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 14--Wet Cliff, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (144 ac; 58 ha). These units are critical 
habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion oceanicum. Map 
of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 13--Wet Cliff and Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 14--Wet Cliff follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.027

    (12) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 15--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (4,649 ac; 1,881 ha). This unit is critical habitat for the 
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion oceanicum. Map of Megalagrion 
oceanicum--Unit 15--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 57767]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.028

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
* * * * *

0
5. Amend Sec.  17.99 as follows:
0
a. Amend paragraph (a)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a)(1)(civ), the              Kauai 10--            Kauai 10--Huperzia
 introductory text.            Phlegmariurus         nutans--a.
                               nutans--a.
(a)(1)(ccxl), the             Kauai 11--Mariscus    Kauai 11--Cyperus
 introductory text.            pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
b. Amend paragraph (a)(1) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(a)(1)(civ)(B) and (a)(1)(ccxl)(B), and adding in their place the maps 
set forth below.
0
c. In paragraph (a)(1)(cdlix), amend the Table of Protected Species 
Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for Kauai, by removing the words 
listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the 
words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Kauai 10--            Kauai 10--Huperzia
                               Phlegmariurus         nutans--a.
                               nutans--a.
Species unoccupied..........  Phlegmariurus         Huperzia nutans.
                               nutans..
Unit name...................  Kauai 11--Mariscus    Kauai 11--Cyperus
                               pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
Species unoccupied..........  Mariscus              Cyperus
                               pennatiformis.        pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
d. Amend paragraph (b)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

[[Page 57768]]



------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus              Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 pennatiformis (NCN).                     pennatiformis (NCN).
Kauai 11--Mariscus pennatiformis--a....  Kauai 11--Cyperus
                                          pennatiformis--a.
Mariscus pennatiformis.................  Cyperus pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
e. Amend paragraph (b)(2) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Lycopodiaceae: Phlegmariurus      Family Lycopodiaceae: Huperzia
 nutans (wawaeiole).                      nutans (wawaeiole).
Kauai 10--Phlegmariurus nutans--a......  Kauai 10--Huperzia nutans--a.
Phlegmariurus nutans...................  Huperzia nutans.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
f. Amend paragraph (e)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(e)(1)(xii), the              Maui 6--Mariscus      Maui 6--Cyperus
 introductory text.            pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
(e)(1)(civ), the              Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
 introductory text.            coriacea--a.          coriacea--a.
(e)(1)(cv), the introductory  Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
 text.                         coriacea--b.          coriacea--b.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
g. Amend paragraph (e)(1) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(e)(1)(xii)(B), (e)(1)(civ)(B), and (e)(1)(cv)(B), and adding in their 
place the maps set forth below.
0
h. In paragraph (e)(1)(cxxxviii), amend the Table of Protected Species 
Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for Maui, by removing the words 
listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the 
words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Maui 6--Mariscus      Maui 6--Cyperus
                               pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
Species occupied............  Mariscus              Cyperus
                               pennatiformis.        pennatiformis.
Unit name...................  Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
                               coriacea--a.          coriacea--a.
Species occupied............  Hedyotis coriacea...  Kadua coriacea.
Unit name...................  Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
                               coriacea--b.          coriacea--b.
Species unoccupied..........  Hedyotis coriacea...  Kadua coriacea.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
i. Amend paragraph (f)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus              Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 pennatiformis (NCN)..                    pennatiformis (NCN).
Maui 6--Mariscus pennatiformis--a......  Maui 6--Cyperus pennatiformis--
                                          a.
Mariscus pennatiformis.................  Cyperus pennatiformis.
Family Rubiaceae: Hedyotis coriacea      Family Rubiaceae: Kadua
 (kioele).                                coriacea (kioele).
Maui 17--Hedyotis coriacea--a..........  Maui 17--Kadua coriacea--a.
Maui 17--Hedyotis coriacea--b..........  Maui 17--Kadua coriacea--b.
Hedyotis coriacea......................  Kadua coriacea.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
j. Amend paragraph (g) by removing the words listed in the ``Remove'' 
column below and adding in their place the words listed in the ``Add'' 
column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(g)(7), the introductory      Laysan 1--Mariscus    Laysan 1--Cyperus
 text.                         pennatiformis--enti   pennatiformis--enti
                               re island.            re island.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
k. Amend paragraph (g) by removing the map in paragraph (g)(7)(ii), and 
adding in its place the map set forth below.
0
l. In paragraph (g)(9), amend the Table of Protected Species Within 
Each

[[Page 57769]]

Critical Habitat Unit for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, by 
removing the words listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species--Occupied...........  Mariscus              Cyperus
                               pennatiformis.        pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
m. Amend paragraph (h) by removing the words listed in the ``Remove'' 
column below in all places that they appear and adding in their place 
the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus              Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 pennatiformis (NCN).                     pennatiformis (NCN).
Laysan 1--Mariscus pennatiformis.......  Laysan 1--Cyperus
                                          pennatiformis.
Mariscus pennatiformis.................  Cyperus pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
n. Revise paragraphs (i) and (j) to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.99  Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, 
Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands.

    (a) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (civ) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 49 follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.029

* * * * *
    (ccxl) * * *

[[Page 57770]]

    (B) Note: Map 134 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.030
    

[[Page 57771]]


* * * * *
    (e) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (xii) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 12 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.031
    
* * * * *
    (civ) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 104 follows:

[[Page 57772]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.032

    (cv) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 105 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.033
    

[[Page 57773]]


* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (7) * * *
    (ii) Note: Map 7 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.034
    
* * * * *
    (i) Oahu. Critical habitat units are described below. Maps were 
created in GIS, with coordinates in UTM Zone 4 with units in meters 
using North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83). The maps in this entry, as 
modified by any accompanying regulatory text, establish the boundaries 
of the critical habitat designation. The coordinates or plot points or 
both on which each map is based are available to the public at the 
Service's Internet site, http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands; at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043; and at the field 
office responsible for the designation. You may obtain field office 
location information by contacting one of the Service regional offices, 
the addresses of which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2. Existing manmade 
features and structures, such as buildings, roads, railroads, airports, 
runways, other paved areas, lawns, and other urban landscaped areas, 
existing trails, campgrounds and their immediate surrounding landscaped 
area, scenic lookouts, remote helicopter landing sites, and existing 
fences are not included in the critical habiat designation. Federal 
actions limited to those areas, therefore, would not trigger a 
consultation under section 7 of the Act unless they may affect the 
species or physical or biological features in adjacent critical 
habitat.

[[Page 57774]]

    (1) Map 1--Index map follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.035
    

[[Page 57775]]


    (2) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 (958 ac; 388 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, and 
Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 (Map 2) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.036
    

[[Page 57776]]


    (3) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 (12 ac; 5 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 (Map 3) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.037
    

[[Page 57777]]


    (4) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 (15 ac; 6 ha) and Oahu-Coastal-Unit 4 (3 
ac; 1 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 (Map 4) 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.038


[[Page 57778]]


    (5) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 (12 ac; 5 ha) and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6 
(9 ac; 4 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6 (Map 5) 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.039


[[Page 57779]]


    (6) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7 (67 ac; 27 ha), Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8 (10 
ac; 4 ha), and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9 (80 ac; 33 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for, Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, and 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9 (Map 6) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.040


[[Page 57780]]


    (7) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 (74 ac; 30 ha), Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 
(20 ac; 8 ha), and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 (11 ac; 5 ha).
    (i) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 is critical habitat for Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-
wahuensis.
    (ii) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 are critical 
habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyperus 
trachysanthos, Marsilea villosa, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-
wahuensis.
    (iii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, and 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 (Map 7) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.041


[[Page 57781]]


    (8) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13 (23 ac; 10 ha), Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14 
(4 ac; 2 ha), and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 (33 ac; 13 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, and 
Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 (Map 8) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.042


[[Page 57782]]


    (9) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 (102 ac; 41 ha) and Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2 (29 ac; 12).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, 
Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele 
forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 
(Map 9) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.043


[[Page 57783]]


    (10) [Reserved]
    (11) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 (287 ac; 116 ha) and Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 7 (15 ac; 6 ha).
    (i) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 is critical habitat for Doryopteris 
takeuchii, Gouania meyenii, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (ii) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7 is critical habitat for Cyperus 
trachysanthos, Doryopteris takeuchii, Gouania meyenii, Marsilea 
villosa, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (iii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
7 (Map 10) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.044

    (12) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 (99 ac; 40 ha), Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 9 (37 ac; 15 ha), Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 (43 ac; 17 ha), and 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 (166 ac; 67 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, 
Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 (Map 11) 
follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P

[[Page 57784]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.045

    (13) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (4,448 ac; 1,800 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, 
Diellia unisora, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, 
Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Melicope pallida, 
Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, 
Schiedea nuttallii, Schiedea obovata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum 
sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana. 
Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (Map 12) follows:

[[Page 57785]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.046

    (14) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 (1,063 ac; 430 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, 
Diellia unisora, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, 
Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Melicope pallida, 
Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, 
Schiedea nuttallii, Schiedea obovata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum 
sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 (Map 13) follows:

[[Page 57786]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.047

    (15) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 (353 ac; 143 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, 
Diellia unisora, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, 
Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Kadua degeneri, 
Kadua parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Melicope pallida, Melicope saint-johnii, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora 
var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, 
Schiedea obovata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, Stenogyne 
kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and 
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 (Map 14) follows:

[[Page 57787]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.048


[[Page 57788]]


    (16) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4 (20 ac; 8 ha) and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5 (29 ac; 12 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea. calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, 
Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4 and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 5 (Map 15) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.049


[[Page 57789]]


    (17) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (247 ac; 100 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, 
Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (Map 16) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.050
    

[[Page 57790]]


    (18) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 (1,669 ac; 676 ha).
    (ii) This unit is critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, 
Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 (Map 17) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.051
    

[[Page 57791]]


    (19) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (541 ac; 219 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, 
Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (Map 18) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.052
    
    (20) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 (20 ac; 8 ha), Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 3 (29 ac; 12 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 (27 ac; 11 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, 
Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 (Map 19) follows:

[[Page 57792]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.053


[[Page 57793]]


    (21) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 (74 ac; 30 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, 
Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 (Map 20) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.054
    

[[Page 57794]]


    (22) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6 (790 ac; 320 ha), Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 7 (1,787 ac; 723 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (3,041 
ac; 1,231 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea 
koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-
johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope lydgatei, 
Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (Map 21) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.055


[[Page 57795]]


    (23) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea 
koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-
johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope lydgatei, 
Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 (Map 22) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.056
    

[[Page 57796]]


    (24) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10 (124 ac; 50 ha), Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 11 (124 ac; 50 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12 (53 ac; 21 
ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea 
koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-
johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope lydgatei, 
Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12 (Map 23) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.057


[[Page 57797]]


    (25) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13 (75 ac; 30 ha), Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 14 (478 ac; 193 ha), Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15 (407 ac; 165 ha), 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16 (2,507 ac; 1,014 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea 
koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-
johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope lydgatei, 
Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum oahuense.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16 (Map 24) 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.058


[[Page 57798]]


    (26) Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (370 ac; 150 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, and Schiedea 
trinervis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (Map 25) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.059
    

[[Page 57799]]


    (27) Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 (49 ac; 20 ha), Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2 (412 ac; 167 ha), and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 (450 ac; 182 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia 
falcata, Diellia unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 (Map 26) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.060


[[Page 57800]]


    (28) Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 (24 ac; 10 ha) and Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6 (149 ac; 60 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia 
falcata, Diellia unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 
(Map 27) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.061


[[Page 57801]]


    (29) Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a (68 ac; 27 ha), Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
7b (38 ac; 16 ha), and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 (259 ac; 105 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia 
falcata, Diellia unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 (Map 28) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.062


[[Page 57802]]


    (30) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (235 ac; 95 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope 
christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (Map 29) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.063
    

[[Page 57803]]


    (31) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 (3 ac; 1 ha), Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 
(16 ac; 6 ha), and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 (23 ac; 9 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope 
christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 (Map 30) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.064


[[Page 57804]]


    (32) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 (31 ac; 13 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope 
christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 (Map 31) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.065
    

[[Page 57805]]


    (33) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 (151 ac; 61 ha) and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7 (144 ac; 58 ha).
    (i) These units are critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, 
Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea purpurellifolia, 
Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra 
sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Huperzia 
nutans, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. princeps, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea kaalae, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7 
(Map 32) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.066

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
    (34) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 (4,649 ac; 1,881 ha).
    (i) This unit is critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, 
Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea purpurellifolia, 
Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra 
sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Huperzia 
nutans, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. princeps, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea kaalae, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis.
    (ii) Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 (Map 33) follows:

[[Page 57806]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR18SE12.067


  (35) Table of Protected Species Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for
                                  Oahu
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Unit name             Species occupied     Species unoccupied
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                              Chamaesyce            Chamaesyce
                               celastroides var.     celastroides var.
                               kaenana.              kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                              Sesbania tomentosa..  Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa

[[Page 57807]]

 
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                              Sesbania tomentosa..  Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                              Cyperus               Cyperus
                               trachysanthos.        trachysanthos
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10
                              Centaurium            Centaurium
                               sebaeoides.           sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Bidens amplectens...  Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana

[[Page 57808]]

 
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Hibiscus              Hibiscus
                               brackenridgei.        brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kealiae....  Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6
                              Doryopteris           Doryopteris
                               takeuchii.            takeuchii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                              Spermolepis           Spermolepis
                               hawaiiensis.          hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7
                              Cyperus               Cyperus
                               trachysanthos.        trachysanthos
                                                    Doryopteris
                                                     takeuchii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Marsilea villosa
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     skottsbergii var.
                                                     skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     skottsbergii var.
                                                     skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis

[[Page 57809]]

 
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce            Chamaesyce
                               skottsbergii var.     skottsbergii var.
                               skottsbergii.         skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce            Chamaesyce
                               skottsbergii var.     skottsbergii var.
                               skottsbergii.         skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce herbstii.  Chamaesyce herbstii
                              Colubrina             Colubrina
                               oppositifolia.        oppositifolia
                              Ctenitis squamigera.  Ctenitis squamigera
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. Grimesiana.      ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. Obatae.          ssp. obatae
                              Cyanea longiflora...  Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea pinnatifida
                              Cyanea superba......  Cyanea superba
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     pennatiformis
                              Cyrtandra dentate...  Cyrtandra dentata
                              Delissea subcordata.  Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia falcate.....  Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                              Dubautia              Dubautia
                               herbstobatae.         herbstobatae
                              Eragrostis fosbergii  Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                              Euphorbia             Euphorbia
                               haeleeleana.          haeleeleana
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arbuscula.            arbuscula
                              Hibiscus              Hibiscus
                               brackenridgei.        brackenridgei
                              Isodendrion           Isodendrion
                               laurifolium.          laurifolium
                              Isodendrion           Isodendrion
                               longifolium.          longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                              Kadua degeneri......  Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula

[[Page 57810]]

 
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                              Melicope pallida....  Melicope pallida
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                              Neraudia angulate...  Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               kaalaensis.           kaalaensis
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                              Schiedea nuttallii..  Schiedea nuttallii
                              Schiedea obovata....  Schiedea obovata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Stenogyne kanehoana
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Urera kaalae
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. Chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce herbstii.  Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Colubrina
                                                     oppositifolia
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. Obatae.          ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea pinnatifida
                                                    Cyanea superba
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     pennatiformis
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Delissea subcordata.  Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia falcate.....  Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope pallida
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata

[[Page 57811]]

 
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               kaalaensis.           kaalaensis
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                              Solanum sandwicense.  Solanum sandwicense
                              Stenogyne kanehoana.  Stenogyne kanehoana
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Colubrina
                                                     oppositifolia
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea pinnatifida
                                                    Cyanea superba
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     pennatiformis
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Delissea subcordata.  Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia falcate.....  Diellia falcata
                              Diellia unisora.....  Diellia unisora
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arbuscula.            arbuscula
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope pallida
                              Melicope saint-       Melicope saint-
                               johnii.               johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               parviflora.           parviflora
                              Plantago princeps...  Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens

[[Page 57812]]

 
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                              Silene perlmanii....  Silene perlmanii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Stenogyne kanehoana
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                                                    Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     lydgatei
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                                                    Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium

[[Page 57813]]

 
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     lydgatei
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                              Cyanea truncate.....  Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                                                    Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     lydgatei
 Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. Grimesiana.      ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea lanceolata...  Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Cyrtandra polyantha.  Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia erecta......  Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata

[[Page 57814]]

 
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                              Lobelia monostachya.  Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               lydgatei.             lydgatei
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                              Gouania vitifolia...  Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium

[[Page 57815]]

 
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Urera kaalae
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Urera kaalae
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. Obatae.          ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arbuscula.            arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Urera kaalae
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens

[[Page 57816]]

 
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                              Chamaesyce rockii...  Chamaesyce rockii
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                              Cyanea                Cyanea
                               purpurellifolia.      purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                              Cyanea truncate.....  Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               viridiflora.          viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                              Huperzia nutans.....  Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                              Myrsine juddii......  Myrsine juddii
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. cornuta.         var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                              Pteris lidgatei.....  Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                              Viola oahuensis.....  Viola oahuensis
                              Zanthoxylum oahuense  Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana

[[Page 57817]]

 
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                              Cyrtandra kaulantha.  Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                              Chamaesyce rockii...  Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea koolauensis..  Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                              Cyanea st.-johnii...  Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               viridiflora.          viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                              Labordia cyrtandrae.  Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                              Lobelia oahuensis...  Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope hiiakae....  Melicope hiiakae
                              Melicope lydgatei...  Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               parviflora.           parviflora
                              Plantago princeps...  Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila

[[Page 57818]]

 
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. cornuta.         var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Pteris lidgatei.....  Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                              Viola oahuensis.....  Viola oahuensis
                              Zanthoxylum oahuense  Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata

[[Page 57819]]

 
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii

[[Page 57820]]

 
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea koolauensis..  Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii

[[Page 57821]]

 
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea koolauensis..  Cyanea koolauensis
                              Cyanea lanceolata...  Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                              Cyanea st.-johnii...  Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Cyrtandra gracilis..  Cyrtandra gracilis

[[Page 57822]]

 
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                              Cyrtandra polyantha.  Cyrtandra polyantha
                              Cyrtandra sessilis..  Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. cornuta.         var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                              Sanicula purpurea...  Sanicula purpurea
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
 Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus var.
                                                     macrococcus
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                              Labordia cyrtandrae.  Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope              Melicope
                               christophersenii.     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Schiedea trinervis..  Schiedea trinervis
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                              Chamaesyce herbstii.  Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. Obatae.          ssp. obatae
                              Cyrtandra dentate...  Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                              Kadua degeneri......  Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Plantago princeps...  Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens

[[Page 57823]]

 
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea obovata....  Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                              Dubautia              Dubautia
                               herbstobatae.         herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                              Gouania vitifolia...  Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                              Kadua parvula.......  Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                              Peucedanum            Peucedanum
                               sandwicense.          sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Sanicula mariversa..  Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                              Tetramolopium         Tetramolopium
                               filiforme.            filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. Chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Diellia falcate.....  Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                              Dubautia              Dubautia
                               herbstobatae.         herbstobatae
                              Eragrostis fosbergii  Eragrostis fosbergii

[[Page 57824]]

 
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                              Gouania meyenii.....  Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Isodendrion           Isodendrion
                               laurifolium.          laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                              Korthalsella          Korthalsella
                               degeneri.             degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                              Lipochaeta lobata     Lipochaeta lobata
                               var. leptophylla.     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                              Neraudia angulate...  Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                              Peucedanum            Peucedanum
                               sandwicense.          sandwicense
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               kaalaensis.           kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                              Silene lanceolata...  Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                              Tetramolopium         Tetramolopium
                               filiforme.            filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. Chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                              Chamaesyce kuwaleana  Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis

[[Page 57825]]

 
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                              Spermolepis           Spermolepis
                               hawaiiensis.          hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                              Diellia unisora.....  Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                              Melicope saint-       Melicope saint-
                               johnii.               johnii
                              Neraudia angulate...  Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Plantago princeps...  Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                              Tetramolopium         Tetramolopium
                               lepidotum ssp.        lepidotum ssp.
                               Lepidotum.            lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri

[[Page 57826]]

 
                              Kadua parvula.......  Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                              Melicope saint-       Melicope saint-
                               johnii.               johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Plantago princeps...  Plantago princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                              Silene perlmanii....  Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. Chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana

[[Page 57827]]

 
 Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                              Neraudia angulate...  Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope              Melicope
                               christophersenii.     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Schiedea trinervis..  Schiedea trinervis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope              Melicope
                               christophersenii.     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae

[[Page 57828]]

 
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope
                                                     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope
                                                     christophersenii
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope
                                                     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce deppeana
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                              Huperzia nutans.....  Huperzia nutans
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Lysimachia filifolia
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce deppeana
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata

[[Page 57829]]

 
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Lysimachia filifolia
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                              Psychotria hexandra   Psychotria hexandra
                               ssp. Oahuensis.       ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
 Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce deppeana
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                              Cyanea acuminate....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea                Cyanea
                               purpurellifolia.      purpurellifolia
                              Cyanea st.-johnii...  Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                              Cyrtandra kaulantha.  Cyrtandra kaulantha
                              Cyrtandra sessilis..  Cyrtandra sessilis
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               subumbellata.         subumbellata
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               viridiflora.          viridiflora
                              Huperzia nutans.....  Huperzia nutans
                              Labordia cyrtandrae.  Labordia cyrtandrae
                              Lobelia oahuensis...  Lobelia oahuensis
                              Lysimachia filifolia  Lysimachia filifolia
                              Phyllostegia hirsute  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               parviflora.           parviflora
                              Plantago princeps...  Plantago princeps
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                              Sanicula purpurea...  Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                              Trematolobelia        Trematolobelia
                               singularis.           singularis
                              Viola oahuensis.....  Viola oahuensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (j) Plants on Oahu; Constituent elements.
    (1) Flowering plants.

FAMILY AMARANTHACEAE

Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata (round-leaved chaff flower)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry

[[Page 57830]]

Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Nototrichium humile (KULUI)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Nototrichium humile on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY APIACEAE

Peucedanum sandwicense (MAKOU)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Peucedanum sandwicense on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Sanicula mariversa (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa 
on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Sanicula purpurea (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Sanicula purpurea on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.

[[Page 57831]]

    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava, bogs.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Spermolepis hawaiiensis 
on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical or biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY APOCYNACEAE

Pteralyxia macrocarpa (KAULU)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Pteralyxia macrocarpa on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.

[[Page 57832]]

    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.

FAMILY ARALIACEAE

Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa (OHE OHE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Tetraplasandra lydgatei (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Tetraplasandra lydgatei on Oahu. Within these 
units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.

FAMILY ASPARAGACEAE

Pleomele forbesii (HALA PEPE)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Pleomele forbesii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
2, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY ASTERACEAE

Bidens amplectens (KOOKOOLAU)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, identified 
in the

[[Page 57833]]

legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Bidens amplectens on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
Dubautia herbstobatae (NAENAE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Dubautia 
herbstobatae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Hesperomannia arborescens (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Hesperomannia arborescens on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Hesperomannia arbuscula (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Hesperomannia arbuscula on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).

[[Page 57834]]

    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla (NEHE)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla on 
Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Melanthera tenuifolia (NEHE)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Melanthera tenuifolia on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Tetramolopium filiforme (NCN)
    Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 1, Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 2, Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 
3, Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 4, Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 6, Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 
7a, Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 7b, and Oahu-Dry Cliff-Unit 8, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Tetramolopium filiforme on Oahu. Within these 
units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY BRASSICACEAE

Lepidium arbuscula (ANAUNAU)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Lepidium arbuscula on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).

[[Page 57835]]

    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY CAMPANULACEAE

Cyanea acuminata (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea calycina (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Cyanea calycina on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).

[[Page 57836]]

    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea crispa (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea crispa on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.

[[Page 57837]]

Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Cyanea humboldtiana (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea humboldtiana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea koolauensis (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
koolauensis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyanea lanceolata (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea lanceolata on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12,

[[Page 57838]]

Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyanea longiflora (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea longiflora on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea pinnatifida (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
pinnatifida on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea purpurellifolia (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea purpurellifolia on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical or biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea st.-johnii (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea st.-johnii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea superba (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
superba on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.

[[Page 57839]]

    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea truncata (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea truncata on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Delissea subcordata (OHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Delissea subcordata on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical 
and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Lobelia monostachya (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Lobelia monostachya on Oahu. Within these units, 
the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Lobelia niihauensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lobelia 
niihauensis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Psydrax, Pleomele.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry

[[Page 57840]]

Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Lobelia oahuensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Lobelia oahuensis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Trematolobelia singularis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Trematolobelia singularis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical or biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.

FAMILY CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Schiedea hookeri (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 7b, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea 
hookeri on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.

[[Page 57841]]

    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (v) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Schiedea kaalae (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Schiedea kealiae (MAOLIOLI)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, identified 
in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Schiedea kealiae on Oahu.
    (i) In unit Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).

[[Page 57842]]

    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
Schiedea nuttallii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea nuttallii on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Schiedea obovata (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea obovata 
on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Schiedea trinervis (NCN)
    Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea trinervis on 
Oahu.
    (i) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Silene lanceolata (NCN)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Silene lanceolata on Oahu. Within these 
units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Silene perlmanii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Silene perlmanii 
on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical or biological features 
of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.

[[Page 57843]]

    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY CONVOLVULACEAE

Bonamia menziesii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii 
on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY CYPERACEAE

Cyperus pennatiformis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyperus 
pennatiformis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyperus trachysanthos (PUUKAA)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
12, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions 
in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Cyperus trachysanthos on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, and 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; seasonal wetlands; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In unit Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava, seasonal wetlands.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.

FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE

Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat

[[Page 57844]]

for Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Chamaesyce deppeana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Chamaesyce deppeana on 
Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (vi) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Chamaesyce herbstii (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Chamaesyce 
herbstii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Chamaesyce kuwaleana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Chamaesyce rockii (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland

[[Page 57845]]

Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce rockii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (EWA PLAINS AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (iv) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (v) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (vii) Coral outcrop substrate.
Euphorbia haeleeleana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Euphorbia haeleeleana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Plumbago, Sicyos, Sida, Waltheria.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Flueggea neowawraea (MEHAMEHAME)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Flueggea 
neowawraea on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

FAMILY FABACEAE

Sesbania tomentosa (OHAI)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa on Oahu. 
Within

[[Page 57846]]

these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (iv) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (v) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (vi) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
Vigna o-wahuensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Vigna o-wahuensis on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (iv) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (v) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (vi) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.

FAMILY GENTIANACEAE

Centaurium sebaeoides (AWIWI)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (iv) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (v) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (vi) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.

FAMILY GESNERIACEAE

Cyrtandra dentata (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Cyrtandra dentata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7a, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7b, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Cyrtandra gracilis (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Cyrtandra gracilis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.

[[Page 57847]]

    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyrtandra kaulantha (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra kaulantha on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra polyantha (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyrtandra polyantha on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyrtandra sessilis (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra sessilis Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra subumbellata (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra subumbellata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--

[[Page 57848]]

Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra viridiflora (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra viridiflora on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra waiolani (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland W