[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 112 (Monday, June 11, 2012)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 34464-34775]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2012-11484]



[[Page 34463]]

Vol. 77

Monday,

No. 112

June 11, 2012

Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 17





Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat 
on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 Species; Proposed Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 112 / Monday, June 11, 2012 / 
Proposed Rules

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2011-0098; MO 92210-0-0009]
RIN 1018-AX14


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species 
on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as Endangered and Designating Critical 
Habitat on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 Species

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to 
list 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as 
endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). 
We are also reaffirming the listing of two endemic Hawaiian plants 
currently listed as endangered. We propose to designate critical 
habitat for 39 of these 40 plant and animal species. Critical habitat 
is not determinable for the plant Cyanea mauiensis. In this document, 
we also propose to designate critical habitat for 11 previously listed 
plant and animal species that do not have designated critical habitat, 
and propose to revise critical habitat for 85 plant species that are 
already listed as endangered or threatened. The proposed critical 
habitat designation totals 271,062 acres (ac) (109,695 hectares (ha)) 
on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe (collectively 
called Maui Nui), and includes both occupied and unoccupied habitat. 
Approximately 47 percent of the area being proposed as critical habitat 
is already designated as critical habitat for the 85 plant species or 
other species. We also propose to delist the plant Gahnia lanaiensis, 
due to new information that this species is synonymous with G. lacera, 
a widespread species from New Zealand. In addition, we propose name 
changes or corrections for 11 endangered plants and 2 endangered birds, 
and taxonomic revisions for 2 endangered plant species.

DATES: We will consider comments received on or postmarked on or before 
August 10, 2012. Please note that if you are using the Federal 
eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES section below), the deadline for 
submitting an electronic comment is 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on this 
date. We must receive requests for public hearings, in writing, at the 
address shown in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section by July 
26, 2012.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. 
Search for FWS-R1-ES-2011-0098, which is the docket number for this 
proposed rule.
     U.S. mail or hand delivery: Public Comments Processing, 
Attn: FWS-R1-ES-2011-0098; Division of Policy and Directives 
Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, MS 
2042-PDM; Arlington, VA 22203.
    We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. This 
generally means that we will post any personal information you provide 
us (see the Public Comments section below for more information).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Loyal Mehrhoff, Field Supervisor, 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Box 
50088, Honolulu, HI 96850; by telephone at 808-792-9400; or by 
facsimile at 808-792-9581. If you use a telecommunications device for 
the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 
800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Executive Summary

    Why we need to publish a rule. This is a proposed rule to list 38 
species (35 plants and 3 tree snails) from the island cluster of Maui 
Nui (Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe) in the State of Hawaii as 
endangered, and concurrently designate 271,062 acres as critical 
habitat. In this proposed rule, we are also proposing to revise 
critical habitat for 85 plants and proposing to designate critical 
habitat for 11 listed plants and animals that do not have designated 
critical habitat on these islands. Under the Endangered Species Act, we 
must issue a rule to list a species as endangered or threatened and, 
concurrently, designate critical habitat at the time a species is 
listed as threatened or endangered. We may, as appropriate, revise 
critical habitat designations. If adopted as proposed, this rule would 
establish an integrated, comprehensive, ecosystem-based critical 
habitat designation, which would allow the Service to better 
prioritize, direct, and focus conservation and recovery actions.
    As part of a settlement agreement, we agreed to submit to the 
Federal Register a proposed rule for Maui Nui candidate species in 
fiscal year 2012. This action complies with the agreement.
    This rule proposes the following:
     List 38 plants and animals as endangered species.
     Reaffirm the listing for two listed plants with taxonomic 
changes.
     Designate critical habitat for 37 of the 38 proposed 
species and for the two listed plants with taxonomic changes.
     Revise designated critical habitat for 85 listed plants.
     Designate critical habitat for 11 listed plants and 
animals that do not have designated critical habitat on these islands.
    One or more of the 38 proposed species are threatened by:
     Habitat loss and degradation due to agriculture and urban 
development, nonnative feral ungulates (e.g., pigs, goats, axis deer) 
and plants, wildfire, hurricanes, flooding, and drought.
     Predation or herbivory by nonnative feral ungulates, rats, 
snails, and slugs.
     Inadequate existing regulatory mechanisms that prevent the 
introduction and spread of nonnative plants and animals.
     Small number of individuals and populations, and lack of 
reproduction in the wild.
    This rule proposes critical habitat for 50 species and proposes 
critical habitat revisions for 85 listed plants:
     A total of 271,062 acres is proposed as critical habitat. 
Approximately 47 percent, or 127,407 acres, of the area being proposed 
as critical habitat is already designated as critical habitat for 
previously listed plant and animal species. Therefore, 53 percent, or 
143,655 acres, of the proposed area is newly proposed critical habitat.
     The proposed critical habitat units are ecosystem-based 
and encompass areas essential for the conservation of multiple species.
     The proposed designation includes both occupied and 
unoccupied critical habitat, although those areas are not 
differentiated in the proposed rule or on the maps.
     We are considering excluding approximately 40,973 acres of 
privately owned lands on Maui and Molokai. These privately owned lands 
include The Nature Conservancy preserves, lands owned by East Maui 
Irrigation Company, Haleakala Ranch, Maui Land and Pineapple Company, 
and Ulupalakua Ranch.
     We are proposing critical habitat on lands owned by the 
U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. National Park Service, State of Hawaii, County 
of Maui, and private interests.
    The basis for our action. Under the Endangered Species Act, we must 
issue a rule to list a species as endangered or threatened and, 
concurrently, designate critical habitat. We may, as appropriate, 
revise critical habitat designations. We are required to list species 
solely on the

[[Page 34465]]

basis of the best available scientific and commercial data available. A 
critical habitat designation must be based on the best available 
scientific data after taking into consideration economic and other 
impacts. We can exclude an area from critical habitat if the benefits 
of exclusion outweigh the benefits of designation, unless the exclusion 
will result in the extinction of the species.
    We are preparing an economic analysis. To ensure that we consider 
the economic impacts of the proposed critical habitat designation, we 
are preparing an economic analysis that will:
     Rely on information from previous economic analyses that 
were prepared to evaluate the economic impact of critical habitat 
designation in the areas of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe that 
are currently designated as critical habitat (47 percent of the 
proposed designation).
     Update that information to consider economic impacts in 
the areas newly proposed as critical habitat in this rule (53 percent 
of the proposed designation).
     Address any other potential economic impacts that may have 
not been sufficiently considered.
    We will publish an announcement and seek public comments on the 
draft economic analysis when it is completed.
    We will seek peer review. We are seeking comments from independent 
specialists to ensure that our listing determinations and critical 
habitat designations are based on scientifically sound data, 
assumptions, and analyses. We have invited these peer reviewers to 
comment on our specific assumptions and conclusions regarding the 40 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing, and the proposed 
designation of critical habitat.

Public Comments

    We intend that any final action resulting from this proposal will 
be based on the best scientific and commercial data available and be as 
accurate and as effective as possible. Therefore, we solicit comments 
or suggestions on this proposed rule from the public, other concerned 
governmental agencies, the scientific community, industry, or other 
interested parties. We are proposing to list a total of 38 species (35 
plants and 3 tree snails) as endangered; reevaluate the listing of 2 
plant species; designate critical habitat for 39 of the 40 species we 
are proposing to list, or are reevaluating for listing, as endangered; 
designate critical habitat for 11 currently listed species that do not 
have designated critical habitat (9 plants and 2 birds); and revise the 
critical habitat designation for 85 plant species on the islands of 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. We particularly seek comments 
concerning:
    (1) Biological, commercial trade, or other relevant data concerning 
threats (or the lack thereof) to the 40 species proposed or reevaluated 
for listing, and regulations that may be addressing those threats.
    (2) Additional information concerning the range, distribution, and 
population sizes of each of the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for 
listing, including the locations of any additional populations of these 
species.
    (3) Any information on the biological or ecological requirements of 
the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing.
    (4) The reasons why we should or should not designate areas for any 
of the species in this proposal as ``critical habitat'' under section 4 
of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 
et seq.), including whether there are threats to these species from 
human activity, the degree to which can be expected to increase due to 
the designation, and whether the benefit of designation would outweigh 
threats to these species caused by the designation, such that the 
designation of critical habitat is prudent.
    (5) Whether a revision of critical habitat is warranted for the 85 
plant species that are already listed as endangered or threatened under 
the Act and that currently have designated critical habitat.
    (6) Specific information on:
     The amount and distribution of critical habitat for the 
species included in this proposed rule;
     What areas currently occupied, and that contain the 
necessary physical or biological features essential for the 
conservation of the species, we should include in the designation and 
why;
     Whether special management considerations or protections 
may be required for the physical or biological features essential to 
the conservation of the species in this proposed rule; and
     What areas not currently occupied are essential to the 
conservation of the species and why.
    (7) Land use designations and current or planned activities in the 
areas occupied or unoccupied by the species and proposed as critical 
habitat, and the possible impacts of these activities on these species, 
or of critical habitat on these designations or activities.
    (8) Any foreseeable economic, national security, or other relevant 
impacts of designating any area as critical habitat. We are 
particularly interested in any impacts on small entities, and the 
benefits of including or excluding areas that may experience these 
impacts.
    (9) Whether the benefits of excluding any particular area from 
critical habitat outweigh the benefits of including that area as 
critical habitat under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, after considering 
the potential impacts and benefits of the proposed critical habitat 
designation. Under section 4(b)(2), the Secretary may exclude an area 
from critical habitat if he or she determines that the benefits of such 
exclusion outweigh the benefits of including that particular area as 
critical habitat, unless failure to designate that specific area as 
critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species. We 
request specific information on:
     The benefits of including specific areas in the final 
designation and supporting rationale;
     The benefits of excluding specific areas from the final 
designation and supporting rationale; and
     Whether any specific exclusions may result in the 
extinction of the species and why.
    (10) Whether the proposed critical habitat on private lands and 
under consideration for exclusion under section 4(b)(2) of the Act 
should or should not be excluded and why.
    (11) Information on the projected and reasonably likely impact of 
climate change on the species included in this proposed rule.
    (12) Information on any special management needs or protections 
that may be needed in the critical habitat areas we are proposing.
    (13) Whether we could improve or modify our approach to designating 
critical habitat in any way to provide for greater public participation 
and understanding, or to better accommodate public concerns and 
comments.
    (14) Specific information on ways to improve the clarity of this 
rule as it pertains to completion of consultations under section 7 of 
the Act.
    (15) Comments on our proposal to revise taxonomic classification 
with name changes or family changes for 11 plant species and 2 bird 
species identified in this proposed rule.
    You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed 
rule by one of the methods listed in the ADDRESSES section. We request 
that you send comments only by the methods described in the ADDRESSES 
section.
    We will post your entire comment--including your personal 
identifying information--on http://www.regulations.gov. If you

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provide personal identifying information in your comment, such as your 
street address, phone number, or email address, you may request at the 
top of your document that we withhold this information from public 
review. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so.
    Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting 
documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be 
available for public inspection at http://www.regulations.gov, or by 
appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    You may obtain copies of the proposed rule by mail from the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT) 
or by visiting the Federal eRulemaking Portal at http://www.regulations.gov.

Background

Maui Nui Species Addressed in This Proposed Rule

    The table below (Table 1) provides the common name, scientific 
name, listing status, and critical habitat status for the species that 
are the subjects of this proposed rule.

                          Table 1--The Maui Nui Species Addressed in This Proposed Rule
 [Note that many of the species share the same common name. ``E'' denotes endangered status under the Act; ``C''
                               denotes a species currently on the candidate list]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Scientific name                  Common name(s)           Listing status      Critical habitat status
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Species Proposed for Listing as Endangered
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plants:
    Bidens campylotheca ssp.           kookoolau..............  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
     pentamera.                                                  (C).
    Bidens campylotheca ssp.           kookoolau..............  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
     waihoiensis.                                                (C).
    Bidens conjuncta.................  kookoolau..............  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Calamagrostis hillebrandii.......  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Canavalia pubescens..............  awikiwiki..............  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Cyanea asplenifolia..............  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Cyanea duvalliorum...............  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyanea horrida...................  haha nui...............  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyanea kunthiana.................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Cyanea magnicalyx................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyanea maritae...................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyanea mauiensis.................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Not determinable.
    Cyanea munroi....................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyanea obtusa....................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Cyanea profuga...................  haha...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyanea solanacea.................  popolo.................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyrtandra ferripilosa............  haiwale................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Cyrtandra filipes................  haiwale................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Cyrtandra oxybapha...............  haiwale................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Festuca molokaiensis.............  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Geranium hanaense................  nohoanu................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Geranium hillebrandii............  nohoanu................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Mucuna sloanei var. persericea...  sea bean...............  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Myrsine vaccinioides.............  kolea..................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Peperomia subpetiolata...........  alaala wai nui.........  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Phyllostegia bracteata...........  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Phyllostegia haliakalae..........  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Phyllostegia pilosa..............  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Pittosporum halophilum...........  hoawa..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Pleomele fernaldii...............  hala pepe..............  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Schiedea jacobii.................  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Schiedea laui....................  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Schiedea salicaria...............  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Stenogyne kauaulaensis...........  [NCN]..................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
    Wikstroemia villosa..............  akia...................  Proposed--Endangered...  Proposed.
Animals:
    Newcombia cumingi................  Newcomb's tree snail...  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Partulina semicarinata...........  Lanai tree snail.......  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
    Partulina variabilis.............  Lanai tree snail.......  Proposed--Endangered     Proposed.
                                                                 (C).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Species Reevaluated for Listing
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana....  haha...................  Reevaluation of          Proposed revision.
                                                                 Listing--Endangered.
Santalum freycinetianum var.           iliahi.................  Reevaluation of          Proposed.
 lainaiense (taxonomic revision                                  Listing--Endangered.
 proposed, to S. h. var. lanaiense).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 34467]]


 
 
                                                                                            Status of existing
           Scientific name                  Common name(s)           Listing status         critical  habitat
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              Listed Species Without Critical Habitat Designations
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plants:
    Abutilon eremitopetalum..........  [NCN]..................  Listed 1991--E.........  None--Proposed.
    Acaena exigua....................  liliwai................  Listed 1992--E.........  None--Proposed.*
    Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii   haha...................  Listed 1991--E.........  None--Proposed.
     (taxonomic revision proposed, to
     C. gibsonii).
    Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var.   kopa...................  Listed 1999--E.........  None--Proposed.
     remyi (taxonomic revision
     proposed, to Kadua cordata ssp.
     remyi).
    Kokia cookei.....................  Cooke's kokio..........  Listed 1979--E.........  None--Proposed.*
    Labordia tinifolia var.            kamakahala.............  Listed 1999--E.........  None--Proposed.
     lanaiensis.
    Melicope munroi..................  alani..................  Listed 1999--E.........  None--Proposed.
    Phyllostegia hispida.............  [NCN]..................  Listed 2009--E.........  None--Proposed.[dagger]
    Viola lanaiensis.................  [NCN]..................  Listed 1991--E.........  None--Proposed.
Animals:
    Palmeria dolei...................  Akohekohe, crested       Listed 1967--E.........  None--Proposed.[Dagger]
                                        honeycreeper.
    Pseudonestor xanthophrys.........  Kiwikiu, Maui            Listed 1967--E.........  None--Proposed.[Dagger]
                                        parrotbill.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 
 
                                                      Year of critical
                                                           habitat
       Scientific name           Common name(s)     designation--current
                                                       proposed action
------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Listed Species for Which Revisions to Existing Critical Habitat Are
                                Proposed
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adenophorus periens.........  pendent kihi fern...  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Alectryon macrococcus.......  mahoe...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Argyroxiphium sandwicense     ahinahina (=          2003--Proposed
 ssp. macrocephalum.           Haleakala             Revision of
                               silversword).         Critical Habitat
Asplenium fragile var.        [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
 insulare (taxonomic                                 Revision of
 revision proposed, to A.                            Critical Habitat
 peruvianum var. insulare).
Bidens micrantha ssp.         kookoolau...........  2003--Proposed
 kalealaha.                                          Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Bidens wiebkei..............  kookoolau...........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Bonamia menziesii...........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Brighamia rockii............  pua ala.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Canavalia molokaiensis......  awikiwiki...........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cenchrus agrimonioides......  kamanomano (=         2003--Proposed
                               sandbur, agrimony).   Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Centaurium sebaeoides         awiwi...............  2003--Proposed
 (taxonomic revision                                 Revision of
 proposed, to Schenkia                               Critical Habitat
 sebaeoides).
Clermontia lindseyana.......  oha wai.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.  oha wai.............  2003--Proposed
 brevipes.                                           Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.  oha wai.............  2003--Proposed
 mauiensis.                                          Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Clermontia peleana..........  oha wai.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Clermontia samuelii.........  oha wai.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Colubrina oppositifolia.....  kauila..............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Ctenitis squamigera.........  pauoa...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea copelandii ssp.        haha................  2003--Proposed
 haleakalaensis.                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea dunbarii (spelling     haha................  2003--Proposed
 correction proposed, to C.                          Revision of
 dunbariae).                                         Critical Habitat
Cyanea glabra...............  haha................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp.       haha................  2003--Proposed
 hamatiflora.                                        Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea lobata...............  haha................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea mannii...............  haha................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea mceldowneyi..........  haha................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyanea procera..............  haha................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyperus trachysanthos.......  puukaa..............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Cyrtandra munroi............  haiwale.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Diellia erecta (taxonomic     Asplenium-leaved      2003--Proposed
 revision proposed, to         diellia.              Revision of
 Asplenium dielerectum).                             Critical Habitat
Diplazium molokaiense.......  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.     naenae..............  2003--Proposed
 humilis.                                            Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Eugenia koolauensis.........  nioi................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Flueggea neowawraea.........  mehamehame..........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Geranium arboreum...........  Hawaiian red-         2003--Proposed
                               flowered geranium.    Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Geranium multiflorum........  nohoanu.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Gouania hillebrandii........  [NCN]...............  1984--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Gouania vitifolia...........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat

[[Page 34468]]

 
Hedyotis coriacea (taxonomic  kioele..............  2003--Proposed
 revision proposed, to Kadua                         Revision of
 coriacea **).                                       Critical Habitat
Hedyotis mannii (taxonomic    pilo................  2003--Proposed
 revision proposed, to Kadua                         Revision of
 laxiflora).                                         Critical Habitat
Hesperomannia arborescens...  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Hesperomannia arbuscula.....  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp.     kokio keokeo........  2003--Proposed
 immaculatus.                                        Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Hibiscus brackenridgei......  mao hau hele........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Huperzia mannii.............  wawaeiole...........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Ischaemum byrone............  Hilo ischaemum......  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Isodendrion pyrifolium......  wahine noho kula....  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Kanaloa kahoolawensis.......  kohe malama malama o  2003--Proposed
                               kanaloa.              Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Labordia triflora...........  kamakahala..........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Lipochaeta kamolensis         nehe................  2003--Proposed
 (taxonomic revision                                 Revision of
 proposed, to Melanthera                             Critical Habitat
 kamolensis).
Lysimachia lydgatei.........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Lysimachia maxima...........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Mariscus fauriei (taxonomic   [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
 revision proposed, to                               Revision of
 Cyperus fauriei).                                   Critical Habitat
Mariscus pennatiformis        [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
 (taxonomic revision                                 Revision of
 proposed, to Cyperus                                Critical Habitat
 pennatiformis **).
Marsilea villosa............  ihi ihi.............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Melicope adscendens.........  alani...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Melicope balloui............  alani...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Melicope knudsenii..........  alani...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Melicope mucronulata........  alani...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Melicope ovalis.............  alani...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Melicope reflexa............  alani...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Neraudia sericea............  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Nototrichium humile.........  kului...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Peucedanum sandwicense......  makou...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Phyllostegia mannii.........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Plantago princeps...........  laukahi kuahiwi.....  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Platanthera holochila.......  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Portulaca sclerocarpa.......  poe.................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Pteris lidgatei.............  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Remya mauiensis.............  Maui remya..........  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Sanicula purpurea...........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Schiedea haleakalensis......  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Schiedea lydgatei...........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Schiedea sarmentosa.........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Sesbania tomentosa..........  ohai................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Silene alexandri............  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Silene lanceolata...........  [NCN]...............  2003.
Solanum incompletum.........  popolo ku mai.......  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.....  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Stenogyne bifida............  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Tetramolopium capillare.....  pamakani............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
 lepidotum.                                          Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Tetramolopium remyi.........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Tetramolopium rockii........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Vigna o-wahuensis...........  [NCN]...............  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense......  ae..................  2003--Proposed
                                                     Revision of
                                                     Critical Habitat
------------------------------------------------------------------------
[NCN] = no common name.
* Critical habitat was found to be not prudent at the time of listing,
  and therefore was not designated at that time.
[dagger] Critical habitat was found to be prudent but not determinable
  at the time of listing.
[Dagger] The requirement that the designation of critical habitat be
  considered was enacted in 1978.
** Taxonomic revision proposed in our August 2, 2011 proposed rule
  Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical
  Habitat for 124 Species (76 FR 46362).

Previous Federal Actions

    Twenty of the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing are 
candidate species (75 FR 69222; November 10, 2010). Candidate species 
are those taxa for which the Service has sufficient information on 
their biological status and threats to propose them for listing under 
the Act, but for which the development of a listing regulation has been 
precluded to date by other higher priority listing activities. The 
current candidate species addressed in this proposed listing rule 
include the 17 plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. 
campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. conjuncta, Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii, Canavalia pubescens, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. kunthiana, 
C. obtusa, Cyrtandra filipes, C. oxybapha, Geranium hanaense, G. 
hillebrandii, Myrsine vaccinioides, Peperomia subpetiolata, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Pleomele fernaldii, and

[[Page 34469]]

Schiedea salicaria; and the 3 tree snails Newcombia cumingi, Partulina 
semicarinata and P. variabilis. The candidate status of all of these 
species was most recently assessed and reaffirmed in the November 10, 
2010, Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as 
Endangered or Threatened (CNOR) (75 FR 69222).
    On May 4, 2004, the Center for Biological Diversity petitioned the 
Secretary of the Interior to list 225 species of plants and animals, 
including the 20 candidate species listed above, as endangered or 
threatened under the Act. Since then, we have published our annual 
findings on the May 4, 2004, petition (including our findings on the 20 
candidate species listed above) in the CNORs dated May 11, 2005 (70 FR 
24870), September 12, 2006 (71 FR 53756), December 6, 2007 (72 FR 
69034), December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75176), November 9, 2009 (74 FR 
57804), and November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69222). This proposed rule 
constitutes a further response to the 2004 petition.
    On November 9, 1984, we published a final rule designating 112 ac 
(45 ha) on Maui as critical habitat for Gouania hillebrandii (49 FR 
44753). On January 9, 2003, we published a final rule designating 
approximately 789 ac (320 ha) as critical habitat for 3 plant species 
on Lanai (68 FR 1220), and on March 18, 2003, we published a final rule 
designating approximately 24,333 ac (9,843 ha) as critical habitat for 
41 plant species on Molokai (68 FR 12982). On May 14, 2003, we 
published a final rule designating approximately 93,200 ac (37,717 ha) 
on the island of Maui and 2,915 ac (1,180 ha) on the island of 
Kahoolawe as critical habitat for 60 plant species on Maui and 
Kahoolawe (68 FR 25934). We are proposing to revise the 1984 and 2003 
critical habitat designations on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, 
and Kahoolawe in this rule. In addition, we are proposing critical 
habitat for the listed plants Abutilon eremitopetalum (56 FR 47686, 
September 20, 1991), Acaena exigua (57 FR 20772, May 15, 1992), Cyanea 
gibsonii (currently listed as Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii (56 FR 
47686, September 20, 1991)), Kadua cordata ssp. remyi (currently listed 
as Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyi (64 FR 48307, September 3, 
1999)), Kokia cookei (44 FR 62470, October 30, 1979), Labordia 
tinifolia var. lanaiensis (64 FR 48307, September 3, 1999), Melicope 
munroi (64 FR 48307, September 3, 1999), Phyllostegia hispida (74 FR 
11319, March 17, 2009), Viola lanaiensis (56 FR 47686, September 20, 
1991)), and the birds akohekohe or crested honeycreeper and kiwikiu or 
Maui parrotbill (32 FR 4001; March 11, 1967)) for which critical 
habitat has not been previously designated.
    In addition to the 20 candidate species, we are proposing to list 
15 plant species that have been identified as the ``rarest of the 
rare'' Hawaiian plant species and in need of immediate conservation 
under the multi-agency (Federal, State, and private) Plant Extinction 
Prevention Program (PEPP). The goal of PEPP is to prevent the 
extinction of plant species that currently have fewer than 50 
individuals remaining in the wild on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii (Hawaii Division of Forestry and 
Wildlife (DOFAW) 2010). The 15 species of plants identified by PEPP 
from the islands of Molokai, Lanai, or Maui include: Cyanea horrida, C. 
magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. munroi, C. profuga, C. 
solanacea, Festuca molokaiensis, Phyllostegia haliakalae, P. pilosa, 
Pittosporum halophilum, Schiedea jacobii, S. laui, Stenogyne 
kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa. We believe these 15 plant 
species warrant listing under the Act for the reasons discussed in the 
``Summary of Factors Affecting the Species'' section (below). Because 
these 15 plant species occur within 5 of the ecosystems identified in 
this proposed rule, and share common threats with the other 25 species 
in these ecosystems proposed or reevaluated for listing under the Act, 
we have included them in this proposed rule to provide them with 
protection under the Act in an expeditious manner.
    We are also proposing to list three other plant species (Cyanea 
duvalliorum, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, and Mucuna sloanei var. persericea) 
reported from Maui. We believe these three Maui plant species warrant 
listing under the Act for the reasons discussed in the ``Summary of 
Factors Affecting the Species'' section (below). Because these three 
plant species occur within three of the ecosystems identified in this 
proposed rule, and share common threats with the other 37 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in these ecosystems under the Act, 
we have included them in this proposed rule to provide them with 
protection under the Act in an expeditious manner.
    Finally, we are reevaluating the listing of Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, both of which have 
undergone taxonomic changes since they were originally listed in 1996 
and 1986, respectively.
Proposed Taxonomic Changes and Spelling Corrections Since Listing for 2 
Bird Species and 11 Plant Species From Maui Nui
    Below is a brief discussion on each of the proposed taxonomic or 
spelling changes, in alphabetical order by genus, starting with the 2 
bird species, followed by 11 plant species. In brief, we propose to 
accept the recently adopted Hawaiian common name, kiwikiu, for the Maui 
parrotbill. We also propose to add the Hawaiian common name, akohekohe, 
to the listing for the crested honeycreeper. Additionally, based on 
recent botanical work, we propose to accept various taxonomic changes 
and spelling corrections for 11 endangered plant species listed between 
1991 and 1999 (Table 1A).

      Table 1A--Proposed Taxonomic Changes and Spelling Corrections for 2 Listed Endangered Hawaiian Birds and 11 Listed Endangered Hawaiian Plants
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Name as currently                                                  Change in range of
             Listing                         Family                  listed           Proposed new name      Type of change          listed entity?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Birds:
    32 FR 4001...................  Fringillidae.............  Maui parrotbill       Kiwikiu, Maui         Add Hawaiian common   No.
                                                               (Pseudonestor         parrotbill            name.
                                                               xanthophrys)          (Pseudonestor
                                                                                     xanthophrys)
    32 FR 4001...................  Fringillidae.............  Crested honeycreeper  Akohekohe, crested    Add Hawaiian common   No.
                                                               (Palmeria dolei)      honeycreeper          name.
                                                                                     (Palmeria dolei)
Plants:
    59 FR 49025..................  Aspleniaceae.............  Asplenium fragile     Asplenium peruvianum  New genus...........  No.
                                                               var. insulare.        var. insulare.

[[Page 34470]]

 
    56 FR 55770..................  Gentianaceae.............  Centaurium            Schenkia sebaeoides.  New genus...........  No.
                                                               sebaeoides.
    61 FR 53130..................  Campanulaceae............  Cyanea dunbarii.....  Cyanea dunbariae....  Spelling correction.  No.
    56 FR 47686..................  Campanulaceae............  Cyanea macrostegia    Cyanea gibsonii.....  From subspecies to    No.
                                                               ssp. gibsonii.                              full species.
    59 FR 56333..................  Aspleniaceae.............  Diellia erecta......  Asplenium             New scientific name.  No.
                                                                                     dielerectum.
    64 FR 48307..................  Rubiaceae................  Hedyotis              Kadua cordata ssp.    New scientific name.  No.
                                                               schlechtendahliana    remyi.
                                                               var. remyi
    57 FR 46325..................  Rubiaceae................  Hedyotis mannii.....  Kadua laxiflora.....  New scientific name.  No.
    57 FR 20772..................  Asteraceae...............  Lipochaeta            Melanthera            New genus...........  No.
                                                               kamolensis.           kamolensis.
    59 FR 10305..................  Cyperaceae...............  Mariscus fauriei....  Cyperus fauriei.....  New genus...........  No.
    57 FR 20772..................  Lycopodiaceae............  Phlegmariurus mannii  Huperzia mannii.....  Consolidate entries.  No.
    51 FR 3182...................  Santalaceae..............  Santalum              Santalum haleakalae   New genus...........  Yes.*
                                                               freycinetianum var.   var. lanaiense.
                                                               lanaiense.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* See ``Proposed TaxoNo.mic Changes Since Listing for Two Maui Nui Plant Species.''

    We listed the bird Pseudonestor xanthophrys as an endangered 
species in 1967 (32 FR 4001; March 11, 1967). The common name for this 
endemic Hawaiian bird in 50 CFR 17.11 is Maui parrotbill. Recently, the 
Hawaiian Lexicon Committee proposed the Hawaiian name kiwikiu (meaning 
bent or curved as in the blade of a sickle, referring to the bird's 
strongly bent beak), and, while it has yet to be adopted by the 
American Ornithologists' Union, this name has been adopted by 
conservationists and Hawaiian language experts (Maui Forest Bird 
Recovery Project (MFBRP) 2010). We therefore propose to accept the 
following common names for this endangered bird: Maui parrotbill 
(Kiwikiu).
    We listed the bird Palmeria dolei as an endangered species in 1967 
(32 FR 4001; March 11, 1967). Currently, the common name listed for 
this endemic Hawaiian bird in 50 CFR 17.11 is crested honeycreeper. 
Although this bird's Hawaiian common name, akohekohe, was originally 
listed in 50 CFR 17.11 as well, at some point in time it was 
inadvertently deleted from the list of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife. We propose to reinsert the Hawaiian common name for this 
endangered bird, such that the common names will read: crested 
honeycreeper (Akohekohe).
    We listed Asplenium fragile var. insulare as an endangered species 
in 1994 (59 FR 49025; September 26, 1994) following the taxonomic 
treatment of Morton (1947, pp. 116-117). However, we are currently 
following the more recent, widely used, and accepted Hawaii's Ferns and 
Fern Allies by Palmer (2003, pp. 70-71). Palmer placed A. fragile var. 
insulare in synonymy with A. peruvianum var. insulare. The recognized 
scientific name for this species is A. peruvianum var. insulare. The 
range of the species at the time of listing and now has not changed. 
Therefore, we propose to recognize the listed species as Asplenium 
peruvianum var. insulare.
    At the time we listed Centaurium sebaeoides as an endangered 
species (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991), we followed the taxonomic 
treatment in Wagner et al.'s (1990a, p. 725) widely used and accepted 
Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. However, in 2004, Mansion 
published a new classification of Centaurium, resurrecting the 
previously published combination Schenkia sebaeoides and placing 
Centaurium sebaeoides in synonymy with S. sebaeoides (Mansion 2004, pp. 
724-726). The recognized scientific name for this species is S. 
sebaeoides. The range of the species at the time of listing and now has 
not changed. We therefore propose to recognize the listed species as 
Schenkia sebaeoides.
    Cyanea dunbarii was misspelled in the final listing rule in 1996 
(61 FR 53130; October 10, 1996), based on the misspelling of the 
specific epithet in the 1990 version of the Manual of the Flowering 
Plants of Hawaii (Lammers in Wagner et al. 1990, p. 448). The 
misspelling was corrected to Cyanea dunbariae in the 1999 version of 
the Manual (Lammers 1999, p. 448), and is recognized in the 2003 
Supplement to the Manual (Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 15) and in the 
Smithsonian Institution's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands Database 
(Wagner et al. 2005a). The recognized scientific name for this species 
is Cyanea dunbariae. The range of the species at the time of listing 
and now has not changed. Therefore, we propose to accept the spelling 
of the listed species as Cyanea dunbariae.
    At the time we listed Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii as an 
endangered species (56 FR 47686; September 20, 1991), we followed 
Lammer's taxonomic treatment in Wagner et al.'s (1990, p. 456) widely 
used and accepted Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. 
Determinations made by Lammers on herbarium specimens at Hawaii's 
Bishop Museum Herbarium show he recognizes this species as Cyanea 
gibsonii (Imada 2011, in litt.) In addition, C. gibsonii is recognized 
and accepted in the Smithsonian Institution's Flora of the Hawaiian 
Islands Database (Wagner et al. 2005a). The range of the species at the 
time of listing and now has not changed. We propose to accept the 
listed species name as Cyanea gibsonii.
    We listed Diellia erecta as an endangered species in 1994 (59 FR 
56333; November 10, 1994), following Wagner (1952, pp. 10-13, 142-158), 
and Wagner and Wagner (1992, pp. 30-33). The name for this species has 
undergone several revisions, and it is currently recognized as 
Asplenium dielerectum (Viane and Reichstein 1991, p. 159; Schneider et 
al. 2005, p. 458; Smith et al. 2006, p. 715; Schuettpelz and Pryer 
2007, p. 1,044). The range of the species at the time of listing and 
now has not changed. We propose to accept the listed species name as 
Asplenium dielerectum.
    We listed Hedyotis mannii and Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. 
remyi as endangered in 1992 and 1999, respectively (57 FR 46325, 
October 8, 1992; 64 FR 48307, September 3, 1999), following the 
taxonomic treatments in Wagner et al.'s (1999a, pp. 1,150-1,152) widely 
used and accepted Manual of the

[[Page 34471]]

Flowering Plants of Hawaii. In 2005, Terrell et al. (2005, pp. 818-819) 
resurrected the genus Kadua for all 21 native Hawaiian members of 
Hedyotis, as treated in Wagner et al. (1999a, pp. 1,133-1,156) and 
Wagner and Lorence (1998, p. 315-317), as well as 7 other Polynesian 
species, based on an analysis of fruit and corolla characters combined 
with seed shape and surface features determined by scanning electron 
microscopy. In their treatment, Terrell et al. (2005, pp. 818-819) 
synonymized Hedyotis mannii with Kadua laxiflora and Hedyotis 
schlechtendahliana var. remyi with Kadua cordata ssp. remyi, and these 
synonyms are accepted by Wagner et al. in the Smithsonian Institution's 
Flora of the Hawaiian Islands Database (2005a). The ranges of the two 
species at the time of listing and now have not changed; therefore we 
propose to accept the listed species names as Kadua laxiflora and Kadua 
cordata ssp. remyi.
    We listed Lipochaeta kamolensis as an endangered species in 1992 
(57 FR 20772; May 15, 1992) following the taxonomic treatment in Wagner 
et al.'s (1990a, p. 337) widely used and accepted Manual of the 
Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Wagner and Robinson (2001, pp. 539-561) 
transferred L. kamolensis, along with 13 other species of Hawaiian 
Lipochaeta, to Melanthera based on achene morphology and chromosome 
number, while retaining 6 of the Hawaiian species in Lipochaeta. 
Lipochaeta kamolensis is recognized as a synonym of Melanthera 
kamolensis by Wagner and Robinson (2001) and in the Smithsonian 
Institution's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands Database (Wagner et al. 
2005a). The accepted scientific name for this species is Melanthera 
kamolensis. The range of the species at the time of listing and now has 
not changed; therefore we propose to accept the listed species name as 
Melanthera kamolensis.
    At the time we listed Mariscus fauriei as an endangered species (59 
FR 10305; March 4, 1994), we followed the taxonomic treatment by Koyama 
in Wagner et al.'s (1990, p. 1,417) widely used and accepted Manual of 
the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Since then, Strong and Wagner (1997, p. 
39) and, more recently, Wagner and Herbst (2003, pp. 52-53) moved all 
Hawaiian species of Mariscus to Cyperus. The accepted scientific name 
for this species is Cyperus fauriei. The range of the species at the 
time of listing and now has not changed. We therefore propose to accept 
the listed species name as Cyperus fauriei.
    In 1992, we listed Huperzia mannii (57 FR 20772; May 15, 1992) and 
that listing was retained through 1996. However, in 1997, the List of 
Endangered and Threatened Plants at 50 CFR 17.12 indicated the species 
name as Phlegmariurus mannii, and in 2003, critical habitat was 
designated under the species name Phlegmariurus mannii (68 FR 25934; 
May 14, 2003). The List of Endangered and Threatened Plants at 50 CFR 
17.12 currently has two entries: One for Huperzia mannii, which is out-
of-date because it does not contain the critical habitat information 
for this plant, and one for Phlegmariurus mannii, which displays the 
current critical habitat information. We are currently following the 
widely used and accepted Hawaii's Fern and Fern Allies by Palmer (2003, 
p. 256), who recognizes this species as Huperzia mannii, following 
Ollgaard's Index of the Lycopodiaceae (1987, 135 pp.). The range of the 
species at the time of listing and now has not changed. Therefore, we 
propose to remove the entry for Phlegmariurus mannii and recognize the 
listed species as Huperzia mannii.
Proposed Taxonomic Changes Since Listing for Two Maui Nui Plant Species
    At the time we listed Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana as 
endangered (61 FR 53108; October 10, 1996) we followed the taxonomic 
treatment of Lammers in Wagner et al. (1990, pp. 451-452). The 
distribution of C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana as recognized at that 
time included the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Maui. 
Subsequently, Lammers (1998, pp. 31-32) recognized morphological 
differences in the broadly circumscribed Cyanea grimesiana group and 
published new combinations for the plants reported from Maui (C. 
mauiensis) and Lanai (C. munroi). Plants reported from Molokai were 
identified as either C. munroi or C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana. In 
2004, Lammers (pp. 85-87) recognized further differences in the plants 
reported from Maui and described a new species, C. magnicalyx, known 
only from west Maui. The range of C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana now 
includes only Oahu and Molokai (Lammers 1998, pp. 31-32; Lammers 2004, 
pp. 84-85). Because the range of the listed entity has changed, in this 
proposed rule we evaluate the effects of the five factors described in 
section 4(a)(1) of the Act on C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana as 
currently recognized to determine whether the species still warrants 
its status as endangered under the Act (see Summary of Factors 
Affecting the 40 Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing, below).
    We listed Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense as endangered (51 
FR 3182; January 24, 1986) in 1986. At that time the species was known 
only from the island of Lanai. Our recovery plan for this species, 
published in 1995, expanded the range to include west Maui, as well as 
Lanai, based on new information (USFWS 1995a, pp. 35-36). In her 
revision of the Hawaiian species of Santalum, Harbaugh et al. (2010, 
pp. 834-835) moved the plants previously recognized as S. 
freycinetianum var. lanaiense to S. haleakalae var. lanaiense. The 
range of S. haleakalae var. lanaiense now includes Molokai, Lanai, and 
east and west Maui (HBMP 2010; Harbaugh et al. 2010, pp. 834-835). 
Because the range of the listed entity has changed, in this proposed 
rule we evaluate the effects of the five factors described in section 
4(a)(1) of the Act on S. haleakalae var. lanaiense as currently 
recognized to determine whether the species still warrants its status 
as endangered under the Act (see Summary of Factors Affecting the 40 
Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing, below).
Proposed Delisting of Gahnia lanaiensis
    Gahnia lanaiensis was listed as endangered in 1991 (56 FR 47686; 
September 20, 1991). At that time, this species was known from 15 or 16 
large ``clumped'' plants growing on the summit of Lanaihale, on the 
island of Lanai. The distribution of these plants was considered to be 
the entire known range of the species. Gahnia lanaiensis was threatened 
due to the small number of individuals remaining and resulting negative 
consequences of very small populations which increased the potential 
for extinction of the species due to stochastic events; the potential 
for destruction of plants due their proximity to a popular hiking and 
jeep trail; and habitat degradation and destruction by feral ungulates 
and nonnative plants (56 FR 47686; September 20, 1991).
    In a recently published paper, Koyama et al. (2010, pp. 29-30) 
found that based on spikelet and achene characters, G. lanaiensis is a 
complete match for G. lacera, a species endemic to New Zealand. Koyama 
further states that G. lacera likely arrived on Lanai, either 
intentionally or unintentionally, through the restoration efforts of 
George Munro, the Resident Manager of Lanai Ranch from 1911 to 1930 
(Koyama 2010, p. 30). Born and raised in New Zealand, Munro is known to 
have used seeds of New Zealand's native plants for reforestation 
efforts on Lanai (Koyama 2010, p. 30).
    Because G. lanaiensis is not believed to be a uniquely valid 
species; is synonymous with G. lacera, a species

[[Page 34472]]

endemic to New Zealand where it is known to be common (Piha New Zealand 
Plant Conservation Network 2010, in litt.); and is not in danger of 
extinction or likely to become an endangered species within the 
foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range, we propose to delist G. lanaiensis due to error in the original 
listing.

An Ecosystem-Based Approach

    On the islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, as on most of the 
Hawaiian Islands, native species that occur in the same habitat types 
(ecosystems) depend on many of the same biological features and the 
successful functioning of that ecosystem to survive. We have therefore 
organized the species addressed in this proposed rule by common 
ecosystem. Although the listing determination for each species is 
analyzed separately, we have organized the individual analysis for each 
species within the context of the broader ecosystem in which it occurs 
to avoid redundancy. In addition, native species that share ecosystems 
often face a suite of common factors that may threaten them, and 
ameliorating or eliminating these threats for each individual species 
often requires the exact same management actions in the exact same 
areas. Effective management of these threats often requires 
implementation of conservation actions at the ecosystem scale to 
enhance or restore critical ecological processes and provide for long-
term viability of those species in their native environment. Thus, by 
taking this approach, we hope to not only organize this proposed rule 
efficiently, but also to more effectively focus conservation management 
efforts on the common threats that occur across these ecosystems. Those 
efforts would facilitate restoration of ecosystem functionality for the 
recovery of each species, and provide conservation benefits for 
associated native species, thereby potentially precluding the need to 
list other species under the Act that occur in these shared ecosystems. 
In addition, this approach is in concordance with one of the primary 
stated purposes of the Act, as stated in section 2(b): ``To provide a 
means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and 
threatened species depend may be conserved.''
    We propose to list Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. 
campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. conjuncta, Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. duvalliorum, C. horrida, C. 
kunthiana, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. munroi, C. 
obtusa, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, C. filipes, C. 
oxybapha, Festuca molokaiensis, Geranium hanaense, G. hillebrandii, 
Mucuna sloanei var. persericea, Myrsine vaccinioides, Peperomia 
subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, P. pilosa, 
Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, Schiedea jacobii, S. laui, 
S. salicaria, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa; and 
Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis, from the 
islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered species. We also 
propose to list Canavalia pubescens, known from the islands of Niihau, 
Kauai, Lanai, and Maui. In addition, we are reevaluating the listing of 
two plant species: Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense from the islands 
of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, and Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, 
known from Oahu and Molokai, as endangered species. These 40 species 
(37 plants and 3 tree snails) are found in 10 ecosystem types: coastal, 
lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane wet, 
montane mesic, subalpine, dry cliff, and wet cliff (Tables 2A, 2B, and 
2C).

 Table 2A--Molokai: Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing and the
                    Ecosystems Upon Which They Depend
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Ecosystem                             Species
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal...................................  Plants: Pittosporum
                                             halophilum.
Lowland Mesic.............................  Plants: Cyanea profuga,
                                             Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra
                                             filipes, Festuca
                                             molokaiensis, Phyllostegia
                                             haliakalae, Phyllostegia
                                             pilosa, Santalum haleakalae
                                             var. lanaiense.
Lowland Wet...............................  Plants: Cyanea grimesiana
                                             ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea
                                             solanacea, Cyrtandra
                                             filipes.
Montane Mesic.............................  Plants: Cyanea solanacea,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense.
Montane Wet...............................  Plants: Cyanea profuga,
                                             Cyanea solanacea,
                                             Phyllostegia pilosa,
                                             Schiedea laui.
Wet Cliff.................................  Plants: Cyanea grimesiana
                                             ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea
                                             munroi.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


  Table 2B--Lanai: Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing and the
                    Ecosystems Upon Which They Depend
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Ecosystem                             Species
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal...................................  Plants: Canavalia pubescens.
Lowland Dry...............................  Plants: Pleomele fernaldii.
Lowland Mesic.............................  Plants: Pleomele fernaldii,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense.
Lowland Wet...............................  Plants: Pleomele fernaldii,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense,
                                            Animals: Partulina
                                             semicarinata, Partulina
                                             variabilis.
Montane Wet...............................  Plants: Santalum haleakalae
                                             var. lanaiense
                                            Animals: Partulina
                                             semicarinata, Partulina
                                             variabilis.
Dry Cliff.................................  Plants: Phyllostegia
                                             haliakalae, Pleomele
                                             fernaldii.
Wet Cliff.................................  Plants: Cyanea munroi,
                                             Phyllostegia haliakalae,
                                             Pleomele fernaldii,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense
                                            Animals: Partulina
                                             semicarinata, Partulina
                                             variabilis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 34473]]


   Table 2C--Maui: Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing and the
                    Ecosystems Upon Which They Depend
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Ecosystem                             Species
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Dry...............................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. pentamera, Canavalia
                                             pubescens, Cyanea obtusa,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense, Schiedea
                                             salicaria.
Lowland Mesic.............................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. pentamera, Cyanea
                                             asplenifolia, C. mauiensis
                                             *, Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense.
Lowland Wet...............................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. waihoiensis, Bidens
                                             conjuncta, Cyanea
                                             asplenifolia, Cyanea
                                             duvalliorum, Cyanea
                                             kunthiana, Cyanea
                                             magnicalyx, Cyanea maritae,
                                             Cyrtandra filipes, Mucuna
                                             sloanei var. persericea,
                                             Phyllostegia bracteata,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense, Wikstroemia
                                             villosa.
                                            Animals: Newcombia cumingi.
Montane Dry...............................  Plants: Santalum haleakalae
                                             var. lanaiense.
Montane Mesic.............................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. pentamera, Cyanea
                                             horrida, Cyanea kunthiana,
                                             Cyanea magnicalyx, Cyanea
                                             obtusa, Cyrtandra
                                             ferripilosa, Cyrtandra
                                             oxybapha, Geranium
                                             hillebrandii, Phyllostegia
                                             bracteata, Santalum
                                             haleakalae var. lanaiense,
                                             Stenogyne kauaulaensis,
                                             Wikstroemia villosa.
Montane Wet...............................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. pentamera, Bidens
                                             campylotheca ssp.
                                             waihoiensis, Bidens
                                             conjuncta, Calamagrostis
                                             hillebrandii, Cyanea
                                             duvalliorum, Cyanea
                                             horrida, Cyanea kunthiana,
                                             Cyanea maritae, Cyrtandra
                                             ferripilosa, Cyrtandra
                                             oxybapha, Geranium
                                             hanaense, Geranium
                                             hillebrandii, Myrsine
                                             vaccinioides, Peperomia
                                             subpetiolata, Phyllostegia
                                             bracteata, Phyllostegia
                                             pilosa, Schiedea jacobii,
                                             Wikstroemia villosa.
Subalpine.................................  Plants: Phyllostegia
                                             bracteata.
Dry Cliff.................................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. pentamera, Cyanea
                                             mauiensis.*
Wet Cliff.................................  Plants: Bidens campylotheca
                                             ssp. pentamera, Bidens
                                             campylotheca ssp.
                                             waihoiensis, Bidens
                                             conjuncta, Cyanea horrida,
                                             Cyanea magnicalyx,
                                             Cyrtandra filipes,
                                             Phyllostegia bracteata,
                                             Phyllostegia haliakalae,
                                             Santalum haleakalae var.
                                             lanaiense.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Not seen since the 1800s.

    For each species, we identified and evaluated those factors that 
threaten the species and that may be common to all of the species at 
the ecosystem level. For example, the degradation of habitat by 
nonnative ungulates is considered a threat to 37 of the 40 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing here, and is likely a threat to 
many, if not most or even all of the native species within a given 
ecosystem. We consider such a threat factor to be an ``ecosystem-level 
threat,'' as each individual species within that ecosystem faces a 
threat that is essentially identical in terms of the nature of the 
impact, its severity, its imminence, and its scope. Beyond ecosystem-
level threats, we further identified and evaluated threat factors that 
may be unique to certain species, but do not apply to all species under 
consideration within the same ecosystem. For example, the threat of 
predation by nonnative snails is unique to the three tree snails in 
this proposed rule, and is not applicable to any of the other species 
proposed for listing. We have identified such threat factors, which 
apply only to certain species within the ecosystems addressed here, as 
``species-specific threats.''

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Determining Primary Constituent Elements 
of Critical Habitat

    Under section 4(a)(3)(A) of the Act, we are required to designate 
critical habitat to the maximum extent prudent and determinable 
concurrently with the publication of a final determination that a 
species is endangered or threatened. In this proposed rule, we are 
proposing to designate critical habitat for 39 of 40 species on the 
islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui proposed here for listing as 
endangered. We are also proposing to designate critical habitat for 11 
species that are already listed as endangered but for which critical 
habitat has not been previously proposed or designated. In addition, we 
are proposing to revise existing critical habitat for 85 listed plant 
species on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. When 
critical habitat was designated for these Maui Nui plant species in 
1984 (49 FR 44573; November 9, 1984) and 2003 (68 FR 1220, January 9, 
2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003), the 
areas designated were identified based primarily on where the species 
were known to occur at that time. We are proposing to revise critical 
habitat for these species because since then, we have learned that many 
native Hawaiian plants and animals currently persist only in areas of 
marginal habitat where the threats to the species are reduced under 
current conditions, but that these species can thrive when reintroduced 
into their historical habitats when threats are effectively managed 
there. For this reason, we believe it is important to designate habitat 
that may currently be unoccupied in cases where we have determined that 
habitat to be essential for the recovery of the species. In addition, 
because the prior designations focused only on discrete areas occupied 
by the species at the time of listing, the designations resulted in an 
overlapping and confusing patchwork of critical habitat areas for the 
many plant species that could be difficult for the public to interpret. 
As explained above, we believe that managing for the conservation of 
these multiple species on an ecosystem level will be a more efficient 
and effective use of resources to achieve the recovery of these 
species, as well as potentially preclude the need to list additional 
native species in the future. We believe this ecosystem-based approach 
will ultimately provide for greater public understanding of the 
conservation and recovery needs for each of the species addressed in 
this proposed rule.
    In this proposed rule, we propose critical habitat for 135 species 
in 100 multiple-species critical habitat units. Although critical 
habitat is identified for each species individually, we have found that 
the conservation of each depends, at least in part, on the successful 
functioning of the physical or biological features of the commonly 
shared ecosystem. Each critical habitat unit identified in this 
proposed rule contains the physical or biological features essential to 
the conservation of those individual species that occupy that 
particular unit, or areas essential for the conservation of those 
species identified that do not presently occupy that particular unit. 
Where the unit is not occupied by a particular species, we believe it 
is still essential for the conservation of that species because the 
designation allows for the expansion of its range and reintroduction of 
individuals into areas where it occurred

[[Page 34474]]

historically, and provides area for recovery in the case of stochastic 
events that otherwise hold the potential to eliminate the species from 
the one or more locations it is presently found. Under current 
conditions, many of these species are so rare in the wild that they are 
at high risk of extirpation or even extinction from various stochastic 
events, such as hurricanes or landslides. Therefore, building up 
resilience and redundancy in these species through the establishment of 
multiple, robust populations, is a key component of recovery.
    Each of the areas proposed for designation represents critical 
habitat for multiple species, based upon their shared habitat 
requirements (i.e., physical or biological features) essential for 
their conservation. The identification of critical habitat also takes 
into account any species-specific conservation needs as appropriate. 
For example, the presence of a seasonally wet area within the coastal 
ecosystem is essential for the conservation of the plant Marsilea 
villosa, but is not a requirement shared by all of the other species 
within that same ecosystem; this would be an example of a species-
specific requirement. However, a functioning ecosystem is also 
essential to Marsilea villosa because it provides the broader 
``ecosystem-level'' physical or biological features that are required 
to support its specific life history requirements.

The Islands of Maui Nui

    The islands of Maui Nui include Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe 
(Figure 1). During the last Ice Age, about 21,000 years ago, when sea 
levels were approximately 459 feet (ft) (140 meters (m)) below their 
present level, these four islands were connected by a broad lowland 
plain and unified as a single island (Nullet et al. 1998, p. 64; 
Ziegler 2002, p. 22). This land bridge allowed the movement and 
interaction of each island's flora and fauna and contributed to the 
present close relationships of their biota (Nullet et al. 1998, p. 64).
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.000


[[Page 34475]]


    The island of Molokai is the fifth largest of the eight main 
Hawaiian Islands. It was formed from three shield volcanoes and is 
about 260 square miles (sq mi) (673 square kilometers (sq km)) in area 
(Juvik and Juvik 1998, pp. 11, 13). The volcanoes that make up most of 
the land mass of Molokai include the west and east Molokai mountains, 
and a volcano that formed Kalaupapa peninsula. The taller and larger 
east Molokai mountain rises 4,970 ft (1,514 m) above sea level and 
comprises roughly 50 percent of the island's area (Juvik and Juvik 
1998, p. 11). Topographically, the windward (north) side of east 
Molokai differs from the leeward (south) side. Precipitous cliffs line 
the windward coast and deep valleys dissect the coastal area. The 
annual rainfall on the windward side of Molokai is 75 to more than 150 
inches (in) (200 to more than 375 centimeters (cm)) (Giambelluca and 
Schroeder 1998, p. 50).
    The island of Lanai is the sixth largest of the eight main Hawaiian 
Islands, located southeast of Molokai and northwest of Hawaii Island. 
It is located in the lee or rain shadow of the taller west Maui 
mountains. Lanai was formed from a single shield volcano and built by 
eruptions at its summit and along three rift zones (Clague 1998, p. 
42). The island is about 140 sq mi (364 sq km) in area and its highest 
point, Lanaihale, has an elevation of 3,366 ft (1,027 m) (Clague 1998, 
p. 42; Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 13; Walker 1999, p. 21). Annual 
rainfall on the summit is 30 to 40 in (76 to 102 cm), but is 
considerably less, 10 to 20 in (25 to 50 cm), over much of the rest of 
the island (Giambelluca and Schroeder 1998, p. 56).
    The island of Maui is the second largest of the eight main Hawaiian 
Islands, located southeast of Molokai and northwest of Hawaii Island 
(Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 14). It was formed from two shield volcanoes 
and resulted in the west Maui mountains which are about 1.3 million 
years old and Haleakala on east Maui which is about 750,000 years old 
(Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 14). West and east Maui are connected by the 
central Maui isthmus, and the island's total land area is 729 sq mi 
(1,888 sq km) (Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 14; Walker 1999, p. 21). The 
west Maui mountains have been eroded by streams that created deep 
valleys and ridges. The highest point on west Maui is Puu Kukui at 
5,788 ft (1,764 m) in elevation, and with an average rainfall of 400 in 
(1,020 cm) per year it is the second wettest spot in Hawaii (Juvik and 
Juvik 1998, p. 14; Wagner et al. 1999b, p. 41). East Maui's Haleakala 
volcano remains volcanically active, with its last eruption occurring 
only 200 years ago (Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 14). Haleakala rises 
10,023 ft (3,055 m) in elevation but lacks the diverse vegetation 
typical of the older and more eroded west Maui mountains. Rainfall on 
the slopes of Haleakala is about 35 in (89 cm) per year, with its 
windward (northeastern) slope receiving the most precipitation. 
However, Haleakala's crater is a dry cinder desert because it is above 
the level at which precipitation develops and is sheltered from 
moisture-laden winds usually associated with orographic (mountain) 
rainfall (Giambelluca and Schroeder 1998, p. 55).
    The island of Kahoolawe is the smallest of the eight main Hawaiian 
Islands, located southeast of Molokai and northwest of Hawaii Island. 
The island is about 45 sq mi (116 sq km) in area, and was formed from a 
single shield volcano (Clague 1998, p. 42; Juvik and Juvik 1998, pp. 7, 
16). The maximum elevation on Kahoolawe is 1,477 ft (450 m) at the 
summit of Puu Moaulanui (Juvik and Juvik 1998, pp. 15-16). Kahoolawe is 
in the rain shadow of Haleakala and is arid, receiving no more than 25 
in (65 cm) of rainfall annually (Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 16; Mitchell 
et al. 2005, pp. 6-66).
    The vegetation of the islands of Maui Nui has undergone extreme 
alterations because of past and present land use and other activities. 
Land with rich soils was altered by the early Hawaiians and, more 
recently, converted to agricultural use in the production of sugar and 
pineapple (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45) or pasture. For example, on 
Haleakala, on the island of Maui, the upland slopes have been converted 
to diversified agriculture and cattle ranches (Juvik and Juvik 1998, p. 
16). Archaeological surveys suggest that the early Hawaiians did not 
live in the highest areas of Haleakala but instead inhabited the area 
temporarily for religious ceremonies, the creation of adzes (tools used 
for smoothing or carving wood), and bird hunting (Burney 1997, p. 448). 
Intentional and inadvertent introduction of alien plant and animal 
species has also contributed to the reduction in range of native 
vegetation on the islands of Maui Nui (throughout this rule, the terms 
``alien,'' ``feral,'' ``nonnative,'' and ``introduced'' all refer to 
species that are not naturally native to the Hawaiian Islands). 
Currently, most of the native vegetation on the islands persists on 
upper elevation slopes, valleys and ridges; steep slopes; precipitous 
cliffs; valley headwalls; and other regions where unsuitable topography 
has prevented urbanization and agricultural development, or where 
inaccessibility has limited encroachment by nonnative plant and animal 
species.

Maui Nui Ecosystems

    There are 11 different ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, subalpine, 
alpine, dry cliff, and wet cliff) recognized on the islands of Maui 
Nui. The 40 species proposed for listing occur in 10 of these 
ecosystems (all except the alpine), which collectively support the 135 
species for which critical habitat is proposed. All 11 Maui Nui 
ecosystems are described in the following section; see Table 4 (in 
``Physical or Biological Features,'' below) for a list of the species 
that occur in each ecosystem type.
Coastal
    The coastal ecosystem is found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands, 
with the highest native species diversity in the least populated 
coastal areas of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Hawaii Island, 
and their associated islets. On Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, 
the coastal ecosystem includes mixed herblands, shrublands, and 
grasslands, from sea level to 980 ft (300 m) in elevation, generally 
within a narrow zone above the influence of waves to within 330 ft (100 
m) inland, sometimes extending further inland if strong prevailing 
onshore winds drive sea spray and sand dunes into the lowland zone (The 
Nature Conservancy (TNC) 2006a). The coastal ecosystem is typically 
dry, with annual rainfall of less than 20 in (50 cm); however, windward 
rainfall may be high enough (up to 40 in (100 cm)) to support mesic-
associated and sometimes wet-associated vegetation (Gagne and Cuddihy 
1999, pp. 54-66). Biological diversity is low to moderate in this 
ecosystem, but may include some specialized plants and animals such as 
nesting seabirds and the endangered plant Sesbania tomentosa (ohai) 
(TNC 2006a). The plants Canavalia pubescens and Pittosporum halophilum, 
which are proposed for listing as endangered in this rule, are reported 
in this ecosystem on Molokai and Lanai (Hawaii Biodiversity and Mapping 
Program (HBMP) 2008; TNC 2007).
Lowland Dry
    The lowland dry ecosystem includes shrublands and forests generally 
below 3,300 ft (1,000 m) elevation that receive less than 50 in (130 
cm) annual rainfall, or are in otherwise prevailingly dry substrate 
conditions that range from weathered reddish silty loams to stony clay 
soils, rocky ledges with very

[[Page 34476]]

shallow soil, or relatively recent little-weathered lava (Gagne and 
Cuddihy 1999, p. 67). Areas consisting of predominantly native species 
in the lowland dry ecosystem are now rare; this ecosystem is found on 
the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe and Hawaii, 
and is best represented on the leeward sides of the islands (Gagne and 
Cuddihy 1999, p. 67). On the islands of Maui Nui, this ecosystem is 
typically found on the leeward side of the mountains (Gagne and Cuddihy 
1999, p. 67; TNC 2006b). Native biological diversity is low to moderate 
in this ecosystem, and includes specialized animals and plants such as 
the Hawaiian owl or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Santalum 
ellipticum (iliahialoe or coast sandalwood) (Wagner et al. 1999c, pp. 
1,220-1,221; TNC 2006b). The plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, 
Canavalia pubescens, Cyanea obtusa, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, 
Pleomele fernaldii, and Schiedea salicaria, which are proposed or 
reevaluated for listing as endangered in this rule, are reported from 
this ecosystem on Lanai and Maui (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Lowland Mesic
    The lowland mesic ecosystem includes a variety of grasslands, 
shrublands, and forests, generally below 3,300 ft (1,000 m) elevation, 
that receive between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm) annual rainfall (TNC 
2006c). In the Hawaiian Islands, this ecosystem is found on Kauai, 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii, on both windward and leeward sides of 
the islands. On the islands of Maui Nui, this ecosystem is typically 
found on the leeward slopes of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (Gagne and 
Cuddihy 1999, p. 75; TNC 2006c). Native biological diversity is high in 
this system (TNC 2006c). The plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, 
Cyanea asplenifolia, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, 
Festuca molokaiensis, Phyllostegia haliakalae, P. pilosa, Pleomele 
fernaldii, and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, which are proposed 
or reevaluated for listing as endangered in this rule, are reported in 
this ecosystem on this islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (HBMP 2008; 
TNC 2007). In addition, Cyanea mauiensis, a species proposed for 
listing, may have occurred in this ecosystem on Maui but this species 
has not been observed for over 100 years. The species-specific habitat 
needs of Cyanea mauiensis are not known.
Lowland Wet
    The lowland wet ecosystem is generally found below 3,300 ft (1,000 
m) elevation on the windward sides of the main Hawaiian Islands, except 
Niihau and Kahoolawe (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 85; TNC 2006d). These 
areas include a variety of wet grasslands, shrublands, and forests that 
receive greater than 75 in (190 cm) annual precipitation, or are in 
otherwise wet substrate conditions (TNC 2006d). On the islands of Maui 
Nui, this system is best developed in wet valleys and slopes on 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (TNC 2006d). Native biological diversity is 
high in this system (TNC 2006d). The plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
waihoiensis, B. conjuncta, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. duvalliorum, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. kunthiana, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. 
solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, Mucuna sloanei var. persericea, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Pleomele 
fernaldii, and Wikstroemia villosa; and the tree snails Newcombia 
cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis, which are proposed 
or reevaluated for listing as endangered in this rule, are reported in 
this ecosystem on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Montane Wet
    The montane wet ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(grasslands, shrublands, forests, and bogs) found at elevations between 
3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m), in areas where annual 
precipitation is greater than 75 in (190 cm) (TNC 2006e). This system 
is found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and 
Kahoolawe, and only the islands of Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii have areas 
above 4,020 ft (1,225 m) (TNC 2006e). On the islands of Maui Nui this 
ecosystem is found on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (TNC 2007). Native 
biological diversity is moderate to high (TNC 2006e). The plants Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. 
conjuncta, Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Cyanea duvalliorum, C. horrida, 
C. kunthiana, C. maritae, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra 
ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, Geranium hanaense, G. hillebrandii, Myrsine 
vaccinioides, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. 
pilosa, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea jacobii, S. laui, 
and Wikstroemia villosa; and the tree snails Partulina semicarinata and 
P. variabilis, which are proposed or reevaluated for listing as 
endangered in this rule, are reported in this ecosystem on the islands 
of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Montane Mesic
    The montane mesic ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(forests and shrublands) found at elevations between 3,300 and 6,500 ft 
(1,000 and 2,000 m), in areas where annual precipitation is between 50 
and 75 in (130 and 190 cm), or are in otherwise mesic substrate 
conditions (TNC 2006f). This system is found on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, 
and Hawaii Island (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 97-99; TNC 2007). Native 
biological diversity is moderate, and this habitat is important for 
Hawaiian forest birds (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 98-99; TNC 2006f). 
The plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Cyanea horrida, C. 
kunthiana, C. magnicalyx, C. obtusa, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra 
ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, Geranium hillebrandii, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, 
and Wikstroemia villosa, which are proposed or reevaluated for listing 
as endangered in this rule, are reported in this ecosystem on Molokai 
and Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
Montane Dry
    The montane dry ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(shrublands, grasslands, forests) found at elevations between 3,300 and 
6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m), in areas where annual precipitation is 
less than 50 in (130 cm), or are in otherwise dry substrate conditions 
(TNC 2006g). This system is found on the islands of Maui and Hawaii 
(Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 93-97). The only plant species reevaluated 
for listing found in this ecosystem is Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
Subalpine
    The subalpine ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(shrublands, grasslands, forests) found at elevations between 6,500 ft 
and 9,800 ft (2,000 and 3,000 m), in areas where annual precipitation 
is seasonal, between 15 and 40 in (38 and 100 cm), or are in otherwise 
dry substrate conditions (TNC 2006h). Fog drip is an important moisture 
supplement (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 107-110). This system is found 
on the islands of Maui and Hawaii (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 107-
110). Native biological diversity is not high, but specialized 
invertebrates and plants (Sophora chrysophylla (mamane), Myoporum 
sandwicense (naio), and Deschampsia nubigena (hairgrass)) are reported 
in this

[[Page 34477]]

ecosystem (TNC 2006h). The plant Phyllostegia bracteata, which is 
proposed as endangered in this rule, is reported in this ecosystem (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
Alpine
    The alpine ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(shrublands, alpine lake, aeolian (wind-shaped) desert) found at 
elevations above 9,800 ft (3000 m), in areas where annual precipitation 
is infrequent, with frost and snow, and intense solar radiation (TNC 
2006i). Fog drip is an important moisture supplement (Gagne and Cuddihy 
1999, pp. 107-110). This system is found on the islands of Maui and 
Hawaii (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 107-110). Native biological 
diversity is not high, but highly specialized plants, such as the 
threatened Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum (ahinahina), 
occur in this ecosystem on Maui (TNC 2006i). None of the species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule are reported from this 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
Dry Cliff
    The dry cliff ecosystem is composed of vegetation communities 
occupying steep slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas that receive 
less than 75 in (190 cm) of rainfall annually, or are in otherwise dry 
substrate conditions (TNC 2006j). This ecosystem is found on all of the 
main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau, and is best represented along the 
leeward slopes of Lanai and Maui (TNC 2006j). A variety of shrublands 
occur within this ecosystem (TNC 2006j). Native biological diversity is 
low to moderate (TNC 2006j). The plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, Phyllostegia haliakalae, and Pleomele fernaldii, which are 
proposed as endangered in this rule, are reported in this ecosystem on 
Lanai and Maui (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).
Wet Cliff
    The wet cliff ecosystem is generally composed of shrublands on 
near-vertical slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas that receive 
more than 75 in (190 cm) of annual precipitation, or in otherwise wet 
substrate conditions (TNC 2006k). This system is found on the islands 
of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii. On the islands of 
Maui Nui, this system is typically found along the windward sides of 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (TNC 2006k). Native biological diversity is 
low to moderate (TNC 2006k). The plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. conjuncta, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C.horrida, C. magnicalyx, C. munroi, 
Cyrtandra filipes, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Pleomele fernaldii; and the tree snails 
Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis, which are proposed or 
reevaluated for listing as endangered in this rule, are reported in 
this ecosystem on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (HBMP 2008; 
TNC 2007).

Description of the 40 Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing

    Below is a brief description of each of the 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing, presented in alphabetical order by genus. 
Plants are presented first, followed by animals.

Plants

    In order to avoid confusion regarding the number of locations of 
each species (a location does not necessarily represent a viable 
population, as in some cases there may only be one or a very few 
representatives of the species present) we use the word ``occurrence'' 
instead of ``population.'' Each occurrence is composed only of wild 
(i.e., not propagated and outplanted) individuals.
    Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera (kookoolau), a perennial herb in 
the sunflower family (Asteraceae), occurs only on the island of Maui 
(Ganders and Nagata 1999, pp. 271, 273). Historically, B. campylotheca 
spp. pentamera was found on Maui's eastern volcano (i.e., Haleakala). 
Currently, this subspecies is found on east Maui in the montane mesic, 
montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems of Waikamoi Preserve 
and Kipahulu Valley (in Haleakala National Park) (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Welton 2008, in litt.; National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBGa) 2009, 
pp. 1-2; Fay 2010, in litt.). It is uncertain if plants observed in the 
Hana Forest Reserve at Waihoi Valley are Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera (Osterneck 2010, in litt.). On west Maui, B. campylotheca 
ssp. pentamera is found on and near cliff walls in the lowland dry and 
lowland mesic ecosystems of Papalaua Gulch (West Maui Forest Reserve) 
and Kauaula Valley (NTBG 2009a, pp. 1-2; Perlman 2009a, in litt.). The 
6 occurrences on east and west Maui total approximately 200 
individuals.
    Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis (kookoolau), a perennial herb 
in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), occurs only on the island of Maui 
(Ganders and Nagata 1999, pp. 271, 273). Historically, B. campylotheca 
ssp. waihoiensis was found on Maui's eastern volcano in Waihoi Valley 
and Kaumakani ridge (HBMP 2008). Currently, this subspecies is found in 
the lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in Kipahulu 
Valley (Haleakala National Park) and possibly in Waihoi Valley (Hana 
Forest Reserve) on east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Welton 2008, in 
litt.). Approximately 200 plants are scattered over an area of about 
2.5 miles (4 km) in Kipahulu Valley (Welton 2010a, in litt.). In 1974, 
hundreds of individuals were observed in Waihoi Valley along Waiohonu 
stream (NTBG 2009b, p. 4).
    Bidens conjuncta (kookoolau), a perennial herb in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), occurs only on the island of Maui (Ganders and 
Nagata 1999, pp. 273-274). Historically, this species was known only 
from the mountains of west Maui in the Honokohau drainage basin (Sherff 
1923, p. 162). Currently, B. conjuncta is found scattered throughout 
the upper elevation drainages of the west Maui mountains in the lowland 
wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems, in 9 occurrences totaling 
an estimated 7,000 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2008a, 
in litt.; Perlman 2010, in litt.).
    Calamagrostis hillebrandii (NCN), a perennial in the grass family 
(Poaceae), occurs only on the island of Maui (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,509). 
Historically, this species was known from Puu Kukui in the west Maui 
mountains (Wagner et al. 2005a--Flora of the Hawaiian Islands 
database). Currently, this species is found in bogs in the montane wet 
ecosystem in the west Maui mountains, from Honokohau to Kahoolewa 
ridge, including East Bog and Eke Crater, in three occurrences totaling 
a few hundred individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010a, in 
litt.).
    Canavalia pubescens (awikiwiki), a perennial climber in the pea 
family (Fabaceae), is currently found only on the island of Maui, 
although it was also historically known from Niihau, Kauai, and Lanai 
(Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 654). On Niihau, this species was known 
from one population in Haao Valley that was last observed in 1949 (HBMP 
2008). On Kauai, this species was known from six populations ranging 
from Awaawapuhi to Wainiha, where it was last observed in 1977 (HBMP 
2008). On Lanai, this species was known from Kaena Point to Huawai Bay. 
Eight individuals were reported in the coastal ecosystem west of 
Hulupoe, but they have not been seen since 1998 (Oppenheimer 2007a, in 
litt.; HBMP 2008). At present, the only known occurrence is on east 
Maui, from Puu o Kali south to Pohakea, in the lowland

[[Page 34478]]

dry ecosystem (Starr 2006, in litt.; Altenburg 2007, pp. 12-13; 
Oppenheimer 2006a, in litt.; 2007a, in litt.). All plants of this 
species that formerly were found in the Ahihi-Kinau Natural Area 
Reserve on Maui were destroyed by feral goats (Capra hircus) by the end 
of 2010 (Fell-McDonald 2010, in litt.). In April of 2010, C. pubescens 
totaled as many as 500 individuals; however, with the recent loss of 
the plants at Ahihi-Kinau Natural Area Reserve, C. pubescens may 
currently total fewer than 200 individuals at a single location.
    Cyanea asplenifolia (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found only on the island of Maui. This species was 
known historically from Waihee Valley and Kaanapali on west Maui, and 
Halehaku ridge on east Maui (Lammers 1999, p. 445; HBMP 2008). On west 
Maui, in the lowland wet ecosystem, there are 3 occurrences totaling 14 
individuals in the Puu Kukui Preserve and two occurrences totaling 5 
individuals in the West Maui Natural Area Reserve. On east Maui, C. 
asplenifolia is found in 1 occurrence each in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in Haleakala National Park (53 individuals) and Kipahulu FR 
(140 individuals), and 1 occurrence in the lowland wet ecosystem in the 
Makawao FR (5 individuals) (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2008b, in 
litt, 2010b, in litt.; PEPP 2008, p. 48; Welton and Haus 2008, p. 12; 
NTBG 2009c, pp. 3-5; Welton 2010a, in litt.). Currently, C. 
asplenifolia is known from 8 occurrences totaling fewer than 200 
individuals.
    Cyanea duvalliorum (HAHA), a tree in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found only in the east Maui mountains (Lammers 
2004, p. 89). This species was described in 2004, after the discovery 
of individuals of a previously unknown species of Cyanea at Waiohiwi 
Gulch (Lammers 2004, p. 91). Studies of earlier collections of sterile 
material extend the historical range of this species on the windward 
slopes of Haleakala in the lowland wet and montane wet ecosystems, east 
of Waiohiwi Stream, from Honomanu Stream to Wailua Iki Streams, and to 
Kipahulu Valley (Lammers 2004, p. 89). In 2007, one individual was 
observed in the lowland wet ecosystem of the Makawao FR (NTBG 2009d, p. 
2). In 2008, 71 individuals were found in 2 new locations in the 
Makawao FR, along with many juveniles and seedlings (NTBG 2009d, p. 2). 
Currently there are 2 occurrences with an approximate total of 71 
individuals in the montane wet ecosystem near Makawao FR, with an 
additional 135 individuals outplanted in Waikamoi Preserve (TNC 2007; 
NTBG 2009d, p. 2; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is known only from Oahu and Molokai (Lammers 
2004 p. 84; Lammers 1999, pp. 449, 451; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). On 
Molokai, this species was last observed in 1991 in the wet cliff 
ecosystem at Wailau Valley (PEPP 2010, p. 45). Currently, on Oahu there 
are five to six individuals in four occurrences in the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea horrida (haha nui), a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is a palm-like tree found only on the island of Maui. 
This species was known historically from the slopes of Haleakala 
(Lammers 1999, p. 453; HBMP 2008). Currently, C. horrida is known from 
12 occurrences totaling 44 individuals in the montane mesic, montane 
wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in Waikamoi Preserve, Hanawai Natural 
Area Reserve, and Haleakala National Park on east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008; PEPP 2009, p. 52; PEPP 2010, p. 46-47; Oppenheimer 2010c, in 
litt.; TNCH 2010a, p. 1).
    Cyanea kunthiana (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found only on Maui, and was historically known from 
both the east and west Maui mountains (Lammers 1999, p. 453; HBMP 
2008). Cyanea kunthiana was known to occur in the montane mesic 
ecosystem in the east Maui mountains in upper Kipahulu Valley, in 
Haleakala National Park and Kipahulu FR (HBMP 2008). Currently, in the 
east Maui mountains, C. kunthiana occurs in the lowland wet and montane 
wet ecosystems in Waikamoi Preserve, Hanawi Natural Area Reserve, East 
Bog, Kaapahu, and Kipahulu Valley. In the west Maui mountains, C. 
kunthiana occurs in the lowland wet and montane wet ecosystems at Eke 
Crater, Kahoolewa ridge, and at the junction of the Honokowai, Hahakea, 
and Honokohau gulches (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; NTBG 2009e, pp. 1-3; 
Perlman 2010, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.). The 15 
occurrences total 165 individuals, although botanists speculate that 
this species may total as many as 400 individuals with further surveys 
of potential habitat on east and west Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Fay 
2010, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.; Osternak 2010, in litt.).
    Cyanea magnicalyx (HAHA), a perennial shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is known from west Maui (Lammers 1999, pp. 449, 
451; Lammers 2004, p. 84). Currently, there are seven individuals in 
three occurrences on west Maui: Two individuals in Kaluanui, a subgulch 
of Honokohau Valley, in the lowland wet ecosystem; four individuals in 
Iao Valley in the wet cliff ecosystem; and one individual in a small 
drainage south of the Kauaula rim, in the montane mesic ecosystem 
(Lammers 2004, p. 87; Perlman 2009b in litt.; Wood 2009, in litt.).
    Cyanea maritae (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found only on Maui (Lammers 2004, p. 92). Sterile 
specimens were collected from the northwestern slopes of Haleakala in 
the Waiohiwi watershed and east to Kipahulu in the early 1900s. Between 
2000 and 2002, fewer than 20 individuals were found in the Waiohiwi 
area (Lammers 2004, pp. 92, 93). Currently, there are 4 occurrences, 
totaling between 23 to 50 individuals in Kipahulu, Kaapahu, west 
Kahakapao, and in the Koolau FR in the lowland wet and montane wet 
ecosystems on east Maui (TNC 2007; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; Welton 
2010b, in litt.).
    Cyanea mauiensis (HAHA), a perennial shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), was last observed on Maui about 100 years ago (Lammers 
2004, pp. 84-85; TNC 2007). Although there are no documented 
occurrences of this species known today, botanists believe this species 
may still be extant as all potentially suitable lowland mesic and dry 
cliff habitat has not been been surveyed.
    Cyanea munroi (HAHA), a short-lived shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is known from Molokai and Lanai (Lammers 1999, pp. 
449, 451; Lammers 2004, pp. 84-87). Currently, there are no known 
individuals on Molokai (last observed in 2001), and only two 
individuals on Lanai at a single location, in the wet cliff ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010d, in litt.; Perlman 2008a, in 
litt.; Wood 2009a, in litt.).
    Cyanea obtusa (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found only on Maui (Lammers 1999, p. 458). 
Historically, this species was found in both the east and west Maui 
mountains (Hillebrand 1888, p. 254; HBMP 2008). Not reported since 1919 
(Lammers 1999, p. 458), C. obtusa was rediscovered in the early 1980s 
at one site each on east and west Maui. However, by 1989, plants in 
both locations had disappeared (Hobdy et al. 1991, p. 3; Medeiros 1996, 
in litt.). In 1997, 4 individuals were observed in Manawainui Gulch in 
Kahikinui, and another occurrence of 5 to 10

[[Page 34479]]

individuals was found in Kahakapao Gulch, both in the montane mesic 
ecosystem on east Maui (Wood and Perlman 1997, p. 11; Lau 2001, in 
litt.). However, the individuals found at Kahakapao Gulch are now 
considered to be Cyanea elliptica or hybrids between C. obtusa and C. 
elliptica (PEPP 2007, p. 40). In 2001, several individuals were seen in 
Hanaula and Pohakea gulches on west Maui; however, only hybrids are 
currently known in this area (NTBG 2009f, p. 3). It is unknown if 
individuals of C. obtusa remain at Kahikinui, as access to the area to 
ascertain the status of these plants is difficult and has not been 
attempted since 2001 (PEPP 2008, p. 55; PEPP 2009, p. 58). Two 
individuals were observed on a cliff along Wailaulau Stream in the 
montane mesic ecosystem on east Maui in 2009 (Duvall 2010, in litt.). 
Currently, this species is known from one occurrence of only a few 
individuals in the montane mesic ecosystem on east Maui. Historically, 
this species also occurred in the lowland dry ecosystem at Manawainui 
on west Maui and at Ulupalakua on east Maui (HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea profuga (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), occurs only on Molokai (Lammers 1999, pp. 461-462; 
Wood and Perlman 2002, p. 4). Historically, this species was found in 
Mapulehu Valley and along Pelekunu Trail, and has not been seen in 
those locations since the early 1900s (Wood and Perlman 2002, p. 4). In 
2002, six individuals were discovered along a stream in Wawaia Gulch 
(Wood and Perlman 2002, p. 4). In 2007, seven individuals were known 
from Wawaia Gulch, and an additional six individuals were found in 
Kumueli (Wood 2005, p. 17; USFWS 2007a; PEPP 2010, p. 55). In 2009, 
only four individuals remained at Wawaia Gulch; however, nine were 
found in Kumueli Gulch (Bakutis 2010, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010e, in 
litt.; Perlman 2010, in litt.; PEPP 2010, p. 55). Currently, there are 
4 occurrences totaling up to 34 individuals in the lowland mesic and 
montane wet ecosystems on Molokai (TNC 2007; Bakutis 2010, in litt.; 
Perlman 2010, in litt.).
    Cyanea solanacea (popolo, haha nui), a shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is found only on Molokai. According to Lammers 
(1999, p. 464) and Wagner (et al. 2005a--Flora of the Hawaiian Islands 
database) the range of C. solanacea includes Molokai and may also 
include west Maui. In his treatment of the species of the Hawaiian 
endemic genus Cyanea, Lammers (1999, p. 464) included a few sterile 
specimens of Cyanea from Puu Kukui, west Maui and the type specimen 
(now destroyed) for C. scabra var. sinuata from west Maui in C. 
solanacea. However, Oppenheimer recently reported (Oppenheimer 2010a, 
in litt.) that the plants on west Maui were misidentified as C. 
solanacea and are actually C. macrostegia. Based on Oppenheimer's 
recent field observations, the range of C. solanacea is limited to 
Molokai. Historically, Cyanea solanacea ranged from central Molokai at 
Kalae, eastward to Pukoo in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and montane 
mesic ecosystems (HBMP 2008). Currently, there are four small 
occurrences at Hanalilolilo, near Pepeopae Bog, Kaunakakai Gulch, and 
Kawela Gulch, in the montane wet ecosystem. These occurrences total 26 
individuals (Bakutis 2010, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.; TNCH 
2011, pp. 21, 57).
    Cyrtandra ferripilosa (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae), occurs only on Maui (St. John 1987, pp. 497-498; 
Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 29). This species was discovered in 1980 in 
the east Maui mountains at Kuiki in Kipahulu Valley (St. John 1987, pp. 
497-498; Wagner et al. 2005a--Flora of the Hawaiian Islands database). 
Currently, there are a few individuals each in two occurrences at Kuiki 
and on the Manawainui plane in the montane mesic and montane wet 
ecosystems (Oppenheimer 2010f, in litt.; Welton 2010a, in litt.).
    Cyrtandra filipes (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae), is found on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999d, pp. 753-754; 
Oppenheimer 2006b, in litt.). According to Wagner et al. (1999d, p. 
754), the range of C. filipes includes Maui and Molokai. Historical 
collections from Kapunakea (1800) and Olowalu (1971) on Maui indicate 
it once had a wider range on this island. In 2004, it was believed 
there were over 2,000 plants at Honokohau and Waihee in the west Maui 
mountains; however, recent studies have shown that these plants do not 
match the description for C. filipes (Oppenheimer 2006b, in litt.). 
Currently, there are between 134 and 155 individuals in 4 occurrences 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems at Kapalaoa, Honokowai, 
Honolua, and Waihee Valley on west Maui, and approximately 7 
individuals at Mapulehu in the lowland mesic ecosystem on Molokai, with 
an historical occurrence in the lowland wet ecosystem (Oppenheimer 
2010c, in litt.).
    Cyrtandra oxybapha (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae), is found on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999d, p. 771). This 
species was discovered in the upper Pohakea Gulch in Hanaula in the 
west Maui mountains in 1986 (Wagner et al. 1989, p. 100; TNC 2007). 
Currently, there are 2 known occurrences with a total of 137 to 250 
individuals. Cyrtandra oxybapha occurs in the montane wet ecosystem on 
west Maui, from Hanaula to Pohakea Gulch. This occurrence totals 
between 87 and 97 known individuals, with perhaps as many as 150 or 
more (Oppenheimer 2008c, in litt.). The current status of the 50 to 100 
individuals in the montane mesic ecosystem in Manawainui Gulch on east 
Maui is unknown, as these plants have not been surveyed since 1997 
(Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.).
    Festuca molokaiensis (NCN), a member of the grass family (Poaceae), 
is found on Molokai (Catalan et al. 2009, p. 54). This species is only 
known from the type locality at Kupaia Gulch, in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (Catalan et al. 2009, p. 55). Last seen in 2009, the current 
number of individuals is unknown; however, field surveys for F. 
molokaiensis at Kupaia Gulch are planned for 2011 (Oppenheimer 2010g, 
in litt.). Oppenheimer (2011, pers. comm.) suggests that the drought 
over the past couple of years on Molokai may have suppressed the growth 
of Festuca molokaiensis and prevented its observation by botanists in 
the field. He also suggested that this species may be an annual whose 
growth will be stimulated by normal rainfall patterns.
    Geranium hanaense (nohoanu), a shrub in the geranium family 
(Geraniaceae), is found on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999e, pp. 730-732). 
This species was first collected in 1973, from two adjacent montane 
bogs on the northeast rift of Haleakala, east Maui (Medeiros and St. 
John 1988, pp. 214-220). At that time, there were an estimated 500 to 
700 individuals (Medeiros and St. John 1988, pp. 214-220). Currently, 
G. hanaense occurs in ``Big Bog'' and ``Mid Camp Bog'' in the montane 
wet ecosystem on the northeast rift of Haleakala, with the same number 
of estimated individuals (Welton 2008, in litt.; Welton 2010a, in 
litt.; Welton 2010b, in litt.).
    Geranium hillebrandii (nohoanu), a shrub in the geranium family 
(Geraniaceae), is found on Maui (Aedo and Munoz Garmendia 1997; p. 725; 
Wagner et al. 1999e, pp. 732-733; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 28). 
Little is known of the historical locations of G. hillebrandii, other 
than the type collection made in the 1800s at Eke Crater, in the west 
Maui mountains (Hillebrand 1888, p. 56). Currently, 4 occurrences total 
over 10,000 individuals, with the largest 2 occurrences in the west 
Maui bogs, from Puu Kukui to East Bog and Kahoolewa ridge. A third 
occurrence is at Eke

[[Page 34480]]

Crater and the surrounding area, and the fourth occurrence is at Lihau 
(HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010h, in litt.). These occurrences are found 
in the montane wet and montane mesic ecosystems on west Maui (TNC 
2007).
    Mucuna sloanei var. persericea (sea bean), a vine in the pea family 
(Fabaceae), is found on Maui (Wilmot-Dear 1990, pp. 27-29; Wagner et 
al. 2005a--Flora of the Hawaiian Islands database). In her revision of 
Mucuna in the Pacific Islands, Wilmot-Dear recognized this variety from 
Maui based on leaf indumentum (covering of fine hairs or bristles) 
(Wilmot-Dear 1990, p. 29). At the time of Wilmot-Dear's publication, M. 
sloanei var. persericea ranged from Makawao to Wailua Iki, on the 
windward slopes of the east Maui mountains (Wagner et al. 2005a--Flora 
of the Hawaiian Islands database). Currently, there are possibly a few 
hundred individuals in five occurrences: Ulalena Hill, north of 
Kawaipapa Gulch, lower Nahiku, Koki Beach, and Piinau Road, all in the 
lowland wet ecosystem on east Maui (Duvall 2010, in litt.; Hobdy 2010, 
in litt.).
    Myrsine vaccinioides (kolea), a shrub in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae), is found on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999f, p. 946; HBMP 
2008). This species was historically known from shrubby bogs near 
Violet Lake on west Maui (Wagner et al. 1999f, p. 946). In 2005, three 
occurrences of a few hundred individuals were reported at Eke, Puu 
Kukui and near Violet Lake (Oppenheimer 2006c, in litt.). Currently, 
there are estimated to be several hundred, but fewer than 1,000, 
individuals scattered in the summit area of the west Maui mountains at 
Eke Crater, Puu Kukui, Honokowai-Honolua, and Kahoolewa, in the montane 
wet ecosystem (Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.).
    Peperomia subpetiolata (alaala wai nui), a perennial herb in the 
pepper family (Piperaceae), is found on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999g, p. 
1035; HBMP 2008). Historically, P. subpetiolata was known only from the 
lower Waikamoi (Kula pipeline) area on the windward side of Haleakala 
on east Maui (Wagner et al. 1999g, p. 1,035; HBMP 2008). In 2001, it 
was estimated that 40 individuals occurred just west of the Makawao-
Koolau FR boundary, in the montane wet ecosystem. Peperomia cookiana 
and P. hirtipetiola also occur in this area, and are known to hybridize 
with P. subpetiolata (NTBG 2009g, p. 2; Oppenheimer 2010j, in litt.). 
In 2007, 20 to 30 hybrid plants were observed at Maile Trail, and at 
three areas near the Waikamoi Flume road (NTBG 2009g, p. 2). Based on 
the 2007 and 2010 surveys, all known plants are now considered to be 
hybrids mostly between P. subpetiolata and P. cookiana, with a smaller 
number of hybrids between P. subpetiolata and P. hirtipetiola (NTBG 
2009g, p. 2; Lau 2011, in litt.). Peperomia subpetiolata is recognized 
as a valid species and botanists continue to search for plants in its 
previously known locations as well as in new locations with potentially 
suitable habitat (NTBG 2009g, p. 2; PEPP 2010, p. 96; Lau 2011, pers. 
comm.).
    Phyllostegia bracteata (NCN), a perennial herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is found on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999h, pp. 814-815). 
Historically, this species was known from the east Maui mountains at 
Ukulele, Puu Nianiau, Waikamoi Gulch, Koolau Gap, Kipahulu, Nahiku-
Kuhiwa trail, Waihoi Valley, and Manawainui; and from the west Maui 
mountains at Puu Kukui and Hanakaoo (HBMP 2008). This species appears 
to be short-lived, ephemeral, and disturbance-dependent, in the lowland 
wet, montane mesic, montane wet, subalpine, and wet cliff ecosystems 
(NTBG 2009h, p. 1). There have been several reported sightings of P. 
bracteata between 1981 and 2001, at Waihoi Crater Bog, Waikamoi 
Preserve, Waikamoi flume, and Kipahulu on east Maui, and at Pohakea 
Gulch on west Maui; however, none of these individuals were extant as 
of 2009 (PEPP 2009, pp. 89-90). In 2009, one individual was found at 
Kipahulu, near Delta Camp, on east Maui, but was not relocated on a 
follow-up survey during that same year (NTBG 2009h, p. 3). Botanists 
continue to search for P. bracteata in previously reported locations, 
as well as in other areas with potentially suitable habitat (NTBG 
2009h, p. 3; PEPP 2009, pp. 89-90).
    Phyllostegia haliakalae (NCN), a vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is known from Molokai, Lanai, and east Maui (Wagner 1999, 
p. 269). The type specimen was collected by Wawra in 1869 or 1870, in a 
dry ravine at the foot of Haleakala. An individual was found in flower 
on the eastern slope of Haleakala, in the wet cliff ecosystem, in 2009; 
however, this plant has died (TNC 2007; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.). 
Collections were made before the plant died, and propagules outplanted 
in the Puu Mahoe Arboretum (three plants) and Olinda Rare Plant 
Facility (four plants) (Oppenheimer 2011b, in litt.). Botanists 
continue to search in areas with potentially suitable habitat for this 
plant (Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.). Phyllostegia haliakalae was last 
reported from the lowland mesic ecosystem on Molokai in 1928, and from 
the dry cliff and wet cliff ecosystems on Lanai in the early 1900s (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008). Currently no individuals are known in the wild on 
Maui, Molokai, or Lanai.
    Phyllostegia pilosa (NCN), a vine in the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
is known from east Maui (Wagner 1999, p. 274). There are two 
occurrences totaling seven individuals west of Puu o Kakae on east 
Maui, in the montane wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The 
individuals identified as P. pilosa on Molokai, at Kamoku Flats 
(montane wet ecosystem) and at Mooloa (lowland mesic ecosystem), have 
not been observed since the early 1900s (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Pittosporum halophilum (hoawa), a shrub or small tree in the 
pittosporum family (Pittosporaceae), is found on Molokai (Wood 2005, 
pp. 2, 41). This species was reported from Huelo islet, Mokapu Island, 
Okala Island, and Kukaiwaa peninsula. On Huelo islet, there were two 
individuals in 1994, and in 2001, only one individual remained (Wood et 
al. 2001, p. 12; Wood et al. 2002, pp. 18-19). The current status of 
this species on Huelo islet is unknown. On Mokapu Island, there were 15 
individuals in the coastal ecosystem in 2001, and in 2005, 10 
individuals remained. On Okala Island, there were two individuals in 
2005, and one individual on the sea cliff at Kukaiwaa peninsula 
(Wainene) (Wood 2005, pp. 2, 41). As of 2010, there were three 
occurrences totaling five individuals: Three individuals on Mokapu 
Island, one individual on Okala Island, and one individual on Kukaiwaa 
peninsula (Bakutis 2010, in litt.; Hobdy 2010, in litt.; Perlman 2010, 
in litt.). At least 17 individuals have been outplanted at 3 sites on 
the coastline of the nearby Kalaupapa peninsula (Garnett 2010a, in 
litt.).
    Pleomele fernaldii (hala pepe), a tree in the asparagus family 
(Asparagaceae), is found only on the island of Lanai (Wagner et al. 
1999i, p. 1,352; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 67). Historically known 
throughout Lanai, this species is currently found in the lowland dry, 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems, from 
Hulopaa and Kanoa gulches southeast to Waiakeakua and Puhielelu (St. 
John 1947, pp. 39-42 cited in St. John 1985, pp. 171, 177-179; HBMP 
2006; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 75; Oppenheimer 2010d, in litt.). 
Currently, there are several hundred to perhaps as many as 1,000 
individuals. The number of individuals has decreased by about one-half 
in the past 10 years (there were more than 2,000 individuals in 1999), 
with very little recruitment observed recently (Oppenheimer 2008d, in 
litt.).

[[Page 34481]]

    Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense (iliahi, Lanai sandalwood) is a 
tree in the sandalwood family (Santalaceae). Currently, S. haleakalae 
var. lanaiense is known from Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, in 26 
occurrences totaling fewer than 2,000 individuals (Wagner et al. 1999c, 
pp. 1,221-1,222; HBMP 2008; Harbaugh et al. 2010, pp. 834-835). On 
Molokai, there are more than 12 individuals in 4 occurrences from 
Kikiakala to Kamoku Flats and Puu Kokekole, with the largest 
concentration at Kumueli Gulch, in the montane mesic and lowland mesic 
ecosystems (Harbaugh et al. 2010, pp. 834-835). On Lanai, there are 
approximately 10 occurrences totaling 30 to 40 individuals: Kanepuu, in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem (5 individuals); the headwaters of Waiopae 
Gulch in the lowland wet ecosystem (3 individuals); the windward side 
of Hauola on the upper side of Waiopae Gulch in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (1 individual); the drainage to the north of Puhielelu Ridge 
and exclosure, in the headwaters of Lopa Gulch in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (3 individuals); 6 occurrences near Lanaihale in the montane 
wet ecosystem (21 individuals); and the mountains east of Lanai City in 
the lowland wet ecosystem (a few individuals) (HBMP 2008; Harbaugh et 
al. 2010, pp. 834-835; HBMP 2010; Wood 2010a, in litt.). On west Maui, 
there are eight single individual occurrences: Hanaulaiki Gulch in the 
lowland dry ecosystem; Kauaula and Puehuehunui Gulches in the lowland 
mesic, montane mesic, and wet cliff ecosystems; Kahanahaiki Gulch and 
Honokowai Gulch in the lowland wet ecosystem; Wakihuli in the wet cliff 
ecosystem; and Manawainui Gulch in the montane mesic and lowland dry 
ecosystems (HBMP 2008; Harbaugh et al. 2010, pp. 834-835; Wood 2010a, 
in litt.). On east Maui, there are 4 occurrences (10 individuals) in 
Auwahi, in the montane mesic, montane dry, and lowland dry ecosystems 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Harbaugh et al. 2010, pp. 834-835).
    Schiedea jacobii (NCN), a perennial herb or subshrub in the pink 
family (Caryophyllaceae), occurs only on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 
284). Discovered in 1992, the single occurrence consisted of nine 
individuals along wet cliffs between Hanawi Stream and Kuhiwa drainage 
(in Hanawi Natural Area Reserve), in the montane wet ecosystem on east 
Maui (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 286). By 1995, only four plants could be 
relocated in this location. It appeared that the other five known 
individuals had been destroyed by a landslide (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 
286). In 2004, one seedling was observed in the same location, and in 
2010, no individuals were relocated (Perlman 2010, in litt.). The State 
of Hawaii plans to outplant propagated individuals in a fenced area in 
Hanawi Natural Area Reserve in 2011 (Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.; 
Perlman 2010, in litt.).
    Schiedea laui (NCN), a perennial herb or subshrub in the pink 
family (Caryophyllaceae), is found only on Molokai (Wagner et al. 
2005b, pp. 90-92). In 1998, when this species was first observed, there 
were 19 individuals located in a cave along a narrow stream corridor at 
the base of a waterfall in the Kamakou Preserve, in the montane wet 
ecosystem (Wagner et al. 2005b, pp. 90-92). By 2000, only nine 
individuals with a few immature plants and seedlings were relocated, 
and in 2006, 13 plants were seen (Wagner et al. 2005b, pp. 90-92; PEPP 
2007, p. 57). Currently, there are 24 to 34 individuals in the same 
location in Kamakou Preserve (Bakutis 2010, in litt.).
    Schiedea salicaria (NCN), a shrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), occurs on Maui (Wagner et al. 1999j, pp. 519-520). 
It is historically known from a small area on west Maui, from Lahaina 
to Waikapu. Currently, this species is found in three occurrences: 
Kaunoahua gulch (500 to 1,000 individuals), Puu Hona (about 50 
individuals), and Waikapu Stream (3 to 5 individuals), in the lowland 
dry ecosystem on west Maui (TNC 2007; Oppenheimer 2010k, in litt.; 
Oppenheimer 2010l, in litt.). Hybrids and hybrid swarms (hybrids that 
can interbreed with other hybrids and parent species) between S. 
salicaria and S. menziesii are known on the western side of west Maui 
(Wagner et al. 2005b, p. 138).
    Stenogyne kauaulaensis (NCN), a vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), occurs on Maui. This recently described (2008) plant is 
found only along the southeastern rim of Kauaula Valley, in the montane 
mesic ecosystem on west Maui (TNC 2007; Wood and Oppenheimer 2008, pp. 
544-545). At the time S. kauaualuaensis was described, the authors 
reported a total of 15 individuals at one occurrence. However, one of 
the authors reports that due to the clonal (genetic duplicate) growth 
habit of this species, botanists believe it is currently represented by 
only three genetically distinct individuals (Oppenheimer 2010k, in 
litt.).
    Wikstroemia villosa (akia), a shrub or tree in the akia family 
(Thymelaeaceae), is found on Maui (Peterson 1999, pp. 1,290-1,291). 
Historically known from the lowland wet, montane wet, and montane mesic 
ecosystems on east and west Maui, this species is currently known from 
a recent discovery (2007) of one individual on the windward side of 
Haleakala (on east Maui), in the montane wet ecosystem (Peterson 1999, 
p. 1,291; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). As of 2010, there was one individual 
and one seedling at the same location (Oppenheimer 2010m, in litt.). In 
addition, three individuals have been outplanted in Waikamoi Preserve 
(Oppenheimer 2010m, in litt.).

Animals

    Newcomb's tree snail (Newcombia cumingi), a member of the family 
Achatinellidae and the endemic Hawaiian subfamily Achatinellinae 
(Newcomb 1853, p. 25), is known only from the island of Maui (Cowie et 
al. 1995, p. 62). All members of this species have sinistral (left-
coiling), oblong, spindle-shaped shells of five to seven whorls that 
are coarsely sculptured (Cooke and Kondo 1960, pp. 9, 33). Newcomb's 
tree snail reaches an adult length of approximately 0.8 in (21 mm) and 
its shell is mottled in shades of brown that blend with the bark of its 
native host plant, Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) (Pilsbry and Cooke 
1912-1914, p. 10; Thacker and Hadfield 1998, p. 4). The exact life span 
and fecundity of Newcomb's tree snails is unknown, but they attain 
adult size within 4 to 5 years (Thacker and Hadfield 1998, p. 2). 
Newcomb's tree snail is believed to exhibit the low reproductive rate 
of other Hawaiian tree snails belonging to the same family (Thacker and 
Hadfield 1998, p. 2). It feeds on fungi and algae that grow on the 
leaves and trunks of its host plant (Pilsbry and Cooke 1912-1914, p. 
103). Historically, this species was distributed from the west Maui 
mountains (near Lahaina and Wailuku) to the slopes of Haleakala 
(Makawao) on east Maui (Pilsbry and Cooke 1912-1914, p. 10). In 1994, a 
small population of Newcomb's tree snail was found on a single ridge on 
the northeastern slope of the west Maui mountains, in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (Thacker and Hadfield 1998, p. 3; TNC 2007). Eighty-six 
snails were documented in the same location in 1998; however, in 2006, 
only nine individuals were located (Thacker and Hadfield 1998, p. 2; 
Hadfield 2007, p. 8).
    Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail, pupu kani oe), a member 
of the family Achatinellidae and the endemic Hawaiian subfamily 
Achatinellinae, is known only from the island of Lanai (Pilsbry and 
Cooke 1912-1914, p. 86). The shell may coil to the right (dextral) or 
left (sinistral), but appears to be

[[Page 34482]]

constant within a population. The oblong to ovate shells of the adult 
are 0.6 to 0.8 in (16 to 20 mm) long, have 5 to 7 whorls, and range in 
color from rusty brown to white, with some individuals having bands 
around the shells. The shell has a distinctive keel that runs along the 
last whorl, and is more distinctive in juveniles (Pilsbry and Cooke 
1912-1914, pp. 86-88). Adults may attain an age exceeding 15 to 20 
years, and reproductive output is low, with an adult snail giving birth 
to 4 to 6 live young per year (Hadfield and Miller 1989, pp. 10-12). 
Partulina semicarinata is arboreal and nocturnal, and grazes on fungi 
and algae growing on leaf surfaces (Pilsbry and Cooke 1912-1914, p. 
103). This snail species is found on the following native host plants: 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Broussaisia arguta (kanawao), Psychotria spp. 
(kopiko), Coprosma spp. (pilo), Melicope spp. (alani), and dead 
Cibotium glaucum (tree fern, hapuu). Occasionally the snail is found on 
nonnative plants such as Psidium guajava (guava), Cordyline australis 
(New Zealand tea tree), and Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax) (Hadfield 
1994, p. 2). Historically, P. semicarinata was found in wet and mesic 
Metrosideros polymorpha forests on Lanai. There are no historical 
population estimates for this snail, but qualitative accounts of 
Hawaiian tree snails indicates they were widespread and abundant, 
possibly numbering in the tens of thousands between the 1800s and early 
1900s (Hadfield 1986, p. 69). In 1993, 105 individuals of P. 
semicarinata were found during surveys conducted in its historical 
range. Subsequent surveys in 1994, 2000, 2001, and 2005 documented 55, 
12, 4, and 29 individuals, respectively, in the lowland wet, montane 
wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in central Lanai (Hadfield 2005, pp. 3-5; 
TNC 2007).
    Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail, pupu kani oe), a member of 
the family Achatinellidae and the endemic Hawaiian subfamily 
Achatinellinae, is known only from the island of Lanai (Pilsbry and 
Cooke 1912-1914, p. 86). The shell may coil to the right (dextral) or 
left (sinistral), and both types can be found within a single 
population. The oblong to ovate shells of the adult are 0.5 to 0.6 in 
(14 to 16 mm) long, have 5 to 7 whorls, and have a white base color 
with no bands or a variable number of spiral bands around the shells 
(Pilsbry and Cooke 1912-1914, pp. 67, 83-86). Adults may attain an age 
exceeding 15 to 20 years, and reproductive output is low, with an adult 
snail giving birth to 4 to 6 live young per year (Hadfield and Miller 
1989, pp. 10-12). Partulina variabilis is arboreal and nocturnal, and 
grazes on fungi and algae growing on leaf surfaces (Pilsbry and Cooke 
1912-1914, p. 103). This snail is found on the following native host 
plants: Metrosideros polymorpha, Broussaisia arguta, Psychotria spp., 
Coprosma spp., Melicope spp., and dead Cibotium glaucum. Occasionally 
Partulina variabilis is found on nonnative plants such as Psidium 
guajava and Cordyline australis (Hadfield 1994, p. 2). Historically, 
Partulina variabilis was found in wet and mesic Metrosideros polymorpha 
forests on Lanai. There are no historical population estimates for this 
snail, but qualitative accounts of Hawaiian tree snails indicate they 
were widespread and abundant, possibly numbering in the tens of 
thousands between the 1800s and early 1900s (Hadfield 1986, p. 69). In 
1993, 111 individuals of Partulina variabilis were found during surveys 
conducted in its historical range. Subsequent surveys in 1994, 2000, 
2001, and 2005 documented 175, 14, 6, and 90 individuals, respectively, 
in the lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in central 
Lanai (Hadfield 2005, pp. 3-5; TNC 2007).

Summary of Factors Affecting the 40 Species Proposed or Reevaluated for 
Listing

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533) and its implementing 
regulations (50 CFR part 424) set forth the procedures for adding 
species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. A species may be determined to be an endangered or threatened 
species due to one or more of the five factors described in section 
4(a)(1) of the Act: (A) The present or threatened destruction, 
modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or manmade 
factors affecting its continued existence. Listing actions may be 
warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly or in 
combination. Each of these factors is discussed below.
    In considering what factors might constitute threats to a species; 
we must look beyond the exposure of the species to a particular factor 
to evaluate whether the species may respond to that factor in a way 
that causes actual impacts to the species. If there is exposure to a 
factor and the species responds negatively, the factor may be a threat 
and, during the status review, we attempt to determine how significant 
a threat it is. The threat is significant if it drives, or contributes 
to, the risk of extinction of the species such that the species 
warrants listing as endangered or threatened as those terms are defined 
in the Act. However, the identification of factors that could impact a 
species negatively may not be sufficient to warrant listing the species 
under the Act. The information must include evidence sufficient to show 
that these factors are operative threats that act on the species to the 
point that the species meets the definition of endangered or threatened 
under the Act.
    If we determine that the level of threat posed to a species by one 
or more of the five listing factors is such that the species meets the 
definition of either endangered or threatened under section 3 of the 
Act, that species may then be proposed for listing. The Act defines an 
endangered species as ``in danger of extinction throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range,'' and a threatened species as 
``likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future 
throughout all or a significant portion of its range.'' The threats to 
each of the individual 40 species proposed for listing here are 
summarized in Table 3, and discussed in detail below.

Assumptions

    We acknowledge that the specific nature of the threats to the 
individual species being proposed for listing are not completely 
understood. Scientific research directed toward each of the species 
proposed for listing is limited because of their rarity and the 
challenging logistics associated with conducting field work in Hawaii 
(e.g., areas are typically remote, difficult to access and work in, and 
expensive to survey in a comprehensive manner). However, there is 
information available on many of the threats that act on Hawaiian 
ecosystems, and, for some ecosystems, these threats are well studied 
and understood. Each of the native species that occurs in Hawaiian 
ecosystems suffers from exposure to those threats to differing degrees. 
For the purposes of our listing determination, our assumption is that 
the threats that act at the ecosystem level also act on each of the 
species that occurs in those ecosystems (although in some cases we have 
additionally identified species-specific threats, such as predation by 
nonnative invertebrates). Similarly, for the purposes of our critical 
habitat determinations, the physical or biological features that 
support an adequately functioning ecosystem are

[[Page 34483]]

the physical or biological features required by the species that occur 
in those ecosystems (see ``Critical Habitat'' section, below).
    The following constitutes a list of ecosystem-level threats that 
affect the species proposed or reevaluated for listing in all 11 
ecosystems on the islands of Maui Nui:
    (1) Foraging and trampling of native plants by ungulates, including 
feral pigs (Sus scrofa), goats, cattle (Bos taurus), axis deer (Axis 
axis), or mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), which can result in 
severe erosion of watersheds because these mammals inhabit terrain that 
is often steep and remote (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63). Foraging and 
trampling events destabilize soils that support native plant 
communities, bury or damage native plants, and have adverse water 
quality effects due to runoff over exposed soils.
    (2) Disturbance of soils by feral pigs from rooting, which can 
create fertile seedbeds for alien plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
65).
    (3) Increased nutrient availability as a result of pigs rooting in 
nitrogen-poor soils, which facilitates establishment of alien weeds. 
Alien weeds are more adapted to nutrient rich soils than native plants 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63), and rooting activity creates open 
areas in forests allowing alien species to completely replace native 
stands.
    (4) Ungulate destruction of seeds and seedlings of native plant 
species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63), which facilitates the 
conversion of disturbed areas from native to nonnative vegetative 
communities.
    (5) Rodent damage to plant propagules, seedlings, or native trees, 
which changes forest composition and structure (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 67).
    (6) Feeding or defoliation of native plants from alien insects, 
which can reduce geographic ranges of some species because of damage 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 71).
    (7) Alien insect predation on native insects, which affects 
pollination of native plant species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 71).
    (8) Significant changes in nutrient cycling processes because of 
large numbers of alien invertebrates such as earthworms, ants, slugs, 
isopods, millipedes, and snails, resulting in changes to the 
composition and structure of plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 73).
    Each of the above threats is discussed in more detail below, and 
summarized in Table 3. The most-often cited effects of nonnative plants 
on native plant species are competition and displacement; competition 
may be for water, light, or nutrients, or it may involve allelopathy 
(chemical inhibition of other plants). Alien plants may displace native 
species of plants by preventing their reproduction, usually by shading 
and taking up available sites for seedling establishment. Alien plant 
invasions may also alter entire ecosystems by forming monotypic stands, 
changing fire characteristics of native communities, altering soil-
water regimes, changing nutrient cycling, or encouraging other 
nonnative organisms (Smith 1989, pp. 61-69; Vitousek et al. 1987).

[[Page 34484]]



                                                                           TABLE 3--Summary of Primary Threats Identified for Each of the 40 Maui Nui Species
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                          Factor A                                        Factor B                            Factor C                            Factor D     Factor E
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                                  Predation/      Predation/     Inadequate      Other
            Species                   Ecosystem         Agriculture                Non native                 Stochastic      Climate      Over-                   Predation/    Herbivory by   Herbivory  by     existing     species-
                                                         and urban     Ungulates      plants      Fire          events        change    utilization    Disease    Herbivory by     other NN           NN         regulatory    specific
                                                        development                                                                                                ungulates     vertebrates    invertebrates    mechanisms     threats
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plants
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Bidens campylotheca ssp.     LD, LM, MM, MW, DC,  ..............  P, G, D              X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D        R              ...............            X   HY
     pentamera.                   WC
    Bidens campylotheca ssp.     LW, MW, WC           ..............  P, G, D              X   ..........  F, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D        R              S                          X   HY
     waihoiensis.
    Bidens conjuncta...........  LW, MW, WC           ..............  P, G                 X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G           R              S                          X   ..........
    Calamagrostis hillebrandii.  MW                   ..............  P                    X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              .............  ...............            X   ..........
    Canavalia pubescens........  CO, LD               X               P, G, D, C           X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D, C     .............  ...............            X   ..........
    Cyanea asplenifolia........  LM, LW               ..............  P, G, D, C           X   ..........  L, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D, C     R              S                          X   ..........
    Cyanea duvalliorum.........  LW, MW               ..............  P                    X   ..........  F, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   ..........
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp.       LW, WC               ..............  P, G, D              X           X   L, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D        R              S                          X   LN
     grimesiana.
    Cyanea horrida.............  MM, MW, WC           ..............  P                    X   ..........  DR, F, L, TF, H          X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   LN
    Cyanea kunthiana...........  LW, MM, MW           ..............  P                    X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   ..........
    Cyanea magnicalyx..........  LW, MM, WC           ..............  P                    X           X   L, TF, H                 X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   LN
    Cyanea maritae.............  LW, MW               ..............  P                    X   ..........  L, TF, H                 X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   LN, T
    Cyanea mauiensis...........  LM, DC               ..............  P                    X           X   L, TF, H                 X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   LN
    Cyanea munroi..............  WC                   ..............  G, D                 X   ..........  TF, H                    X   ...........  ..........  G, D           R              S                          X   LN
    Cyanea obtusa..............  LD, MM               ..............  P, G, D, C           X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D, C     R              S                          X   HY, LN
    Cyanea profuga.............  LM, MW               ..............  P, G                 X   ..........  F, L, RF, TF, H          X   ...........  ..........  P, G           R              S                          X   LN
    Cyanea solanacea...........  LM, LW, MM, MW       ..............  P, G                 X   ..........  L, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P, G           R              S                          X   LN
    Cyrtandra ferripilosa......  MM, MW               ..............  P, G         ..........  ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G           .............  ...............            X   LN
    Cyrtandra filipes..........  LM, LW, WC           ..............  P, G, D              X   ..........  L, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D        .............  S                          X   ..........
    Cyrtandra oxybapha.........  MM, MW               ..............  P, G, C              X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G, C        .............  ...............            X   ..........
    Festuca molokaiensis.......  LM                   ..............  G                    X           X   DR, H                    X   ...........  ..........  G              .............  ...............            X   LN
    Geranium hanaense..........  MW                   ..............  P                    X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              .............  ...............            X   ..........
    Geranium hillebrandii......  MM, MW               ..............  P                    X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              .............  S                          X   ..........
    Mucuna sloanei var.          LW                   ..............  P, C                 X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, C           R              ...............            X   ..........
     persericea.
    Myrsine vaccinioides.......  MW                   ..............  P                    X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   ..........
    Peperomia subpetiolata.....  MW                   ..............  P                    X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   HY, LN
    Phyllostegia bracteata.....  LW, MM, MW, SB, WC   ..............  P, C                 X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, C           .............  S                          X   LN
    Phyllostegia haliakalae....  LM, DC, WC           ..............  C                    X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  C              .............  S                          X   LN
    Phyllostegia pilosa........  LM, MW               ..............  P, G                 X   ..........  H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G           .............  S                          X   LN
    Pittosporum halophilum.....  CO                   ..............  P                    X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  P              R              ...............            X   LN
    Pleomele fernaldii.........  LD, LM, LW, DC, WC   ..............  D, M                 X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  D, M           R              ...............            X   NR
    Santalum haleakalae var.     LD, LM, LW, MD, MM,  ..............  P, G, D, M           X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  P, G, D, M     R              S                          X   ..........
     lanaiensis.                  MW, WC
    Schiedea jacobii...........  MW                   ..............  G, D, C      ..........  ..........  DR, L, TF, H             X   ...........  ..........  G, D, C        .............  S                          X   LN
    Schiedea laui..............  MW                   ..............  ...........          X   ..........  F, L, H                  X   ...........  ..........  .............  R              S                          X   LN
    Schiedea salicaria.........  LD                   ..............  G, D, C              X           X   H                        X   ...........  ..........  D, C, G        .............  ...............            X   HY
    Stenogyne kauaulaensis.....  MM                   ..............  ...........          X           X   DR, L, RF, H             X   ...........  ..........  .............  .............  S                          X   LN
    Wikstroemia villosa........  LW, MM, MW           ..............  P                    X   ..........  L, H                     X   ...........  ..........  P              R              S                          X   LN, T
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Snails
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Newcombia cumingi            LW                   ..............  ...........          X   ..........  DR, H                    X           Pt          Pt   .............  R, JC          Flatworm                   X   LN
     (Newcomb's tree snail).                                                                                                                                                                   Pt
                                                                                                                                                                                               Snails
    Partulina semicarinata       LW, MW, WC           ..............  D, M         ..........  ..........  DR, H                    X           Pt          Pt   .............  R, JC          Flatworm                   X   LN
     (Lanai tree snail).                                                                                                                                                                       Pt
                                                                                                                                                                                               Snails
    Partulina variabilis (Lanai  LW, MW, WC           ..............  D, M         ..........  ..........  DR, H                    X           Pt          Pt   .............  R, JC          Flatworm                   X   LN
     tree snail).                                                                                                                                                                              Pt
                                                                                                                                                                                               Snails
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Factor A = Habitat Modification; Factor B = Overutilization; Factor C = Disease or Predation; Factor D = Inadequacy of Regulatory Mechanisms; Factor E = Other Species-Specific Threats.
CO = Coastal; LD = Lowland Dry; LM = Lowland Mesic; LW = Lowland Wet; MD = Montane Dry; MM = Montane Mesic; MW = Montane Wet; SB = Subalpine; DC = Dry Cliff; WC = Wet Cliff.
P = Pigs; G = Goats; D = Axis Deer; M = Mouflon; C = Cattle; R = Rats; S = Slugs; JC = Jackson's chameleon.
F = Flooding; DR = Drought; H = Hurricane; L = Landslide; T = Trampling; RF = Rockfalls; TF = Treefalls.
LN = Limited Numbers; HY = Hybridization; NN = Nonnative; NR = No Regeneration; Pt = Potential.


[[Page 34485]]

A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment 
of Its Habitat or Range

    The Hawaiian Islands are located over 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from the 
nearest continent. This isolation has allowed the few plants and 
animals that arrived in the Hawaiian Islands to evolve into many highly 
varied and endemic species (species that occur nowhere else in the 
world). The only native terrestrial mammals in the Hawaiian Islands are 
two bat taxa, the extant Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) 
and an extinct, unnamed insectivorous bat (Ziegler 2002, p. 245). The 
native plants of the Hawaiian Islands, therefore, evolved in the 
absence of mammalian predators, browsers, or grazers. As a result, many 
of the native species have lost unneeded defenses against threats such 
as mammalian predation and competition with aggressive, weedy plant 
species that are typical of continental environments (Loope 1992, p. 
11; Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45; Wagner et al. 1999l, pp. 3-6). For 
example, Carlquist (in Carlquist and Cole 1974, p. 29) notes ``Hawaiian 
plants are notably free from many characteristics thought to be 
deterrents to herbivores (toxins, oils, resins, stinging hairs, coarse 
texture).'' Native Hawaiian plants are therefore highly vulnerable to 
the impacts of introduced mammals and alien plants. In addition, 
species restricted and adapted to highly specialized locations (e.g., 
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum) are particularly 
vulnerable to changes (from nonnative species, hurricanes, fire, and 
climate change) in their habitat (Carlquist and Cole 1974, pp. 28-29; 
Loope 1992, pp. 3-6; Stone 1989, pp. 88-95).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Agriculture and Urban 
Development
    The consequences of past land use practices such as agricultural or 
urban development have resulted in little or no native vegetation below 
2,000 ft (600 m) throughout the Hawaiian Islands (TNC 2007), largely 
impacting the coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, and lowland wet 
ecosystems. Although agriculture has been declining in importance, 
large tracts of former agricultural lands are being converted into 
residential areas or left fallow (TNC 2007). In addition, Hawaii's 
population increased almost 7 percent in the past 10 years, further 
increasing demands on limited land and water resources in the islands 
(Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism 2010).
    Development and urbanization of coastal and lowland dry ecosystems 
on Maui are a serious threat to one species proposed for listing in 
this rule, Canavalia pubescens, which is dependent on these ecosystems 
and is currently found only in east Maui. Two individuals at Palauea-
Keahou were destroyed by development prior to 2001 (Oppenheimer 2000, 
in litt.). Future development plans for this area include a golf course 
and associated infrastructure (Altenberg 2007, p. 2-5). Currently, 
fewer than 20 known individuals of C. pubescens persist in this area 
(Altenberg 2010, in litt.).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Introduced Ungulates
    Introduced mammals have greatly impacted the native vegetation, as 
well as the native fauna, of the Hawaiian Islands. Impacts to the 
native species and ecosystems of Hawaii accelerated following the 
arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778. The Cook expedition and 
subsequent explorers intentionally introduced a European race of pigs 
or boars and other livestock, such as goats, to serve as food sources 
for seagoing explorers (Tomich 1986, pp. 120-121; Loope 1998, p. 752). 
The mild climate of the islands, combined with the lack of competitors 
or predators, led to the successful establishment of large populations 
of these introduced mammals, to the detriment of native Hawaiian 
species and ecosystems. The presence of introduced alien mammals is 
considered one of the primary factors underlying the alteration and 
degradation of native plant communities and habitats on Molokai, Lanai, 
and Maui. Ten ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland 
wet, montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, subalpine, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff) on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui and their associated species are 
currently threatened by the destruction or degradation of habitat due 
to nonnative ungulates (hoofed mammals), including pigs, goats, axis 
deer, mouflon, and cattle. Thirty-five of the 37 plant species and both 
species of Partulina tree snails (Partulina semicarinata and P. 
variabilis) proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule are 
threatened by habitat degradation or destruction by ungulates (Table 
3).
    Pigs have been described as the most pervasive and disruptive 
nonnative influence on the unique native forests of the Hawaiian 
Islands, and are widely recognized as one of the greatest current 
threats to forest ecosystems in Hawaii (Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; 
Anderson and Stone 1993, p. 195). European pigs, introduced to Hawaii 
by Captain James Cook in 1778, hybridized with domesticated Polynesian 
pigs, became feral, and invaded forested areas, especially wet and 
mesic forests and dry areas at high elevations. The Hawaii Territorial 
Board of Agriculture and Forestry started a feral pig eradication 
project in the early 1900s that continued through 1958, removing 
170,000 pigs from forests Statewide (Diong 1982, p. 63). Feral pigs are 
currently present on Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii.
    These feral animals are extremely destructive and have both direct 
and indirect impacts on native plant communities. While rooting in the 
earth in search of invertebrates and plant material, pigs directly 
impact native plants by disturbing and destroying vegetative cover, and 
trampling plants and seedlings. It has been estimated that at a 
conservative rooting rate of 2 square (sq)-yards (yd) per minute, with 
only 4 hours of foraging a day, a single pig could disturb over 1,600 
sq-yd of groundcover per week (Anderson et al. 2007, p. 2).
    Pigs may also reduce or eliminate plant regeneration by damaging or 
eating seeds and seedlings (further discussion of predation by 
nonnative ungulates is provided under Factor C, below). Pigs are a 
major vector for the establishment and spread of competing invasive 
nonnative plant species by dispersing plant seeds on their hooves and 
fur, and in their feces (Diong 1982, pp. 169-170), which also serves to 
fertilize disturbed soil (Matson 1990, p. 245; Siemann et al. 2009, p. 
547). Pigs feed on the fruits of many nonnative plants, such as 
Passiflora tarminiana (banana poka) and Psidium cattleianum (strawberry 
guava), spreading the seeds of these invasive species through their 
feces as they travel in search of food. Pigs also feed on native 
plants, such as Hawaiian tree ferns that they root up to eat the core 
of the trunk. These cored trunks then fill with rainwater and serve as 
breeding sites for introduced mosquitos that spread nonnative avian 
malaria, with devastating consequences for Hawaii's native forest birds 
(Baker 1975, p. 79). In addition, rooting pigs contribute to erosion by 
clearing vegetation and creating large areas of disturbed soil, 
especially on slopes (Smith 1985, pp. 190, 192, 196, 200, 204, 230-231; 
Stone 1985, pp. 254-255, 262-264; Medeiros et al. 1986, pp. 27-28; 
Scott et al. 1986, pp. 360-361; Tomich 1986, pp. 120-126; Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, pp. 64-65; Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; Loope et al. 1991, pp. 
1-21; Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 52). Ten of the Maui Nui ecosystems 
(coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland

[[Page 34486]]

wet, montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, subalpine, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff) and their associated species are currently threatened by the 
destruction or degradation of habitat due to pigs.
    Goats native to the Middle East and India were also successfully 
introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1700s. Actions to 
control feral goat populations began in the 1920s (Tomich 1986, pp. 
152-153); however, they still occupy a wide variety of habitats on 
Molokai and Maui and to a lesser degree on Lanai, where they consume 
native vegetation, trample roots and seedlings, accelerate erosion, and 
promote the invasion of alien plants (van Riper and van Riper 1982, pp. 
34-35; Stone 1985, p. 261; Kessler 2010, pers. comm.). Goats are able 
to access, and forage in, extremely rugged terrain, and they have a 
high reproductive capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 1980, pp. C-19, C-20; 
Culliney 1988, p. 336; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 64). Because of these 
factors, goats are believed to have completely eliminated some plant 
species from islands (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 21). Goats can be 
highly destructive to native vegetation, and contribute to erosion by 
eating young trees and young shoots of plants before they can become 
established, creating trails that damage native vegetative cover, 
promoting erosion by destabilizing substrate and creating gullies that 
convey water, and dislodging stones from ledges that can cause 
rockfalls and landslides and damage vegetation below (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, pp. 63-64). Nine of the described ecosystems on Molokai, Lanai, 
and Maui (coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane 
dry, montane mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff) and their 
associated species are currently threatened by the destruction or 
degradation of habitat due to goats.
    Axis deer were first introduced to Molokai in 1868, Lanai in 1920, 
and Maui in 1959 (Hobdy 1993, p. 207; Erdman 1996, pers. comm. cited in 
Waring 1996, in litt., p. 2; Hess 2008, p. 2). On Molokai, axis deer 
have likely spread throughout the island at all elevations (from the 
coast to the summit area at 4,961 ft (1,512 m)) (Kessler 2011, pers. 
comm.). The most current population estimate of axis deer on Molokai is 
between 4,000 and 5,000 individuals (Anderson 2003, p. 130). It is 
likely this is an underestimate of the total number of individuals as 
it was published almost a decade ago, and little management for deer 
control has been implemented. On Lanai, as of 2007, axis deer were 
reported to number approximately 6,000 to 8,000 individuals (The Aloha 
Insider 2008, in litt.; WCities 2010, in litt.). On Maui, five adults 
were released east of Kihei in 1959 (Hobdy 1993, p. 207; Hess 2008, p. 
2). By 1968, the population was estimated to be 85 to 90 animals, and 
by 1995, there were over 500 individuals on Ulupalakua Ranch alone 
(Erdman 1996, pers. comm. cited in Waring 1996, in litt., p. 2). As of 
2001, there was concern that their numbers on Maui could expand to 
between 15,000 to 20,000 or more individuals within a few years 
(Anderson 2001, in litt.; Nishibayashi 2001, in litt.). According to 
Medeiros (2010a, pers. comm.) axis deer can be found in all but the 
uppermost ecosystems (subalpine and alpine) and montane bogs on Maui. 
Medeiros (2010a, pers. comm.) also observed that axis deer are 
increasing at such high rates on Maui that native forests are changing 
in unprecedented ways. According to Medeiros (2010a, pers. comm.), 
native plants will only survive in habitat that is fenced or otherwise 
protected from the grazing and trampling effects of axis deer. Kessler 
(2010, pers. comm.) and Hess (2010, pers. comm.) report axis deer up to 
9,000 ft (2,743 m) in elevation on Maui, and Kessler suggests that no 
ecosystem is safe from the negative impacts of these animals. Montane 
bogs are also susceptible to impacts from axis deer. As the native 
vegetation dies off from the combined effects of grazing and trampling 
by axis deer, the soil dries out, and invasive nonnative plants gain a 
foothold. Eventually, the bog habitat and its associated native plants 
and animals are replaced by a grassland, shrubland, or forest habitat 
dominated by nonnative plants.
    Axis deer are primarily grazers, but also browse numerous palatable 
plant species including those grown as commercial crops (Waring 1996, 
p. 3; Simpson 2001, in litt.). They prefer the lower, more openly 
vegetated areas for browsing and grazing; however, during episodes of 
drought (e.g., from 1998-2001 on Maui (Medeiros 2010a, pers. comm.)), 
axis deer move into urban and forested areas in search of food (Waring 
1996, in litt., p. 5; Nishibayashi 2001, in litt.). Like goats, axis 
deer can be highly destructive to native vegetation and contribute to 
erosion by eating young trees and young shoots of plants before they 
can become established, creating trails that can damage native 
vegetative cover, promoting erosion by destabilizing substrate and 
creating gullies that convey water, and by dislodging stones from 
ledges that can cause rockfalls and landslides and damage vegetation 
below (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 63-64). Nine of the described Maui 
Nui ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, 
montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff) and 
their associated species are currently threatened by the destruction or 
degradation of habitat due to axis deer.
    The mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), native to Asia Minor, was 
introduced to the islands of Lanai and Hawaii in the 1950s as a managed 
game species, and has become widely established on these islands 
(Tomich 1986, pp. 163-168; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 66; Hess 2008, p. 
1). Mouflon have high reproduction rates; for example, the original 
population of 11 individuals on the island of Hawaii has increased to 
more than 2,500 in 36 years, even though hunted as a game animal (Hess 
2008, p. 3). Mouflon only form large groups when breeding, thus 
limiting control techniques and hunting efficiency (Hess 2008, p. 3). 
Mouflon sheep are both grazers and browsers, and have decimated vast 
areas of native forest and shrubland through browsing and bark 
stripping (Stone 1985, p. 271; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 63, 66; Hess 
2008, p. 3). In range studies done on the effects of mouflon grazing 
and browsing on the island of Hawaii, plant species found to be most 
affected were Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Mauna Kea 
silversword), an endangered species; Acacia koa; Geranium spp. 
(hinahina); Sophora chrysophylla; Vaccinium spp. (ohelo); and native 
grasses (Giffin 1981, pp. 22-23; Scowcroft and Conrad 1992, pp. 628-
662; Hess 2008, p. 3). Mouflon also create trails and pathways through 
thick vegetation, leading to increased runoff and erosion through soil 
compaction. In some areas, the interaction of browsing and soil 
compaction leads to a change from native rainforest to grassy 
scrublands (Hess 2008, p. 3). Seven of the described ecosystems 
(coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, dry 
cliff, and wet cliff) on Lanai and their associated species are 
currently threatened by the destruction or degradation of habitat due 
to mouflon sheep.
    Cattle (Bos taurus), the wild progenitors of which were native to 
Europe, northern Africa, and southwestern Asia, were introduced to the 
Hawaiian Islands in 1793. Large feral herds (as many as 12,000 on the 
island of Hawaii) developed as a result of restrictions on killing 
cattle decreed by King Kamehameha I (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 40). 
While small cattle ranches were developed on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, west 
Maui, and

[[Page 34487]]

Kahoolawe, very large ranches of tens of thousands of acres were 
created on east Maui and Hawaii Island (Stone 1985, pp. 256, 260; 
Broadbent 2010, in litt.). Logging of native Acacia koa was combined 
with establishment of cattle ranches, quickly converting native forest 
to grassland (Tomich 1986, p. 140; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 47). 
Feral cattle can presently be found on the islands of Maui and Hawaii, 
where ranching is still a major commercial activity. According to 
Kessler (2011, pers. comm.), there are approximately 300 individuals 
roaming east Maui up to the alpine ecosystem (i.e., 1,000 to 9,900 ft 
(305 to 3,000 m) elevation) with occasional observations on west Maui. 
Cattle eat native vegetation, trample roots and seedlings, cause 
erosion, create disturbed areas into which alien plants invade, and 
spread seeds of alien plants in their feces and on their bodies. The 
forest in areas grazed by cattle degrades to grassland pasture, and 
plant cover is reduced for many years following removal of cattle from 
an area. In addition, several alien grasses and legumes purposely 
introduced for cattle forage have become noxious weeds (Tomich 1986, 
pp. 140-150; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 29). Five of the described 
ecosystems (lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane mesic, and 
montane wet) on Maui and their associated species are currently 
threatened by the destruction or degradation of habitat due to cattle.
    In summary, the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing and 
that are dependent upon the 10 ecosystems identified in this proposed 
rule (coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, 
montane mesic, montane wet, subalpine, dry cliff, and wet cliff) are 
exposed to both direct and indirect negative impacts of feral ungulates 
(pigs, goats, axis deer, mouflon, and cattle). These negative impacts 
result in the destruction and degradation of habitat for the native 
species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui. The effects of these nonnative 
animals include the destruction of vegetative cover; trampling of 
plants and seedlings; direct consumption of native vegetation; soil 
disturbance; dispersal of alien plant seeds on hooves and coats, and 
through the spread of seeds in feces; and creation of open disturbed 
areas conducive to further invasion by nonnative pest plant species. 
All of these impacts lead to the subsequent conversion of a plant 
community dominated by native species to one dominated by nonnative 
species (see ``Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative 
Plants,'' below). In addition, because these mammals inhabit terrain 
that is often steep and remote (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 59), 
foraging and trampling contributes to severe erosion of watersheds and 
degradation of streams. As early as 1900, there was increasing concern 
expressed about the integrity of island watersheds, due to effects of 
ungulates and other factors, leading to the establishment of a 
professional forestry program emphasizing soil and water conservation 
(Nelson 1989, p. 3).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative Plants
    Native vegetation on all of the main Hawaiian Islands has undergone 
extreme alteration because of past and present land management 
practices, including ranching, the deliberate introduction of nonnative 
plants and animals, and agricultural development (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, pp. 27, 58). The original native flora of Hawaii (species that 
were present before humans arrived) consisted of about 1,000 taxa, 89 
percent of which were endemic (species that occur only in the Hawaiian 
Islands). Over 800 plant taxa have been introduced from elsewhere, and 
nearly 100 of these have become pests (e.g., injurious plants) in 
Hawaii (Smith 1985, p. 180; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 73; Gagne and 
Cuddihy 1999, p. 45). Of these 100 nonnative pest plant species, close 
to 70 species have altered the habitat of 36 of the 40 species proposed 
or reevaluated for listing (only Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Schiedea 
jacobii, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis are not directly 
impacted by nonnative plants; see Table 3). Some of the nonnative 
plants were brought to Hawaii by various groups of people, including 
the Polynesians, for food or cultural reasons. Plantation owners (and 
the territorial government of Hawaii), alarmed at the reduction of 
water resources for their crops caused by the destruction of native 
forest cover by grazing feral and domestic animals, introduced 
nonnative trees for reforestation. Ranchers intentionally introduced 
pasture grasses and other nonnative plants for agriculture, and 
sometimes inadvertently introduced weeds as well. Other plants were 
brought to Hawaii for their potential horticultural value (Scott et al. 
1986, pp. 361-363; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 73).
    Nonnative plants adversely impact native habitat in Hawaii, 
including the 10 Maui Nui ecosystems that support the 40 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing, and directly adversely impact 36 
of these 40 species, by: (1) Modifying the availability of light; (2) 
altering soil-water regimes; (3) modifying nutrient cycling; (4) 
altering the fire regime affecting native plant communities (e.g., 
successive fires that burn farther and farther into native habitat, 
destroying native plants and removing habitat for native species by 
altering microclimatic conditions to favor alien species); and (5) 
ultimately, converting native-dominated plant communities to nonnative 
plant communities (Smith 1985, pp. 180-181; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
74; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73; Vitousek et al. 1997, p. 6). 
Below, we have organized a list of nonnative plants by their ecosystems 
followed by a discussion of the specific negative effects of those 
nonnative plants on the species proposed or reevaluated for listing 
here.
Nonnative Plants in the Coastal Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten Pittosporum halophilum and 
Canavalia pubescens, the two species proposed for listing in this rule 
that inhabit the coastal ecosystem on Molokai and Lanai, include the 
understory and subcanopy species Cenchrus ciliaris (buffelgrass), 
Kalanchoe pinnata (air plant), Lantana camara (lantana), Leucaena 
leucocephala (koa haole), and Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush) (HBMP 
2008). Nonnative canopy species that threaten the two species proposed 
for listing include Acacia farnesiana (klu) and Prosopis pallida 
(kiawe) (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose serious and 
ongoing threats to the two species proposed for listing that depend on 
this ecosystem (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below).
Nonnative Plants in the Lowland Dry Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the six species (Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Canavalia pubescens, Cyanea obtusa, 
Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Schiedea 
salicaria) proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule that 
inhabit the lowland dry ecosystem on Lanai and Maui include the 
understory and subcanopy species Ageratina adenophora (Maui pamakani), 
Leucaena leucocephala, and Neonotonia wightii (glycine) (HBMP 2008). 
Nonnative canopy species that threaten the six species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing include Acacia farnesiana, Prosopis pallida, 
and Schinus terebinthifolius (christmasberry) (HBMP 2008). In addition, 
the six species proposed or reevaluated for listing are threatened by 
the nonnative grasses Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge),

[[Page 34488]]

Cenchrus ciliaris, and Melinis repens (natal redtop) (HBMP 2008). See 
``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts'' (below) for specific 
threats each of these nonnative plant species pose to the six species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing that depend on this ecosystem.
Nonnative Plants in the Lowland Mesic Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the 11 species (Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyanea profuga, 
Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, Festuca molokaiensis, Phyllostegia 
haliakalae, Phyllostegia pilosa, Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Schiedea salicaria) proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in this rule that inhabit the lowland mesic 
ecosystem on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui include the understory and 
subcanopy species Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse), Erigeron 
karvinskianus (daisy fleabane), Lantana camara, Leptospermum scoparium 
(tea tree), Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry), and Cyathea cooperi 
(Australian tree fern) (HBMP 2008). Nonnative canopy species that 
threaten the 11 species proposed or reevaluated for listing include 
Coffea arabica (Arabian coffee), Psidium cattleianum, Schinus 
terebinthifolius, and Szygium cumini (java plum) (HBMP 2008). An 
additional species that threatens the 11 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing is the nonnative grass Paspalum conjugatum 
(Hilo grass) (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose serious 
and ongoing threats (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below) to all 11 of the species proposed or reevaluated for listing 
that depend on this ecosystem.
Nonnative Plants in the Lowland Wet Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the 15 plant species (Bidens 
campylotheca waihoiensis, B. conjuncta, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. 
duvalliorum, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. kunthiana, C. 
magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, Mucuna sloanei 
var. persericea, Phyllostegia bracteata, Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Wikstroemia villosa), and the tree snail 
species Newcombia cumingi proposed or reevaluated for listing in this 
rule that inhabit the lowland wet ecosystem on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui 
include the understory and subcanopy species Ageratina adenophora, 
Ageratina riparia (Hamakua pamakani), Blechnum appendiculatum, Buddleia 
asiatica (dog tail), Chrysophyllum oliviforme (satinleaf), Cinchona 
pubescens (quinine), Cinnamomum burmannii (padang cassia), Clidemia 
hirta, Coffea arabica, Cordyline fruticosa, Cortaderia jubata (pampas 
grass), Juncus planifolius, Leptospermum scoparium, Melastoma sp., 
Rubus rosifolius, and Tibouchina herbacea (glorybush) (Maui Land and 
Pineapple Co. (MLP) 2005, p. 11; HBMP 2008; TNCH 2009a, pp. 1-14; East 
Maui Watershed Partnership (EMWP) 2009, pp. 29-30). Nonnative canopy 
species that threaten the 16 species proposed or reevaluated for 
listing include Aleurites moluccana (kukui), Eucalyptus spp. (gum 
tree), Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash), Miconia calvescens (miconia), 
Psidium cattleianum, and Psidium guajava (HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses 
that threaten this ecosystem are Axonopus fissifolius (carpetgrass), 
Oplismenus hirtellus (basketgrass), and Paspalum conjugatum (HBMP 
2008). These nonnative plant species pose serious and ongoing threats 
to 16 of the species proposed or reevaluated for listing that depend on 
this ecosystem (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below).
Nonnative Plants in the Montane Dry Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the species Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense in the montane dry ecosystem on Maui include 
the understory and subcanopy species Clidemia hirta, Leptospermum 
scoparium, Tibouchina herbacea, and Rubus argutus (Harbaugh et al. 
2010, p. 827). Nonnative canopy species that threaten Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense include Fraxinus uhdei, Grevillea robusta 
(haikukeokeo, silver oak), Morella faya (firetree), Psidium 
cattleianum, and Schinus terebinthifolius (Harbaugh et al. 2010, p. 
827). Nonnative mat-forming grasses such as Melinis minutiflora 
threaten Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense in the montane dry 
ecosystem (Harbaugh et al. 2010, p. 827). These nonnative plant species 
pose serious and ongoing threats to the plant S. haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, which is reevaluated for listing and inhabits the montane 
dry ecosystem (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below).
Nonnative Plants in the Montane Mesic Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the 12 species (Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Cyanea horrida, C. kunthiana, C. 
magnicalyx, C. obtusa, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra oxybapha, Geranium 
hillebrandii, Phyllostegia bracteata, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa) proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in this rule that inhabit the montane mesic 
ecosystem on Molokai and Maui include the understory and subcanopy 
species Ageratina adenophora, Buddleia asiatica, Cestrum diurnum, 
Cortaderia jubata, Lantana camara, Rubus argutus (prickly Florida 
blackberry), and Rubus rosifolius (Leeward Haleakala Watershed 
Restoration Partnership (LHWRP) 2006, p. 25; HBMP 2008; TNCH 2009a, pp. 
1-14). Canopy species that threaten the 12 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing include Eucalyptus spp., Fraxinus uhdei, 
Morella faya, Pinus spp., Psidium cattleianum, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius (HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses that threaten this 
ecosystem are Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge), Holcus lanatus, 
Melinis minutiflora, and Paspalum conjugatum (HBMP 2008). These 
nonnative plant species pose serious and ongoing threats (see 
``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' below) to 12 of the 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing that depend on this 
ecosystem.
Nonnative Plants in the Montane Wet Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the 20 plant species (Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. 
conjuncta, Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Cyanea duvalliorum, C. horrida, 
C. kunthiana, C. maritae, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra oxybapha, 
Geranium hanaense, G. hillebrandii, Myrsine vaccinioides, Peperomia 
subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. pilosa, Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense, Schiedea laui, and Wikstroemia villosa) proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in this rule that inhabit the montane wet 
ecosystem on Molokai and Maui include the understory and subcanopy 
species Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina riparia, Ageratum conyzoides 
(maile honohono), Buddleia asiatica, Cestrum nocturnum (night cestrum), 
Christella dentata, Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Cinchona pubescens, 
Cinnamomum burmannii, Clidemia hirta, Conyza bonariensis (hairy 
horseweed), Cortaderia jubata, Cuphea carthagenensis (tarweed), 
Drymaria cordata (chickweed), Erechtites valeranifolia (fireweed), 
Erigeron karvinskianus, Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger), 
Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear), Juncus spp., Lantana camara, 
Rubus spp., Cyathea cooperi,

[[Page 34489]]

Tibouchina herbacea, Ulex europaeus (gorse), and Youngia japonica 
(oriental hawksbeard) (MLP 2005, p. 11; HBMP 2008; TNCH 2009a, pp. 1-
14; EMoWP 2010, pp. 5-6). Nonnative canopy species that threaten the 20 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing include Eucalyptus spp., 
Fraxinus uhdei, Morella faya, Psidium cattleianum, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius (HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses that threaten this 
ecosystem are Axonopus fissifolius, Holcus lanatus (common 
velvetgrass), Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass), Paspalum 
conjugatum, Sacciolepis indica (glenwood grass), and Setaria palmifolia 
(palmgrass) (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose serious and 
ongoing threats to the 20 species proposed or reevaluated for listing 
that depend on this ecosystem (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species 
Impacts,'' below).
Nonnative Plants in the Subalpine Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten Phyllostegia bracteata, the 
only species proposed for listing in this rule that inhabits the 
subalpine ecosystem (Maui), include the understory and subcanopy 
species Cotoneaster pannosus (silver-leaf cotoneaster), Epilobium 
billardierianum (willow herb), Passiflora tarmaniana, and Rubus spp. 
(Oppenheimer 2010n, in litt.). Nonnative canopy species that threaten 
P. bracteata include Cryptomeria japonica (tsugi pine) and Pinus spp. 
Nonnative grasses that are a threat to this ecosystem include 
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernalgrass) and Dactylis glomerata 
(cocksfoot) (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose serious and 
ongoing threats (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below) to the plant P. bracteata, which is proposed for listing and 
inhabits this ecosystem.
Nonnative Plants in the Dry Cliff Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant species that threaten the three species (Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Phyllostegia haliakalae, and Pleomele 
fernaldii) proposed for listing in this rule that inhabit the dry cliff 
ecosystem on Lanai and Maui include the understory and subcanopy 
species Ageratina adenophora, Hypochoeris radicata, Lapsana communis 
(nipplewort), Lythrum maritimum (loosestrife), Prunella vulgaris, and 
Rubus spp. (HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses that threaten this ecosystem 
include Andropogon virginicus, Anthoxantum odoratum, Dactylis 
glomerata, and Holcus lanatus (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant 
species pose serious and ongoing threats to all three of the species 
proposed for listing that depend on this ecosystem (see ``Specific 
Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' below).
Nonnative Plants in the Wet Cliff Ecosystem
    Nonnative plant threats to the 12 plant species (Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. 
conjuncta, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. horrida, C. 
magnicalyx, C. munroi, Cyrtandra filipes, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. 
haliakalae, Pleomele fernaldii, and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense) 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule that inhabit the wet 
cliff ecosystem on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui include the understory and 
subcanopy species Ageratina adenophora, Buddleia asiatica, Juncus 
planifolius, Rubus rosifolius, and Tibouchina herbacea (HBMP 2008). The 
12 species proposed or reevaluated for listing are also threatened by 
the nonnative canopy species Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) and 
the nonnative grass Oplismenus hirtellus (HBMP 2008). These nonnative 
plant species pose serious and ongoing threats to 12 of the species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing that depend on this ecosystem (see 
``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' below).
Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts
    Nonnative plants pose serious and ongoing threats to 36 of the 40 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing in this proposed rule 
throughout their ranges by destroying and modifying habitat. They can 
adversely impact microhabitat by modifying the availability of light 
and nutrient cycling processes, and altering soil-water regimes. They 
can also alter fire regimes affecting native plant habitat, leading to 
incursions of fire-tolerant nonnative plant species into native 
habitat. Nonnative plants outcompete native plants by growing faster, 
and some may release chemicals that inhibit the growth of other plants. 
These competitive advantages allow nonnative plants to convert native-
dominated plant communities to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 74; Vitousek 1992, pp. 33-35). The following list 
provides a brief description of the nonnative plants that pose a threat 
to 36 of the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing here. The 
Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment is cited in many of the brief 
descriptions of the nonnative plants below. This assessment was created 
as a research collaboration between the University of Hawaii and the 
U.S. Forest Service for use in Hawaii and other high Pacific islands 
(i.e., volcanic in origin, as opposed to low-lying atolls), and is an 
adaptation of the Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment protocol 
developed in the 1990s (Denslow and Daehler 2004, p. 1). The 
Australian/New Zealand protocol was developed to screen plants proposed 
for introduction into those countries, while the Hawaii-Pacific Weed 
Risk Assessment was developed to evaluate species already used in 
landscaping, gardening, and forestry, and is used to predict whether or 
not a nonnative plant species is likely to become invasive. Not all 
nonnative plant species present in Hawaii have been assessed, and 
information on species invasiveness is lacking or absent from some of 
the descriptions below. In general, all nonnative plant species 
displace native Hawaiian plants; here we describe other specific 
negative impacts of individual alien plant species when known.
     Acacia farnesiana (klu) is a shrub up to 13 ft (4 m) tall, 
native to the Neotropics, and formerly cultivated in Hawaii for an 
attempted perfume industry. It is now naturalized (i.e., initially 
introduced by artificial means from another area, and now established 
and reproducing in the wild) and common on all of the main islands 
except Niihau (Geesink et al. 1999, p. 641). Acacia farnesiana is 
thorny and forms dense thickets, and regenerates quickly after fire. 
The seeds are dispersed by ungulates that eat the pods (Pacific Island 
Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) 2011a). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk 
Assessment for A. farnesiana, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2011a).
     Ageratina adenophora (Maui pamakani) is native to tropical 
America, and has naturalized in dry to wet forest on the islands of 
Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (Wagner et al. 1999m, pp. 254-255). 
Ageratina adenophora is a shrub 3 to 5 ft (1 to 1.5 m) tall with 
trailing branches that root on contact with soil. It forms dense mats, 
which prevent regeneration of native plants (Anderson et al. 1992, p. 
315). It is considered a serious weed in agriculture, especially in 
rangeland, because it often replaces more desirable vegetation or 
native species, and is fatally toxic to horses and most livestock. The 
eupatorium gall fly, Procecidochares utilis, was introduced to Hawaii 
in 1944, for control of Maui pamakani, and has been successful in 
suppression of some of the infestations

[[Page 34490]]

of this invasive nonnative plant (Bess and Haramoto 1959, p. 248).
     Ageratina riparia (Hamakua pamakani) is a subshrub that 
spreads from a creeping rootstock (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 255). This 
species forms dense mats, preventing regeneration of native plants 
(Davis et al. 1992, p. 427).
     Ageratum conyzoides (maile honohono) is a perennial herb, 
native to Central and South America, and now widespread in Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999m, pp. 254-255). This ephemeral herb is found in 
disturbed areas, tolerates shade, and can displace native plants. It 
produces many thousands of seeds, which spread by wind and water, with 
over half the seeds germinating shortly after they are shed (PIER 
2007).
     Aleurites moluccana (kukui) is a spreading, tall tree 
native to the Malesian region, and considered a Polynesian introduction 
to Hawaii. It is now a significant component of the mesic valley 
vegetation from sea level to 2,300 ft (700 m) on all the main islands 
(Wagner et al. 1999n, p. 598). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk 
Assessment for A. moluccana, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2008a). 
The species tolerates a wide range of soil conditions and forms dense 
thickets, which increases its competitive abilities over native plants.
     Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) is a perennial 
bunchgrass native to northeastern America, now naturalized on Kauai, 
Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii, along roadsides and in disturbed dry to 
mesic forest and shrubland (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,497). Seeds are easily 
distributed by wind, clothing, vehicles, and feral animals (Smith 1989, 
pp. 60-69). Andropogon virginicus may release allelopathic substances 
that dramatically decrease native plant reestablishment (Rice 1972, pp. 
i, 752-755). This species has become dominant in areas subjected to 
natural or human-induced fires (Mueller-Dombois 1972, pp. 1-2). 
Andropogon virginicus is on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (Hawaii 
Administrative Rules (H.A.R.) Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
     Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernalgrass) is a perennial 
bunchgrass native to Eurasia, now naturalized on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, 
and Hawaii, in pastures, disturbed areas in wet forest, and sometimes 
subalpine shrubland (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,498). This species forms 
extensive ground cover, and invades disturbed areas, preventing the 
reestablishment of native plant species (PIER 2008b).
     Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) is a branched shrub 
native to Sri Lanka that is now naturalized in Hawaii (Wagner et al. 
1999f, pp. 932-933). This species is shade-tolerant and can rapidly 
form dense, monotypic stands, preventing establishment of other species 
(Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2005). Its fruit are 
attractive to birds, which then spread the seeds over the landscape. 
According to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for A. elliptica, this 
species has a high risk of invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a 
serious pest (PIER 2008c).
     Axonopus fissifolius (carpetgrass) is a pasture grass that 
forms dense mats with tall foliage. This species does well in soils 
with low nitrogen levels, and can outcompete other grasses in wet 
forests and bogs. The species is not subject to any major diseases or 
insect pests, and recovers quickly from fire. The seeds are readily 
spread by water, vehicles, and grazing animals (O'Connor 1999, pp. 
1,500-1,502; Cook et al. 2005, p. 4).
     Blechnum appendiculatum (NCN) is a fern with fronds to 23 
in (60 cm) long that forms large colonies, outcompeting many native 
fern species (Palmer 2003, p. 81).
     Buddleia asiatica (dog tail) is a shrub or small tree that 
can tolerate a wide range of habitats, forms dense thickets, and is 
rapidly spreading into wet forest and lava and cinder substrate areas 
in Hawaii, displacing native vegetation (Wagner et al. 1999o, p. 415; 
PIER 2008d).
     Cenchrus ciliaris (buffelgrass) is native to Africa and 
tropical Asia and is naturalized in Hawaii (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,512). 
It is a fire-adapted grass that provides fuel for fires and recovers 
quickly, increasing its cover with each succeeding fire (PIER 2008e), 
thereby displacing native plants and altering natural fire regimes.
     Cestrum diurnum (day cestrum) is an approximately 6.6-ft 
(2-m) tall shrub native to the West Indies, cultivated for its fragrant 
flowers, and is now naturalized on Kauai, Oahu, and Molokai (Symon 
1999, p. 1,254). This species invades dry and wet areas and forms dense 
thickets. Seeds are dispersed by birds; however the seeds are poisonous 
to humans and other mammals (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FEPC) 
2011).
     Cestrum nocturnum (night cestrum), a shrub or small tree 
native to the Antilles and Central America, was cultivated in Hawaii 
prior to 1871 (Symon 1999, pp. 1,254-1,255). It forms dense, 
impenetrable thickets in wet forest and open areas. According to the 
Hawaii Weed Risk assessment, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2010a).
     Christella dentata (NCN) is a medium-sized fern widely 
distributed in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, now 
widespread as a weed in the Americas. In Hawaii, this species is most 
common in disturbed mesic habitats, but also occurs in varied habitats 
including undisturbed sites on all major islands. Christella dentata 
hybridizes with the endemic species C. cyatheoides, forming extensive 
clones of the sterile hybrid (Palmer 2003, pp. 88-90).
     Chrysophyllum oliviforme (satinleaf) is a small tree 
native to the United States (Florida), West Indies, and Central 
America, and is naturalized in Hawaii (Pennington 1999, p. 1,231; PIER 
2006). Birds easily disperse the fleshy fruit, and the species can 
become a dominant component in forest habitat (Pennington 1999, p. 
1,231; MLP 2002, pp. A1-A4). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk 
Assessment for C. oliviforme, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2006).
     Cinchona pubescens (quinine) is a tree that is 13 to 33 ft 
(4 to 10 m) tall with a dense canopy. It is native to Central and South 
America, and is widely cultivated for quinine. A small plantation was 
started on Maui in 1868, and this species was planted by State 
foresters on Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii between 1928 and 1947 (Wagner et 
al. 1999a, p. 1,120). It reproduces with wind-dispersed seeds and also 
vegetatively via multiple suckers up to several meters away from the 
adult tree and aggressively replaces and shades out native vegetation 
(GISD 2011).
     Cinnamomum burmannii (padang cassia), a tree native to 
Indonesia, is cultivated and now naturalized on Oahu, Maui, Lanai, and 
Hawaii (van der Werff 1999, p. 846). Seeds are bird-dispersed (Starr et 
al. 2003). On Maui, this species is included in the weed control 
program at Puu Kukui Preserve, as it can become a dominant component in 
forest habitat (MLP 2002, p. 20).
     Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse), a noxious shrub in the 
Melastoma family, forms a dense understory, shades out native plants, 
and prevents their regeneration (Wagner et al. 1985, p. 41; Smith 1989, 
p. 64). All plants in the Melastoma family are on the Hawaii State 
noxious weed list (H.A.R. Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
     Coffea arabica (Arabian coffee) is a shrub or tree up to 
16.5 ft (5 m) tall, native to Ethiopia, and widely cultivated in Hawaii 
as a commercial crop. It was naturalized in Hawaii by the mid-1800s in 
mesic to wet disturbed

[[Page 34491]]

sites, usually in valleys or along streambeds (Wagner et al. 1999a, pp. 
1,120-1,121). This species is shade tolerant, and can form dense stands 
in the forest understory, displacing and shading out native plants. The 
seeds are dispersed by birds and rats (PIER 2008f).
     Conyza bonariensis (hairy horseweed) is an annual herb 
common in various urban and nonurban areas in Hawaii, generally in 
relatively dry habitats, sometimes in disturbed mesic to wet forest, on 
Kure Atoll, Midway Atoll, Laysan, French Frigate Shoals, and all of the 
main islands (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 288), where it displaces native 
plants.
     Cordyline fruticosa (ki, ti), a shrub that is 6.6 to 11.5 
ft (2 to 3.5 m) tall, is considered a Polynesian introduction to 
Hawaii. It was extensively cultivated and occurs widely in mesic 
valleys and forests (Wagner et al. 1999i, pp. 1,348-1,350). It can 
become a dominant element of the understory (Department of Land and 
Natural Resources (DLNR) 1989).
     Cortaderia jubata (pampas grass), a large, clump-forming, 
perennial herb, was first discovered in 1987, on east Maui, where it 
has escaped cultivation and is becoming invasive on the slopes of 
Haleakala. This species is a serious pest in California, and is on the 
Hawaii State noxious weed list (Staples and Herbst 2005, p. 744). 
Cortaderia jubata produces abundant seed and spreads readily (Staples 
and Herbst 2005, p. 744).
     Cotoneaster pannosus (silver-leaf cotoneaster) is a shrub 
native to China that is occasionally cultivated (Volcano, Hawaii Island 
and Kula, Maui) in Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999p, p. 1,100). Previously 
thought to be contained within the vicinity of cultivated plants, this 
species has become a threat to native forest (Oppenheimer 2010n, in 
litt.). The attractive, bird-dispersed fruits of this species, 
aggressive root systems, and tendency of all cotoneasters to shade and 
smother sun-loving, native plants contribute to the invasiveness of 
this species (PIER 2010b).
     Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar, Tsugi) is a 
pyramidal, evergreen tree native to China and Japan, which is 50 to 60 
ft (15 to 18 m) tall and has dense foliage (North Carolina State 
University 2006; University of Connecticut 2006). Cryptomeria japonica 
has life-history traits of an invasive species, including small seed 
mass, short juvenile period, and short intervals between large seed 
crops (Richardson and Rejmanek 2004, p. 321).
     Cuphea carthagenensis (tarweed) is an annual or short-
lived perennial herb naturalized in mesic to wet disturbed sites on 
Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999q, p. 866). 
This species was also recently documented on Lanai (PIER 2010c). Cuphea 
carthagenensis forms dense, shrubby mats that displace or prevent the 
establishment of native forest species (Hawaii National Park 1959, p. 
7; Wagner et al. 1999q, p. 866).
     Cyathea cooperi (Australian tree fern) is a tree fern 
native to Australia that was brought to Hawaii for use in landscaping 
(Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 27). It can achieve high densities in native 
Hawaiian forests, grows up to 1 ft (0.3 m) in height per year (Jones 
and Clemesha 1976, p. 56), and can displace native species. Understory 
disturbance by feral pigs facilitates the establishment of this species 
(Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 30), and it has been known to spread over 7 
mi (12 km) through windblown dispersal of spores from plant nurseries 
(Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 29).
     Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) is a tufted, perennial 
grass native to Europe that is widely cultivated and naturalized in 
Hawaii, now abundant in pastures and along trails and roadsides on 
Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii (O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,520-
1,521). This species becomes established in disturbed sites and forms 
dense swards that suppress native grasses and herbaceous species (PIER 
2010d).
     Drymaria cordata (chickweed) is a straggling herb 
naturalized in shaded, moist sites including native montane wet habitat 
on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 
505). While seldom a weed of cultivated areas, it is known to invade 
plantation crops such as tea and coffee, as well as pastures, lawns, 
gardens, riverbanks, ditches, and even sandbars in rivers (PIER 2010e). 
Drymaria cordata can displace or prevent the establishment of native 
understory and subcanopy plants.
     Epilobium billardierianum (willow herb) is a perennial 
herb naturalized in open sites in wet forest to disturbed grassland, 
especially on open lava, in pastures, and along roadsides on Kauai, 
Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999r, p. 995). Epilobium 
billardierianum dominates subalpine areas on Maui (Anderson et al. 
1992, p. 328).
     Erechtites valerianifolia (fireweed) is a tall (up to 8 ft 
(2.5 m)), widely distributed, annual herb that produces thousands of 
wind-dispersed seeds, and outcompetes native plants (Wagner et al. 
1999m, p. 314).
     Erigeron karvinskianus (daisy fleabane) reproduces and 
spreads rapidly by stem layering and regrowth of broken roots to form 
dense mats. This species crowds out and displaces ground level plants 
(Weeds of Blue Mountains Bushland 2008).
     Eucalyptus spp. (gum tree) are tall trees or shrubs, and 
almost all of the more than 600 species are native to Australia. In the 
past, over 90 species and thousands of individuals were planted by 
Hawaii State foresters on all the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau 
and Kahoolawe in an attempt to protect watersheds (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 51; Chippendale 1999, p. 949). Approximately 30 species are 
reported to be spreading beyond the forestry plantings. Three of these 
species represent the greatest threat to native habitat in Hawaii, 
including E. grandis (flooded gum), E. paniculata (gray ironbark), and 
E. saligna (Sydney blue gum), and were the principal species used for 
reforestation (Chippendale 1999, p. 958). Eucalyptus trees are quick-
growing, can reach 180 ft (55 m) in height, reproduce from wind-
dispersed seeds, and outcompete and replace native forest species (PIER 
2011b). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for Eucalyptus, 
these species have a high risk of invasiveness or a high risk of 
becoming a serious pest (PIER 2011b).
     Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) is a tree up to 79 ft (24 m) 
tall, which is native to central and southern Mexico. In Hawaii, over 
300,000 trees were planted by State foresters on all the main islands 
from 1924 to 1960 (Wagner et al. 1999s, p. 991). Fraxinus uhdei 
reproduces by wind-dispersed seed. This species is considered a serious 
threat to the mesic native Acacia-Metrosideros (koa-ohia) forests at 
Waikamoi, on east Maui (TNC 2006l, p. A5). It spreads rapidly along 
watercourses and forms dense, monotypic stands (Holt 1992, pp. 525-
535).
     Grevillea robusta (silk oak) is a large evergreen tree, 26 
to 98 ft (8 to 20 m) tall, native to Australia. Over two million trees 
were planted in Hawaii between 1919 and 1959 in an effort to reduce 
erosion and to provide timber. Grevillea robusta is aggressive, is 
drought-tolerant, and forms dense, monotypic stands (Santos et al. 
1992, p. 342). The leaves produce an allelopathic substance that 
inhibits the establishment of all species, including itself (Smith 
1985, p. 191).
     Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) is native to India 
(Nagata 1999, p. 1,623). This showy ginger was introduced for 
ornamental purposes,

[[Page 34492]]

and was first collected in 1954, at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
(Wester 1992, pp. 99-154). Kahili ginger grows over 3.3 ft (1 m) tall 
in open light environments; however it will readily grow in full shade 
beneath a forest canopy (Smith 1985, pp. 191-192). It forms vast, dense 
colonies, displacing other plant species, and reproduces by rhizomes 
where already established. The conspicuous, fleshy, red seeds are 
dispersed by fruit-eating birds as well as humans. Ginger reduces the 
amount of nitrogen in the Metrosideros forest canopy in Hawaii (Asner 
and Vitousek 2005, in litt.). It may also block stream edges, altering 
water flow (GISD 2007).
     Holcus lanatus (common velvetgrass), native to Europe, is 
naturalized in Hawaii and occurs on poor, moist soils (O'Connor 1999, 
p. 1,151). Velvetgrass is an aggressive weed, growing rapidly from 
basal shoots or prolific seed, and therefore can become dominant if not 
controlled (Smith 1985, p. 192). Velvetgrass gradually forces other 
plants out, reducing species diversity. Allelopathy may also play a 
role in the dominance of velvetgrass over other grasses (Remison and 
Snaydon in Pitcher and Russo 2005, p. 2).
     Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear) is a perennial herb 
up to 2 ft (0.6 m) tall, native to Eurasia. In Hawaii, it is 
naturalized in wet and dry disturbed sites on all the main islands 
(Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 327). It has a deep, succulent taproot favored 
by feral pigs, which dig up large areas searching for the roots (Smith 
1985, p. 192). Seeds are produced in large numbers and dispersed by 
wind. It regenerates rapidly from the crown of the taproot after fire 
(Smith 1985, p. 192).
     Juncus effusus (Japanese mat rush) is a perennial herb 
widely distributed in temperate regions and naturalized in Hawaii in 
ponds, streams, and open boggy sites. It was brought to Hawaii as a 
source of matting material, but grew too slowly to be of commercial 
value (Coffey 1999, p. 1,453). This plant spreads by seeds and 
rhizomes, and forms dense mats that crowd out native plants (United 
States Department of Agriculture--Agricultural Research Division--
National Genetic Resources Program (USDA-ARS-NGRP) 2011).
     Juncus ensifolius (dagger-leaved rush), a perennial herb 
native to the western United States, is naturalized in Hawaii and 
occurs in standing water of marshy areas (Coffey 1999, p. 1,453). This 
weedy colonizer can tolerate environmental stress and outcompete native 
species (Pojar and MacKinnon 1994).
     Juncus planifolius (bog rush) is a perennial herb that is 
naturalized on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, in moist, open, 
disturbed depressions on margins of forests and in bogs (Coffey 1999, 
pp. 1,453-1,454). This species forms dense mats and has the potential 
to displace native plants by preventing establishment of native 
seedlings (Medeiros et al. 1991, pp. 22-23).
     Kalanchoe pinnata (air plant), a perennial herb, is widely 
established in many tropical and subtropical areas. In Hawaii, it was 
naturalized prior to 1871, and is abundant in low-elevation, disturbed 
areas on all the main islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe (Wagner et 
al. 1999t, p. 568). The air plant can reproduce vegetatively at indents 
along the leaf, usually after the leaf has broken off the plant and is 
lying on the ground, where a new plant can take root (Motooka et al. 
2003a). Kalanchoe pinnata can form dense stands that prevent 
reproduction of native species (Motooka et al. 2003a; Randall 2007--
Global Compendium of Weeds Database).
     Lantana camara (lantana), a malodorous, branched shrub up 
to 10 ft (3 m) tall, was brought to Hawaii as an ornamental plant. 
Lantana is aggressive and thorny, and forms thickets, crowding out and 
preventing the establishment of native plants (Davis et al. 1992, p. 
412; Wagner et al. 1999u, p. 1,320).
     Lapsana communis (nipplewort) is an annual herb 
naturalized in relatively wet, disturbed areas such as disturbed wet 
forest, between elevations of 3,117 to 10,597 ft (950 to 3,230 m), on 
Maui and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 331). Lapsana communis is 
identified as an invasive species in Hawaii (USDA-NRCS 2011a).
     Leptospermum scoparium (tea tree) is a shrub or small tree 
native to New Zealand and Australia, now widely naturalized in Hawaii. 
It forms thickets and has allelopathic properties that prevent the 
growth of native plants (Smith 1985, p. 193).
     Leucaena leucocephala (koa haole), a shrub native to the 
neotropics, is now found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands. It is a 
nitrogen-fixer and an aggressive competitor that often forms the 
dominant element of the vegetation in low-elevation, dry, disturbed 
areas (Geesink et al. 1999, pp. 679-680).
     Lythrum maritimum (loosestrife) is a many-branched shrub 
occurring in mesic, open, disturbed habitats, especially in pastures, 
on windward coastal cliffs, in margins of wet forest, and on lava, from 
sea level up to 8,040-ft (0 to 2,450-m) elevation on all of the main 
Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe (Wagner et al. 1999q, pp. 
867-868). Lythrum maritimum is identified as an invasive species in 
Hawaii (USDA-NRCS 2011b).
     Melastoma spp. Plants in the genus Melastoma are 
ornamental shrubs native to southeast Asia; all members of the genus 
are on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (H.A.R. Title 4, Subtitle 6, 
Chapter 68). Melastoma species have high germination rates, rapid 
growth, early maturity, ability of fragments to root, possible asexual 
reproduction, and efficient seed dispersal (especially by birds that 
are attracted by copious production of berries) (Smith 1985, p. 194; 
University of Florida Herbarium 2006). These characteristics enable the 
plants to be aggressive competitors in Hawaiian ecosystems.
     Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) is a perennial grass 
up to 3 ft (1 m) tall that forms dense mats and crowds out other 
plants. These mats also provide fuel for more intense fires that 
destroy native plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 89; O'Connor 1999, p. 
1,562).
     Melinis repens (natal redtop), a perennial grass native to 
Africa, is now widely naturalized in the tropics and in Hawaii. It 
invades disturbed, dry areas from coastal regions to subalpine forest 
(O'Connor 1999, p. 1,588). Dense stands of natal redtop can contribute 
to recurrent fires (Desert Museum 2011).
     Miconia calvescens (miconia), a tree native to the 
neotropics, first appeared on Oahu and the island of Hawaii as an 
introduced garden plant, and has escaped from cultivation (Almeda 1999, 
p. 903). Miconia is now also found on Kauai and Maui (Wagner and Herbst 
2003, p. 34). Miconia is remarkable for its 2- to 3-ft (70-cm) long, 
dark purple leaves. It reproduces in dense shade, eventually shading 
out all other plants to form a monoculture. A single mature plant 
produces millions of seeds per year, which are spread by birds, 
ungulates, and humans (Motooka et al. 2003b). According to the Hawaii 
Weed Risk Assessment for M. calvescens, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2010f). 
This species, as well all plants in the Melastoma family, are on the 
Hawaii State noxious weed list (H.A.R. Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 
68).
     Morella faya (firetree) is an evergreen shrub or small 
tree that forms monotypic stands, has the ability to fix nitrogen, and 
alters the successional ecosystems in areas it invades, displacing 
native vegetation through competition. It is also a prolific fruit 
producer (average of 400,000 fruits per individual shrub or tree per 
year), and the fruit are spread by frugivorous (fruit-

[[Page 34493]]

eating) birds and feral pigs (Vitousek 1990, pp. 8-9; Wagner et al. 
1999v, p. 931; PIER 2008g). This species is on the Hawaii State noxious 
weed list (H.A.R. Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
     Neonotonia wightii (glycine), a twining herb native to 
Central and South America, is widely naturalized in Hawaii. Glycine 
forms dense clumps, and can cover and smother other plants (Geesink et 
al. 1999, p. 674; PIER 2010g).
     Oplismenus hirtellus (basketgrass) is a perennial grass 
that forms a dense groundcover, is sometimes climbing, and roots at the 
nodes, enabling its rapid spread. It also has sticky seeds that attach 
to visiting animals and birds that then carry them to new areas where 
they are deposited, resulting in the spread of this species (O'Connor 
1999, p. 1,565; Johnson 2005). This species displaces native plants of 
forest floors and trailsides (Motooka et al. 2003c).
     Paspalum conjugatum (Hilo grass) is a perennial grass that 
is found in wet habitats, and forms a dense ground cover. Its small 
hairy seeds are easily transported on humans and animals, or are 
carried by the wind through native forests, where it establishes and 
displaces native vegetation (University of Hawaii Botany Department 
1998; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 83; Motooka et al. 2003d; PIER 2008h).
     Passiflora tarminiana (banana poka), a vine native to 
South America, is widely cultivated for its fruit (Escobar 1999, pp. 
1,007-1,014). First introduced to Hawaii in the 1920s, it is now a 
serious pest in mesic forest, where it overgrows and smothers the 
forest canopy. Seeds are readily dispersed by humans, birds, and feral 
pigs (La Rosa 1992, pp. 281-282). Fallen fruit encourage rooting and 
trampling by pigs (Diong 1982, pp. 157-158). Field releases of 
biocontrol agents to control the spread of this species have not been 
successful to date.
     Pinus spp. (pine trees) are tall, evergreen trees or 
shrubs native to all continents and some oceanic islands, but are not 
native to any of the Hawaiian Islands. Pinus caribaea, P. elliottii, P. 
patula, P. pinaster, P. radiata, and P. taeda are found on Molokai, 
Lanai, and Maui (Little and Skolmen 1989, pp. 56-60; Oppenheimer 2003, 
pp. 18-19; PIER 2011c). Pinus species were primarily planted by Hawaii 
State foresters for reforestation and erosion control (Little and 
Skolmen 1989, pp. 56-60; Oppenheimer 2003, pp. 18-19; PIER 2010h). 
Pinus species are known to establish readily, create dense stands that 
shade out native plants and prevent regeneration, outcompete native 
plants for soil water and nutrients, change soil chemistry, promote 
growth of weed seeds dropped by perching birds, and are highly 
flammable (Oppenheimer 2010o, in litt.; PIER 2010h). On east Maui, 
Pinus species are a threat at higher elevations because they are 
invading pastures and native subalpine shrublands (Oppenheimer 2002, 
pp. 19-23; Oppenheimer 2010o, in litt.).
     Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush) is native to Mexico, the 
West Indies, and South America (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 351). These 3- 
to 6-ft (1- to 2-m) tall, fast-growing shrubs form thickets in dry 
habitats and can tolerate saline conditions. They are widespread in 
Hawaii from coastal areas up to almost 3,000 ft (900 m). The seeds are 
wind-dispersed (Francis 2004, in litt.). The species is adapted to a 
wide variety of soils and sites, and it tolerates excessively well to 
poorly-drained soil conditions, the full range of soil textures, acid 
and alkaline reactions, salt and salt spray, and compaction. It quickly 
invades burned areas, but being early successional, is soon replaced by 
other species. These adaptive capabilities increase the species' 
competitive abilities over native plants.
     Prosopis pallida (kiawe), a tree up to 66 ft (20 m) tall, 
was introduced to Hawaii in 1828, and its seeds were used as fodder for 
ranch animals. This species is now a dominant component of the 
vegetation in low-elevation, dry, disturbed sites, and it is well 
adapted to dry habitats. It overshadows other vegetation and has deep 
tap roots that significantly reduce available water for native dry-land 
plants. This plant fixes nitrogen and can outcompete native species 
(Geesink et al. 1999, pp. 692-693; PIER 2011c).
     Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) is a perennial herb in the 
mint family. This species is naturalized in mesic, disturbed areas, 
especially pastures and along streambeds in wet forest from 2,690 to 
7,415 ft (820 to 2,260 m) in elevation on the islands of Molokai, Maui, 
and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999h, pp. 828-829). Prunella vulgaris is 
reported as an invasive species in Hawaii (USDA-NRCS 2011c).
     Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is a tall shrub or 
tree that forms dense stands in which few other plants can grow, 
displacing native vegetation through competition. The fruit is eaten by 
feral pigs and birds that disperse the seeds throughout the forest 
(Smith 1985, p. 200; Wagner et al. 1985, p. 24).
     Psidium guajava (guava) is a tall shrub or tree that forms 
dense stands in disturbed forest and excludes native species. The seeds 
are spread by feral pigs and alien birds, and this species can also 
regenerate from underground parts by suckering (Wagner et al. 1999w, p. 
972).
     Rubus argutus (prickly Florida blackberry) is a prickly 
bramble with long, arching stems, and reproduces both vegetatively and 
by seed. It readily sprouts from underground runners, and is quickly 
spread by frugivorous birds (Tunison 1991, p. 2; Wagner et al. 1999p, 
p. 1,107; U.S. Army 2006, pp. 2-1-21-2-1-22). This species, which 
displaces native vegetation through competition, is on the Hawaii State 
noxious weed list (H.A.R. Title 4, subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
     Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry) is an erect to trailing 
shrub that forms dense thickets and outcompetes native plant species. 
It easily reproduces from roots left in the ground, and seeds are 
spread by birds and feral animals (GISD 2008; PIER 2008i).
     Sacciolepis indica (glenwood grass) is an annual grass 
that invades disturbed and open areas in wet habitats, and prevents the 
establishment of native plants. Its seeds are dispersed by sticking to 
animal fur (PIER 2011d; Motooka et al. 2003e).
     Schinus terebinthifolius (christmasberry) forms dense 
thickets in all habitats, and its red berries are attractive to and 
dispersed by birds (Smith 1989, p. 63). Schinus seedlings grow very 
slowly and can survive in dense shade, exhibiting vigorous growth when 
the canopy is opened after a disturbance (Brazilian Pepper Task Force 
1997). Because of these attributes, S. terebinthifolius is able to 
displace native vegetation through competition.
     Setaria palmifolia (palmgrass), native to tropical Asia, 
was first collected on Hawaii Island in 1903 (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,592). 
A large-leafed, perennial herb, this species reaches approximately 6.5 
ft (2 m) in height at maturity, and shades out native vegetation. 
Palmgrass is resistant to fire and recovers quickly after being burned 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 83).
     Syzygium cumini (java plum) is a tree native to India, 
Ceylon, and the Malesian region, and is widely cultivated and 
naturalized throughout the tropics. In Hawaii, it is naturalized in 
mesic valleys and disturbed forests (Wagner et al. 1999w, p. 975). This 
species forms dense cover, excluding all other species, and prevents 
the reestablishment of native lowland forest plants. The large black 
fruit is dispersed by frugivorous birds and feral pigs (PIER 2008j).
     Tibouchina herbacea (glorybush), an herb or shrub up to 3 
ft (1 m) tall, is native to southern Brazil, Uruguay,

[[Page 34494]]

and Paraguay. In Hawaii, it is naturalized and abundant in disturbed 
mesic to wet forest on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii 
(Almeda 1999, p. 915). It forms dense thickets, crowding out all other 
plant species, and inhibits regeneration of native plants (Motooka et 
al. 2003f). All members of this genus are on the Hawaii State noxious 
weed list (H.A.R. Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
     Ulex europaeus (gorse), a woody legume up to 12 ft (4 m) 
tall and covered with spines, is native to western Europe (Geesink 
1999, pp. 715-716). It is cultivated as a hedge and fodder plant, and 
was inadvertently introduced to Hawaii before 1910, with the 
establishment of the wool industry (Tulang 1992, pp. 577-583; Geesink 
1999, pp. 715-716). Gorse spreads numerous seeds by explosive opening 
of the pods (Mallinson 2011). It can rapidly form extensive dense and 
impenetrable infestations, and competes with native plants, preventing 
their establishment. Dense patches can also present a fire hazard 
(Mallinson 2011). Over 20,000 ac (8,094 ha) are infested by gorse on 
the island of Hawaii, and over 15,000 ac (6,070 ha) are infested on 
Maui (Tulang 1992, pp. 577-583).
     Youngia japonica (oriental hawksbeard), an annual herb 3 
ft (1 m) tall and native to southeastern Asia, is now a pantropical 
weed (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 377). In Hawaii, it occurs in moist, 
disturbed sites, and can invade nearly intact native wet forest where 
it displaces native species (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 377).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Fire
    Fire is an increasing, human-exacerbated threat to native species 
and native ecosystems in Hawaii. The historical fire regime in Hawaii 
was characterized by infrequent, low severity fires, as few natural 
ignition sources existed (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91; Smith and 
Tunison 1992, pp. 395-397). It is believed that prior to human 
colonization, fuel was sparse and inflammable in wet plant communities 
and seasonally flammable in mesic and dry plant communities. The 
primary ignition sources were volcanism and lightning (Baker et al. 
2009, p. 43). Natural fuel beds were often discontinuous, and rainfall 
in many areas on most islands was, and is, moderate to high. Fires 
inadvertently or intentionally ignited by the original Polynesians in 
Hawaii probably contributed to the initial decline of native vegetation 
in the drier plains and foothills. These early settlers practiced 
slash-and-burn agriculture that created open lowland areas suitable for 
the later colonization of nonnative, fire-adapted grasses (Kirch 1982, 
pp. 5-6, 8; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 30-31). Beginning in the late 
18th century, Europeans and Americans introduced plants and animals 
that further degraded native Hawaiian ecosystems. Pasturage and 
ranching, in particular, created high fire-prone areas of nonnative 
grasses and shrubs (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 67). Although fires 
were historically infrequent in mountainous regions, extensive fires 
have recently occurred in lowland dry and lowland mesic areas, leading 
to grass-fire cycles that convert forest to grasslands (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 77).
    Because several Hawaiian plants show some tolerance of fire, Vogl 
proposed that naturally occurring fires may have been important in the 
development of the original Hawaiian flora (Vogl 1969 in Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 91; Smith and Tunison 1992, p. 394). However, Mueller-
Dombois (1981 in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91) points out that most 
natural vegetation types of Hawaii would not carry fire before the 
introduction of alien grasses, and Smith and Tunison (1992, p. 396) 
state that native plant fuels typically have low flammability. Because 
of the greater frequency, intensity, and duration of fires that have 
resulted from the introduction of nonnative plants (especially 
grasses), fires are now destructive to native Hawaiian ecosystems 
(Brown and Smith 2000, p. 172), and a single grass-fueled fire can kill 
most native trees and shrubs in the burned area (D'Antonio and Vitousek 
1992, p. 74).
    Fire represents a threat to many of the native plant species found 
in the coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, montane dry, montane mesic, 
and dry cliff ecosystems addressed in this proposed rule. The plant 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing here are threatened by fire 
are Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Canavalia pubescens, C. 
magnicalyx, C. mauiensis, C. obtusa, Festuca molokaiensis, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, P. haliakalae, Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, 
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea salicaria, and Stenogyne 
kauaulaensis (see Table 3). Fire can destroy dormant seeds of these 
species as well as plants themselves, even in steep or inaccessible 
areas. Successive fires that burn farther and farther into native 
habitat destroy native plants and remove habitat for native species by 
altering microclimate conditions favorable to alien plants. Alien plant 
species most likely to be spread as a consequence of fire are those 
that produce a high fuel load, are adapted to survive and regenerate 
after fire, and establish rapidly in newly burned areas. Grasses 
(particularly those that produce mats of dry material or retain a mass 
of standing dead leaves) that invade native forests and shrublands 
provide fuels that allow fire to burn areas that would not otherwise 
easily burn (Fujioka and Fujii 1980, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 93; 
D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-74; Tunison et al. 2002, p. 
122). Native woody plants may recover from fire to some degree, but 
fire shifts the competitive balance toward alien species (National Park 
Service 1989, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 93). On a post-burn survey 
at Puuwaawaa on the island of Hawaii, an area of native Diospyros 
forest with undergrowth of the nonnative grass Pennisetum setaceum, 
Takeuchi noted that ``no regeneration of native canopy is occurring 
within the Puuwaawaa burn area'' (Takeuchi 1991, p. 2). Takeuchi (1991, 
pp. 4, 6) also stated that ``burn events served to accelerate a decline 
process already in place, compressing into days a sequence which would 
ordinarily take decades,'' and concluded that in addition to increasing 
the number of fires, the nonnative Pennisetum acted to suppress the 
establishment of native plants after a fire.
    For decades, fires have impacted rare or endangered species and 
areas previously designated or proposed for critical habitat 
designation in this rule (Gima 1998, in litt.; Pacific Disaster Center 
2011; Hamilton 2009, in litt.; Honolulu Advertiser, 2010). The islands 
of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe have experienced 1,291 brush 
fires between the years 1972 and 1999 that burned a total of 64,248 ac 
(26,000 ha) (Pacific Disaster Center 2011; County of Maui 2009, Chapter 
3, p. 3). Between 2000 and 2003, the annual number of wildfires on 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui jumped from 118 to 271, many of which each 
consumed more than 5,000 ac (2,023 ha) (Pacific Disaster Center 2011).
    During the summer of 1998, a raging fire that began in Kaunakakai 
consumed over 15,000 ac (6,070 ha) on Molokai, including a portion of 
the Molokai Forest Reserve, consuming roughly 10 percent of the entire 
island (Gima 1998, in litt.). Molokai experienced three 10,000 ac 
(4,047 ha) wildfires between the years 2003 and 2004 (Pacific Disaster 
Center 2011). In late August through early September 2009, a massive 
wildfire burned for days and consumed approximately 8,000 ac (3,237 
ha), including 600 ac (243 ha) of the remote Makakupaia section of the

[[Page 34495]]

Molokai Forest Reserve, a small portion of TNC's Kamakou Preserve, and 
encroached upon Onini Gulch, Kalamaula and Kawela (Hamilton 2009, in 
litt.). Three species reported from Molokai's coastal and lowland mesic 
ecosystems (Festuca molokaiensis, Phyllostegia haliakalae, and 
Pittosporum halophilum) are threatened by fire because individuals of 
these species or their habitat are located in or near areas that were 
burned in previous fires.
    The island of Lanai has experienced several wildfires in the last 
decade. In 2006, a wildfire burned 600 ac (243 ha) between Manele Road 
and the Palawai basin (2.5 mi (4 km) south of Lanai City) (The Maui 
News 2006, in litt.). In 2007, a brush fire occurred in the Mahana 
area, burning an estimated 30 ac (12 ha), and in 2008, another 1,000 ac 
(405 ha) were burned by wildfire in the Palawai basin (The Maui News 
2007, in litt.; KITV Honolulu 2008, in litt.). All known individuals of 
Pleomele fernaldii lie just southeast of the area burned during the 
Mahana fire and east of the Palawai basin fires. Many of these 
individuals could be decimated by one large fire.
    Between the years 2007 and 2010, wildfires burned more than 8,650 
ac (3,501 ha) on west Maui (Shimogawa 2010, in litt.; Honolulu 
Advertiser 2010, in litt.). In 2007, a fire that started along 
Honoapiilani Highway on the south coast of west Maui burned a total of 
1,350 ac (546 ha), encroached into the West Maui Natural Area Reserve 
(Panaewa section), and threatened the proposed plants Phyllostegia 
bracteata and Schiedea salicaria (HDLNR 1989, pp. 53-63; KITV 2007, in 
litt.). In May 2010, another fire occurred farther south along the same 
highway, moved up the ridges of Olowalu, and eventually encompassed 
1,100 ac (445 ha). Later the same year, a fire that started at Maalaea 
initially destroyed 200 ac (81 ha), and because of strong winds and 
drought conditions, continued to burn for 8 days, moved up Kealaloloa 
and nearby ridges, and encompassed a total of 6,200 ac (2,509 ha). This 
fire is on record as the largest brush fire that has occurred on Maui. 
Nine species reported from Maui's lowland dry, lowland mesic, montane 
dry, montane mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems (Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, Canavalia pubescens, C. magnicalyx, C. mauiensis, C. obtusa, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea 
salicaria, and Stenogyne kauaulaensis) are threatened by fire because 
individuals of these species or their habitat are located in or near 
areas that were burned in previous fires or in areas at risk for fire 
due to the presence of highly flammable nonnative grasses and pine 
trees.
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Hurricanes
    Hurricanes adversely impact native Hawaiian terrestrial habitat, 
including each of the 10 Maui Nui ecosystems addressed here and their 
associated species identified in this proposed rule. They do this by 
destroying native vegetation, opening the canopy and thus modifying the 
availability of light, and creating disturbed areas conducive to 
invasion by nonnative pest species (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant 
Species Impacts,'' above) (Asner and Goldstein 1997, p. 148; Harrington 
et al. 1997, pp. 539-540). Because many Hawaiian plant and animal 
species, including the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing 
here, persist in low numbers and in restricted ranges, natural 
disasters, such as hurricanes, can be particularly devastating 
(Mitchell et al. 2005, pp. 3-4).
    Hurricanes affecting Hawaii were only rarely reported from ships in 
the area from the 1800s until 1949. Between 1950 and 1997, 22 
hurricanes passed near or over the Hawaiian Islands, 5 of which caused 
serious damage (Businger 1998, pp. 1-2). In November 1982, Hurricane 
Iwa struck the Hawaiian Islands, with wind gusts exceeding 100 miles 
per hour (mph) (161 kilometers per hour (kph)), causing extensive 
damage, especially on the islands of Niihau, Kauai, and Oahu (Businger 
1998, pp. 2, 6). Many forest trees were destroyed (Perlman 1992, pp. 1-
9), which opened the canopy and facilitated the invasion of nonnative 
plants (Kitayama and Mueller-Dombois 1995, p. 671). Competition with 
nonnative plants is a threat to each of the 10 ecosystems that support 
the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing here, and to 35 of 
the 37 plant species addressed in this proposed rule, as described in 
the ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts'' section above. 
Biologists have reported that hurricanes are a threat to the three tree 
snails proposed for listing (Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, 
and P. variabilis). High winds and intense rains from hurricanes can 
dislodge snails from the leaves and branches of their host plants and 
deposit them on the forest floor where they may be crushed by falling 
vegetation or exposed to predation by nonnative rats and snails (see 
``Disease or Predation,'' below) (Hadfield 2011, pers. comm.). Although 
there is historical evidence of only one hurricane that approached from 
the east and impacted the islands of Maui and Hawaii (Businger 1998, p. 
3), damage by future hurricanes could further decrease the remaining 
native plant-dominated habitat areas that support the 40 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in 10 of the described ecosystems 
(coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane 
mesic, montane wet, subalpine, dry cliff, and wet cliff) (Bellingham et 
al. 2005, p. 681).
Habitat Destruction and Modification Due to Landslides, Rockfalls, 
Treefalls, Flooding, and Drought
    Landslides, rockfalls, treefalls, and flooding destabilize 
substrates, damage and destroy individual plants, and alter 
hydrological patterns, which result in changes to native plant and 
animal communities. In the open sea near Hawaii, rainfall averages 25 
to 30 in (635 to 762 mm) per year, yet the islands may receive up to 15 
times this amount in some places, caused by orographic features 
(physical geography of mountains) (Wagner et al. 1999b; adapted from 
Price (1983) and Carlquist (1980)), pp. 38 and 39). During storms, rain 
may fall at 3 in (76 mm) per hour or more, and sometimes may reach 
nearly 40 in (1,000 mm) in 24 hours, causing destructive flash-flooding 
in streams and narrow gulches (Wagner et al. 1999b; adapted from Price 
(1983) and Carlquist (1980)), pp. 38-39). Due to the steep topography 
of much of the areas on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui where these 40 species 
remain, erosion and disturbance caused by introduced ungulates 
exacerbate the potential for landslides, rockfalls, or flooding, which 
in turn threaten native plants. For those species that occur in small 
numbers in highly restricted geographic areas, such events have the 
potential to eradicate all individuals of a population, or even all 
populations of a species, resulting in extinction.
    Landslides, rockfalls, and treefalls likely adversely impact 14 of 
the species addressed in this proposed rule, including Cyanea 
asplenifolia, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. horrida, C. magnicalyx, 
C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. munroi, C. profuga, C. solanacea, 
Cyrtandra filipes, Schiedea jacobii, S. laui, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, 
and Wikstroemia villosa, as documented in observations by field 
botanists and surveyors (HBMP 2008). Monitoring data from PEPP and the 
HBMP suggest that these 14 species are threatened by landslides or 
falling rocks, as they are found in landscape settings susceptible to 
these events (e.g., steep slopes and cliffs). Field survey data 
presented by Oppenheimer documented the direct damage from landslides 
to individuals

[[Page 34496]]

of Cyanea solanacea located along a stream bank and steep slope beneath 
a cliff (PEPP 2007, p. 41). Since Cyanea solanacea is known from a 
total of 26 individuals in steep-walled stream valleys, one or several 
landslides could lead to near extirpation or even extinction of the 
species by direct destruction of the individual plants, mechanical 
damage to individual plants that could lead to their death, 
destabilization of the cliff habitat leading to additional landslides, 
and alteration of hydrological patterns (e.g., affecting the 
availability of soil moisture). Perlman (2009b, in litt.) noted the 
threat of rolling or falling rocks to one population of Cyanea 
magnicalyx.
    Monitoring data presented by HBMP and the PEPP program suggest that 
flooding is a likely threat to five plant species included in this 
proposed listing, Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea 
duvalliorum, C. horrida, C. profuga, and Schiedea laui. Field survey 
data presented by PEPP (2008, pp. 107-108) and by Bakutis (2010, in 
litt.) suggest that catastrophic flooding or landslides are possible at 
one population of Schiedea laui located in a cave along a narrow stream 
corridor at the base of a waterfall in the Kamakou Preserve.
    Four plant species, Cyanea horrida, Festuca molokaiensis, Schiedea 
jacobii, and Stenogyne kaualaensis, and the three tree snails proposed 
for listing in this proposed rule may also be affected by habitat loss 
or degradation associated with droughts, which are not uncommon in the 
Hawaiian Islands. Between 1860 and 2006, there have been 30 periods of 
Statewide drought that have also affected the islands of Molokai, 
Lanai, and Maui (Giambelluca et al. 1991, pp. 3-4; Hawaii Commission on 
Water Resource Management 2009a and 2009b). In 2006, Maui County was 
designated a primary disaster area because of a severe drought from 
April to September 2006 (Pacific Disaster Center, 2010). It is 
suggested that Festuca molokaiensis, a purported annual plant, has not 
been observed at its known location in recent years due to drought 
conditions on Molokai (Oppenheimer 2011, pers. comm.). Drought also 
leads to an increase in the number of forest and brush fires 
(Giambelluca et al. 1991, p. v), causing a reduction of native plant 
cover and habitat (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 77-79) and a 
reduction in availability of host plants for the three tree snails. 
Recent episodes of drought have also driven axis deer farther into 
urban and forested areas for food, increasing their negative impacts to 
native vegetation from herbivory and trampling (see ``Disease and 
Predation,'' below) (Waring 1996, in litt., p. 5; Nishibayashi 2001, in 
litt.).
Habitat Destruction and Modification by Climate Change
    Climate change will be a particular challenge for the conservation 
of biodiversity because the introduction and interaction of additional 
stressors may push species beyond their ability to survive (Lovejoy 
2005, pp. 325-326). The synergistic implications of climate change and 
habitat fragmentation are the most threatening facet of climate change 
for biodiversity (Hannah et al. 2005, p. 4). The magnitude and 
intensity of the impacts of global climate change and increasing 
temperatures on native Hawaiian ecosystems are unknown. Currently, 
there are no climate change studies that specifically address impacts 
to the Maui Nui ecosystems discussed here or the 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing that are associated with these ecosystems. 
Based on the best available information, climate change impacts could 
lead to the loss of native species that comprise the communities in 
which the 40 species occur (Pounds et al. 1999, pp. 611-612; Still et 
al. 1999, p. 610; Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14,246-14,248; Allen et al. 
2010, pp. 660-662; Sturrock et al. 2011, p. 144; Towsend et al. 2011, 
p. 15; Warren 2011, pp. 221-226). In addition, weather regime changes 
(droughts, floods) will likely result from increased annual average 
temperatures related to more frequent El Ni[ntilde]o episodes in Hawaii 
(Giambelluca et al. 1991, p. v). Future changes in precipitation and 
the forecast of those changes are highly uncertain because they depend, 
in part, on how the El Ni[ntilde]o-La Ni[ntilde]a weather cycle (a 
disruption of the ocean atmospheric system in the tropical Pacific 
having important global consequences for weather and climate) might 
change (State of Hawaii 1998, pp. 2-10). The 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing may be especially vulnerable to extinction due 
to anticipated environmental changes that may result from global 
climate change, due to their small population size and highly 
restricted ranges. Environmental changes that may affect these species 
are expected to include habitat loss or alteration and changes in 
disturbance regimes (e.g., storms and hurricanes).
Climate Change and Ambient Temperature
    The average ambient air temperature (at sea level) is projected to 
increase by about 4.1 degrees Fahrenheit ([deg]F) (2.3 [deg]Centigrade 
(C)) with a range of 2.7 [deg]F to 6.7 [deg]F (1.5 [deg]C to 3.7 
[deg]C) by 2100 worldwide (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 
(IPCC) 2007). These changes would increase the monthly average 
temperature of the Hawaiian Islands from the current value of 74 [deg]F 
(23.3 [deg]C) to between 77 [deg]F to 86 [deg]F (25 [deg]C to 30 
[deg]C). Historically, temperature has been rising over the last 100 
years with the greatest increase after 1975 (Alexander et al. 2006, pp. 
1-22; Giambelluca et al. 2008, p. 1). The rate of increase at low 
elevation (0.16 [deg]F; 0.09 [deg]C) per decade is below the observed 
global temperature rise of 0.32 [deg]F (0.18 [deg]C) per decade (IPCC 
2007). However, at high elevations, the rate of increase (0.48 [deg]F 
(0.27 [deg]C) per decade) greatly exceeds the global rate (IPCC 2007).
    Overall, the daily temperature range in Hawaii is decreasing, 
resulting in a warmer environment, especially at higher elevations and 
at night. In the main Hawaiian Islands, predicted changes associated 
with increases in temperature include a shift in vegetation zones 
upslope, shift in animal species' ranges, changes in mean precipitation 
with unpredictable effects on local environments, increased occurrence 
of drought cycles, and increases in the intensity and number of 
hurricanes (Loope and Giambelluca 1998, pp. 514-515; U.S. Global Change 
Research Program (US-GCRP) 2009). In addition, weather regime changes 
(e.g., droughts, floods) will likely result from increased annual 
average temperatures related to more frequent El Ni[ntilde]o episodes 
in Hawaii (Giambelluca et al. 1991, p. v). However, despite 
considerable progress made by expert scientists toward understanding 
the impacts of climate change on many of the processes that contribute 
to El Ni[ntilde]o variability, it is not possible to say whether or not 
El Ni[ntilde]o activity will be affected by climate change (Collins et 
al. 2010, p. 391).
    The warming atmosphere is creating a plethora of anticipated and 
unanticipated environmental changes such as melting ice caps, decline 
in annual snow mass, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, increase in 
storm frequency and intensity (e.g., hurricanes, cyclones, and 
tornadoes), and altered precipitation patterns that contribute to 
regional increases in floods, heat waves, drought, and wildfires that 
also displace species and alter or destroy natural ecosystems (Pounds 
et al. 1999, pp. 611-612; IPCC 2007; Marshall et al. 2008, p. 273; U.S. 
Climate Change Science Program 2008; Flannigan et al. 2009, p. 483; US-
GCRP 2009; Allen et al. 2010, pp. 660-662; Warren 2011, pp. 221-226). 
These

[[Page 34497]]

environmental changes are predicted to alter species migration 
patterns, lifecycles, and ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycles, 
water availability, and decomposition (IPCC 2007; Pounds et al. 1999, 
pp. 611-612; Sturrock et al. 2011, p. 144; Townsend et al. 2011, p. 15; 
Warren 2011, pp. 221-226). The species extinction rate is predicted to 
increase congruent with ambient temperature increase (US-GCRP 2009).
Climate Change and Precipitation
    As global surface temperature rises, the evaporation of water vapor 
increases, resulting in higher concentrations of water vapor in the 
atmosphere, further resulting in altered global precipitation patterns 
(U.S. National Science and Technology Council (US-NSTC) 2008; US-GCRP 
2009). While annual global precipitation has increased over the last 
100 years, the combined effect of increases in evaporation and 
evapotranspiration is causing land surface drying in some regions 
leading to a greater incidence and severity of drought (US-NSTC 2008; 
US-GCRP 2009). Over the the past 100 years, the Hawaiian Islands have 
experienced an annual decline in precipitation of just over 9 percent 
(US-NSTC 2008). Other data on precipitation in Hawaii, which includes 
sea level precipitation and the added orographic effects, show a steady 
and significant decline of about 15 percent over the last 15 to 20 
years (Chu and Chen 2005, p. 4,881-4,900; Diaz et al. 2005, pp. 1-3). 
Exact future changes in precipitation in Hawaii and the forecast of 
those changes are uncertain because they depend, in part, on how the El 
Ni[ntilde]o-La Ni[ntilde]a weather cycle might change (State of Hawaii 
1998, pp. 2-10).
    In the oceans around Hawaii, the average annual rainfall at sea 
level is about 25 in (63.5 cm). The orographic features of the islands 
increase this annual average to about 70 in (177.8 cm) but can exceed 
240 in (609.6 cm) in the wettest mountain areas. Rainfall is 
distributed unevenly across each high island, and rainfall gradients 
are extreme (approximately 25 in (63.5 cm) per mile), creating both 
very dry and very wet areas. Global climate modeling predicts that, by 
2100, net precipitation at sea level near the Hawaiian Islands will 
decrease in winter by about 4 to 6 percent, with no significant change 
during summer (IPCC 2007). Downscaling of global climate models 
indicates that wet-season (winter) precipitation will decrease by 5 
percent to 10 percent, while dry-season (summer) precipitation will 
increase by about 5 percent (Timm and Diaz 2009, pp. 4,261-4,280). 
These data are also supported by a steady decline in stream flow 
beginning in the early 1940s (Oki 2004, p. 1). Altered seasonal 
moisture regimes can have negative impacts on plant growth cycles and 
overall negative impacts on natural ecosystems (US-GCRP 2009). Long 
periods of decline in annual precipitation result in a reduction in 
moisture availability, an increase in drought frequency and intensity, 
and a self-perpetuating cycle of nonnative plants, fire, and erosion 
(US-GCRP 2009; Warren 2011, pp. 221-226) (see ``Habitat Destruction and 
Modification by Fire,'' above). These impacts may negatively affect the 
40 species proposed or reevaluted for listing here and the 10 
ecosystems that support them.
Climate Change, and Tropical Cyclone Frequency and Intensity
    A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a medium to large scale 
low-pressure system over tropical or subtropical waters with organized 
convection (i.e., thunderstorm activity) and definite cyclonic surface 
wind circulation (counterclockwise direction in the Northern 
Hemisphere) (Holland 1993, pp. 1-8). In the Northeast Pacific Ocean, 
east of the International Date Line, once a tropical cyclone reaches an 
intensity with winds of at least 74 mi per hour (33 m per second) it is 
considered a hurricane (Neumann 1993, pp. 1-2). Climate modeling has 
projected changes in tropical cyclone frequency and intensity due to 
global warming over the next 100 to 200 years (Vecchi and Soden 2007, 
pp. 1,068-1,069, Figures 2 and 3; Emanuel et al. 2008, p. 360, Figure 
8; Yu et al. 2010, p. 1,371, Figure 14). The frequency of hurricanes 
generated by tropical cyclones is projected to decrease in the central 
Pacific (e.g., the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) while storm 
intensity (strength) is projected to increase by a few percent over 
this period (Vecchi and Soden 2007, pp. 1,068-1,069, Figures 2 and 3; 
Emanuel et al. 2008, p. 360, Figure 8; Yu et al. 2010, p. 1,371, Figure 
14). There are no climate model predictions for a change in the 
duration of Pacific tropical cyclone storm season (which generally runs 
from May through November).
    In general, tropical cyclones with the intensities of hurricanes 
have been a rare occurrence in the Hawaiian Islands. From the 1800s 
until 1949, hurricanes were only rarely reported from ships in the 
area. Between 1950 and 1997, 22 hurricanes passed near or over the 
Hawaiian Islands, 5 of which caused serious damage (Businger 1998, in 
litt., pp. 1-2). Hurricanes may cause destruction of native vegetation 
and open the native canopy, allowing for invasion by nonnative plant 
species which compete for space, water, and nutrients, and alter basic 
water and nutrient cycling processes leading to decreased growth and 
reproduction for all 37 plant species proposed or reevaluated for 
listing in this proposed rule (see Table 3) (Perlman 1992, in litt., 
pp. 1-9; Kitayama and Mueller-Dombois 1995, p. 671). Hurricanes also 
constitute a threat to the three proposed tree snails (Newcombia 
cumingi, Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis) as a result of their 
high winds that may dislodge snails from their host trees, thereby 
increasing the likelihood of mortality caused by falling vegetation and 
ground-based predators, such as nonnative rats (Rattus spp.) and snails 
(see ``Disease or Predation,'' below). Although there is historical 
evidence of only one hurricane that approached from the east and 
impacted the islands of Maui and Hawaii (Businger 1998, p.3), damage by 
future hurricanes could further decrease the remaining native plant-
dominated habitat areas that support the 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in 10 of the described ecosystems (coastal, 
lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane mesic, 
montane wet, subalpine, dry cliff, and wet cliff) (Bellingham et al. 
2005, p. 681).
Climate Change, and Sea Level Rise and Coastal Inundation
    On a global scale, sea level is rising as a result of thermal 
expansion of warming ocean water; the melting of ice sheets, glaciers, 
and ice caps; and the addition of water from terrestrial systems 
(Climate Institute 2011). Sea level rose at an average rate of 0.1 in 
(1.8 mm) per year between 1961 and 2003 (IPCC 2007, p. 5), and the 
predicted increase by the end of this century, without accounting for 
ice sheet flow, ranges from 0.6 ft to 2.0 ft (0.18 m to 0.6 m) (IPCC 
2007, p. 13). When ice sheet and glacial melt are incorporated into 
models, the average estimated increase in sea level by the year 2100 is 
approximately 3 to 4 ft (0.9 to 1.2 m), with some estimates as high as 
6.6 ft (2.0 m) to 7.8 ft (2.4 m) (Rahmstorf 2007, pp. 368-370; Pfeffer 
et al. 2008, p. 1,340; Fletcher 2009, p. 7; US-GCRP 2009, p. 18). There 
is no specific information available on how sea level rise and coastal 
inundation will impact the coastal ecosystems on Maui and Molokai where 
two of the proposed species, Canavalia pubescens and Pittosporum 
halophilum, are currently found.

[[Page 34498]]

    Increased interannual variability of ambient temperature, 
precipitation, hurricanes, and sea level rise and inundation would 
provide additional stresses on the 10 ecosystems and each of the 
associated 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing in this 
proposed rule because they are highly vulnerable to disturbance and 
related invasion of nonnative species. The probability of a species 
going extinct as a result of such factors increases when its range is 
restricted, habitat decreases, and population numbers decline (IPCC 
2007, p. 8). The 40 species have limited environmental tolerances, 
ranges, restricted habitat requirements, small population sizes, and 
low numbers of individuals. Therefore, we would expect these species to 
be particularly vulnerable to projected environmental impacts that may 
result from changes in climate and subsequent impacts to their habitats 
(e.g., Loope and Giambelluca 1998, pp. 504-505; Pounds et al. 1999, pp. 
611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610; Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14,246-
14,248, Giambelluca and Luke 2007, pp. 13-18). Based on the above 
information, we conclude that changes in environmental conditions that 
result from climate change are likely to negatively impact these 40 
species, and we do not anticipate a reduction in this potential threat 
in the near future.
Summary of Habitat Destruction and Modification
    The threats to the habitats of each of the 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in this proposed rule are occurring throughout 
the entire range of each of the species. These threats include land 
conversion by agriculture and urbanization, nonnative ungulates and 
plants, fire, natural disasters, and climate change, and the 
interaction of these threats.
    Development and urbanization of coastal and lowland dry habitat on 
Maui represents a serious and ongoing threat to approximately 20 
individuals of Canavalia pubescens remaining at Palauea-Keahou.
    The effects from ungulates are serious and ongoing because 
ungulates currently occur in the 10 ecosystems that support the 40 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule. Ungulates 
directly threaten 35 of the 37 plant species, and 2 of the 3 snail 
species (Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis) proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in this rule (see Table 3), because they cause: 
(1) Trampling and grazing that directly impact the plant communities, 
which include the plant species proposed or reevaluated for listing, 
and impact host plants used by Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis 
for foraging, shelter, and reproduction; (2) increased soil 
disturbance, leading to mechanical damage to individuals of the plant 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing, and plants used by the two 
tree snails for foraging, shelter, and reproduction; and (3) creation 
of open, disturbed areas conducive to weedy plant invasion and 
establishment of alien plants from dispersed fruits and seeds, which 
results over time in the conversion of a community dominated by native 
vegetation to one dominated by nonnative vegetation (leading to all of 
the negative impacts associated with nonnative plants, listed below). 
These threats are expected to continue or increase without ungulate 
control or eradication.
    Nonnative plants represent a serious and ongoing threat to 36 of 
the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing (35 plant species 
and the tree snail Newcombia cumingi; see Table 3) through habitat 
destruction and modification because they: (1) Adversely impact 
microhabitat by modifying the availability of light; (2) alter soil-
water regimes; (3) modify nutrient cycling processes; (4) alter fire 
characteristics of native plant habitat, leading to incursions of fire-
tolerant nonnative plant species into native habitat; and (5) 
outcompete, and possibly directly inhibit the growth of, native plant 
species. Each of these threats can convert native-dominated plant 
communities to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
74; Vitousek 1992, pp. 33-35). This conversion has negative impacts on, 
and threatens, 35 of the 37 plant species addressed here, as well as 
the native plant species upon which Newcombia cumingi depends for 
essential life-history needs.
    The threat from fire to 13 of the 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing in this proposed rule that depend on coastal, 
lowland dry, lowland mesic, montane dry, montane mesic, and dry cliff 
ecosystems (Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Canavalia pubescens, 
Cyanea magnicalyx, C. mauiensis, C. obtusa, Festuca molokaiensis, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele 
fernaldii, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiensis, Schiedea salicaria, and 
Stenogyne kauaulaensis; see Table 3) is serious and ongoing because 
fire damages and destroys native vegetation, including dormant seeds, 
seedlings, and juvenile and adult plants. Many nonnative invasive 
plants, particularly fire-tolerant grasses, outcompete native plants 
and inhibit their regeneration (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 
73-74; Tunison et al. 2002, p. 122). Successive fires that burn farther 
and farther into native habitat destroy native plants and remove 
habitat for native species by altering microclimatic conditions and 
creating conditions favorable to alien plants. The threat from fire is 
unpredictable but increasing in frequency in ecosystems that have been 
invaded by nonnative, fire-prone grasses.
    Natural disasters such as hurricanes adversely impact native 
Hawaiian terrestrial habitat including the 10 ecosystems addressed here 
and all 37 plant species proposed or reevaluated for listing in this 
rule because they open the forest canopy, modify available light, and 
create disturbed areas that are conducive to invasion by nonnative pest 
plants (Asner and Goldstein 1997, p. 148; Harrington et al. 1997, pp. 
346-347). In addition, hurricanes threaten the three tree snail species 
in this proposed rule because strong winds and intense rainfall can 
dislodge individual snails from their host plants and deposit them on 
the ground where they may be crushed by falling debris or eaten by 
nonnative rats and snails. The impacts of hurricanes and other 
stochastic natural events can be particularly devastating to the 40 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing because, as a result of 
other threats, they now persist in low numbers or occur in restricted 
ranges and are therefore less resilient to such disturbances, rendering 
them highly vulnerable to extirpation. Furthermore, a particularly 
destructive hurricane holds the potential of driving a localized 
endemic species to extinction in a single event. Hurricanes pose an 
ongoing and ever-present threat because they can happen at any time, 
although their occurrence is not predictable.
    Landslides, rockfalls, treefalls, and flooding adversely impact 16 
of the species proposed or reevaluated for listing (Bidens campylotheca 
ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. duvalliorum, C. grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. horrida, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, 
C. munroi, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, Schiedea 
jacobii, S. laui, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa; see 
Table 3) by destabilizing substrates, damaging and destroying 
individual plants, and altering hydrological patterns, which result in 
habitat destruction or modification and changes to native plant and 
animal communities. Drought threatens four plant species--Cyanea 
horrida, Festuca molokaiensis, Schiedea jacobii, and Stenogyne 
kauaulaesis--and all three tree snails--Newcombia cumingi, Partulina

[[Page 34499]]

semicarinata, and P. variabilis--by the loss or degradation of habitat 
due to death of individual native plants and host tree species, as well 
as an increase in forest and brush fires. These threats are serious and 
have the potential to occur at any time, although their occurrence is 
not predictable.
    Changes in environmental conditions that may result from global 
climate change include increasing temperatures, decreasing 
precipitation, increasing storm intensities, and sea level rise and 
coastal inundation. The consequent impacts on the 40 species proposed 
or reevaluated for listing here are related to changes in microclimatic 
conditions in their habitats. These changes may lead to the loss of 
native species due to direct physiological stress, the loss or 
alteration of habitat, or changes in disturbance regimes (e.g., 
droughts, fire, storms, and hurricanes). Because the specific and 
cumulative effects of climate change on the 40 species are presently 
unknown, we are not able to determine the magnitude of this possible 
threat with confidence.

B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

Plants
    We are not aware of any threats to the 37 plant species addressed 
in this proposed rule that would be attributed to overutilization for 
commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes.
Tree Snails
    Tree snails can be found around the world in tropical and 
subtropical regions and have been valued as collectibles for centuries. 
Evidence of tree snail trading among prehistoric Polynesians was 
discovered by a genetic characterization of the enigmatic multi-
archipelagic distribution of the Tahitian endemic Partula hyalina and 
related taxa (Lee et al. 2007, pp. 2,907, 2,910). In their study, Lee 
et al. (2007, pp. 2,908-2,910) found evidence that Partula hyalina had 
been traded as far away as Mangaia in the Southern Cook Islands, a 
distance of over 500 mi (805 km). The endemic Hawaiian tree snails 
within the family Achatinellidae (subfamily Achatinellinae) were 
extensively collected for scientific as well as recreational purposes 
by Europeans in the 18th to early 20th centuries (Hadfield 1986, p. 
322). During the 1800s, collectors observed 500 to 2,000 snails per 
tree, and sometimes collected over 4,000 snails in just several hours 
(Hadfield 1986, p. 322). We may infer that the repeated collections of 
hundreds to thousands of individuals at a time by early collectors 
resulted in decreased population sizes and reduction of reproduction 
potential due to the removal of potential breeding adults. The 
Achatinellinae do not reach reproductive age until nearly 10 years old, 
after which they produce only 4 to 6 offspring per year (Hadfield 2011, 
pers. comm.). The allure of tree snails persists to this day, and there 
is a market for rare tree snails that may serve as an incentive to 
collect them. A search of the Internet (e.g., eBay.com, google.com) 
reveals Web sites that offer Hawaiian tree snail shells for sale, 
including other species of the endemic Hawaiian tree snail genus 
Partulina. Based on the history of collection of endemic Hawaiian tree 
snails, the market for Hawaiian tree snail shells, and the 
vulnerability of the small populations of Newcombia cumingi, Partulina 
semicarinata, and P. variabilis to the negative impacts of any 
collection, we consider the potential overcollection of these three 
Hawaiian tree snails to pose a serious and ongoing threat, because it 
can occur at any time, although its occurrence is not predictable.
Summary of Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes
    We have no evidence to suggest that overutilization for commercial, 
recreational, scientific, or educational purposes poses a threat to any 
the 37 plant species proposed or reevaluated for listing. We consider 
the three species of tree snails vulnerable to the impacts of 
overutilization due to collection for trade or market. Based on the 
history of collection of endemic Hawaiian tree snails, the market for 
Hawaiian tree snail shells, and the inherent vulnerability of the small 
populations of Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. 
variabilis to the removal of breeding adults, we consider collection to 
pose a serious and ongoing threat to these species.

C. Disease or Predation

Disease
    We are not aware of any threats to the 37 plant species addressed 
in this proposed rule that would be attributable to disease. Disease is 
a potential threat to the three tree snails proposed in this rule, 
Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis; evidence 
for this is based on attempts to raise these species in captivity. Due 
to the extremely low numbers and threat of extinction of Hawaiian tree 
snails in the wild, captive breeding of over 20 species has been 
implemented over the past decade. Hadfield (2010, pers. comm.) notes 
that individuals of Newcombia cumingi do not survive long in captivity, 
and individuals of Partulina spp. sometimes die off for unknown reasons 
(Hadfield 2011, pers. comm.). According to Hadfield (2011, pers. 
comm.), the London Zoo found evidence of protozoan presence in a non-
Hawaiian species of Partulina, which is indicative of disease. Hadfield 
(2011, pers. comm.) also suggests there is a negative correlation 
between reproductive potential in Hawaiian tree snails and time in 
captivity, likely due to inbreeding depression or environmental 
conditions, including disease.
    Because we have no evidence that disease may be impacting natural 
populations of the three tree snail species, we cannot conclude that 
this threat may have contributed to the current population status of 
Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis such that 
listing of any of the three species would be warranted based on this 
factor. However, we note that disease is a potential threat to captive 
bred Hawaiian tree snails and may be of particular concern for 
Newcombia cumingi, which is not successfully surviving or reproducing 
in captivity, potentially due to disease, and is only known from nine 
individuals in one location in the wild. Recovery of this species will 
likely depend on successful captive propagation and eventual 
translocation to protected sites in the wild.
Predation and Herbivory
    Hawaii's plants and animals evolved in nearly complete isolation 
from continental influences. Successful colonization of these remote 
volcanic islands was infrequent, and many organisms never succeeded in 
establishing populations. As an example, Hawaii lacks any native ants 
or conifers, has very few families of birds, and has only a single 
extant native land mammal, a bat (Loope 1998, p. 748). In the absence 
of any grazing or browsing mammals, plants that became established did 
not need mechanical or chemical defenses against mammalian herbivory 
such as thorns, prickles, and production of toxins. As the evolutionary 
pressure to either produce or maintain such defenses was lacking, 
Hawaiian plants either lost or never developed these adaptations 
(Carlquist 1980, p. 173). Likewise native Hawaiian birds and insects 
experienced no evolutionary pressure to develop anti-predator 
mechanisms against mammals or invertebrates that were not

[[Page 34500]]

historically present on the island. The native flora and fauna of the 
islands are thus particularly vulnerable to the impacts of introduced 
nonnative species, as discussed below.
Introduced Ungulates
    In addition to the habitat impacts discussed above (see ``Habitat 
Destruction and Modification by Introduced Ungulates'' under Factor A), 
introduced ungulates threaten the following 35 plant species in this 
proposal by grazing and browsing individual plants (this information is 
also presented in Table 3): Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera (pigs, 
goats, and axis deer), B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis (pigs, goats, 
and axis deer), B. conjuncta (pigs and goats), Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii (pigs), Canavalia pubescens (pigs, goats, cattle, and axis 
deer), Cyanea asplenifolia (pigs, goats, cattle, and axis deer), C. 
duvalliorum (pigs), C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (pigs, goats, and 
axis deer), C. horrida (pigs), C. kunthiana (pigs), C. magnicalyx 
(pigs), C. maritae (pigs), C. mauiensis (pigs), C. munroi (goats and 
axis deer), C. obtusa (pigs, goats, cattle, and axis deer), C. profuga 
(pigs and goats), C. solanacea (pigs and goats), Cyrtandra ferripilosa 
(pigs and goats), C. filipes (pigs, goats, and axis deer), C. oxybapha 
(pigs, goats, and cattle), Festuca molokaiensis (goats), Geranium 
hanaense (pigs), G. hillebrandii (pigs), Mucuna sloanei var. persericea 
(pigs and cattle), Myrsine vaccinioides (pigs), Peperomia subpetiolata 
(pigs), Phyllostegia bracteata (pigs and cattle), P. haliakalae 
(cattle), P. pilosa (pigs and goats), Pittosporum halophilum (pigs), 
Pleomele fernaldii (axis deer and mouflon), Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense (pigs, goats, axis deer, and mouflon), Schiedea jacobii 
(goats, cattle, and axis deer), S. salicaria (goats, cattle, and axis 
deer), and Wikstroemia villosa (pigs).
    We have direct evidence of ungulate damage to some of these 
species, but for many, due to their remote locations or lack of study, 
ungulate damage is presumed based on the known presence of these 
introduced ungulates in the areas where these species occur and the 
results of studies conducted in Hawaii and elsewhere (Diong 1982, p. 
160). For example, in a study conducted by Diong (1982, p. 160) on 
Maui, feral pigs were observed browsing on young shoots, leaves, and 
fronds of a wide variety of plants, of which over 75 percent were 
endemic species. A stomach content analysis in this study showed that 
60 percent of the pigs' food source consisted of the endemic Cibotium 
(hapuu, tree fern). Pigs were observed to fell plants and remove the 
bark from native plant species within the genera Cibotium, Clermontia, 
Coprosma, Hedyotis, Psychotria, and Scaevola, resulting in larger trees 
being killed over a few months of repeated feeding (Diong 1982, p. 
144). Beach (1997, pp. 3-4) found that feral pigs in Texas spread 
disease and parasites, and their rooting and wallowing behavior led to 
spoilage of watering holes and loss of soil through leaching and 
erosion. Rooting activities also decreased the survivability of some 
plant species through disruption at root level of mature plants and 
seedlings (Beach 1997, pp. 3-4; Anderson et al. 2007, pp. 2-3). In 
Hawaii, pigs dig up forest ground cover consisting of delicate and rare 
species of orchids, ferns, mints, lobeliads, and other taxa, including 
roots, tubers, and rhizomes (Stone and Anderson 1988, p. 137). In 
addition, there are direct observations of pig herbivory on four of the 
plant species proposed for listing in this rule, including Cyanea 
magnicalyx (PEPP 2010, p. 49), C. maritae (PEPP 2010, p. 50), Peperomia 
subpetiolata (PEPP 2010, p. 97), and Phyllostegia pilosa (PEPP 2009, p. 
93). As pigs occur in 10 ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, subalpine, 
dry cliff, and wet cliff) on Molokai and Maui, the results of the 
studies described above suggest that pigs can also alter these 
ecosystems and directly damage or destroy native plants.
    Feral goats thrive on a variety of food plants, and are 
instrumental in the decline of native vegetation in many areas (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, p. 64). Feral goats trample roots and seedlings, cause 
erosion, and promote the invasion of alien plants. They are able to 
forage in extremely rugged terrain and have a high reproductive 
capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 1980, p. C-20; van Riper and van Riper 
1982, pp. 34-35; Tomich 1986, pp. 153-156; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
64). Goats were observed to browse on native plant species in the 
following genera: Argyroxiphium, Canavalia, Plantago, Schiedea, and 
Stenogyne (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 64). A study on the island of 
Hawaii demonstrated that Acacia koa seedlings are unable to survive due 
to browsing and grazing by goats (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 
874). If goats are maintained at constantly high numbers, mature trees 
will eventually die, and with them the root systems that support 
suckers and vegetative reproduction. One study demonstrated a positive 
height-growth response of Acacia koa suckers to the 3-year exclusion of 
goats (1968-1971) inside a fenced area, whereas suckers were similarly 
abundant, but very small, outside of the fenced area (Spatz and 
Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 873). Another study at Puuwaawaa on the island 
of Hawaii demonstrated that prior to management actions in 1985, 
regeneration of endemic shrubs and trees in the goat-grazed area was 
almost totally lacking, contributing to the invasion of the forest 
understory by exotic grasses and weeds. After the removal of grazing 
animals in 1985, A. koa and Metrosideros spp. seedlings were observed 
germinating by the thousands (HDLNR 2002, p. 52). Based on a comparison 
of fenced and unfenced areas, it is clear that goats can devastate 
native ecosystems (Loope et al. 1988, p. 277). As goats occur in nine 
of the described ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff), on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, the results of the studies 
described above suggest that goats can also alter these ecosystems and 
directly damage or destroy native plants.
    Axis deer were introduced to Molokai in 1868, Lanai in 1920, and 
Maui in 1959. Most of the available information on axis deer in the 
Hawaiian Islands concerns observations and reports from the island of 
Maui. On Maui, axis deer were introduced as a game animal, but their 
numbers have steadily increased, especially in recent years on 
Haleakala (Luna 2003, p. 44). During the 4-year El Ni[ntilde]o drought 
from 1998 through 2001, Maui experienced an 80 to 90 percent decline in 
shrub and vine species caused by deer browsing and girdling of young 
saplings. High mortality of rare and native plant species was observed 
(Medeiros 2010, pers. comm.). Axis deer consume progressively less 
palatable plants until no edible vegetation is left (Hess 2008, p. 3). 
Axis deer are highly adaptable to changing conditions, and are 
characterized as ``plastic'' (meaning flexible in their behavior) by 
Ables (1977, cited in Anderson in litt. 1999, p. 5). They exhibit a 
high degree of opportunism regarding their choice of forage (Dinerstein 
1987, cited in Anderson 1999, p. 5) and can be found in all but the 
highest elevation ecosystems (subalpine and alpine) and montane bogs, 
according to Medeiros (2010, pers. comm.).
    Axis deer on Maui follow a cycle of grazing and browsing in open 
lowland grasslands during the rainy season (November-March) and then 
migrate to the lava flows of montane mesic forests during the dry 
summer months to graze

[[Page 34501]]

and browse native plants (Medeiros 2010, pers. comm.). Axis deer favor 
the native plants Abutilon menziesii (an endangered species), Erythrina 
sandwicensis (wiliwili), and Sida fallax (ilima) (Medeiros 2010, pers. 
comm.). During the driest months of summer (July-August), axis deer can 
be found along Maui's coastal roads as they search for food. Hunting 
pressure appears to drive the deer into native forests, particularly 
the lower rainforests up to 4,000 to 5,000 ft (1,220 and 1,525 m) in 
elevation (Medeiros 2010, pers. comm.), and according to Kessler and 
Hess (2010, pers. comms.) axis deer can be found up to 9,000 ft (2,743 
m) elevation.
    Other native Hawaiian plant species have been reported as grazed 
and browsed by axis deer. For example, on Lanai, grazing by axis deer 
has been reported as a major threat to the endangered Gardenia 
brighamii (nau) (Mehrhoff 1993, p. 11), and on Molokai, browsing by 
axis deer has been reported on Erythrina sandwicensis and Nototrichium 
sandwicense (kului) (Medeiros et al. 1996, pp. 11, 19). Swedberg and 
Walker (1978, cited in Anderson 2003, pp. 124-125) reported that in the 
upper forests of Lanai, the native plants Osteomeles anthyllidifolia 
(uulei) and Leptecophylla tameiameiae (pukiawe) comprised more than 30 
percent of axis deer rumen volume. Other native plant species consumed 
by axis deer include Abutilon menziesii and Geranium multiflorum 
(nohoanu) (both endangered species); the species Bidens campylotheca 
ssp. pentamera and B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, which are proposed 
for listing in this rule; and Achyranthes splendens (NCN), Chamaesyce 
lorifolia (akoko), Diospyros sandwicensis (lama), Lipochaeta rockii 
var. dissecta (nehe), Osmanthus sandwicensis (ulupua), Panicum torridum 
(kakonakona), and Santalum ellipticum (laau ala) (Anderson 2002, 
poster; Perlman 2009c, in litt., pp. 4-5). As axis deer occur in nine 
of the described ecosystems on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (coastal, 
lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane mesic, 
montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff), the results from the studies 
above, in addition to the direct observations from field biologists, 
suggest that axis deer can also alter these ecosystems and directly 
damage or destroy native plants.
    Mouflon sheep graze native vegetation, trample undergrowth, spread 
weeds, and cause erosion. On the island of Hawaii, mouflon browsing led 
to the decline in the largest population of the endangered 
Argyroxiphium kauense (kau silversword, Mauna Loa silversword, or 
ahinahina) located on the former Kahuku Ranch, reducing it from a 
``magnificent population of several thousand'' (Degener et al. 1976, 
pp. 173-174) to fewer than 2,000 individuals (unpublished data in 
Powell 1992, in litt., p. 312) over a period of 10 years (1974-1984). 
The native tree Sophora chrysophylla is also a preferred browse species 
for mouflon. According to Scowcroft and Sakai (1983, p. 495), mouflon 
eat the shoots, leaves, flowers, and bark of this species. Bark 
stripping on the thin bark of a young tree is potentially lethal. 
Mouflon are also reported to strip bark from Acacia koa trees (Hess 
2008, p. 3) and to seek out the threatened plant Silene hawaiiensis 
(Benitez et al. 2008, p. 57). In the Kahuku section of Hawaii Volcanoes 
National Park, mouflon sheep jumped the park boundary fence and reduced 
one population of S. hawaiiensis to half its original size over a 3-
year period (Belfield and Pratt 2002, p. 8). Other native species 
browsed by mouflon include Geranium cuneatum ssp. cuneatum (hinahina, 
silver geranium), G. cuneatum ssp. hypoleucum (hinahina, silver 
geranium), and Sanicula sandwicensis (NCN) (Benitez et al. 2008, pp. 
59, 61). On Lanai, mouflon sheep were once cited as one of the greatest 
threats to the endangered Gardenia brighamii (Mehrhoff 1993, p. 11), 
although fencing has now proven to be an effective mechanism against 
mouflon herbivory on this plant (Mehrhoff 1993, pp. 22-23). While 
mouflon sheep were introduced to the islands of Lanai and Hawaii as a 
managed game species, a private game ranch on Maui has added mouflon to 
its stock and it is likely that over time some individuals may escape 
(Hess 2010, pers. comm.; Kessler 2010, pers. comm.). As mouflon occur 
in seven of the described ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff) on Lanai, 
the data from the studies above, in addition to direct observation of 
field biologists, suggest that mouflon can also alter these ecosystems 
and directly damage or destroy native plants.
    Cattle, either feral or domestic, are considered one of the most 
important factors in the destruction of Hawaiian forests (Baldwin and 
Fagerlund 1943, pp. 118-122). Captain George Vancouver of the British 
Royal Navy is attributed with introducing cattle to the Hawaiian 
Islands in 1793 (Fischer 2007, p. 350) by way of a gift to King 
Kamehameha I on the island of Hawaii. Over time, cattle became 
established on all of the main Hawaiian Islands, and historically feral 
cattle were found on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, 
Kahoolawe, and Hawaii. Currently, feral cattle are found only on Maui 
and Hawaii, typically in accessible forests and certain coastal and 
lowland leeward habitats (Tomich 1986, pp. 140-144). In Hawaii 
Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii, Cuddihy reported that 
there were twice as many native plant species as nonnatives found in 
areas that had been fenced to exclude feral cattle, whereas on the 
adjacent, nonfenced cattle ranch, there were twice as many nonnative 
plant species as natives (Cuddihy 1984, pp. 16, 34). Skolmen and Fujii 
(1980, pp. 301-310) found that Acacia koa seedlings were able to 
reestablish in a moist Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest on 
Hawaii Island after the area was fenced to exclude feral cattle 
(Skolmen and Fujii 1980, pp. 301-310). Cattle eat native vegetation, 
trample roots and seedlings, cause erosion, create disturbed areas 
conducive to invasion by nonnative plants, and spread seeds of 
nonnative plants in their feces and on their bodies. As feral cattle 
occur in five of the described ecosystems (lowland dry, lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, montane mesic, and montane wet) on Maui, the results from 
the above studies, in addition to the direct observations from field 
biologists, suggest that feral cattle can alter these ecosystems and 
directly damage or destroy native plants.
    The blackbuck antelope (Antelope cervicapra) is an endangered 
antelope from India brought to a private game reserve on Molokai about 
10 years ago from an Indian zoo (Kessler 2010, pers. comm.). According 
to Kessler (2010, pers. comm.), at some time in the last 10 years, a 
few individuals escaped from the game reserve and established a wild 
population of an unknown number of individuals on the lower, dry plains 
of western Molokai. Blackbuck primarily use grassland habitat for 
grazing. In India, foraging consumption and nutrient digestibility are 
high in the moist winter months and low in the dry summer months (Jhala 
1997, pp. 1,348; 1,351). Although most plant species are grazed 
intensely when they are green, some are grazed only after they are dry 
(Jhala 1997, pp. 1,348; 1,351). While the habitat effects from the 
blackbuck antelope are unknown at this time, we consider these 
ungulates a potential threat to native plant species, including the 10 
plant species found on Molokai (Kessler 2010, pers. comm.), because 
blackbuck antelope have foraging and grazing habits similar to feral 
goats, cattle, axis deer and mouflon.

[[Page 34502]]

Other Introduced Vertebrates
Rats
    There are three species of introduced rats in the Hawaiian Islands. 
Studies of Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) DNA suggest they first 
appeared in the Hawaiian Islands along with emigrants from the 
Marquesas about 400 A.D., with a second interaction around 1100 A.D 
(Ziegler 2002, p. 315). The black rat (R. rattus) and the Norway rat 
(R. norvegicus) most likely arrived in the Hawaiian Islands more 
recently, as stowaways on ships sometime in the late 19th century 
(Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 25). The Polynesian rat and the black 
rat are primarily found in the wild, in dry to wet habitats, while the 
Norway rat is typically found in manmade habitats such as urban areas 
or agricultural fields (Tomich 1986, p. 41). The black rat is widely 
distributed among the main Hawaiian Islands and can be found in a broad 
range of ecosystems up to 9,744 ft (2,970 m), but it is most common at 
low-to mid-elevations (Tomich 1986, pp. 38-40). While Sugihara (1997, 
p. 194) found both the black and Polynesian rats up to 6,972-ft (2,125-
m) elevation on Maui, the Norway rat was not seen at the higher 
elevations in his study. Rats occur in 9 of the described ecosystems 
(coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane dry, montane 
mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff), and predation by rats 
threatens 23 of the 37 plant species, and all 3 species of tree snails, 
proposed or reevaluated for listing (see Table 3).
Rat Impacts on Plants
    Rats impact native plants by eating fleshy fruits, seeds, flowers, 
stems, leaves, roots, and other plant parts (Atkinson and Atkinson 
2000, p. 23), and can seriously affect regeneration. Research on rats 
in forests in New Zealand has also demonstrated that, over time, 
differential regeneration as a consequence of rat predation may alter 
the species composition of forested areas (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 
68-69). Rats have caused declines or even the total elimination of 
island plant species (Campbell and Atkinson 1999, cited in Atkinson and 
Atkinson 2000, p. 24). In the Hawaiian Islands, rats may consume as 
much as 90 percent of the seeds produced by some trees, or in some 
cases prevent the regeneration of forest species completely (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, pp. 68-69). All three species of rat (black, Norway, 
and Polynesian) have been reported to seriously threaten many 
endangered and threatened Hawaiian plants (Stone 1985, p. 264; Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, pp. 67-69). Plants with fleshy fruits are particularly 
susceptible to rat predation, including some of the species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing here. For example, the fruits of plants in the 
bellflower family (e.g., Cyanea spp.) appear to be a target of rat 
predation (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 67-69). In addition to all 12 
species of Cyanea (Cyanea asplenifolia, C. duvalliorum, C. grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, 
C. mauiensis, C. munroi, C. obtusa, C. profuga, and C. solanacea), 11 
other species of plants proposed or reevaluated for listing here are 
threatened by rat predation, including Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. conjucta (Bily et al. 
2003, pp. 1-16), Mucuna sloanei var. persericea, Myrsine vaccinioides, 
Peperomia subpetiolata, Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, 
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea laui, and Wikstroemia 
villosa (HBMP 2008; Harbaugh et al. 2010, p. 835). As rats occur in 
nine of the described ecosystems (coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff) on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, the results from the above 
studies, in addition to direct observations from field biologists, 
suggest that rats can directly damage or destroy native plants.
Rat Impacts on Tree Snails
    Rats (Rattus spp.) have been suggested as the invasive animal 
responsible for likely the greatest number of animal extinctions on 
islands throughout the world, including extinctions of various snail 
species (Towns et al. 2006, p. 88). In the Hawaiian Islands, rats are 
known to prey upon endemic arboreal snails (Hadfield et al. 1993, p. 
621). In the Waianae Mountains of Oahu, Meyer and Shiels (2009, p. 344) 
found shells of the endemic Oahu tree snail (Achatinella mustelina) 
with characteristic rat damage (e.g., damage to the shell opening and 
cone tip), but noted that rat crushing of shells may limit the ability 
to adequately quantify the threat. On Lanai, Hobdy (1993, p. 208) found 
numerous shells of Partulina variabilis, one of the tree snails 
proposed for listing, on the ground with damage characteristic of rat 
predation. Likewise in a 2005 survey on Lanai, Hadfield (2005, pp. 3-4) 
found shells of Partulina semicarinata on the ground with 
characteristic rat damage; P. semicarinata is also proposed for 
listing. Surveys in 2009 led Hadfield and colleagues to conclude that 
populations of Partulina redfieldi (a tree snail endemic to lowland and 
montane forests on Molokai) had declined by 85 percent since 1995 due 
to rat predation (Hadfield and Saufler 2009, p. 1). On Maui, rat 
predation on the tree snail species Newcombia cumingi, which is 
proposed for listing, has led to a decrease in the number of 
individuals (Hadfield 2006 in litt., p. 3; 2007, p. 9; 2011, pers. 
comm.). As rats are found in nine of the described ecosystems on Lanai 
and Maui (the islands on which Newcombia cumingi, Partulina 
semicarinata, and P. variabilis occur), including the three ecosystems 
(lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff) in which the three tree 
snails proposed for listing are found, the results of the above 
studies, in addition to direct observations from field biologists, 
suggest that rats directly damage or destroy Hawaiian tree snails and 
are a serious and ongoing threat to the three tree snail species 
proposed for listing here.
Jackson's Chameleon
    Several dozen Jackson's chameleons (Chamaeleo jacksonii), native to 
Kenya and Tanzania, were introduced to Hawaii in the early 1970s 
through the pet trade (Holland et al. 2010, p. 1,438). Inter-island 
transport of Jackson's chameleons for the pet trade was unrestricted 
until 1997, when they were classified as ``injurious wildlife,'' and 
export as well as inter-island transport was prohibited (State of 
Hawaii 1996, H.A.R. 13-124-3; Holland et al. 2010, p. 1,439). 
Currently, there are established populations on all of the main 
Hawaiian Islands, with the greatest number of individuals on the 
islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu (Holland et al. 2010, p. 1,438). 
Jackson's chameleons prey on native insects and tree snails, including 
the endangered Oahu tree snail (Achatinella mustelina) (Holland et al. 
2010, p. 1,438; Hadfield 2011, pers. comm.). Jackson's chameleons may 
be expanding their range in the wild from low-elevation to higher 
elevation pristine native forest, which may result in catastrophic 
impacts to native ecosystems and the species supported by those 
ecosystems, including the lowland wet ecosystems on Maui and Lanai that 
support the tree snails Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and 
P. variabilis, and the montane wet and wet cliff ecosystems on Lanai 
that support P. semicarinata and P. variabilis. Because Jackson's 
chameleons are likely found in, or expanding their range into, all of 
the ecosystems in which the three tree snails proposed for listing are 
found, and are known to prey on tree snails, predation by Jackson's 
chameleon is a

[[Page 34503]]

potentially serious threat to the tree snails Newcombia cumingi, 
Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis.
Invertebrates
Nonnative Slugs
    Predation by nonnative snails and slugs adversely impacts 26 of the 
37 plant species (Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. conjuncta, 
Cyanea asplenifolia, C. duvalliorum, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
horrida, C. kunthiana, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. 
munroi, C. obtusa, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, 
Geranium hillebrandii, Myrsine vaccinioides, Peperomia subpetiolata, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, P. pilosa, Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense, Schiedea jacobii, S. laui, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and 
Wikstroemia villosa; see Table 3) proposed or reevaluated for listing 
here through mechanical damage, destruction of plant parts, and 
mortality (Mitchell et al. 2005; Joe 2006, p. 10; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, 
pp. 48-49, 52-53, 57, 70; PEPP 2010, pp. 1-121). On Oahu, slugs have 
been reported to destroy Cyanea calycina and Cyrtandra kaulantha in the 
wild, and have been observed eating leaves and fruit of wild and 
cultivated individuals of Cyanea (Mehrhoff 1995, in litt.; U.S. Army 
Garrison 2005, pp. 3-34, 3-51). In addition, slugs have damaged 
individuals of other Cyanea and Cyrtandra species in the wild (Wood 
2001, in litt.; Sailer and Kier 2002, in litt., p. 3; PEPP 2007, p. 38; 
PEPP 2008, pp. 23, 49, 52-53, 57).
    Little is known about predation of certain rare plants by slugs; 
however, information in the U.S. Army's 2005 ``Status Report for the 
Makua Implementation Plan'' indicates that slugs can be a threat to all 
species of Cyanea (U.S. Army Garrison 2005, p. 3-51). Research 
investigating slug herbivory and control methods shows that slug 
impacts on seedlings of Cyanea spp. results in up to 80 percent 
seedling mortality (U.S. Army Garrison 2005, p. 3-51). Slug damage has 
also been reported on other Hawaiian plants including Argyroxiphium 
grayanum (greensword), Alsinidenron sp., Hibiscus sp., Schiedea kaalae 
(maolioli), Solanum sandwicense (popolo aiakeakua), and Urera sp. 
(Gagne 1983, p. 190-191; Sailer, pers. comm. cited in Joe 2006, pp. 28-
34).
    Joe and Daehler (2008, p. 252) found that native Hawaiian plants 
are more vulnerable to slug damage than nonnative plants. In 
particular, they found that the individuals of the endangered plants 
Cyanea superba and Schiedea obovata had 50 percent higher mortality 
when exposed to slugs when compared to individuals of the same species 
that were protected within slug exclosures. As slugs are found in eight 
of the described ecosystems (lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, 
montane dry, montane mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff) on 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, the data from the above studies, in addition 
to direct observations from field biologists, suggest that slugs can 
directly damage or destroy native plants.
Nonnative Snails
    Several species of nonnative snails have been inadvertently 
introduced to Hawaii. However, in 1955, the rosy wolf snail (Euglandina 
rosea) was purposely introduced to Hawaii from Florida in an attempt to 
control another nonnative, the giant African snail (Achatina fulica). 
The giant African snail is commonly found in Honolulu gardens and is 
one of the largest snails in the world, in addition to being recognized 
as one of the world's most damaging pests to crop plants (Peterson 
1957, pp. 643-658; Stone and Anderson 1988, p. 134). The rosy wolf 
snail is now found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands and has expanded 
its range on those islands to include cooler, mid-elevation forests 
where many endemic tree snails are found. This nonnative snail is 
likely responsible for the decline and extinction of many of Hawaii's 
native tree snails (Stone and Anderson 1988, p. 134; Hadfield et al. 
1993, p. 621; Hadfield 2010a, in litt.). In 1979, the rosy wolf snail 
decimated a population of the endangered Oahu tree snail (Achatinella 
mustelina), as well as all other tree snails at the same study site 
(Hadfield and Mountain 1980, p. 357). According to Hadfield (2007, pp. 
6-9), the rosy wolf snail is currently the greatest threat to the only 
known population of Newcombia cumingi, proposed for listing here. In 
addition, the nonnative garlic snail (Oxychilus alliarius), a predator 
on the smaller achatinellid snails, may be a potential threat to 
Newcombia cumingi (Hadfield 2010a, in litt.). Hadfield (2007, pp. 6-9) 
reported finding many shells of the garlic snail within the habitat of 
N. cumingi on Maui. As the rosy wolf snail can be found in three of the 
described ecosystems (lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff) on Lanai 
and Maui (the islands on which N. cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and 
P. variabilis occur), the results from the studies above, in addition 
to observations by field biologists, suggest that the rosy wolf snail 
has the potential to severely impact the three tree snails proposed for 
listing in this rule.
Nonnative Flatworms
    The extinction of native land snails on several Pacific Islands has 
been attributed to the terrestrial flatworm Platydemus manokwari 
(Sugiura 2010, p. 1,499). This flatworm has decimated populations of 
native tree snails on Guam (Hopper and Smith 1992, pp. 78, 82-83). In 
the Hawaiian Islands, Platydemus manokwari has been found on the 
islands of Oahu and Hawaii, and is likely on all of the main islands 
(Miller 2011, pers. comm.). Although P. manokwari has not been reported 
from the same locations as the three tree snails proposed for listing, 
it is a potential threat to these species because it likely co-occurs 
on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, and it is a known predator 
on tree snails.
Summary of Disease or Predation
    We are unaware of any information that indicates that disease is a 
threat to the 37 plant species. Disease is a potential threat to the 
three species of tree snails proposed for listing, as recovery of these 
species likely will include captive propagation and disease is 
suspected to be a cause of currently unsuccessful captive propagation 
of Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis. 
However, at this time, we have no evidence to suggest that disease is 
acting on the wild populations such that it may be considered a 
contributing factor that has led to their endangerment; therefore we 
cannot conclude that any of these three tree snails species is 
endangered because of disease.
    We consider predation by nonnative animal species (pigs, goats, 
axis deer, mouflon sheep, cattle, rats, Jackson's chameleon, slugs, 
snails, and flatworms) to pose an ongoing threat to all 40 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing throughout their ranges for the 
following reasons:
    (1) Observations and reports have documented that pigs, goats, axis 
deer, mouflon sheep, and cattle browse and trample 35 of the 37 plant 
species (see Table 3), in addition to other studies demonstrating the 
negative impacts of ungulate browsing and trampling on native plant 
species of the islands (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 874; Diong 
1982, p. 160; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 67).
    (2) Nonnative rats and slugs cause mechanical damage to plants and 
destruction of plant parts (branches, fruits, and seeds), and are 
considered a threat to 30 of the 37 plant species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing (see

[[Page 34504]]

Table 3). All 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing are 
impacted by either introduced ungulates, as noted in item 1, above, or 
nonnative rats and slugs, or both.
    (3) Rat damage has been observed on shells of dead individuals of 
the tree snails Partulina variabilis and P. semicarinata on Lanai, as 
well as on other native tree snails on Oahu and Molokai, indicating 
rats are a likely cause of mortality of these species. Predation by 
rats has been linked with the dramatic declines of some populations of 
native tree snails (Hobdy 1993, p. 208; Hadfield and Saufler 2009, p. 
1; Meyer and Shields 2009, p. 344). Rat predation has been documented 
on the tree snail species Newcombia cumingi (Hadfield 2006 in litt., p. 
3; Hadfield 2007, p. 9; Hadfield 2010a, in litt.). Because rats are 
found in all of the ecosystems in which the three tree snails proposed 
for listing are found, and rats are known to prey on tree snails, we 
consider predation by rats to be a serious and ongoing threat to 
Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis.
    (4) Jackson's chameleon, which preys on native insects and tree 
snails, has established populations in the wild on all the main 
Hawaiian Islands. Jackson's chameleon is likely found in, or is in the 
process of expanding its range to include, all of the ecosystems which 
support the three tree snails proposed for listing. Predation by this 
nonnative reptile is a potentially serious threat to Newcombia cumingi, 
Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis.
    (5) Hawaiian tree snails are vulnerable to predation by the 
nonnative rosy wolf snail, which is found on all the main Hawaiian 
Islands and whose range likely overlaps that of the three tree snail 
species proposed for listing. We therefore consider Newcombia cumingi, 
Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis to be threatened by predation 
by the nonnative rosy wolf snail. In addition, the nonnative garlic 
snail may be a potential threat to the proposed N. cumingi because it 
is a known predator on smaller tree snails in the same family as N. 
cumingi and shells of the garlic snail have been found in N. cumingi 
habitat (Stone and Anderson 1988, p. 134; Hadfield et al. 1993, p. 621; 
Hadfield 2010a, in litt.).
    (6) The nonnative flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, is a potential 
threat to all three species of tree snails proposed for listing 
(Hadfield 2010b, in litt.; Sugiura 2010, pp. 1,499-1,501) because this 
flatworm has decimated native tree snail populations on other Pacific 
Islands and likely occurs on all the main Hawaiian Islands, including 
the islands of Lanai and Maui, where the three tree snails are found.
    These threats are serious and ongoing, act in concert with other 
threats to the species, and are expected to continue or increase in 
magnitude and intensity into the future without effective management 
actions to control or eradicate them. In addition, negative impacts to 
native Hawaiian plants on Molokai from grazing and browsing by the 
blackbuck antelope are likely should this nonnative ungulate increase 
in numbers and range on the island. The combined threat of ungulate, 
rat, and invertebrate predation on native Hawaiian flora and fauna 
suggests the need for immediate implementation of recovery and 
conservation methodologies.

D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

Inadequate Habitat Protection
    Currently, there are no existing Federal, State, or local laws, 
treaties, or regulations that specifically conserve or protect the 40 
species proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule, or adequately 
address the threats described in this proposed rule. Although the State 
of Hawaii's Plant Extinction Prevention Program supports conservation 
of the plant species by securing seeds or cuttings from the rarest and 
most critically endangered native species for propagation, the program 
is non-regulatory and has not yet been able to directly address broad-
scale threats to plants by invasive species.
    Nonnative ungulates pose a major ongoing threat to 35 of the 37 
plant species through destruction and degradation of terrestrial 
habitat, and through direct predation of 35 of the plant species (see 
Table 3). The State of Hawaii provides game mammal (feral pigs and 
goats, axis deer, and mouflon sheep) hunting opportunities on 15 State-
designated public hunting areas on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, and 
Maui (State of Hawaii 1999, H.A.R. 13-123; HDLNR 2009, pp. 20-21). The 
State's management objectives for game animals range from maximizing 
public hunting opportunities (e.g., ``sustained yield'') in some areas 
to removal by State staff, or their designees, in other areas (State of 
Hawaii, H.A.R. 13-123). Thirty-four of the 37 plant species have 
populations in areas where terrestrial habitat may be manipulated for 
game enhancement and game populations are maintained at prescribed 
levels using public hunting (HBMP 2008; State of Hawaii, H.A.R. 13-
123). Public hunting areas are not fenced, and game mammals have 
unrestricted access to most areas across the landscape, regardless of 
underlying land-use designation. While fences are sometimes built to 
protect areas from game mammals, the current number and locations of 
fences are not adequate to prevent habitat degradation and destruction 
for 37 of the 40 species, and the direct predation of 35 of the 37 
plant species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui (see Table 3).
    The capacity of Federal and State agencies and their 
nongovernmental partners in Hawaii to mitigate the effects of 
introduced pests, such as ungulates and weeds, is limited due to the 
large number of taxa currently causing damage (Coordinating Group on 
Alien Pest Species (CGAPS) 2009). Many invasive weeds established on 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui have currently limited but expanding ranges 
and are of concern. Resources available to reduce the spread of these 
species and counter their negative ecological effects are limited. 
Control of established pests is largely focused on a few invasive 
species that cause significant economic or environmental damage to 
public and private lands. Comprehensive control of an array of invasive 
pests and management to reduce disturbance regimes that favor certain 
invasive species remains limited in scope. If current levels of funding 
and regulatory support for invasive species control are maintained on 
Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, the Service expects existing programs to 
continue to exclude or, on a very limited basis, control invasive 
species only in high-priority areas. Threats from established pests 
(e.g., nonnative ungulates, weeds, and invertebrates) are ongoing and 
expected to continue into the future.
Inadequate Protection From Introduction of Nonnative Species
    Currently, four agencies are responsible for inspection of goods 
arriving in Hawaii (CGAPS 2009). The Hawaii Department of Agriculture 
(HDOA) inspects domestic cargo and vessels and focuses on pests of 
concern to Hawaii, especially insects or plant diseases not yet known 
to be present in the State. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security-
Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for inspecting 
commercial, private, and military vessels and aircraft and related 
cargo and passengers arriving from foreign locations. CBP focuses on a 
wide range of quarantine issues involving non-propagative plant 
materials (processed and unprocessed); wooden packing materials, 
timber, and products; internationally regulated commercial species 
under the Convention in

[[Page 34505]]

International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES); federally listed 
noxious seeds and plants; soil; and pests of concern to the greater 
United States, such as pests of mainland U.S. forests and agriculture. 
The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service-Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) inspects 
propagative plant material, provides identification services for 
arriving plants and pests, conducts pest risk assessments, trains CBP 
personnel, conducts permitting and preclearance inspections for 
products originating in foreign countries, and maintains a pest 
database that, again, has a focus on pests of wide concern across the 
United States (HDOA 2009). The Service inspects arriving wildlife 
products, enforces the injurious wildlife provisions of the Lacey Act 
(18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.), and prosecutes CITES 
violations.
    The State of Hawaii's unique biosecurity needs are not recognized 
by Federal import regulations. Under the USDA-APHIS-PPQ's commodity 
risk assessments for plant pests, regulations are based on species 
considered threats to the mainland United States and do not address 
many species that could be pests in Hawaii (Hawaii Legislative 
Reference Bureau (HLRB 2002; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 2010; CGAPS 2009). 
Interstate commerce provides the pathway for invasive species and 
commodities infested with non-federal quarantine pests to enter Hawaii. 
Pests of quarantine concern for Hawaii may be intercepted at Hawaiian 
ports by Federal agents but are not always acted on by them because 
these pests are not regulated under Federal mandates. Hence, Federal 
protection against pest species of concern to Hawaii has historically 
been inadequate. It is possible for the USDA to grant Hawaii protective 
exemptions under the ``Special Local Needs Rule,'' when clear and 
comprehensive arguments for both agricultural and conservation issues 
are provided; however, this exemption procedure operates on a case-by-
case basis and is extremely time-consuming to satisfy. Therefore, that 
avenue may only provide minimal protection against the large diversity 
of foreign pests that threaten Hawaii.
    Adequate staffing, facilities, and equipment for Federal and State 
pest inspectors and identifiers in Hawaii devoted to invasive species 
interdiction are critical biosecurity gaps (HLRB 2002; USDA-APHIS-PPQ 
2010; CGAPS 2009). State laws have recently been passed that allow the 
HDOA to collect fees for quarantine inspection of freight entering 
Hawaii (e.g., Act 36 (2011) H.R.S. 150A-5.3). Legislation enacted in 
2011 (H.B. 1568) requires commercial harbors and airports in Hawaii to 
provide biosecurity and to facilitate cargo inspections. The 
introduction of new pests to the State of Hawaii is a significant risk 
to federally listed species.
Nonnative Animal Species
Vertebrate Species
    The State of Hawaii's laws prohibit the importation of all animals 
unless they are specifically placed on a list of allowable species 
(HLRB 2002; CGAPS 2010). The importation and interstate transport of 
invasive vertebrates is federally regulated by the Service under the 
Lacey Act as ``injurious wildlife'' (Fowler et al. 2007, pp. 353-359); 
the current list of vertebrates considered as ``injurious wildlife'' is 
provided at 50 CFR 16. The law in its current form has limited 
effectiveness in preventing invasive vertebrate introductions into the 
State of Hawaii.
Invertebrate Species
    Predation by nonnative invertebrate pests (flatworms, slugs, 
snails) adversely impacts 26 of the plant species and the 3 tree snails 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule (see Table 3). It is 
likely that the introduction of most nonnative invertebrate pests to 
the State has been and continues to be accidental and incidental to 
other intentional and permitted activities. Although Hawaii State 
government and Federal agencies have regulations and some controls in 
place (see above), the introduction and movement of nonnative 
invertebrate pest species between islands and from one watershed to the 
next continues. For example, an average of 20 new alien invertebrate 
species were introduced to Hawaii per year since 1970, an increase of 
25 percent over the previous totals between 1930 and 1970 (TNCH 1992, 
p. 8). Existing regulatory mechansisms therefore appear inadequate to 
ameliorate the threat of introductions of nonnative invertebrates, and 
we have no evidence to suggest that any change to this situation is 
anticipated in the future.
Nonative Plant Species
    Nonnative plants destroy and modify habitat throughout the ranges 
of 36 of the 40 species being addressed in this proposed rule (see 
Table 3, above). As such, they represent a serious and ongoing threat 
to each of these species. In addition, nonnative plants have been shown 
to outcompete native plants and convert native-dominated plant 
communities to nonnative plant communities (See ``Habitat Destruction 
and Modification by Nonnative Plants,'' above).
    The State of Hawaii allows the importation of most plant taxa, with 
limited exceptions, if shipped from domestic ports (HLRB 2002; USDA-
APHIS-PPQ 2010; CGAPS 2009). Hawaii's plant import rules (H.A.R. 4-70) 
regulate the importation of 13 plant taxa of economic interest; 
regulated crops include pineapple, sugarcane, palms, and pines. Certain 
horticultural crops (e.g., orchids) may require import permits and have 
pre-entry requirements that include treatment or quarantine or both 
either prior to or following entry into the State. The State noxious 
weed list (H.A.R. 4-68) and USDA-APHIS-PPQ's Restricted Plants List 
restrict the import of a limited number of noxious weeds. If not 
specifically prohibited, current Federal regulations allow plants to be 
imported from international ports with some restrictions. The Federal 
Noxious Weed List (see 7 CFR 360.200) includes few of the many globally 
known invasive plants, and plants in general do not require a weed risk 
assessment prior to importation from international ports. The USDA-
APHIS-PPQ is in the process of finalizing rules to include a weed risk 
assessment for newly imported plants. Although the State has general 
guidelines for the importation of plants, and regulations are in place 
regarding the plant crops mentioned above, the intentional or 
inadvertent introduction of nonnative plants outside the regulatory 
process and movement of species between islands and from one watershed 
to the next continues, and represent a threat to native flora for the 
reasons described above. In addition, government funding is inadequate 
to provide for sufficient inspection services and monitoring.
    In 1995, CGAPS, a partnership comprised primarily of managers from 
every major Federal, State, County, and private agency and organization 
involved in invasive species work in Hawaii, was formed in an effort to 
improve communication, increase collaboration, and promote public 
awareness (CGAPS 2009). This group facilitated the formation of the 
Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC), which was created by 
gubernatorial executive order in 2002, to coordinate local initiatives 
for the prevention and control of invasive species by providing policy 
level direction and planning for the State departments responsible for 
invasive species issues. In 2003, the Governor signed into law Act 85, 
which conveys statutory authority to the HISC to continue to coordinate 
approaches among the various State and Federal

[[Page 34506]]

agencies, and international and local initiatives for the prevention 
and control of invasive species (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-15; HISC 2009; H.R.S. 
194-2(a)). Some of the recent priorities for the HISC include 
interagency efforts to control nonnative species such as the plants 
Miconia calvescens (miconia) and Cortaderia spp. (pampas grass), coqui 
frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui), and ants (HISC 2009). In early 2009, 
HISC projected that, due to a tighter economy in Hawaii and anticipated 
budget cuts in State funding support of up to 50 percent, there will be 
a serious setback in conservation achievements, and the loss of 
experienced, highly trained staff (HISC 2009).
    On the basis of the above information, existing regulatory 
mechanisms do not adequately protect the 40 species being addressed in 
this proposed rule from the threat of new introductions of nonnative 
species, and the continued expansion of nonnative species populations 
on and between islands and watersheds. Nonnative species may prey upon, 
modify or destroy habitat, or directly compete with one or more of the 
40 species for food, space, and other necessary resources. Because 
current Federal, State, and local laws, treaties, and regulations are 
inadequate to prevent the introduction and spread of nonnative species 
from outside the State of Hawaii, as well as between islands and 
watersheds, the impacts from these introduced threats are ongoing and 
are expected to continue into the future.
Summary of Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms
    We consider the threat of inadequate regulatory mechanisms to be 
ongoing and we expect it to continue into the future, for the following 
reasons:
    (1) The State's current management of nonnative game mammals is 
inadequate to prevent the degradation and destruction of habitat of 35 
of the 37 plant species (Factor A) and predation of 35 of the 37 plant 
species (Factor C).
    (2) Existing State and Federal regulatory mechanisms are not 
effectively preventing the introduction and spread of nonnative species 
from outside the State of Hawaii and between islands and watersheds 
within the State of Hawaii. Habitat-altering nonnative plant species 
(Factor A) and predation by nonnative animal species (Factor C) pose a 
major ongoing threat to all 40 species proposed or reevaluated for 
listing in this proposed rule.
    Information indicates that the existing regulatory mechanisms are 
inadequate to prevent the spread of nonnative species and to provide 
for the maintenance of habitat for the 40 species proposed or 
reevaluated for listing under the Act. The inadequacy of existing 
regulatory mechanisms is considered a serious threat, both now and into 
future, to all 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing.

E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued Existence

    Other factors threatening some or all of the 40 species include 
small numbers of populations and small population sizes, hybridization, 
lack of regeneration, and human trampling as a result of hiking and 
other activities. Each threat is discussed in detail below, along with 
identification of which species are affected by these threats.
Small Number of Individuals and Populations
    Species that are endemic to single islands are inherently more 
vulnerable to extinction than are widespread species, because of the 
increased risk of genetic bottlenecks, random demographic fluctuations, 
climate change effects, and localized catastrophes such as hurricanes, 
landslides, rockfalls, drought, and disease outbreaks (Pimm et al. 
1988, p. 757; Mangel and Tier 1994, p. 607). These problems are further 
magnified when populations are few and restricted to a very small 
geographic area, and when the number of individuals in each population 
is very small. Populations with these characteristics face an increased 
likelihood of stochastic extinction due to changes in demography, the 
environment, genetics, or other factors (Gilpin and Soul[eacute] 1986, 
pp. 24-34). Small, isolated populations often exhibit reduced levels of 
genetic variability, which diminishes the species' capacity to adapt 
and respond to environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability 
of long-term persistence (e.g., Barrett and Kohn 1991, p. 4; Newman and 
Pilson 1997, p. 361). Very small, isolated populations are also more 
susceptible to reduced reproductive vigor due to ineffective 
pollination (plants), inbreeding depression (plants and snails), and 
hybridization (plants). The problems associated with small population 
size and vulnerability to random demographic fluctuations or natural 
catastrophes are further magnified by synergistic interactions with 
other threats, such as those discussed above (see Factors A and C, 
above).
Plants
    The following 20 plant species in this proposal are threatened by 
limited numbers (that is, they total fewer than 50 individuals): Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. horrida, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. 
mauiensis, C. munroi, C. obtusa, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra 
ferripilosa, Festuca molokaiensis, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, P. haliakalae, P. pilosa, Pittosporum halophilum, Schiedea 
jacobii, S. laui, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa. We 
consider these species highly vulnerable to extinction due to threats 
associated with small population size because:
     Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana has not been observed 
since 1991 on Molokai (PEPP 2010, p. 45).
     The only known wild occurrences of Cyanea horrida, C. 
magnicalyx, C. maritae, and C. munroi are threatened either by 
flooding, landslides, or tree falls, or a combination of these, because 
of their locations in lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff 
ecosystems (TNC 2007; TNCH 2010a; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, pp. 23-24, 49-
58).
     The last confirmed observation of Cyanea mauiensis in the 
wild was over 100 years ago. Botanists believe individuals of this 
species still remain, as potentially suitable habitat has not been 
searched. There are no tissues, propagules, or seeds in storage or 
propagation (Lammers 2004, pp. 84-85; TNC 2007).
     Cyanea obtusa is highly threatened by feral pigs, goats, 
axis deer, and cattle, and the only two known individuals of this 
species are not protected from direct predation or from fire (Lau 2001, 
in litt.; PEPP 2007, p. 40; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 55; Duvall 2010, 
in litt.).
     Cyanea profuga and C. solanacea are known from fewer than 
five scattered occurrences that are threatened by habitat destruction 
or direct predation by nonnative pigs and goats, as well as by 
landslides, rock and tree falls, or flooding, or a combination of 
these, in the montane wet ecosystem (HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, pp. 23-24, 
49-58; Bakutis 2010, in litt.; Perlman 2010, in litt.; Oppenheimer 
2010a, in litt.; TNCH 2011, pp. 21, 57).
     Cyrtandra ferripilosa is known from two disparate 
occurrences totaling only a few individuals that are not protected from 
direct predation by nonnative pigs and goats (Oppenheimer 2010f, in 
litt.; Welton 2010b, in litt.).
     Festuca molokaiensis, known only from its original 
collection location on Molokai, has not been relocated for 2 years. 
Threats to this species include habitat destruction or direct predation 
by nonnative goats, nonnative plants, and fire (Oppenheimer 2011a, 
pers. comm.).
     Historically known from lower Waikamoi on east Maui, the

[[Page 34507]]

identification of wild individuals of Peperomia subpetiolata has not 
been confirmed since 2001, although hybrids between this species and 
other species of Peperomia are reported in this area (HBMP 2008; NTBG 
2009g, p. 2; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.; PEPP 2010, p. 96).
     Only one individual of Phyllostegia bracteata was known as 
recently as 2009, but even this single individual was not relocated 
later in the same year. Botanists continue to search potentially 
suitable habitat near the last known location for this ephemeral 
species (NTBG 2009h, p. 3; PEPP 2009, pp. 89-90; Oppenheimer 2010c, in 
litt.).
     The last known wild individual of Phyllostegia haliakalae 
on Maui had died by 2010, although there are outplantings of this 
species near the location of this individual. Botanists continue to 
search potentially suitable habitat on Maui for this species. 
Phyllostegia haliakalae has not been relocated on Molokai or Lanai for 
close to 100 years (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010c, in litt.; 
Oppenheimer 2011b, in litt.).
     The seven known individuals of Phyllostegia pilosa are not 
protected from direct predation by feral pigs and goats on Maui. This 
species has not been observed on Molokai for over 100 years (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
     Pittosporum halophilum is known from three disparate 
locations, each with one to three individuals, on Molokai and its 
offshore islets. These individuals are not protected from predation by 
feral pigs or rats, or from the threat of fire (Wood 2005, pp. 2, 41; 
Bakutis 2010, in litt.; Hobdy 2010, in litt.; Perlman 2010, in litt.).
     The only known wild individuals of Schiedea jacobii were 
likely destroyed by landslides because of their location in the montane 
wet ecosystem. The State plans to outplant propagated individuals in 
Hanawi Natural Area Reserve in 2011 (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 286; HBMP 
2008; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt., Perlman 2010, in litt.).
     The 24 to 34 individuals of Schiedea laui are threatened 
by flooding and landslides due to their location in a grotto (HBMP 
2008; Bakutis 2010, in litt.).
     Stenogyne kauaulaensis is only known from three 
individuals located on steep slopes. These plants are imminently 
threatened by landslides and rockfalls, in addition to drought and fire 
in the montane mesic ecosystem on west Maui (Wood and Oppenheimer 2008, 
pp. 544-545; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.).
     Wikstroemia villosa is known only from a single 
occurrence, with two individuals (Peterson 1999, p. 1,291; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.).
Tree Snails
    Like most native island biota, the endemic Hawaiian tree snails are 
particularly sensitive to disturbances due to low population numbers 
and small geographic ranges (Hadfield et al. 1993, p. 610). We consider 
the three tree snail species vulnerable to extinction due to threats 
associated with low numbers of individuals and populations because:
     Newcombia cumingi is known only from a single wild 
population of nine individuals and has not been successfully maintained 
in captivity (Hadfield 2007, pp. 2, 8; Hadfield 2008, p. 10).
     The only known wild populations of Newcombia cumingi, 
Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis are imminently threatened by 
predation by nonnative rats, Jackson's chameleons, and snails (Solem 
1990, p. 35; Hadfield 1986, p. 325; Hadfield et al. 1993, p. 611; 
Hadfield 2007, p. 9; Hadfield 2009, p. 11; Hadfield and Saufler 2009, 
p. 1595; Holland et al. 2010, p. 1,437).
     The number of individuals of Partulina semicarinata and P. 
variabilis has declined by approximately 50 percent between 1993 and 
2005 at known locations (Hadfield 2005, p. 305).
Hybridization
    Natural hybridization is a frequent phenomenon in plants and can 
lead to the formation of new species (Orians 2000, p. 1,949), or 
sometimes to the decline of species through genetic assimilation or 
``introgression'' (Ellstrand 1992, pp. 77, 81; Levin et al. 1996, pp. 
10-16; Rhymer and Simberloff 1996, p. 85). Hybridization, however, is 
especially problematic for rare species that come into contact with 
species that are abundant or more common (Rhymer and Simberloff 1996, 
p. 83). We consider hybridization to threaten five species in this 
proposed rule because it may lead to extinction of one or both of the 
original genotypically distinct species. Hybrids have been reported 
between Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera and B. campylotheca ssp. 
waihoiensis, two subspecies proposed for listing that occur in close 
proximity on east Maui. On east Maui, the species Cyanea obtusa is 
known from two individuals, but only hybrids between C. obtusa and the 
more abundant C. elliptica are known on west Maui. The current status 
of the species Peperomia subpetiolata is unknown because only hybrids 
between P. subpetiolata and P. cookiana, and perhaps P. hertapetiola, 
are known from its historically reported locations on east Maui. The 
species Schiedea salicaria hybridizes with the uncommon S. menziesii in 
the west Maui mountains. According to Wagner et al. (2005b, p. 138), 
one or more of the three known occurrences of S. salicaria may 
represent a ``hybrid swarm'' between the two species (hybrids can 
interbreed among themselves and also with the parent species).
Regeneration
    Lack of, or low levels of, regeneration (reproduction and 
recruitment) in the wild has been observed and is a threat to Pleomele 
fernaldii (Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.). Although there are currently 
approximately several hundred to 1,000 individuals, very little 
recruitment has been observed at the known locations over the past 10 
years (Oppenheimer 2008d, in litt.). The reasons for this are not 
clearly understood.
Human Trampling and Hiking
    Human impacts, including trampling by hikers, have been documented 
as a threat to Cyanea maritae and Wikstroemia villosa (Oppenheimer 
2010o, in litt.; PEPP 2010, p. 51; Welton 2010b, in litt.). Individuals 
climbing and hiking off established trails could trample individual 
plants and contribute to soil compaction and erosion, preventing growth 
and establishment of seedlings (Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.) because 
this has been observed with other native species (Wood 2001, in litt.; 
MLP 2005, p. 23).
Summary of Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued 
Existence
    We consider the threat from limited number of populations and few 
(less than 50) individuals to be a serious and ongoing threat to the 20 
plant species proposed for listing (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, 
C. horrida, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. munroi, C. 
obtusa, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Festuca 
molokaiensis, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. 
haliakalae, P. pilosa, Pittosporum halophilum, Schiedea jacobii, S. 
laui, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa) because (1) 
these species may experience reduced reproductive vigor due to 
ineffective pollination or inbreeding depression; (2) they may 
experience reduced levels of genetic variability, leading to diminished 
capacity to adapt and respond to environmental changes,

[[Page 34508]]

thereby lessening the probability of long-term persistence; and (3) a 
single catastrophic event may result in extirpation of remaining 
populations and extinction of the species. This threat applies to the 
entire range of each species.
    The threat to the three tree snails Newcombia cumingi, Partulina 
semicarinata, and P. variabilis from limited numbers of populations and 
individuals is ongoing and is expected to continue into the future 
because (1) these species may experience reduced reproductive vigor due 
to inbreeding depression; (2) they may experience reduced levels of 
genetic variability leading to diminished capacity to adapt and respond 
to environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of long-
term persistence; (3) a single catastrophic event (e.g., hurricane, 
drought) may result in extirpation of remaining populations and 
extinction of these species; and (4) species with few known locations, 
such as N. cumingi, P. semicarinata, and P. variabilis, are less 
resilient to threats that might otherwise have a relatively minor 
impact on widely distributed species. For example, the reduced 
availability of host trees or an increase in predation of the tree 
snail adults that might be absorbed in a widely distributed species 
could result in a significant decrease in survivorship or reproduction 
of a species with limited distribution. The limited distribution of 
these three species thus magnifies the severity of the impact of the 
other threats discussed in this proposed rule.
    The threat to Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca 
ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea obtusa, Peperomia subpetiolata, and Schiedea 
salicaria from hybridization is ongoing and expected to continue into 
the future because hybrids are reported between these species and 
other, more abundant species, and no efforts are being implemented in 
the wild to prevent potential hybridizations. We consider the threat to 
Pleomele fernaldii from lack of regeneration to be ongoing and to 
continue into the future because the reasons for the lack of 
recruitment in the wild are unknown and uncontrolled, and any 
competition from nonnative plants or habitat modification by ungulates 
or fire, or predation by ungulates or rats, could lead to the 
extirpation of this species. Ongoing human activities (e.g., trampling 
and hiking) are a threat to Cyanea maritae and Wikstroemia villosa and 
are expected to continue into the future because field biologists have 
reported trampling of vegetation near populations of Cyanea maritae and 
the two remaining wild individuals of Wikstroemia villosa, and the 
effects of these activities could lead to injury and death of 
individual plants, potentially resulting in extirpation from the wild.

Proposed Determination for 40 Species

    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding threats to each of the 40 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing. We find that all of these species 
face threats which are ongoing and expected to continue into the future 
throughout their ranges from the present destruction and modification 
of their habitats from nonnative feral ungulates and nonnative plants 
(Factor A). Thirteen of the plant species (Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, Canavalia pubescens, C. magnicalyx, C. mauiensis, C. obtusa, 
Festuca molokaiensis, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, 
Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum haleakale var. 
lanaiense, Schiedea salicaria, and Stenogyne kauaulaensis) are 
threatened by habitat destruction and modification from fire, and 16 
plant species (Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea 
asplenifolia, C. duvalliorum, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
horrida, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. munroi, C. 
profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, Schiedea jacobii, S. laui, 
Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa) are threatened by the 
destruction and modification of their habitats from landslides, 
rockfalls, treefalls, or flooding. Habitat loss or degradation due to 
drought threatens Cyanea horrida, Festuca molokaiensis, Schiedea 
jacobii, and Stenogyne kauaulaensis as well as the tree snails 
Newcombia cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and P. variabilis. In 
addition, we are concerned about the effects of projected climate 
change on all species, particularly rising temperatures, but recognize 
there is limited information on the exact nature of impacts that these 
species may experience (Factor A).
    Overcollection for commercial and recreational purposes poses a 
serious potential threat to all three tree snail species (Factor B). 
Predation and herbivory on all 37 plant species by feral pigs, goats, 
cattle, axis deer, mouflon, rats, and slugs poses a serious and ongoing 
threat, as does predation of all three tree snail species (N. cumingi, 
P. semicarinata, and P. variabilis) by rats, nonnative snails, and 
potentially Jackson's chameleon (Factor C). The inadequacy of existing 
regulatory mechanisms (i.e., inadequate protection of habitat and 
inadequate protection from the introduction of nonnative species) poses 
a serious and ongoing threat to all 40 species (Factor D). There are 
serious and ongoing threats to 20 plant species (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. horrida, C. magnicalyx, C. maritae, C. mauiensis, C. 
munroi, C. obtusa, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, 
Festuca molokaiensis, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, 
P. haliakalae, P. pilosa, Pittosporum halophilum, Schiedea jacobii, S. 
laui, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa) and the three 
tree snails due to factors associated with small numbers of populations 
and individuals; to Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca 
ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea obtusa, Peperomia subpetiolata, and Schiedea 
salicaria from hybridization; to Pleomele fernaldii from the lack of 
regeneration in the wild; and to Cyanea maritae and Wikstroemia villosa 
from hiking and trampling (Factor E) (see Table 3). These threats are 
exacerbated by these species' inherent vulnerability to extinction from 
stochastic events at any time because of their endemism, small numbers 
of individuals and populations, and restricted habitats.
    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range'' and a threatened species as any species ``that is likely to 
become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range 
within the foreseeable future.'' We find that each of these endemic 
species is presently in danger of extinction throughout its entire 
range, based on the immediacy, severity, and scope of the threats 
described above. Therefore, on the basis of the best available 
scientific and commercial information, we propose to list, or in the 
case of Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana and Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense to retain the listing of, the following 40 species as 
endangered in accordance with section 3(6) of the Act: the plants 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
waihoiensis, Bidens conjuncta, Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Canavalia 
pubescens, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyanea duvalliorum, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea horrida, Cyanea kunthiana, Cyanea magnicalyx, 
Cyanea maritae, Cyanea mauiensis, Cyanea munroi, Cyanea obtusa, Cyanea 
profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Cyrtandra filipes, 
Cyrtandra oxybapha, Festuca molokaiensis, Geranium hanaense, Geranium 
hillebrandii, Mucuna sloanei var. persericea, Myrsine vaccinioides, 
Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia

[[Page 34509]]

bracteata, Phyllostegia haliakalae, Phyllostegia pilosa, Pittosporum 
halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, 
Schiedea jacobii, Schiedea laui, Schiedea salicaria, Stenogyne 
kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa; and the tree snails Newcombia 
cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and Partulina variabilis.
    Under the Act and our implementing regulations, a species may 
warrant listing if it is endangered or threatened throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range. Each of the 40 Maui Nui species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule is highly restricted 
in its range, and the threats occur throughout its range. Therefore, we 
assessed the status of each species throughout its entire range. In 
each case, the threats to the survival of these species occur 
throughout the species' range and are not restricted to any particular 
portion of that range. Accordingly, our assessment and proposed 
determination applies to each species throughout its entire range.

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
activities. Recognition through listing results in public awareness and 
conservation by Federal, State, and local agencies, private 
organizations, and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection measures required of Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities involving listed animals and 
plants are discussed, in part, below.
    The primary purpose of the Act is the conservation of endangered 
and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The 
ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these 
listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of 
the Act. Subsection 4(f) of the Act requires the Service to develop and 
implement recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species. The recovery planning process involves the 
identification of actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the 
species' decline by addressing the threats to its survival and 
recovery. The goal of this process is to restore listed species to a 
point where they are secure, self-sustaining, and functioning 
components of their ecosystems.
    Recovery planning includes the development of a recovery outline 
shortly after a species is listed, preparation of a draft and final 
recovery plan, and revisions to the plan as significant new information 
becomes available. The recovery outline guides the immediate 
implementation of urgent recovery actions and describes the process to 
be used to develop a recovery plan. The recovery plan identifies site-
specific management actions that will achieve recovery of the species, 
measurable criteria that help to determine when a species may be 
downlisted or delisted, and methods for monitoring recovery progress. 
Recovery plans also establish a framework for agencies to coordinate 
their recovery efforts and provide estimates of the cost of 
implementing recovery tasks. Recovery teams (comprised of species 
experts, Federal and State agencies, non-government organizations, and 
stakeholders) are often established to develop recovery plans. When 
completed, the recovery outlines, draft recovery plans, and the final 
recovery plans will be available from our Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered), or from our Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the 
participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal 
agencies, States, non-governmental organizations, businesses, and 
private landowners. Examples of recovery actions include habitat 
restoration (e.g., restoration of native vegetation), research, captive 
propagation and reintroduction, and outreach and education. The 
recovery of many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on 
Federal lands because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-
Federal lands. To achieve recovery of these species requires 
cooperative conservation efforts on private and State lands.
    If these species are listed, funding for recovery actions will be 
available from a variety of sources, including Federal budgets, State 
programs, and cost share grants for non-Federal landowners, the 
academic community, and non-governmental organizations. In addition, 
under section 6 of the Act, the State of Hawaii would be eligible for 
Federal funds to implement management actions that promote the 
protection and recovery of the 40 species. Information on our grant 
programs that are available to aid species recovery can be found at: 
http://www.fws.gov/grants.
    Although these species are only proposed for listing under the Act 
at this time, please let us know if you are interested in participating 
in recovery efforts for these species. Additionally, we invite you to 
submit any new information on these species whenever it becomes 
available and any information you may have for recovery planning 
purposes (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Section 7(a) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies to 
evaluate their actions with respect to any species that is proposed or 
listed as endangered or threatened with respect to its critical 
habitat, if any is designated. Regulations implementing this 
interagency cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR 
part 402. Section 7(a)(1) of the Act mandates that all Federal agencies 
shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the 
Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species listed under section 4 of the Act. Section 7(a)(2) 
of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities they 
authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of a listed species or result in destruction or 
adverse modification of critical habitat. If a Federal action may 
affect the continued existence of a listed species or its critical 
habitat, the responsible Federal agency must enter into consultation 
with the Service.
    For the 40 plants and animals proposed or reevaluated for listing 
as endangered species in this rule, Federal agency actions that may 
require consultation as described in the preceding paragraph include, 
but are not limited to, actions within the jurisdiction of the Natural 
Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and branches of the 
Department of Defense (DOD). Examples of these types of actions include 
activities funded or authorized under the Farm Bill Program, 
Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Ground and Surface Water 
Conservation Program, Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), 
Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, and DOD construction activities 
related to training or other military missions.
    The Act and its implementing regulations set forth a series of 
general prohibitions and exceptions that apply to all endangered 
wildlife and plants. The prohibitions, codified at 50 CFR 17.21 and 
17.61, apply. These prohibitions, in part, make it illegal for any 
person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to take 
(includes harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, 
capture, or collect; or to attempt any of these), import, export,

[[Page 34510]]

ship in interstate commerce in the course of commercial activity, or 
sell or offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any listed 
wildlife species. It is also illegal to possess, sell, deliver, carry, 
transport, or ship any such wildlife that has been taken illegally. In 
addition, for plants listed as endangered, the Act prohibits the 
malicious damage or destruction on areas under Federal jurisdiction and 
the removal, cutting, digging up, or damaging or destroying of such 
plants in knowing violation of any State law or regulation, including 
State criminal trespass law. Certain exceptions to the prohibitions 
apply to agents of the Service and State conservation agencies.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving endangered or threatened wildlife and plant species under 
certain circumstances. Regulations governing permits are codified at 50 
CFR 17.22 and 17.62 for endangered species. With regard to endangered 
wildlife, a permit must be issued for the following purposes: for 
scientific purposes, to enhance the propagation and survival of the 
species, and for incidental take in connection with otherwise lawful 
activities. Requests for copies of the regulations regarding listed 
species and inquiries about prohibitions and permits may be addressed 
to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Region, Ecological Services, 
Eastside Federal Complex, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181 
(telephone 503-231-6131; facsimile 503-231-6243).
    It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 
1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at 
the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not 
constitute a violation of section 9 of the Act. The intent of this 
policy is to increase public awareness of the effect of a proposed 
listing on proposed and ongoing activities within the range of species 
proposed for listing. The following activities could potentially result 
in a violation of section 9 of the Act; this list is not comprehensive:
    (1) Unauthorized collecting, handling, possessing, selling, 
delivering, carrying, or transporting of the species, including import 
or export across State lines and international boundaries, except for 
properly documented antique specimens of these taxa at least 100 years 
old, as defined by section 10(h)(1) of the Act;
    (2) Introduction of nonnative species that compete with or prey 
upon the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing, such as the 
introduction of competing, nonnative plants or animals to the State of 
Hawaii; and
    (3) The unauthorized release of biological control agents that 
attack any life stage of these 40 species.
    Questions regarding whether specific activities would constitute a 
violation of section 9 of the Act should be directed to the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). 
Requests for copies of the regulations concerning listed animals and 
general inquiries regarding prohibitions and permits may be addressed 
to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Region, Ecological 
Services, Endangered Species Permits, Eastside Federal Complex, 911 NE. 
11th Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181 (telephone 503-231-6131; facsimile 
503-231-6243).
    Federal listing of the 38 species proposed for listing in this rule 
(we are not including the 2 already listed species that are being 
reevaluted for listing) would automatically invoke State listing under 
Hawaii's Endangered Species law (H.R.S. 195D 1-32) and supplement the 
protection available under other State laws. These protections prohibit 
take of these species and encourage conservation by State government 
agencies. Further, the State may enter into agreements with Federal 
agencies to administer and manage any area required for the 
conservation, management, enhancement, or protection of endangered 
species (H.R.S. 195D-5). Funds for these activities could be made 
available under section 6 of the Act (Cooperation with the States). 
Thus, the Federal protection afforded to these species by listing them 
as endangered species would be reinforced and supplemented by 
protection under State law.

Critical Habitat

Background

    Critical habitat is defined in section 3 of the Act as:
    (i) The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by a 
species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the Act, on which 
are found those physical or biological features
    (I) Essential to the conservation of the species and
    (II) Which may require special management considerations or 
protection; and
    (ii) Specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by a 
species at the time it is listed, upon a determination that such areas 
are essential for the conservation of the species.
    Conservation, as defined under section 3 of the Act, means the use 
of all methods and procedures that are necessary to bring an endangered 
or threatened species to the point at which the measures provided under 
the Act are no longer necessary. Such methods and procedures include, 
but are not limited to, all activities associated with scientific 
resources management, such as research, census, law enforcement, 
habitat acquisition and maintenance, propagation, live trapping, 
transplantation, and, in the extraordinary case where population 
pressures within a given ecosystem cannot otherwise be relieved, may 
include regulated taking.
    Critical habitat receives protection under section 7 of the Act 
through the prohibition against Federal agencies carrying out, funding, 
or authorizing the destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat. Section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires consultation on Federal 
actions that may affect critical habitat. The designation of critical 
habitat does not affect land ownership or establish a refuge, 
wilderness, reserve, preserve, or other conservation area. Such 
designation does not allow the government or public access to private 
lands. Such designation does not require implementation of restoration, 
recovery, or enhancement measures by the landowner. Where a landowner 
seeks or requests Federal agency funding or authorization that may 
affect a listed species or critical habitat, the consultation 
requirements of section 7(a)(2) of the Act would apply, but in the 
event of a destruction or adverse modification finding, the Federal 
action agency's and the applicant's obligation is not to restore or 
recover the species, but to implement reasonable and prudent 
alternatives to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat.
    For inclusion in a critical habitat designation, the habitat within 
the geographical area occupied by the species at the time of listing 
must contain the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species, and be included only if those features may 
require special management considerations or protection. Critical 
habitat designations identify, to the extent known using the best 
scientific and commercial data available, habitat areas that provide 
essential life cycle needs of the species. Under the Act and 
regulations at 50 CFR 424.12(e), we can designate critical habitat in 
areas outside the geographical area occupied by the species at the time 
it is listed only when we determine that those areas are essential for 
the

[[Page 34511]]

conservation of the species and that designation limited to those areas 
occupied at the time of listing would be inadequate to ensure the 
conservation of the species.
    Section 4 of the Act requires that we designate critical habitat on 
the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available. 
Further, our Policy on Information Standards Under the Endangered 
Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 
34271)), the Information Quality Act (section 515 of the Treasury and 
General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Pub. L. 
106-554; H.R. 5658)), and our associated Information Quality 
Guidelines, provide criteria, establish procedures, and provide 
guidance to ensure that our decisions are based on the best scientific 
data available. They require our biologists, to the extent consistent 
with the Act and with the use of the best scientific data available, to 
use primary and original sources of information as the basis for 
recommendations to designate critical habitat.
    When we are determining which areas should be proposed as critical 
habitat, our primary source of information is generally the information 
developed during the listing process for the species. Additional 
information sources may include the recovery plan for the species; 
articles in peer-reviewed journals; conservation plans developed by 
States and counties; scientific status surveys and studies; biological 
assessments; or other unpublished materials and expert opinion or 
personal knowledge.
    Habitat is often dynamic, and species may move from one area to 
another over time. Furthermore, we recognize that critical habitat 
designated at a particular point in time may not include all of the 
habitat areas that we may later determine to be necessary for the 
recovery of the species, as additional scientific information may 
become available in the future. For these reasons, a critical habitat 
designation does not signal that habitat outside the designated area is 
unimportant or may not be required for recovery of the species.
    The information currently available on the effects of global 
climate change and increasing temperatures does not make sufficiently 
precise estimates of the location and magnitude of the effects to allow 
us to incorporate this information into our current designation of 
critical habitat, nor are we currently aware of any climage change 
information specific to the habitat of any of the species being 
addressed in this proposed rule that would indicate what areas may 
become important to the species in the future. Therefore, we are unable 
to determine what additional areas, if any, may be appropriate to 
include in the proposed critical habitat for these species; however, we 
specifically request information from the public on the currently 
predicted effects of climate change on the species addressed in this 
proposed rule and their habitat. Furthermore, we recognize that 
designation of critical habitat may not include all of the habitat 
areas we may eventually determine are necessary for the recovery of the 
species, based on scientific data now available to the Service. For 
these reasons, a critical habitat designation does not signify that 
habitat outside of the designated area is unimportant or may not be 
required for the recovery of the species.
    Areas that are important to the conservation of the species, but 
are outside the critical habitat designation, will continue to be 
subject to conservation actions we implement under section 7(a)(1) of 
the Act. Areas that support populations are also subject to the 
regulatory protections afforded by the section 7(a)(2) jeopardy 
standard, as determined on the basis of the best available scientific 
information at the time of the agency action. Federally funded or 
permitted projects affecting listed species outside their designated 
critical habitat areas may require consultation under section 7 of the 
Act and may still result in jeopardy findings in some cases. Similarly, 
critical habitat designations made on the basis of the best available 
information at the time of designation will not control the direction 
and substance of future recovery plans, habitat conservation plans 
(HCPs), section 7 consultations, or other species conservation planning 
efforts if any new information available to these planning efforts 
calls for a different outcome.

Prudency Determination for 44 Maui Nui Species

    Section 4(a)(3) of the Act, as amended, and implementing 
regulations (50 CFR 424.12) require that, to the maximum extent prudent 
and determinable, the Secretary designate critical habitat at the time 
a species is determined to be endangered or threatened. Our regulations 
at 50 CFR 424.12(a)(1) state that designation of critical habitat is 
not prudent when one or both of the following situations exist: (1) The 
species is threatened by taking or other human activity, and 
identification of critical habitat can be expected to increase the 
degree of threat to the species; or (2) such designation of critical 
habitat would not be beneficial to the species.

Species Proposed or Reevaluated for Listing

    As we have discussed under the threats analysis for Factor B, 
above, there is currently no documentation that the 37 plants proposed 
or reevaluated for listing are threatened by taking or other human 
activity. Overcollection is a potential serious threat to the three 
tree snails proposed for listing (Newcombia cumingi, Partulina 
semicarinata, and P. variabilis) (see Overcollection for Commercial, 
Recreational, Scientific or Educational Purposes, above). Europeans and 
others collected Hawaiian tree snails starting in the 1800s and into 
the early 20th century. Even today, there are Internet Web sites that 
sell Hawaiian tree snail shells, including other species of the 
Hawaiian Partulina. It is unknown if the shells offered for sale are 
from historical collections or recent collections from the wild. 
However, we do not believe our proposed critical habitat will increase 
the threat of overcollection of N. cumingi, P. semicarinata, and P. 
variabilis because our approach to critical habitat designation is 
based on the physical or biological features shared by multiple species 
within an ecosystem and does not identify the locations of individuals 
of the three tree snails within the shared ecosystem. In addition, the 
proposed critical habitat unit maps are published at a scale that does 
not pinpoint the locations of the three snail species to the extent 
that individuals of these three tree snail species can be located on 
the private lands on which they occur.

Listed Species

    We listed the akohekohe or crested honeycreeper and the kiwikiu or 
Maui parrotbill as endangered species in 1967 (32 FR 4001, March 11, 
1967), under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 (precursor 
to the Endangered Species Act of 1973). Critical habitat was not 
determined at that time because it was not required under the Act until 
1978. Neither the akohekohe nor the kiwikiu are threatened by taking or 
other human activity (32 FR 4001, March 11, 1967; USFWS 2006, pp. 2-81 
to 2-82, 2-142).
    At the time we listed the plant Kokia cookei (Cooke's kokia) as 
endangered, we found that designation of critical habitat was not 
prudent because this species had been extirpated from its natural range 
on Molokai and was known only from a single specimen in cultivation and 
tissue culture maintained in a laboratory (44 FR

[[Page 34512]]

62470; October 30, 1979). Kokia cookei is not threatened by vandalism, 
collecting, or other human activities, and we believe there is a 
benefit to a critical habitat designation for this species (see 
discussion below).
    We listed the plant Acaena exigua (liliwai), known from Kauai and 
Maui, as endangered in 1992 (57 FR 20772; May 15, 1992). At that time, 
the species had not been seen since 1973. In 1997, botanists 
rediscovered A. exigua in the Puu Kukui Preserve on west Maui, but it 
has not been seen at this location since 2000 (68 FR 25934; May 14, 
2003). We determined that critical habitat was not prudent for Acaena 
exigua at the time of listing (1992) and again at the time we 
reevaluated prudency determinations for 95 listed plants on Kauai 
(2003) (57 FR 20772, May 15, 1992; 68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003). 
Acaena exigua is not threatened by vandalism, collecting, or other 
human activities, and we believe there is a benefit to a critical 
habitat designation for this species (see discussion below). Although 
the reasons for the disappearance of this species on west Maui are not 
known, botanists believe it may be rediscovered in the same area where 
it was last seen in 2000, with sustained searching.
    We reviewed the information available for the 37 plants and three 
tree snails proposed or reevaluated for listing; the two endangered 
birds, akohekohe and kiwikiu; and the endangered plants Kokia cookei 
and Acaena exigua, pertaining to the biological needs of these 44 
species and characteristics of their last known habitats. In the 
absence of finding that the designation of critical habitat would 
increase threats to a species, if there are any benefits to a critical 
habitat designation, then a prudent finding is warranted. The potential 
benefits to the 40 proposed or reevaluated species; the two endangered 
birds, akohekohe and kiwikiu; and the endangered plants K. cookei and 
A. exigua include: (1) Triggering consultation under section 7 of the 
Act, in new areas for actions in which there may be a Federal nexus 
where it would not otherwise occur because, for example, it is or has 
become unoccupied or the occupancy is in question; (2) focusing 
conservation activities on the most essential features and areas; (3) 
providing educational benefits to State or county governments or 
private entities; and (4) preventing people from causing inadvertent 
harm to the species. Recovery of both K. cookei and A. exigua, neither 
of which currently occurs in the wild, will include in-situ 
conservation and protection of wild individuals, enhancement of 
existing populations with outplantings, and establishment of new 
populations through outplanting of propagated individuals into 
potentially suitable habitat within their historical ranges (USFWS 
1997, p. 11; USFWS 1998a, pp. 22-23; Orr 2007, in litt., p. 8; Seidman 
2007, in litt.).
    The primary regulatory effect of critical habitat is the section 
7(a)(2) requirement that Federal agencies refrain from taking any 
action that destroys or adversely modifies critical habitat. We find 
that the designation of critical habitat for each of the 40 species 
proposed or reevaluated for listing in this rule; the endangered birds 
the akohekohe and kiwikiu; and the endangered plants Kokia cookei and 
Acaena exigua will benefit them by serving to focus conservation 
efforts on the restoration and maintenance of ecosystem functions that 
are essential for attaining their recovery and long-term viability. In 
addition, the designation of critical habitat serves to inform 
management and conservation decisions by identifying any additional 
physical or biological features of the ecosystem that may be essential 
for the conservation of certain species, such as the availability of 
bogs for Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Geranium hanaense, and G. 
hillebrandii. Therefore, as we have determined that the designation of 
critical habitat will not likely increase the degree of threat to the 
species and may provide some measure of benefit, we find that 
designation of critical habitat is prudent for the following 44 
species, as critical habitat would be beneficial and there is no 
evidence that the designation of critical habitat would result in an 
increased threat from taking or other human activity for these species:
    (1) Plants--Acaena exigua, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Bidens conjuncta, Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii, Canavalia pubescens, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyanea 
duvalliorum, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea horrida, Cyanea 
kunthiana, Cyanea magnicalyx, Cyanea maritae, Cyanea mauiensis, Cyanea 
munroi, Cyanea obtusa, Cyanea profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra 
ferripilosa, Cyrtandra filipes, Cyrtandra oxybapha, Festuca 
molokaiensis, Geranium hanaense, Geranium hillebrandii, Kokia cookei, 
Mucuna sloanei var. persericea, Myrsine vaccinioides, Peperomia 
subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, Phyllostegia haliakalae, 
Phyllostegia pilosa, Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, 
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea jacobii, Schiedea laui, 
Schiedea salicaria, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa;

    (2) Animals--birds: akohekhoe and kiwikiu; snails: Newcombia 
cumingi, Partulina semicarinata, and Partulina variabilis.

Critical Habitat Determinability for the Species Cyanea mauiensis, 
Proposed for Listing, and for the Listed Species Phyllostegia hispida

    As stated above, section 4(a)(3) of the Act requires the 
designation of critical habitat concurrently with the species' listing 
``to the maximum extent prudent and determinable.'' Our regulations at 
50 CFR 424.12(a)(2) state that critical habitat is not determinable 
when one or both of the following situations exist:
    (i) Information sufficient to perform required analyses of the 
impacts of the designation is lacking, or
    (ii) The biological needs of the species are not sufficiently well 
known to permit identification of an area as critical habitat.
    When critical habitat is not determinable, the Act provides for an 
additional year to publish a critical habitat designation (16 U.S.C. 
1533(b)(6)(C)(ii)).
    In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) of the Act and regulations at 
50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas occupied by the species at 
the time of listing to designate as critical habitat, we consider those 
physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the 
species that may require special management considerations or 
protection. The primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Space for individual and population growth, and for normal 
behavior;
    (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or 
physiological requirements;
    (3) Cover or shelter;
    (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing (or development) of 
offspring; and
    (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or are 
representative of the historical geographical and ecological 
distributions of a species.
    We are currently unable to identify the physical and biological 
features that are considered essential to the conservation of the plant 
Cyanea mauiensis, which is proposed for listing, on Maui because 
necessary information to understanding the life-history needs of the 
species is not available at this time. Key features of the life history 
of this plant species, such as flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
specific environmental requirements,

[[Page 34513]]

and limiting factors, remain unknown. Nothing is known of the preferred 
habitat of, or native species associated with, this species on the 
island of Maui. Cyanea mauiensis was last observed on Maui over 100 
years ago, and its habitat has been modified and altered by nonnative 
ungulates and plants, fire, and stochastic events (e.g., hurricanes, 
landslides). In addition, predation by nonnative rats, and herbivory by 
nonnative ungulates and invertebrates, likely led to the extirpation of 
this species from Maui. Because a century has elapsed since C. 
mauiensis was last observed, the optimal conditions that provide the 
biological or ecological requisites of this species are not known. As 
described above, we can surmise that habitat degradation from a variety 
of factors and predation by a number of nonnative species has 
contributed to the decline of this species on Maui; however, we do not 
know the physical or biological features that are essential for C. 
mauiensis. As we are unable to identify the physical and biological 
features essential to the conservation of this species, we are unable 
to identify areas on Maui that contain these features.
    Although we have determined that the designation of critical 
habitat is prudent for the plant Cyanea mauiensis, the biological needs 
of this species are not sufficiently well known to permit 
identification of the physical or biological features that may be 
essential for the conservation of the species, or those areas that 
provide the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species. Therefore, we find that critical habitat 
for C. mauiensis is not determinable at this time. We intend to 
continue gathering information regarding the essential life-history 
requirements of this plant species to facilitate the identification of 
those physical or biological features that are essential to the 
conservation of C. mauiensis.
    We listed the plant Phyllostegia hispida (NCN), known only from the 
island of Molokai, as an endangered species on March 17, 2009 (74 FR 
11319). At the time of listing, we determined that critical habitat was 
prudent but not determinable for this species, but acknowledged that 
for the future designation of critical habitat we would evaluate the 
needs of P. hispida within the ecological context of the broader 
ecosystem in which it occurs. We are now proposing critical habitat for 
P. hispida, based on the identification of the physical and biological 
features that contribute to the successful functioning of the ecosystem 
upon which it depends.

Proposed Critical Habitat Designation for 50 Species and Proposed 
Revision of Critical Habitat Designation for 85 Species On Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe

    In this section, we discuss the proposed designation of critical 
habitat for 50 species (39 of the 40 species discussed above in our 
listing proposal and reevaluation, for which we concluded that critical 
habitat was both prudent and determinable; 2 listed bird species 
(akohekohe or crested honeycreeper and kiwikiu or Maui parrotbill); and 
9 listed plants Abutilon eremitopetalum, Acaena exigua, Cyanea 
gibsonii, Kadua cordata ssp. remyi, Kokia cookei, Labordia tinifolia 
var. lanaiensis, Melicope munroi, Phyllostegia hispida, and Viola 
lanaiensis). This section also discusses the currently designated 
critical habitat for 85 species of plants on the islands of Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, based on new information. This information 
represents the best current scientific and commercial information 
available.

Revision of Critical Habitat for 85 Plants on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and 
Kahoolawe

    Under section 4(a)(3)(A)(ii) of the Act we may, as appropriate, 
revise a critical habitat designation. In 1984, we designated critical 
habitat for a single species of plant, Gouania hillebrandii, on 114 ac 
(46 ha) in 4 units (49 FR 44753) based on its known location at the 
time. In 2003, we designated critical habitat for 3 Lanai plants on 789 
ac (320 ha) in 6 units (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003); for 41 Molokai 
plants on 24,333 ac (9,843 ha) in 88 units (68 FR 12982, March 18, 
2003); and for 60 plants on Maui and Kahoolawe on 93,200 ac (37,717 ha) 
in 139 units (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). All designations were based 
on the known locations of the species at the time. Based on new 
scientific data available since 2003, we are proposing to revise 
critical habitat for 85 plant species on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, 
Maui, and Kahoolawe (this number differs from the original number of 
species with critical habitat designations, due to some taxonomic 
revisions made subsequent to the original designations). Approximately 
47 percent of the area we are proposing as critical habitat in this 
rule overlaps with the areas designated in the 1984 and 2003 final 
critical habitat rules. In some areas, the footprint of the proposed 
revision is larger than the 1984 and 2003 designations, to accommodate 
the expansion of species' ranges within the particular ecosystem in 
which they occur (e.g., expansion into currently unoccupied habitat). 
The proposed revision correlates each species' physical or biological 
requirements with the characteristics of the ecosystems on which they 
depend (e.g., elevation, rainfall, species associations, etc.), and 
also includes areas unoccupied by the species but determined to be 
essential for the conservation of the species. The proposed revision 
would enable managers to focus conservation management efforts on 
common threats that occur across shared ecosystems and facilitate the 
restoration of the ecosystem function and species-specific habitat 
needs for the recovery of each of the 85 species. An added benefit 
includes the publication of more comprehensive critical habitat unit 
maps that should be more useful to the public and conservation 
managers.

Background for 94 Listed Maui Nui Plants

    It is our intent to discuss only those topics directly relevant to 
the proposed designation of new and revised critical habitat on the 
islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. For additional 
information on the 85 plant species with currently designated critical 
habitat, refer to the final critical habitat rules for Gouania 
hillebrandii, and the Lanai, Molokai, and Maui and Kahoolawe plants 
published in the Federal Register on November 9, 1984 (49 FR 44753), 
January 9, 2003 (68 FR 1220), March 18, 2003 (68 FR 12982), and May 14, 
2003 (68 FR 25934). For additional information on the 9 plant species 
listed as endangered but that do not yet have designated critical 
habitat, please refer to the listing rules for those species published 
in the Federal Register as follows: Abutilon eremitopetalum (56 FR 
47686, September 20, 1991), Acaena exigua (57 FR 20772, May 15, 1992), 
Cyanea gibsonii (originally listed as Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii 
(56 FR 47686, September 20, 1991)), Kadua cordata ssp. remyi 
(originally listed as Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyi (64 FR 
48307, September 3, 1999)), Kokia cookei (44 FR 62470, October 30, 
1979), Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis (64 FR 48307, September 3, 
1999), Melicope munroi (64 FR 48307, September 3, 1999), Phyllostegia 
hispida (74 FR 11319, March 17, 2009), and Viola lanaiensis (56 FR 
47686, September 20, 1991). Information on the current status of the 
two bird species that are listed as endangered but do not yet have 
designated critical habitat, the akohekohe and kiwikiu, is presented 
following the information on the current status of 94 listed Maui Nui 
plants (85

[[Page 34514]]

listed plant species for which we are proposing a revision of the 
current critical habitat designation, and 9 listed plant species 
without extant critical habitat for which critical habitat is now 
proposed).
Current Status of 94 Listed Maui Nui Plants
    Abutilon eremitopetalum (no common name (NCN)), a shrub in the 
mallow family (Malvaceae), is endemic to Lanai (Bates 1999, pp. 871-
872). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, A. 
eremitopetalum was known from a single occurrence of seven individuals 
on Lanai (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). Currently, there are 23 
individuals in 1 occurrence at Kahea Gulch in the lowland dry ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 45).
    Acaena exigua (liliwai), a perennial herb in the rose family 
(Rosaceae), is known from west Maui and Kauai (Wagner et al. 1999p, pp. 
1,102-1,103). Acaena exigua was rediscovered in 1997 at Puu Kukui on 
west Maui, when one individual was found growing in a bog in the 
montane wet ecosystem, but this individual died in 2000 (TNC 2007; 
Oppenheimer et al. 2002, p. 1). This area on west Maui was searched as 
recently as 2008 by Ken Wood and Sam Aruch; however, no plants were 
found (Aruch 2010, in litt.). Botanists continue to survey the 
potentially suitable habitat in the area where this species was last 
observed.
    Adenophorus periens (pendant kihi fern), a fern in the Grammitis 
family (Grammitidaceae), is epiphytic on the native tree Acacia koa. 
Adenophorus periens is known from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and the 
island of Hawaii (Palmer 2003, p. 39). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, A. periens was known from Kauai, Molokai, 
Oahu, and the island of Hawaii (68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Adenophorus periens was last seen on Molokai in 1995, in the 
montane wet ecosystem, at the edge of Pepeopae bog (Perlman 2008b, in 
litt.). It was last collected in the late 1800s to early 1900s from the 
montane wet ecosystem on east Maui and Lanai (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Alectryon macrococcus (mahoe), a tree in the soapberry family 
(Sapindaceae), is known from two varieties: Alectryon macrococcus var. 
auwahiensis (east Maui) and A. macrococcus var. macrococcus (Kauai, 
Oahu, Molokai, and Maui) (Wagner et al. 1999x, p. 1,225). At the time 
we designated critical habitat in 2003, A. macrococcus var. auwahiensis 
was known from three occurrences on east Maui (68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003). Currently, A. macrococcus var. auwahiensis is found in one 
occurrence of seven individuals in Auwahi, in the lowland dry ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; NTBG Provenance Report 1993; PEPP 2009, p. 33). 
This variety was historically found in the lowland dry, montane dry, 
and montane mesic ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, A. macrococcus var. macrococcus 
was found on Kauai, Molokai, west Maui, and Oahu (68 FR 9116, February 
27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 
35950, June 17, 2003). Currently, on Molokai, this variety is found in 
three known occurrences: one individual at Kahawai, eight individuals 
from Kaunakakai to Kawela, and one individual in Makolelau, in the 
lowland mesic and montane mesic ecosystems. On west Maui, A. 
macrococcus var. macrococcus is found in 6 occurrences totaling 11 
individuals (1 individual each at Honokowai Stream, Wahikuli, Kahoma 
Ditch Trail, Olowalu, and Iao Valley, and 6 individuals at Honokowai) 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems. On east Maui, there are an 
unknown number of individuals at Kahakapao in the montane mesic 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010p, in litt.).
    Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum (ahinahina (= 
Haleakala silversword)), a perennial rosette shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is known from the alpine cinder deserts on east 
Maui (Carr 1999a, p. 261). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 7 known occurrences totaling between 39,000 and 
44,000 individuals (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, A. 
sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum is found in 7 occurrences totaling 
approximately 50,000 individuals, in the alpine and subalpine 
ecosystems at the summit and crater of Haleakala (TNC 2007; Perlman 
2008c, in litt., p. 1; USFWS 2010). One individual is found in Hanawi 
Natural Area Reserve in the montane mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008; Perlman 2008c, p. 1).
    Asplenium dielerectum (asplenium-leaved diellia) (currently listed 
as Diellia erecta, but for which we are proposing a taxonomic change to 
Asplenium dielerectum), a perennial fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), is historically known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, 
Maui, and the island of Hawaii (Palmer 2003, pp. 117-119). At the time 
we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 
Kauai, Molokai, Maui, Oahu, and the island of Hawaii (68 FR 9116, 
February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). 
Currently, A. dielerectum is known from an unknown number of 
individuals in two occurrences on Molokai and two occurrences totaling 
five individuals on Maui. On Molokai, an unknown number of plants were 
last seen in Onini and Makolelau gulches in the 1990s, in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem (Lau 2010, in litt.). Historically, this species was 
also found in the montane mesic and lowland wet ecosystems (HBMP 2008). 
Botanists believe that additional individuals of this species may be 
found during further searches of potentially suitable habitat on 
Molokai (Lau 2010, in litt.). Four individuals occur on west Maui at 
Hanaulaiki in the lowland dry ecosystem, and on east Maui, one 
individual occurs at Polipoli in the montane mesic ecosystem 
(Oppenheimer 2010q, in litt.). Historically, A. dielerectum was also 
found in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems on west Maui, and 
in the lowland dry and dry cliff ecosystems on Lanai (HBMP 2008).
    Asplenium peruvianum var. insulare (NCN), which is currently listed 
as Asplenium fragile var. insulare, but for which we are proposing a 
taxonomic revision to splenium peruviamun var. insulare in this 
document, is a terrestrial fern in the spleenwort (Aspleniaceae) 
family, from Maui and the island of Hawaii (Palmer 2003, pp. 70-71). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this variety was found 
on east Maui in 2 occurrences and on the island of Hawaii in 36 
occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). 
Currently, on east Maui, A. peruvianum var. insulare is known from 5 
occurences at Waikamoi Stream, at Puu Luau, east of Hosmer Grove, north 
of Kalapawili Ridge, and in Hanawi Natural Area Reserve. These 
occurrences total as many as 100 individuals, in the montane wet, 
montane mesic, and subalpine ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010r, in litt.).
    Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha (kookoolau), a perennial herb in 
the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from Lanai and Maui 
(Ganders and Nagata 1999, pp. 278-279). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this subspecies was known from one occurrence 
on Lanai and four occurrences on east Maui (68 FR 1220, January 9, 
2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, B. micrantha ssp. 
kalealaha is known from 4 occurrences

[[Page 34515]]

totaling over 200 individuals on Lanai and Maui. On Lanai, this 
subspecies is known from 1 occurrence of 12 to 14 individuals north of 
Waiapaa Gulch in the lowland mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Puttock 2003, p. 1). On east Maui, there are 2 occurrences: 
approximately 200 individuals south of Puu Keokea, and a few 
individuals above Polipoli State Park. Both occurrences are in the 
subalpine ecosystem (TNC 2007; Oppenheimer 2010s, in litt.). On west 
Maui, there are four to six individuals at Honokowai in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). This subspecies was historically known 
from the lowland dry and dry cliff ecosystems on Lanai, and from the 
montane mesic and lowland dry ecosystems on east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Bidens wiebkei (kookoolau), a perennial herb in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is endemic to Molokai (Ganders and Nagata 1999, 
pp. 282-283). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from five occurrences on Molokai (68 FR 12982, March 
18, 2003). Currently, B. wiebkei is known from 6 occurrences totaling 
as many as 500 individuals. In the coastal ecosystem, several hundred 
plants occur on the windward sea cliffs from Papalaua Valley to 
Puahaunui Point, and 200 or more individuals are found on rolling hills 
and sea cliffs at Lamaloa Gulch. Approximately 40 individuals occur 
west of Waialua near Kahawaiiki Gulch in the lowland wet ecosystem, and 
about 10 individuals occur at Kumueli in the montane wet ecosystem. In 
the montane mesic ecosystem, there are 2 occurrences: 10 to 20 
individuals below Puu Kolekole, and 1 individual at Kawela Gulch (Wood 
and Perlman 2002, pp. 1-2; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009a, in 
litt.; Perlman 2006a, pp. 1-2; Wood 2009b, pp. 1-2).
    Bonamia menziesii (NCN) is a perennial liana in the morning glory 
family (Convolvulaceae). Bonamia menziesii is known from Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii Island (Austin 1999, p. 550; HBMP 
2008). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, B. menziesii 
was known from 3 occurrences on Lanai, 9 occurrences on Kauai, 6 
occurrences on Maui, 18 occurrences on Oahu, and 2 occurrences on 
Hawaii Island (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 9116, February 27, 
2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 
39624, July 2, 2003). However, no critical habitat was designated for 
this species on Lanai or Molokai in 2003 (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 
68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, B. menziesii is known from 6 
occurrences on Lanai and Maui, totaling over 10 individuals. On Lanai, 
B. menziesii is found at Kanepuu (one individual observed dead in 2008, 
two other individuals not observed since 2001) and at Puhielelu Ridge 
(two individuals were observed in 1996) in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010t, in litt.). This species is 
found on west Maui at Honokowai (two individuals) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem, and on east Maui at Puu o Kali (one individual), Kaloi (one 
individual), and Kanaio Natural Area Reserve (four individuals), in the 
lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Bily 2010, in litt.). This 
species was last seen in the dry cliff ecosystem on west Maui in 1920 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Bonamia menziesii has not been observed on 
Molokai (in the lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems) since the 
early 1900s (HBMP 2008).
    Brighamia rockii (pua ala), a stem succulent in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is known from east Molokai and Lanai, and may 
have occurred on Maui (Lammers 1999, p. 423). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in on Maui and Molokai in 2003, this species was known 
from five occurrences on Molokai (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 
25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, B. rockii is found on Molokai at Lepau 
Point (one individual); at Waiehu, east of Wailele Falls (four 
individuals), and on Huelo islet (one individual), in the coastal and 
wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; NTBG 2009i; Oppenheimer 
2010u, in litt.). This species was last observed on Lanai in 1911, in 
the dry cliff ecosystem (HBMP 2008). According to Lammers (1999, p. 
423), B. rockii was likely found in the coastal ecosystem on Maui.
    Canavalia molokaiensis (awikiwiki), a perennial climbing herb in 
the pea family (Fabaceae), is endemic to east Molokai (Wagner and 
Herbst 1999, p. 653). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from seven occurrences on Molokai (68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, C. molokaiensis is found in 9 
occurrences totaling approximately 170 individuals in the following 
locations: Kawailena drainage in Pelekunu Valley (1 individual); Kua 
Gulch (approximately 100 individuals); near the junction at Kupiaia 
Gulch (10 to 20 individuals); Waiehu (5 to 10 individuals); west Kawela 
Gulch (6 individuals); Kukaiwaa (approximately 15 individuals); 
Mokomoko Gulch (a few individuals); Wailua (10 individuals); and 
Waialeia Stream (a few individuals) (HBMP 2008; Perlman 2008d, pp. 1-2; 
Tangalin 2010, in litt.). These plants are found in the coastal, 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007).
    Cenchrus agrimonioides (kamanomano (also known as sandbur or 
agrimony)), a perennial in the grass family (Poaceae), is known from 
Lanai, Maui, Oahu, and Hawaii (O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,511-1,512). At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, C. agrimonioides was known 
from one occurrence on east Maui, one occurrence on west Maui, and 
seven occurrences on Oahu (HBMP 2008; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 
35950, June 17, 2003). Currently, on Maui, C. agrimonioides is known 
from four occurrences totaling five individuals in the lowland dry 
ecosystem. On west Maui, this variety occurs in Hanaulaiki and Papalaua 
gulches (one individual at each location). On east Maui, C. 
agrimonioides occurs in Kanaio (2 individuals), and within a fenced 
exclosure in the Kanio Natural Area Reserve (one individual) (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, pp. 47-48; PEPP 2009, p. 39). This plant was last 
observed on Lanai in 1915, in the lowland mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Clermontia lindseyana (oha wai), a perennial shrub or tree in the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is known from Maui and Hawaii Island 
(Lammers 1999, p. 431). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, C. lindseyana was known from 2 occurrences on Maui and from 15 
occurrences on Hawaii Island (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 39624, 
July 2, 2003). Currently, there is 1 known occurrence totaling 
approximately 30 individuals on east Maui at Wailaulau in the montane 
mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, pp. 40-41; Perlman 
2007a, in litt.; Wood 2009c, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.; 
Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010v, in litt.; Oppenheimer 
2010w, in litt.).
    Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes (oha wai), a perennial shrub 
or tree in the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is endemic to east 
Molokai (Lammers 1999, pp. 432-433). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from one occurrence in Kamakou 
Preserve (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; Perlman 2009d, in litt.). 
Currently, C. oblongifolia ssp. brevipes is found in 1 known occurrence 
totaling 11 individuals on Uapa Ridge in the montane wet ecosystem (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008; Bakutis 2009a, in litt.; Perlman 2009d, in litt.). 
Historically, this subspecies also occurred in the lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, and wet

[[Page 34516]]

cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis (oha wai), a perennial shrub 
or tree in the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is known from Lanai 
and Maui (Lammers 1999, pp. 432-433). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from one occurrence of 
two individuals on west Maui, and from historical occurrences on Lanai 
and east Maui (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 
HBMP 2008; Perlman 2009e, in litt.). However, no critical habitat was 
designated for this species on Maui in 2003 (68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003). Currently, C. oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis is found in one known 
occurrence totaling four individuals along the pipeline of the lower 
Waikamoi Ditch Trail at Haipuena Gulch in the montane wet ecosystem on 
east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 2009e, in litt.). Historically, 
this species was also found in the lowland mesic and lowland wet 
ecosystem on Lanai, and the lowland wet ecosystem on Maui (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008). An examination of the type specimen and other collections 
indicates that C. oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis may be a hybrid; however, 
further examination of specimens from Lanai and Maui are necessary 
(Albert 2001, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010s, in litt.)
    Clermontia peleana (oha wai) is a perennial epiphytic (on Acacia 
koa, Cheirodendron trigynum (olapa), Cibotium spp., and Metrosideros 
polymorpha) shrub or tree in the bellflower family (Campanulaceae). 
There are two subspecies: C. peleana ssp. peleana (Hawaii Island) and 
C. peleana ssp. singuliflora (east Maui and Hawaii Island) (Lammers 
1999, p. 435). At the time we designated critical habitat on Maui in 
2003, C. peleana had not been seen on either island since the early 
1900s (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). Critical 
habitat was designated on the island of Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 39624, 
July 2, 2003). Currently, there are no known individuals of C. peleana 
spp. singuliflora on Maui; however, this subspecies was recently 
rediscovered on Hawaii Island (TNC 2010). Clermontia peleana ssp. 
singuliflora was last seen in 1920, on east Maui in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Clermontia samuelii (oha wai), a perennial shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is known from Maui (Lammers 1999, p. 436). 
There are two subspecies: C. samuelii ssp. hanaensis, which generally 
is found at lower elevations, and C. samuelii ssp. samuelii (Lammers et 
al. 1995, p. 344). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
C. samuelii was known from seven occurrences on east Maui (68 FR 25934, 
May 14, 2003). Currently, C. samuelii ssp. hanaensis is found in bog 
margins in the lowland wet and montane wet ecosystems at Kopiliula, 
east of Hanawi Stream, and at Kawaipapa, with historical occurrences at 
Kuhiwa Valley, Palikea Stream, and Waihoi Valley (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; Welton 2010a, in litt.). Clermontia 
samuelii ssp. samuelii is found in 2 known occurrences, one along the 
ridge above Kipahulu rim (about 20 individuals), and another along the 
south rim of Kipahulu (Manawainui planeze) (about 4 individuals), in 
the montane wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Welton 2010a, in 
litt.). There is a report of one individual (subspecies unknown) at 
Papanalahou Point on west Maui (HBMP 2008).
    Colubrina oppositifolia (kauila), a perennial tree in the buckthorn 
family (Rhamnaceae), is known from Maui, Oahu, and Hawaii (Wagner et 
al. 1999y, p. 1,094). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from two occurrences on west Maui, five 
occurrences on Oahu, and five occurrences on Hawaii Island (68 FR 
25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Currently, on west Maui, there are two individuals near 
Honokowai Gulch in the lowland mesic ecosystem. Historically, this 
species was also reported from the lowland dry ecosystem on east Maui 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009b, in litt.; Perlman 2008e, in 
litt.).
    Ctenitis squamigera (pauoa), a terrestrial fern in the spleenwort 
family (Aspleniaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, 
and the island of Hawaii (Palmer 2003, pp. 100-102). At the time we 
designated critical habitat on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, 
C. squamigera was known from 2 occurrences on Lanai, 1 occurrence on 
Molokai, 12 occurrences on Maui, and 8 occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). No critical habitat was designated 
for this species on Lanai or Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 1220, January 9, 
2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). Currently, C. squamigera is found in 
12 known occurrences totaling over 120 individuals on Lanai, Molokai, 
and west Maui (Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.). On Lanai, an unknown 
number of individuals occur on the leeward (south) side of the island 
at Waiapaa in the wet cliff ecosystem. There are historical records 
from the dry cliff and wet cliff ecosystems at upper Kehewai Gulch, 
Haalelepaakai, and Kaiholena (HBMP 2008). On Molokai, 20 individuals 
occur at Wawaia in the lowland mesic ecosystem. On west Maui, there are 
9 occurrences totaling 80 to 84 individuals in the lowland dry, lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, montane mesic, and wet cliff ecosystems. Ctenitis 
squamigera is found in Honokowai Valley (20 individuals), Puu Kaeo (2 
to 4 individuals), Kahana Iki (1 individual), Kahana (14 individuals), 
Kanaha Valley (10 individuals), Kahoma (1 individual), Puehuehunui (1 
to 2 individuals), Ukumehame Valley below the Hanaula Reservoir (1 to 2 
individuals), and Iao Valley (approximately 30 individuals). On east 
Maui, there are 28 individuals at Pohakea in the lowland dry ecosystem 
and a historical record from the lowland mesic ecosystem. This species 
was apparently found in the Kipahulu FR (Kaapahu) area on east Maui, 
but no further details have been provided (Wood and Perlman 2002, p. 7; 
East Maui Watershed Partnership 2006, p. 17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010r, in litt.).
    Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis (HAHA), a vine-like shrub in 
the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is known from Maui (Lammers 
1999, pp. 445-446). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this subspecies was known from five occurrences on Maui (68 FR 25934, 
May 14, 2003). Currently, C. copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis is found in 
7 widely distributed occurrences totaling over 600 individuals on east 
Maui. One occurrence of over 20 scattered individuals is found in east 
Makaiwa in the lowland wet ecosystem; 4 occurrences totaling 
approximately 100 individuals are found along streams in Keanae in the 
lowland wet and montane wet ecosystems; 2 occurrences totaling 
approximately 500 individuals are found along Palikea Stream and in 
Kipahulu Valley, in the montane wet, wet cliff, and lowland wet 
ecosystems; and a few individuals are found at Kaapahu in the montane 
wet and lowland mesic ecosystems (Haleakala National Park 2004, pp. 5-
6; 2005, pp. 5-6; 2007, pp. 2,4; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Bily et al. 2008, 
p. 37; Welton and Haus 2008, pp. 12-13; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; 
2010x, in litt.; Perlman 2007b, in litt.; Welton 2010a, in litt.; Wood 
2009d, in litt.).
    Cyanea dunbariae (HAHA), which is currently listed as Cyanea 
dunbarii and for which we are proposing a spelling correction to Cyanee 
dunbariae, is a shrub in the bellflower family

[[Page 34517]]

(Campanulaceae), and is endemic to Molokai (Lammers 1999, p. 448). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known 
from one occurrence at Mokomoko Gulch (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). 
Currently, there are 10 individuals in Mokomoko Gulch in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 48; Oppenheimer 
2010u, in litt.; NTBG 2011a). Historically, this species was also found 
in Molokai's lowland wet and montane mesic ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyanea gibsonii (HAHA), which is currently listed as Cyanea 
macrostegia ssp. gibsonii and for which we are proposing a taxonomic 
revision to Cyanea gibsonii, is a perennial tree in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), and is known from Lanai (Lammers 1999, p. 457). 
In 2003, this species was known from two occurrences (68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003). However, no critical habitat was designated for this 
species on Lanai in 2003 (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). Currently, 
there are about 10 to 20 individuals at the head of Hauola Gulch, in 
the montane wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 53; 
Oppenheimer 2010t, in litt.). Historically, this species was also found 
north of Lanaihale and at Puu Alii in the wet cliff and montane wet 
ecosystems (PEPP 2009, p. 53).
    Cyanea glabra (HAHA), a perennial shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to Maui (Lammers 1999, pp. 449, 451). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known 
from one occurrence on west Maui (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). However, 
on west Maui, individuals identified as C. glabra in the lowland wet 
and wet cliff ecosystems may be an undescribed species related to C. 
acuminata (Lorence 2010, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010y, in litt.). On 
east Maui, wild individuals of C. glabra in the montane wet and montane 
mesic ecosystems may more closely resemble C. maritae, one of the 
species proposed for listing in this rule (Oppenheimer 2010y, in 
litt.). Further taxonomic study of these occurrences is needed (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 2009f, in litt.). In the meantime, we will 
continue to identify these individuals as C. glabra.
    Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora (HAHA), a perennial palm-like 
tree in the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is known from east Maui 
(Lammers 1999, p. 452). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, there were nine occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). 
Currently, there are at least 9 occurrences totaling between 458 and 
558 individuals in the lowland wet and montane wet ecosystems, at 
Haipuaena Stream, east of east Wailuaiki Stream, above Kuhiwa Valley, 
in Kipahulu Valley, and at Kaapahu (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, pp. 
50-51; Welton and Haus 2008, p. 26; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; Welton 
2010a, in litt.). Historically, this subspecies also occurred in the 
montane mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea lobata (HAHA), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is known from two subspecies, C. lobata ssp. baldwinii 
(Lanai) and C. lobata ssp. lobata (west Maui) (Lammers 1999, pp. 451, 
454). At the time we designated critical habitat on Maui in 2003, there 
were no known occurrences of C. lobata ssp. baldwinii on Lanai and five 
occurrences of C. lobata ssp. lobata on west Maui (68 FR 1220, January 
9, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). However, no critical habitat was 
designated for this species on Lanai in 2003 (68 FR 1220, January 9, 
2003). In 2006, C. lobata ssp. baldwinii was rediscovered around the 
Hauola headwaters on Lanai, in the montane wet ecosystem (Wood 2006a, 
p. 15; TNC 2007; Wood 2009e, in litt.). Currently, there are three to 
four individuals at this location (Perlman 2007c, in litt.; Oppenheimer 
2009c, in litt.; PEPP 2009, p. 53). On west Maui, there are five 
occurrences of C. lobata ssp. lobata totaling eight individuals at 
Honokohau, Honokowai, and Mahinahina, in the lowland wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.).
    Cyanea mannii (HAHA), a perennial shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to east Molokai (Lammers 1999, p. 456). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were eight 
occurrences at Puu Kolekole and Kawela Gulch (68 FR 12982, March 18, 
2003). Currently, there are fewer than 200 individuals in 11 
occurrences extending across the summit area from Mokomoko Gulch to Kua 
Gulch, in the lowland mesic, montane mesic, and montane wet ecosystems 
(Wood and Perlman 2002, p. 2; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 2002a, in 
litt.; Wood 2009f, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.).
    Cyanea mceldowneyi (HAHA), a perennial shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is found on east Maui (Lammers 1999, p. 457). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was 
known from 11 occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, C. 
mceldowneyi is known from at least 10 occurrences totaling over 100 
individuals in the lowland wet, montane wet, and montane mesic 
ecosystems (PEPP 2007, p. 39; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, pp. 53-
54; PEPP 2009, pp. 53, 57; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.).
    Cyanea procera (HAHA), a perennial tree in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is known from Molokai (Lammers 1999, p. 460). At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known 
from five occurrences (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, there 
are one to two individuals near Puuokaeha in west Kawela Gulch in the 
montane mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; PEPP 2008, pp. 55-56; Oppenheimer 
2010u, in litt.; NTBG 2011b). Historically, this species was also found 
in the lowland mesic and montane wet ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyperus fauriei (NCN), which is currently listed as Mariscus 
fauriei and for which we are proposing a taxonomic revision to Cyperus 
fauriei, is a perennial in the sedge family (Cyperaceae), and is known 
from Molokai, Lanai, and the island of Hawaii (Koyama 1999, p. 1,417). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, C. fauriei was 
known from 1 occurrence of 20 to 30 individuals on Molokai and 2 
occurrences on the island of Hawaii (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 
39624, July 2, 2003). Currently, on Molokai, an unknown number of 
individuals are found in the area west of Makolelau, at Kamakou 
Preserve above Onini Road, at Makakupaia, at Waihanau drainage, and at 
Kamalo, in the lowland mesic and montane mesic ecosystems (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.). Cyperus fauriei was last 
observed on Lanai in the early 1900s, in the lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyperus pennatiformis (NCN), which is currently listed as Mariscus 
pennatiformis and for which we proposed a taxonomic revision on August 
2, 2011 (76 FR 46362), is a perennial in the sedge family (Cyperaceae), 
and is known from Laysan Island, Kauai, Oahu, east Maui, and the island 
of Hawaii (Koyama 1999, pp. 1,421-1,423). There are two varieties: C. 
pennatiformis var. bryanii (Laysan) and C. pennatiformis var. 
pennatiformis (main Hawaiian Islands). At the time we designated 
critical habitat on Laysan, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, this species 
was known from only one occurrence (totaling an unknown number of 
individuals) on Laysan Island (C. pennatiformis var. bryanii), and one 
occurrence (totaling 30 individuals) on east Maui (C. pennatiformis 
var. pennatiformis) (68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 
14, 2003; 68 FR 28054, May 22, 2003; 68 FR

[[Page 34518]]

35950, June 17, 2003). Both occurrences were in the coastal ecosystem 
(68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 28054, May 22, 2003). The known 
occurrence of C. pennatiformis var. pennatiformis in the coastal 
ecosystem on east Maui has not been relocated (Wagner et al. 2005; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyperus trachysanthos (puukaa), a grass-like perennial in the sedge 
family (Cyperaceae), is known from the islands of Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, and Lanai (Koyama 1999, pp. 1,399-1,400). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, C. trachysanthos was found on 
Kauai and Oahu (68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 
2003). This species has not been observed on the islands of Lanai and 
Molokai, in the lowland dry ecosystems since 1912 and 1919, 
respectively (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra munroi (haiwale), a perennial shrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae), is known from Lanai and west Maui (Wagner et al. 
1999d, p. 770; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). At the time we designated 
critical habitat on Maui in 2003, C. munroi was known from two 
occurrences on Lanai and five occurrences on west Maui (68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). However, no critical 
habitat was designated for this species on Lanai (68 FR 1220, January 
9, 2003). Currently, on Lanai, C. munroi is found 3 occurrences 
totaling 23 individuals at Puu Alii (20 individuals), Waialala Gulch (1 
individual), and Lanaihale (2 individuals), in the montane wet and wet 
cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.). On 
west Maui, C. munroi is found in 6 occurrences totaling 45 individuals 
at Makamakaole Gulch (1 individual), Honokohau Gulch (1 individual), 
Kahana Valley (1 individual), Hahakea Gulch (1 individual), Kapunakea 
Preserve (12 individuals), and Amalu Stream (29 individuals), in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 
2010i, in litt.).
    Diplazium molokaiense (NCN), a terrestrial fern in the spleenwort 
family (Aspleniaceae), is known from all of the major Hawaiian Islands 
except Hawaii Island (Palmer 2003, p. 125). At the time we designated 
critical habitat on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, D. 
molokaiense was known only from east Maui (68 FR 9116, February 27, 
2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 
35950, June 17, 2003). Currently, D. molokaiense is known from three 
occurrences on Maui. On west Maui, there are five individuals at 
Puehuehunui in the montane mesic ecosystem. On east Maui, there are 2 
occurrences, one at Honomanu (about 15 individuals) in the montane wet 
ecosystem, and one in the Kula FR (about 50 individuals) in the montane 
mesic ecosystem (Wood 2006b, pp. 32-34; TNC 2007; Wood 2007, p. 14; 
HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 71). Diplazium molokaiense occurred 
historically in the dry cliff ecosystem on east Maui, and the lowland 
wet and dry cliff ecosystems on west Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). It was 
also found in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems on Lanai, and 
in the lowland mesic ecosystem on Molokai (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis (naenae), a perennial shrub or 
small tree in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from west 
Maui (Carr 1999b, pp. 304-305). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, D. plantaginea ssp. humilis was known from 2 
occurrences totaling 60 to 65 individuals on west Maui (68 FR 25934, 
May 14, 2003). Currently, D. plantaginea ssp. humilis is known from 1 
occurrence of 35 individuals in Iao Valley, in the wet cliff ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 72; Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.).
    Eugenia koolauensis (nioi), a perennial shrub or small tree in the 
myrtle family (Myrtaceae), is known from Oahu and Molokai (Wagner et 
al. 1999w, p. 960). At the time we designated critical habitat on 
Molokai and Oahu in 2003, this species was only known from 12 
occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 
2003). Currently, E. koolauensis is extant only on Oahu. This species 
was last seen on Molokai in 1920, in the lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Flueggea neowawraea (mehamehame) is a perennial tree in the family 
Euphorbiaceae. This species is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, 
and the island of Hawaii (Hayden 1999, pp. 620-621). At the time we 
designated critical habitat on those islands in 2003, there were 100 
occurrences on Kauai, 4 occurrences on Maui, 23 occurrences on Oahu, 
and 2 occurrences on the island of Hawaii (68 FR 9116, February 27, 
2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 
35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). Flueggea neowawraea 
was last observed at Waihii on Molokai in 1931 (HBMP 2008). Currently, 
two individuals of F. neowawraea are found on east Maui's southern 
flank of Haleakala at Auwahi, in the lowland dry ecosystem (PEPP 2009, 
p. 73; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.). Flueggea neowawraea was last 
observed on Molokai in 1931 at Waianui, in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
(HBMP 2008).
    Geranium arboreum (Hawaiian red-flowered geranium), a perennial 
shrub in the geranium family (Geraniaceae), is known from east Maui 
(Wagner et al. 1999e, p. 729). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 12 occurrences totaling 158 individuals (68 
FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, there are 5 occurrences totaling 
fewer than 30 individuals in east Maui's montane mesic and subalpine 
ecosystems. Historically, G. arboreum was also found in the montane dry 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009d, in litt.; Perlman 
2009g, in litt.; Wood 2009g, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; 
Welton 2010a, in litt.).
    Geranium multiflorum (nohoanu), a perennial shrub in the geranium 
family (Geraniaceae), is known from east Maui (Wagner et al. 1999e, pp. 
733-734). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 13 occurrences. Due to the inaccessibility of the plants, and the 
difficulty in determining the number of individuals (because of the 
plant's multi-branched form), the total number of individuals of this 
species was not known; however, it was assumed to not exceed 3,000 (68 
FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, G. multiflorum is found in nine 
occurrences on east Maui, from Koolau Gap to Kalapawili Ridge, in the 
subalpine, montane mesic, and montane wet ecosystems. It is estimated 
there may be as many as 500 to 1,000 individuals (Bily et al. 2003, pp. 
4-5; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 2009h, in litt.; Wood 2009h, in 
litt.; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.).
    Gouania hillebrandii (NCN), a perennial shrub in the buckthorn 
family (Rhamnaceae), is known from Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe 
(Wagner et al. 1999z, p. 1,095). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 1984 on Maui, there was one occurrence (49 FR 44753, 
November 9, 1984). Currently, on Molokai, there is 1 occurrence of 
about 50 individuals at Puu Kolekole in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
(USFWS 1990, pp. 4-10; TNC 2007; PEPP 2008, p. 61; Perlman 2008f, in 
litt.; Wood 2009i, in litt.). On west Maui, there are fewer than 1,000 
individuals in the lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.). This species was last observed on Lanai 
and Kahoolawe in the 1800s (HBMP 2008).
    Gouania vitifolia (NCN), a perennial climbing shrub or woody vine 
in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and the 
island of Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999z, p. 1,097). At the time we 
designated

[[Page 34519]]

critical habitat on Maui, Oahu, and Hawaii in 2003, G. vitifolia was 
only known from two occurrences on Oahu and one occurrence on the 
island of Hawaii (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 
2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). Currently, botanists are searching 
potentially suitable habitat in the wet cliff ecosystem on west Maui 
where G. vitifolia was last seen in the 1800s (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010z, in litt.).
    Hesperomannia arborescens (NCN), a perennial shrubby tree in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and 
Maui (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 325). At the time we designated critical 
habitat on Molokai and Oahu in 2003, H. arborescens was known from 1 
occurrence on Molokai, 4 occurrences on west Maui, and 36 occurrences 
on Oahu (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 
35950, June 17, 2003). However, no critical habitat was designated for 
this species on Maui in 2003 (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, 
there are five or six occurrences on Molokai and Maui totaling 122 to 
125 individuals. On Molokai, there are 30 individuals between Wailau 
and Pelekunu in the wet cliff ecosystem. Historically, this species was 
also reported from the montane wet ecosystem (HBMP 2008). On west Maui, 
4 or 5 occurrences totaling 92 to 95 individuals are found in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems, in Honokohau (30 individuals), 
Waihee (approximately 60 individuals), Kapilau Ridge (1 individual), 
and Lanilili (1 individual). There is some question regarding the 
identification of three individuals in Iao Valley (HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.). This species has not been observed since 
1940 on Lanai, in the wet cliff ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The 
results of a recent research study indicate that the plants on Oahu may 
be genetically distinct from plants on Molokai and Lanai (Ching-Harbin 
2003, p. 81).
    Hesperomannia arbuscula (NCN), a tree or shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is known from Oahu and west Maui (Wagner et al. 
1999m, p. 325). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
eight occurrences were found on west Maui, and six occurrences were 
known from Oahu (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 
2003). Currently, on west Maui, there are three individuals in Iao 
Valley, in the lowland wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 
2010aa, in litt.). This species was last observed in the 1990s in the 
wet cliff, dry cliff, and lowland dry ecosystems on west Maui (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus (kokio keokeo), a tree in the 
mallow family (Malvaceae), is endemic to east Molokai (Bates 1999, pp. 
882-883). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
subspecies was known from three occurrences on east Molokai (68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, H. arnottianus ssp. immaculatus is 
found in 5 occurrences, totaling fewer than 100 individuals, from 
Waiehu to Papalaua in the coastal and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; NTBG 2009j; Perlman 2002b, in litt.; Wood 2009j, in litt.; 
Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.).
    Hibiscus brackenridgei (mao hau hele) is a perennial shrub or small 
tree in the mallow family (Malvaceae). This species is known from the 
islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Hawaii, and possibly 
Kahoolawe. There are three subspecies: H. brackenridgei ssp. 
brackenridgei (Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii), H. brackenridgei ssp. 
mokuleianus (Kauai and Oahu), and H. brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana 
(Molokai and Oahu) (Wilson 1993, p. 278; Bates 1999, pp. 885-886). At 
the time we designated critical habitat on Molokai, Maui, Oahu, and 
Hawaii in 2003, H. brackenridgei ssp. brackenridgei was known from 2 
occurrences on Lanai, 5 occurrences on Maui, and 4 occurrences on 
Hawaii, and H. brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus was known from 5 
occurrences totaling fewer than 206 individuals on Oahu. Hibiscus 
brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana was reported from one occurrence on Oahu 
and had not been seen on Molokai since 1920 (68 FR 12982, March 18, 
2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 
39624, July 2, 2003). No critical habitat was designated for this 
species on Lanai in 2003 (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). Currently, H. 
brackenridgei ssp. brackenridgei is extant on the islands of Lanai, 
Maui, and Hawaii. On Lanai, there are two individuals within fenced 
exclosures on Keomuku Road, and one individual within a fenced 
exclosure at Kaena; both exclosures are in the lowland dry ecosystem. 
Historically, this subspecies was also known from Lanai's coastal 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; Oppenheimer 2010t, in litt.). On west Maui, there 
are a few individuals in Kaonohue Gulch in the lowland dry ecosystem. 
On east Maui, there is 1 occurrence of about 10 individuals in a small 
gulch downslope from the historical location at Keokea, in the lowland 
dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; PEPP 2008, pp. 64-65; PEPP 2009, pp. 76-78; 
Oppenheimer 2010t, in litt.; 2010u, in litt.; 2010bb, in litt). 
Historically, on Molokai, Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana was 
found in the coastal ecosystem at Kihaapilani (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Huperzia mannii (wawaeiole), is a fern ally in the hanging fir-moss 
family (Lycopodiaceae) that is typically epiphytic on native plants 
such as Metrosideros polymorpha or Acacia koa. This species is known 
from Kauai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii (Palmer 2003, p. 256). At 
the time we designated critical habitat on Kauai and Maui in 2003, this 
species was known from Maui and the island of Hawaii (68 FR 25934, May 
14, 2003). No critical habitat was designated for this species on 
Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). Currently, on Maui there 
are 6 occurrences totaling 97 to 100 individuals. On west Maui, 14 to 
17 individuals of H. mannii occur in the Lihau section of the West Maui 
Natural Area Reserve, in the montane mesic ecosystem. This species also 
occurred historically in the lowland wet and montane wet ecosystems 
(HBMP 2008). On east Maui, 2 individuals are reported north of Waikamoi 
Preserve at Puuokakae and Opana Gulch, in the montane wet ecosystem; 10 
individuals occur at Kipahulu in the lowland wet ecosystem; 
approximately 40 individuals occur at Cable Ridge in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem; approximately 30 individuals occur at Kaapahu in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem; and 1 individual was observed at Manawainui (Kipahulu 
FR) in the montane mesic ecosystem (Haleakala National Park 2004, pp. 
5-7; Haleakala National Park 2006, p. 3; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 
2009i, in litt., 2009j, in litt.; Wood 2009k, in litt.; Welton and Haus 
2008, pp. 12-13; Welton 2010a, in litt.).
    Ischaemum byrone (Hilo ischaemum), a perennial in the grass family 
(Poaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, east Maui and the island 
of Hawaii (O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,556-1,557). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, I. byrone was known from two occurrences on 
Kauai, two occurrences on Molokai, six occurrences on Maui, and six 
occurrences on Hawaii Island (68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Currently, I. byrone is known from six or more occurrences on 
Molokai and Maui, totaling as many as several thousand individuals. On 
Molokai, I. byrone is relatively common in the coastal ecosystem from 
Wailau to Waiehu, and there are an estimated 200 individuals (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009e, in litt.). On east

[[Page 34520]]

Maui, there are an unknown number of individuals at Pauwalu Point; 20 
individuals in scattered patches at Mokuhuki islet; many individuals at 
Keawaiki Bay; and an unknown number of individuals on the shoreline at 
Kalahu Point, and at Waiohonu Stream outlet and Muolea Point, all in 
the coastal ecosystem. These occurrences may total several thousands of 
individuals, depending on rainfall (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 
2010b, in litt.).
    Isodendrion pyrifolium (wahine noho kula), a perennial shrub in the 
violet family (Violaceae), is known from Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, 
Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999aa, p. 1,331). At the time we 
designated critical habitat on Molokai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, I. 
pyrifolium was known from a single occurrence on the island of Hawaii 
(68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 FR 39624, 
July 2, 2003). Currently, there are no extant occurrences on Lanai, 
Molokai, or Maui. Historically, I. pyrifolium was found on Molokai in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem, and on west Maui in the lowland wet, dry 
cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems. We have no habitat information for the 
historical occurrences on Lanai (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, 
p.103).
    Kadua cordata ssp. remyi (kopa), which is currently listed as 
Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyi and for which we are proposing a 
taxonomic revision in this rule to Kadua cordata ssp. remyi, is a 
perennial subshrub in the coffee family (Rubiaceae), and is known from 
Lanai (Wagner et al. 1999a, pp. 1,150-1,152). In 2003, this subspecies 
was known from eight individuals; however, no critical habitat was 
designated for this subspecies on Lanai (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). 
Currently, two wild and three out-planted individuals are reported from 
Kaiholena-Hulopoe ridge, in the lowland wet ecosystem. Historically, 
this species also occurred in the lowland mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, pp. 5, 82; Oppenheimer 2010cc, in litt.).
    Kadua coriacea (kioele), which is currently listed as Hedyotis 
coriacea but for which we proposed a taxonomic revision to Kadua 
coriacea on August 2, 2011, at 76 FR 46362, is a perennial shrub in the 
coffee family (Rubiaceae), and is known from Oahu, Maui, and the island 
of Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999a, p. 1,141). At the time we designated 
critical habitat on Maui and Oahu in 2003, this species was known from 
one individual in the lowland dry ecosystem at Lihau, on west Maui, and 
four occurrences on the island of Hawaii (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 
FR 35950, June 17, 2003). However, no critical habitat was designated 
for this species on Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 39264, July 2, 2003). In 
2008, the only known individual on Maui was burned during a wildfire 
and died (PEPP 2008, p. 67).
    Kadua laxiflora (pilo), which is currently listed as Hedyotis 
mannii and for which we are proposing a taxonomic revision to Kadua 
laxiflora in this rule, is a perennial subshrub in the coffee family 
(Rubiaceae), and is known from Molokai, Lanai, and west Maui (Wagner et 
al. 1999a, p. 1,148). At the time we designated critical habitat on 
Maui in 2003, this species was known from a total of five occurrences 
on Lanai (two occurrences), Molokai (one occurrence), and west Maui 
(two occurrences) (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 
2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). However, no critical habitat was 
designated for this species on Lanai or Molokai in 2003 (68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, on Lanai, 
there are two individuals at Hauola Gulch in the montane wet ecosystem. 
There are historical reports from the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and 
wet cliff ecosystems on this island. On west Maui, there are four 
individuals at Kauaula Valley, in the wet cliff ecosystem. 
Historically, this species was also reported from the lowland wet and 
dry cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009f, in litt.; 
PEPP 2009, pp. 3, 14, 24, 82-83; Perlman 2008g, in litt.;) There are no 
extant individuals on Molokai, although there are historical reports 
from the lowland mesic and montane mesic ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Kanaloa kahoolawensis (kohe malama malama o kanaloa), a perennial 
shrub in the pea family (Fabaceae), occurs only on Kahoolawe (Lorence 
and Wood 1994, p. 137). Soil cores suggest K. kahoolawensis was quite 
widespread in lowland dry areas throughout the main Hawaiian Islands 
during the early Pleistocene (Burney et al. 2001, p. 632; Athens 2002, 
p. 74). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, K. 
kahoolawensis was known from two individuals on the Aleale sea stack on 
the south central coast of Kahoolawe (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). 
Currently, K. kahoolawensis is known from the same location with one 
surviving individual, in the coastal ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
NTBG 2008).
    Kokia cookei (Cooke's kokio), a small tree in the mallow family 
(Malvaceae), is known from Molokai, historically in the lowland dry 
ecosystem (Bates 1999, p. 890; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). At the time K. 
cookei was listed in 1979, there were no individuals remaining in the 
wild, and one individual in an arboretum on Oahu, and no critical 
habitat was designated for this species on Molokai (44 FR 62470, 
October 30, 1979; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, one 
individual is in cultivation at Waimea Arboretum, and there are 
propagules at the Volcano Rare Plant Facility, Lyon Arboretum, Amy 
Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden, Leeward Community College, Hoolawa 
Farms, and Maui Nui Botanical Garden (Seidman 2007, in litt.; Orr 2007, 
in litt.).
    Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis (kamakahala), a perennial shrub 
or small tree in the logania family (Loganiaceae), is known from Lanai 
(Wagner et al. 1999z, pp. 861-862). In 2003, this variety was known 
from one occurrence totaling three to eight individuals along the 
summit of Lanaihale; however, no critical habitat was designated for 
this species on Lanai (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). Currently, L. 
tinifolia var. lanaiensis is found in one occurrence of at least five 
individuals in the head waters of Awehi Gulch on the southeastern end 
of the summit ridge of Lanaihale, in the wet cliff ecosystem. This 
variety was historically also found in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, 
and montane wet ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010t, in 
litt.; Oppenheimer 2010d, in litt.).
    Labordia triflora (kamakahala), a perennial shrub or small tree in 
the logania family (Loganiaceae), is known from east Molokai (Wagner et 
al. 1999z, p. 423). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was known from 10 individuals (68 FR 12982, March 18, 
2003). Currently, 4 occurrences totaling 20 individuals are reported 
from Kua, Wawaia, Kumueli, and Manawai Gulch, in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; PEPP 2007, p. 48; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 85).
    Lysimachia lydgatei (NCN), a shrub in the primrose family 
(Primulaceae), is known from west Maui (Wagner et al. 1999bb, p. 
1,082). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
four occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, there are 2 
occurrences totaling approximately 30 individuals. Both occurrences are 
found at Puehuehunui, in the montane mesic and wet cliff ecosystems 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010dd, in litt.; Perlman 1997, in 
litt.; Wood 2009l, in litt.). This species is also historically known 
from the lowland dry ecosystem on west Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lysimachia maxima (NCN), a perennial shrub in the primrose family 
(Primulaceae), is known from Molokai

[[Page 34521]]

(Wagner et al. 1999bb, p. 1,083). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from one occurrence (68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, L. maxima is known from 2 
occurrences totaling 28 individuals on east Molokai. There are 20 
individuals near Ohialele along the Pelekunu rim, and 8 individuals in 
2 distinct patches in east Kawela Gulch, in the lowland wet and montane 
wet ecosystems (PEPP 2007, p. 48; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 
85).
    Marsilea villosa (ihi ihi), a perennial fern in the marsilea family 
(Marsileaceae), is known from Niihau, Oahu, and Molokai (Palmer 2003, 
pp. 180-182). At the time we designated critical habitat on Oahu in 
2003, this species was found in four occurrences on Molokai, and in 
five occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 35950, 
June 17, 2003). No critical habitat was designated for this species on 
Molokai in 2003 (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, M. villosa is 
known from eight occurrences on Molokai, totaling possibly thousands of 
individuals in areas that flood periodically, such as small depressions 
and flood plains with clay soils. There is one small occurrence at 
Kamakaipo, north of Laau Point, and seven occurrences between Kaa and 
Ilio Point, covering areas from 20 sq ft (6 sq m) to over 2 ac (0.8 
ha), all in the coastal ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Bakutis 2009b, 
in litt.; Chau 2010, in litt.; Garnett 2010b in litt.; Oppenheimer 
2010u, in litt.; Perlman 2006b, in litt.; Wood 2009m, in litt.).
    Melanthera kamolensis (nehe), which is currently listed as 
Lipochaeta kamolensis and for which we are proposing a taxonomic 
revision to Melanthera kamolensis in this rule, is a perennial herb in 
the sunflower family (Asteraceae), and is known from east Maui (Wagner 
et al. 1990a, p. 337). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from one occurrence (68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003). Currently, a single occurrence of M. kamolensis is found in 
Kamole Gulch, totaling between 30 and 40 individuals, in the lowland 
dry ecosystem. A second occurrence just west of Kamole appears to be a 
hybrid swarm of M. kamolensis and M. rockii, with approximately 100 
individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Medieros 2010, in litt.).
    Melicope adscendens (alani), a perennial sprawling shrub in the rue 
family (Rutaceae), is known from Maui (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1,183). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 16 
occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, M. adscendens is 
known from 2 occurrences totaling 33 individuals within the Auwahi I 
and Auwahi II fenced exclosures, in the lowland dry and montane mesic 
ecosystems on east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 85; Buckman 
2010, in litt.).
    Melicope balloui (alani), perennial tree or shrub in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is known from east Maui (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,183-
1,184). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
3 occurrences totaling 50 individuals (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). 
Currently, there are approximately 50 individuals near Palikea Stream 
in Kipahulu Valley, in the lowland wet ecosystem, and a few individuals 
at Puuokakae in the montane wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Wood 
2009n, in litt.).
    Melicope knudsenii (alani), a perennial tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is known from Kauai and Maui (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,192-
1,193). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
10 occurrences on Kauai and 4 occurrences on Maui (68 FR 9116, February 
27, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, on east Maui, there 
are two individuals at Auwahi, in the montane dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.).
    Melicope mucronulata (alani), a perennial tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is known from Molokai and east Maui (Stone et al. 1999, p. 
1,196). At the time we designated critical habitat on Molokai and Maui 
in 2003, there were two occurrences on Molokai and two occurrences on 
east Maui (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). 
Currently, there are two occurrences on Molokai, one individual at 
Kupaia Gulch, and three individuals at Onini Gulch, in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2008, p. 69; PEPP 2009, p. 
86). This species was historically also found in the montane mesic 
ecosystem on Molokai (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The occurrence status of M. 
mucronulata in the lowland dry and montane dry ecosystems on east Maui 
is unknown.
    Melicope munroi (alani), a perennial shrub in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is known from Lanai and Molokai (Stone et al. 1999, p. 
1,196). In 2003, there were two occurrences on Lanai; however, no 
critical habitat was designated for this species on Lanai or Molokai 
(68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, 
on Lanai, M. munroi is known from at least 2 occurrences of fewer than 
40 individuals on the Lanaihale summit and the ridge of Waialala Gulch, 
in the montane wet and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010t, in litt.). This species has not been seen on Molokai 
since 1910, where it was last observed in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
(68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003).
    Melicope ovalis (alani), a perennial tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is known from east Maui (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1,198). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were two 
occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, there are 
approximately 50 individuals in 4 occurrences in the lowland wet 
ecosystem in Keanae Valley, and in the montane wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems at Kipahulu Valley and Palikea Stream (TNC 2007; Bily et al. 
2008 p. 45; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt.; Welton 2010a, in 
litt.; Wood 2009o, in litt.).
    Melicope reflexa (alani), a sprawling shrub in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is endemic to east Molokai (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1,203). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were three 
occurrences (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, there are two 
occurrences totaling at least six individuals. There are at least 5 
individuals at Puuohelo and one individual at Puniuohua in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010ee, in litt.). 
Historically, this species was also found in the lowland mesic and 
montane wet ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010u, in 
litt.; Wood 2010b, in litt.).
    Neraudia sericea (NCN), a perennial shrub in the nettle family 
(Urticaceae), is known from Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe (Wagner 
et al. 1999cc, p. 1,304). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, N. sericea was known from Molokai and Maui (68 FR 12982, March 
18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, this species is found 
only on east Maui at Kahikinui, where there are fewer than five 
individuals in the montane mesic ecosystem. This species has not been 
observed in the lowland dry ecosystem on east Maui since the early 
1900s. Historically, N. sericea was found in the lowland dry and dry 
cliff ecosystems on Lanai, the lowland mesic and montane mesic 
ecosystems on Molokai, the lowland dry and dry cliff ecosystems on west 
Maui, and the lowland dry ecosystem on Kahoolawe (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Medieros 2010, in litt.).
    Nototrichium humile (kului), a trailing shrub in the amaranth 
family (Amaranthaceae), is known from Oahu and east Maui (Wagner et al. 
1999dd, pp. 193-194). At the time we designated critical habitat on 
Maui and Oahu in

[[Page 34522]]

2003, N. humile was only known from 25 occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 
25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). This species has not 
been seen on Maui since 1976, when one individual was reported from the 
lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Peucedanum sandwicense (makou), a perennial herb in the parsley 
family (Apiaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and 
Keopuka islet off the coast of east Maui (Constance and Affolter 1999, 
p. 208). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, P. 
sandwicense was known from 15 occurrences on Kauai, 5 occurrences on 
Molokai, 3 occurrences on Maui, and 4 occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 9116, 
February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). Currently, P. sandwicense is known 
from 6 occurrences totaling over 45 individuals on Molokai and east 
Maui. On Molokai, there are 3 occurrences totaling 32 to 37 
individuals, at Mokapu islet (25 individuals), Lepau Point (2 
individuals), and near the top of the Kalaupapa Trail (5 to 10 
individuals), all in the coastal ecosystem. There is a report of an 
individual found near the lowland wet ecosystem, but this plant has not 
been relocated since 1989 (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; NTBG 2010a, in litt.; 
2010b, in litt.). On east Maui, P. sandwicense occurs on Keopuku islet 
(15 individuals), Pauwalu Point (an unknown number of individuals), and 
Honolulu Nui (an unknown number of individuals), in the coastal 
ecosystem. Historically, this species was found on west Maui in the 
lowland wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; NTBG 2010a, in litt., 
2010b, in litt.).
    Phyllostegia hispida (NCN), a perennial vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is known from Molokai (Wagner et al. 1999h, pp. 817-818). 
Until an individual was rediscovered in 1996, P. hispida was thought to 
be extinct in the wild. This individual died in 1998, and P. hispida 
was thought to be extirpated, until another plant was found in 2005. 
Propagules were taken and propagated; however, the wild individual 
died. This sequence of events occurred again in 2006 and 2007 (74 FR 
11319, March 17, 2009). At the time we listed P. hispida in 2009, no 
critical habitat was designated for this species on Molokai (74 FR 
11319, March 17, 2009). Currently P. hispida is known from 4 
occurrences totaling 25 individuals in the montane wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems on Molokai (TNC 2007; PEPP 2009, pp. 7, 15, 90-93). 
Historically, this species also occurred in the lowland wet ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia mannii (NCN), a vine in the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
is known from Molokai and Maui (Wagner et al. 1999h, pp. 820-821). At 
the time we designated critical habitat on Molokai and Maui in 2003, 
this species was only known from one individual on east Molokai. It had 
not been observed on Maui for over 70 years (68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003). Currently, on Molokai, there are three individuals in 
Hanalilolilo, in the montane wet ecosystem. Historically, P. mannii 
occurred in Molokai's lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems, and the 
montane wet and montane mesic ecosystems on east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008; Perlman 2009k, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.; Wood 2010c, 
in litt.).
    Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi), a short-lived shrub or herb in 
the plantain family (Plantaginaceae), is known from the islands of 
Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999ee, pp. 
1,054-1,055). Wagner et al. recognize four varieties of P. princeps: P. 
princeps var. anomala (Kauai and Oahu), P. princeps var. laxiflora 
(Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii), P. princeps var. longibracteata (Kauai and 
Oahu), and P. princeps var. princeps (Oahu) (Wagner et al. 1999ee, pp. 
1,054-1,055). At the time we designated critical habitat on Kauai, 
Molokai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, there was one known occurrence of P. 
princeps var. laxiflora on Molokai and eight occurrences on Maui (68 FR 
9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 
14, 2003; 68 FR 35050, June 17, 2003). Currently, P. princeps var. 
laxiflora is known from 6 occurrences totaling approximately 70 
individuals on Maui (Oppenheimer 2010a, in litt.). On east Maui, there 
are 3 occurrences totaling 41 to 46 individuals in the dry cliff and 
wet cliff ecosystems, at Waikau (1 individual), Kaupo Gap (about 30 
individuals), and Palikea (10 to 15 individuals). On west Maui, there 
are 3 occurrences totaling 15 individuals in the wet cliff ecosystem, 
on the rim of Kauaula Valley, at the headwaters of Nakalaloa Stream, 
and in Iao Valley (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009g, in litt.). 
On Molokai, this species was found in the lowland wet and montane mesic 
ecosystems as recently as 1987 (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010u, 
in litt.).
    Platanthera holochila (NCN), a perennial herb in the orchid family 
(Orchidaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Wagner et 
al. 1999ff, p. 1,474). At the time we designated critical habitat on 
Kauai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, there were two known occurrences on 
Kauai, one occurrence on Molokai, and six occurrences on Maui (68 FR 
9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). No critical 
habitat was designated for this species on Molokai in 2003 (68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, there are 4 known occurrences 
totaling 44 individuals on Molokai and west Maui. On Molokai, there is 
1 occurrence at Hanalilolilo totaling 24 individuals in the montane wet 
ecosystem. There are 3 occurrences on west Maui, at Waihee Valley in 
the wet cliff ecosystem (12 individuals), Waihee Valley in the wet 
cliff ecosystem (6 individuals), and Pohakea Gulch in the montane wet 
ecosystem (2 individuals). Historically, this species was also found in 
the montane wet ecosystem on east Maui (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.).
    Portulaca sclerocarpa (poe), a perennial herb in the purslane 
family (Portulacaceae), is known from a single collection from Poopoo 
islet off the south coast of Lanai, and the island of Hawaii (Wagner et 
al. 1999gg, p. 1,074). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, there was 1 known occurrence on Poopoo islet and 24 occurrences 
on Hawaii Island (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Currently, on Lanai, this species is only known from an unknown 
number of individuals in the coastal ecosystem on Poopoo islet (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Pteris lidgatei (NCN), a terrestrial fern in the maidenhair fern 
family (Adiantaceae), is known from Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Palmer 
2003, p. 229). At the time we designated critical habitat on Molokai, 
Maui, and Oahu in 2003, this species was known from two occurrences on 
Maui and nine occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 
25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). Currently, P. 
lidgatei is known from four occurrences totaling over nine individuals 
on Molokai and Maui. On Molokai, there are six to eight individuals in 
upper Kumueli Gulch in the montane wet ecosystem. Historically, this 
species was also found in Molokai's wet cliff ecosystem. On west Maui, 
P. lidgatei is known from a single individual at Kauaula Valley in the 
wet cliff ecosystem, an unknown number of individuals in both the upper 
Kauaula Valley in the lowland wet ecosystem and upper Kahakuloa Stream 
in the wet cliff ecosystem (PEPP 2007, pp. 54-55; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; 
PEPP 2009, p. 103; Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.; 2010u, in litt.).

[[Page 34523]]

    Remya mauiensis (Maui remya), a perennial shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is known from west Maui (Wagner et al. 1999m, p. 
353). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
five known occurrences totaling 21 individuals (68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003). Currently, R. mauiensis is found in 6 occurrences totaling 
approximately 500 individuals at Kauaula (lowland mesic ecosystem), 
Puehuehunui (lowland mesic and montane mesic ecosystems), Ukumehame 
(wet cliff ecosystem), Papalaua (montane mesic ecosystem), Pohakea 
(lowland dry ecosystem), and Manawainui (lowland dry ecosystem) (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010ff, in litt.). Historically, this 
species also occurred in Maui's lowland wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Sanicula purpurea (NCN), a perennial herb in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is known from bogs and surrounding wet forest on Oahu and 
west Maui (Constance and Affolter 1999, p. 210). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from seven 
occurrences on west Maui and five occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 25934, May 
14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). Currently, on west Maui, as many 
as 50 individuals are found in 4 known occurrences in bogs in the 
montane wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010gg, in 
litt.; Perlman 2007d, in litt.; Wood 2010d, in litt.).
    Schenkia sebaeoides (awiwi), which is currently listed as 
Centaurium sebaeoides and for which we are proposing a taxonomic 
revision to Schenkia sebaeoides in this rule, is an annual herb in the 
gentian family (Gentianaceae) known from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Lanai, and west Maui (Wagner et al. 1990b, p. 725; 68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003). At the time we designated critical habitat on Kauai, 
Molokai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, the species was reported from one 
occurrence on Lanai, three occurrences on Kauai, two occurrences on 
Molokai, three occurrences on Maui, and two occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 
1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, 
March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). 
No critical habitat was designated for this species on Lanai in 2003 
(68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). Currently, on Lanai, Molokai, and Maui, 
there are at least eight occurrences, with the highest number of 
individuals on Molokai. The annual number of individuals on each island 
varies widely depending upon rainfall (HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2009i, in 
litt.). On Lanai, there is 1 occurrence totaling between 20 and 30 
individuals, in the lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). On 
Molokai, there are 2 or more occurrences containing thousands of 
individuals in the coastal ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). On west 
Maui, there are 5 occurrences, totaling several thousand individuals, 
along the north coast from Haewa Point to Puu Kahulanapa, in the 
coastal ecosystem (Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.).
    Schiedea haleakalensis (NCN), perennial shrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from east Maui (Wagner et al. 1999j, pp. 
512-514). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from two occurrences in Haleakala National Park (68 
FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Currently, S. haleakalensis is found in 2 
occurrences totaling fewer than 50 individuals, at Leleiwi Pali and 
along the cliffs of Kaupo Gap in the subalpine and dry cliff 
ecosystems, within Haleakala National Park (Welton 2010a, in litt.).
    Schiedea lydgatei (NCN), a perennial subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from east Molokai (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 
516). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species 
was known from four occurrences totaling more than 1,000 individuals 
(68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, there are over 200 
individuals between Kawela and Makolelau gulches, in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 109; Oppenheimer 2010u, 
in litt.).
    Schiedea sarmentosa (NCN), a perennial herb in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to Molokai (Wagner et al. 2005b, pp. 116-
119). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species 
was known from five occurrences with an estimated total of over 1,000 
individuals (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, S. sarmentosa is 
known from three occurrences from Onini Gulch to Makolelau, with as 
many as several thousand individuals, in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010hh, in litt.; Perlman 2009l, in 
litt.; Perlman 2010, in litt.; Wood 2010e, in litt.).
    Sesbania tomentosa (ohai), a perennial shrub or small tree in the 
pea family (Fabaceae), is known from Nihoa and Necker islands in the 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and all of the main Hawaiian 
Islands (Geesink et al. 1999, pp. 704-705). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, S. tomentosa was known from 1 occurrence on 
Kauai, 9 occurrences on Molokai, 7 occurrences on Maui, several 
thousand individuals on Nihoa Island, ``in great abundance'' on Necker 
Island, 3 occurrences on Oahu, and 31 occurrences on Hawaii Island (68 
FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, 
May 14, 2003; 68 FR 28054, May 22, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003; 68 
FR 39624, July 2, 2003). Currently, S. tomentosa is known from Kauai, 
Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Nihoa and Necker, Oahu, and Hawaii. The 
number of individuals at any one location varies widely, depending on 
rainfall (TNC 2007; NTBG 2009k). The estimated number of individuals in 
the NWHI (Nihoa and Necker) is approximately 5,500 individuals, and in 
the main Hawaiian Islands 1,600 to 2,000 individuals, totaling as many 
as 7,500 individuals in 20 occurrences. Currently, on Molokai, Maui, 
and Kahoolawe, there are approximately 10 known occurrences, totaling 
between 1,000 and 2,000 individuals. On Molokai, there is one 
occurrence on the northwest shore from Moomomi to Nenehanaupo, totaling 
about 35 individuals, and about 1,000 or more individuals on the south 
coast scattered from Kamiloloa to the Kawela plain, in the coastal and 
lowland dry ecosystems. Historically, this species also occurred in 
Molokai's lowland mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; Cole 2008, in litt.; NTBG 
2009k). On west Maui, there are 3 occurrences totaling 80 individuals 
from Nakalele Point to Mokolea Point, in the coastal ecosystem. 
Historically, this species also occurred in the lowland dry ecosystem 
on west Maui (TNC 2007; NTBG 2009k; Oppenheimer 2009h, in litt.). On 
east Maui, there is one occurrence of 10 individuals in the lowland dry 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; Cole 2008, in litt.; Oppenheimer 2009h, in litt.; 
Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.). On Kahoolawe, about 300 individuals occur 
in the coastal ecosystem on Puu Koae islet. Sesbania tomentosa has not 
been seen in the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems on Lanai for over 
50 years (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Silene alexandri (NCN), a perennial subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Molokai (Wagner et al. 1999j, p. 522). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, S. alexandri was 
extirpated in the wild, but individuals remained in cultivation (68 FR 
12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, S. alexandri is known from 1 
occurrence of 25 individuals east of Kawela Gulch, in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 111; Oppenheimer 2010u, 
in litt.).
    Silene lanceolata (NCN), a perennial subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from

[[Page 34524]]

Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and the island of Hawaii (Wagner et al. 
1999j, p. 523). At the time we designated critical habitat on Molokai 
and Oahu in 2003, S. lanceolata was known from Molokai, Oahu, and the 
island of Hawaii (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 
2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). However, no critical habitat was 
designated for this species on Lanai, Kauai, or Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 
1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 
2, 2003). Currently, on Molokai, there are 2 occurrences totaling 
approximately 200 individuals at Kapuaokoolau and along cliffs between 
Kawela and Makolelau, in the lowland mesic ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008; Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.). This species has not been observed 
in the lowland dry ecosystem on Lanai since the 1930s (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Solanum incompletum (popolo ku mai), a perennial shrub in the 
nightshade family (Solanaceae), is reported from Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, 
Maui, and the island of Hawaii (Symon 1999, pp. 1,270-1,271). At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was only 
known from one occurrence on the island of Hawaii (68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Currently, there are no known occurrences on Lanai, Molokai, or 
Maui (HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 112). Historically, this species 
occurred in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems on 
Lanai, and in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and subalpine ecosystems 
on east Maui. It is unclear when and where this plant was collected on 
Molokai (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Spermolepis hawaiiensis (NCN), an annual herb in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and the island 
of Hawaii (Constance and Affolter 1999, p. 212). At the time we 
designated critical habitat on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Oahu in 2003, 
S. hawaiiensis was known from 3 occurrences on Lanai, 2 occurrences on 
Kauai, 1 occurrence on Molokai, 5 occurrences on Maui, 6 occurrences on 
Oahu, and 30 occurrences on Hawaii Island (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 
68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 
25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 35950, June 17, 2003). No critical habitat 
was designated for this species on Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Currently, on Lanai, Molokai, and Maui, there are 9 occurrences 
totaling a few thousand individuals. On Lanai, there are 3 occurrences 
at Makiki Ridge, Kahewai Gulch to Puhialelu Ridge, and Kapoho Gulch, 
totaling between 500 and 600 individuals in the lowland dry and lowland 
mesic ecosystems. On Molokai, there are thousands of individuals at 
Makolelau and Kapuaokoolau, in the lowland mesic and montane mesic 
ecosystems (Perlman 2007e, in litt.; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; HBMP 2010; 
Oppenheimer 2010u, in litt.). On east Maui, there is one occurrence at 
Kanaio, with possibly 1,000 individuals, in the lowland dry ecosystem. 
On west Maui, there are at least 3 occurrences that may total over 
1,000 individuals at Puu Hipa, Olowalu, and Ukumehame in the lowland 
dry ecosystem. A recent (2010) fire at Olowalu burned at least 50 
individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010b, in litt. 2010i, in 
litt.).
    Stenogyne bifida (NCN), a climbing perennial herb in the mint 
family (Lamiaceae), is known from Molokai (Weller and Sakai 1999, p. 
835). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
five known occurrences (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). Currently, S. 
bifida is known from one individual on the east fork of Kawela Gulch, 
in the montane wet ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, p. 113; 
Tangalin 2009, in litt.). The status of the plants in the montane mesic 
ecosystem, farther west, is unknown (Oppenheimer 2009i, in litt.). 
Historically, this species was also found in Molokai's lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, montane mesic, and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Tetramolopium capillare (pamakani), a perennial sprawling shrub in 
the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from west Maui (Lowrey 
1999, p. 363). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from five occurrences (68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). 
Although Tetramolopium capillare was last observed in the wet cliff 
(Kauaula) and dry cliff (Ukumehame) ecosystems in 2001, and in the 
lowland dry ecosystem (Ukumehame) in 1995, these plants are no longer 
extant (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010i, in litt.). Currently, 
there are no known occurrences on west Maui (PEPP 2009, p. 113).
    Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (NCN), a perennial shrub in 
the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from Oahu and Lanai (Lowrey 
1999, p. 376). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
subspecies was only known from five occurrences on Oahu (68 FR 35950, 
June 17, 2003). Currently, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum is only found on 
Oahu. This subspecies was last observed in the lowland dry ecosystem on 
Lanai in the early 1900s (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 2009, pp. 113-114).
    Tetramolopium remyi (NCN), a perennial shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is known from Lanai and west Maui (Lowrey 1999, 
pp. 367-368). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
was one occurrence on Lanai totaling approximately 150 individuals, and 
there were an unknown number of individuals in the Kuia area on west 
Maui (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). 
Currently, there is one known individual on Lanai at Awehi, in the 
lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Oppenheimer 2010ii, in 
litt.; Perlman 2008h, in litt.). There are an unknown number of 
individuals in the Kuia area on west Maui in the lowland dry ecosystem 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Tetramolopium rockii (NCN), a perennial shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the island of Molokai (Lowrey 1999, 
p. 368). There are two varieties: T. rockii var. calcisabulorum and T. 
rockii var. rockii (Lowrey 1999, p. 368). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, T. rockii was known from four occurrences 
totaling thousands of individuals (68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003). 
Tetramolopium rockii var. calcisabulorum was reported from Kaiehu Point 
to Kapalauoa, intergrading with var. rockii. Tetramolopium rockii var. 
rockii occurred from Kalawao to Kahinaakalani, Kaiehu point to 
Kapalauoa, and Moomomi to Kahinaakalani. Currently, numbers fluctuate 
considerably from year to year but remain in the thousands, and 
occurrences are found along the northwest shore of Molokai, from Kaa 
Gulch to Kahinaakalani, and on Kalaupapa peninsula from Alau to 
Makalii, in the coastal ecosystem (Canfield 1990, p. 20; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008; NTBG 2009l; Perlman 2006c, in litt.; Wood 2010f, in litt.).
    Vigna o-wahuensis (NCN), a twining perennial herb in the pea family 
(Fabaceae), is known from all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Kauai 
(Geesink et al. 1999, pp. 720-721). At the time we designated critical 
habitat on Maui, Oahu, and Hawaii in 2003, V. o-wahuensis was known 
from 6 occurrences totaling approximately 30 individuals on Lanai, 
Molokai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, and the island of Hawaii (68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 
2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). However, no critical habitat was 
designated for this species on Lanai or Molokai in 2003 (68 FR 1220, 
January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003).

[[Page 34525]]

Currently, there are 22 individuals in 3 occurrences on Molokai, Maui, 
and Kahoolawe. On Molokai, 2 occurrences totaling 12 individuals are 
known from Makakupaia and Makolelau, in the lowland mesic ecosystem. On 
east Maui, there are approximately 10 individuals at Kanaio Beach in 
the coastal ecosystem. On Kahoolawe, there is one individual in the 
lowland dry ecosystem. Historically, V. o-wahuensis was found in the 
lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems on Lanai, and in the coastal 
ecosystem on Kahoolawe (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 2005, in litt.; 
Wood 2010g, in litt.).
    Viola lanaiensis (NCN), a perennial subshrub in the violet family 
(Violaceae), is known from Lanai (Wagner et al. 1999aa, pp. 1,334-
1,336). In 2003, there were two known occurrences totaling fewer than 
80 individuals; however, no critical habitat was designated for this 
species on Lanai (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003). Currently, 6 to11 
individuals are found within a fenced exclosure in Awehi Gulch, in the 
wet cliff ecosystem. Historically, this species was also reported in 
the montane wet and dry cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEPP 
2008, p. 84; PEPP 2009, p. 117).
    Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (ae), a perennial tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is known from Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and the island 
of Hawaii (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,214-1,215). At the time we 
designated critical habitat on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui in 2003, Z. 
hawaiiense was known from 3 occurrences on Kauai, 5 individuals on 
Molokai, 9 occurrences on Maui, and 186 occurrences on the island of 
Hawaii (68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 
FR 25934, May 14, 2003; 68 FR 39624, July 2, 2003). No critical habitat 
was designated for this species on Hawaii in 2003 (68 FR 39624, July 2, 
2003). Currently, on Molokai and Maui, this species is known from 5 or 
6 occurrences totaling 14 individuals. On Molokai, there are two mature 
individuals in the lowland wet ecosystem, one individual above Kamalo 
in the montane wet ecosystem, and one individual in Makolelau Gulch in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem. On west Maui, there are seven individuals 
at Puehuehunui in the montane mesic and lowland mesic ecosystems. On 
east Maui, at Auwahi, there are three individuals in the montane dry 
and lowland dry ecosystems. Historically, this species also occurred in 
Maui's subalpine and montane mesic ecosystems (Evans et al. 2003, pp. 
41, 47; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; Perlman 2001, in litt.; NTBG 2005; Wood 
2007, in litt.; PEPP 2009, pp. 22, 27, 119). Zanthoxylum hawaiiense was 
last seen on Lanai in the lowland wet ecosystem in 1947 (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).

Status of Two Hawaiian Forest Birds Since Listing

Kiwikiu
    The Maui parrotbill, or kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), is a 
small Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on the island of Maui, currently 
in the mid- to upper-elevation montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems 
(USFWS 2006, p. 2-79; TNC 2007). The Hawaiian honeycreepers are in the 
subfamily Drepanidinae of the finch family, Fringillidae (AOU 1998, p. 
673). The kiwikiu is most common in wet forests dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha trees and a few mesic areas dominated by M. 
polymorpha and Acacia koa trees with an intact, dense, diverse native 
understory and subcanopy of ferns, sedges, epiphytes, shrubs and small 
to medium trees (USFWS 2006, p. 2-79). In 1980, the number of kiwikiu 
was estimated by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) at 500  230 (95 percent confidence interval) birds with an average 
density of 10 birds per 0.39 sq mi (1 sq km) (Scott et al. 1986, p. 
115). Currently, the kiwikiu is found only on Haleakala on east Maui, 
in 12,355 ac (50 sq km) at elevations between 4,000 and 7,700 ft (1,200 
to 2,350 m) (USFWS 2006, p. 2-79). The kiwikiu is insectivorous and 
often feeds in a deliberate manner, using its massive hooked bill to 
dig, tear, crack, crush, and chisel the bark and softer woods on a 
variety of native shrubs and small- to medium-sized trees, especially 
Rubus hawaiensis (akala), Broussaisia arguta (kanawao), and M. 
polymorpha (USFWS 2006, p. 2-77). Kiwikiu also pluck and bite open 
fruits, especially B. arguta fruits, in search of insects, but do not 
eat the fruit itself (USFWS 2006, pp. 2-77-2-78). The open cup nest, 
composed mainly of lichens (Usnea sp.) and Leptecophylla tameiameiae 
(pukiawe) twigs, is built by the female an average of 40 ft (12 m) 
above the ground in a forked branch just under the outer canopy foliage 
(USFWS 2006, p. 2-78). Based on collections of subfossil bones, the 
current geographic range is much restricted compared to the known 
prehistorical range, which included mesic leeward forests and low 
elevations between 660 and 1,000 ft (200 to 300 m) on east Maui as well 
as Molokai (James and Olson 1991, p. 80; Olson and James 1991, pp. 14-
15; TNC 2007). Surveys from 1995 to 1997 at Hanawi, a study site 
located in the core of the species' range, showed that the kiwikiu 
occurred there at approximately the same density (40 birds per 0.39 sq 
mi (1 sq km)) as in 1980 (Simon et al. 2002, p. 477). However, 
subsequent surveys across the species' range have not conclusively 
shown that its densities are stable (Camp et al. 2009, p. 39).
Akohekohe
    The crested honeycreeper, or akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), is a small 
forest bird found only on the island of Maui, currently in the mid- to 
upper-elevation montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems (USFWS 2006, 
p. 2-139; TNC 2007). Like the kiwikiu, the akohekohe is also a Hawaiian 
honeycreeper in the subfamily Drepanidinae of the finch family, 
Fringillidae (AOU 1998, p. 678). The akohekohe is most common in the 
wet forest habitat described above for the kiwikiu, except that the 
lower limit of the akohekohe's elevational range is higher (roughly 
5,576 ft (1,700 m)), than the lower limit of the kiwikiu's elevational 
range (USFWS 2006, p. 2-139). In 1980, the number of akohekohe was 
estimated by the HFBS at 3,800  700 (95 percent confidence 
interval) individuals (Scott et al. 1986, p. 168). Currently the 
akohekohe is found only on Haleakala, east Maui, in 14,080 ac (58 sq 
km) at elevations between 5,000 and 6,900 ft (1,500 to 2,100 m) (USFWS 
2006, p. 2-140). The akohekohe is primarily nectarivorous, but also 
feeds on caterpillars, spiders, and dipterans (flies) (USFWS 2006, p. 
2-138). Nectar is primarily sought from flowers of Metrosideros 
polymorpha trees but also from several subcanopy tree and shrub species 
(USFWS 2006, p. 2-139). The open cup nest is built by the female an 
average 46 ft (14 m) above the ground in the terminal ends of branches 
below the canopy foliage of M. polymorpha trees (USFWS 2006, p. 2-139). 
Based on collections of subfossil bones, the current geographic range 
is much restricted compared to the known prehistorical range, which 
included dry leeward areas of east and west Maui, and Molokai (Berlin 
and VanGelder 1999, p. 3). The HFBS and subsequent surveys of the 
akohekohe range yielded densities of 81  10 birds per 0.39 
sq mi (1 sq km) in 1980, 98  11 birds per 0.39 sq mi (1 sq 
km) from 1992 to 1996, and 116  14 birds per 0.39 sq mi (1 
sq km) between 1997 and 2001 (Camp et al. 2009, p. 81; Gorresen et al. 
2009, pp. 123-124). Densities in the core of the species' range within 
the Hanawi Natural Area Reserve were 183  59 birds per 0.39 
sq mi (1 sq km) in 1988,

[[Page 34526]]

and 290  10 birds per 0.39 sq mi (1 sq km) from 1995 to 
1997 (Berlin and VanGelder 1999, p. 11). These results indicate that 
the species' rangewide and core densities have both increased and the 
current population may be larger than previously estimated (Gorresen et 
al. 2009, p. 124).

Methods

    As required by section 4(b) of the Act, we used the best scientific 
data available in determining those areas that contain the physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the 135 species, 
and for which designation of critical habitat is considered prudent, by 
identifying the occurrence data for each species and determining the 
ecosystems upon which they depend. This information was developed by 
using:
     The known locations of the 135 species, including site-
specific species information from the HBMP database (HBMP 2008), the 
TNC database (TNC 2007), and our own rare plant database;
     Species information from the plant database housed at 
NTBG;
     Maps of habitat essential to the recovery of Hawaiian 
plants, as determined by the Hawaii and Pacific Plant Recovery 
Coordinating Committee (HPPRCC 1998, 32 pp. + appendices);
     Recovery area as determined in the revised Recovery Plan 
for Hawaiian Forest Birds (USFWS 2006);
     Maps of important habitat for the recovery of plants 
protected under the Act (USFWS 1999, pp. F8-F11);
     The Nature Conservancy's Ecoregional Assessment of the 
Hawaiian High Islands (2006) and ecosystem maps (TNC 2007);
     Color mosaic 1:19,000 scale digital aerial photographs for 
the Hawaiian Islands (April to May 2005);
     Island-wide Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage 
(e.g., Gap Analysis Program (GAP) vegetation data of 2005);
     1:24,000 scale digital raster graphics of U.S. Geological 
Survey (USGS) topographic quadrangles;
     Geospatial data sets associated with parcel data from Maui 
County (includes Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe) (2008);
     Final critical habitat designations for Gouania 
hillebrandii and for listed plant species on the islands of Lanai, 
Molokai, Maui, and Kahoolawe (49 FR 44753, November 9, 1984; 68 FR 
1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 
14, 2003);
     Recent biological surveys and reports; and
     Discussions with qualified individuals familiar with these 
species and ecosystems.
    Based upon all of this data, we determined that one or more of the 
11 ecosystems described in this rule are currently occupied or were 
occupied at the time of listing by one or more of the 135 species 
addressed in this rule and contain the physical or biological features 
essential to the conservation of the species, or are currently not 
occupied by one or more of the 135 species but are areas and essential 
for the conservation of the species (coastal (TNC 2006a), lowland dry 
(TNC 2006b), lowland mesic (TNC 2006c), lowland wet (TNC 2006d), 
montane wet (TNC 2006e), montane mesic (TNC 2006f), montane dry (TNC 
2006g), subalpine (TNC 2006h), alpine (TNC 2006i), dry cliff (TNC 
2006j), and wet cliff (TNC 2006k).

Physical or Biological Features

    In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) and 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act and 
the regulations at 50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas within the 
geographical area occupied at the time of listing to propose as 
critical habitat, we consider the physical and biological features 
essential to the conservation of the species and which may require 
special management considerations or protection. These physical or 
biological features provide the essential life-history requirements of 
the species, and include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Space for individual and population growth and for normal 
behavior;
    (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or 
physiological requirements;
    (3) Cover or shelter;
    (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing (or development) of 
offspring, germination, or seed dispersal; and
    (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or are 
representative of the historical geographical and ecological 
distributions of a species.
    For plant species, ecosystems that provide appropriate seasonal 
wetland and dry land habitats, host species, pollinators, soil types, 
and associated plant communities are taken into consideration when 
determining the physical or biological features essential for a 
species.
    Under section 4(a)(3)(A)(ii) of the Act we may, as appropriate, 
revise a critical habitat designation. For the reasons described above, 
we are proposing to revise critical habitat for 85 plants from Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, based on new information received since the 
original designations and the need to designate unoccupied habitat to 
conserve the species. In addition, the recovery plans (Recovery Plan 
for Gouania hillebrandii (Rhamnaceae), July 1990; Lanai Plant Cluster 
Recovery Plan, September 1995; Recovery Plan for Marsilea villosa, 
April 1996; Recovery Plan for Molokai Plant Cluster, September 1996; 
Recovery Plan for the Maui Plant Cluster, July 1997; Molokai II: 
Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster, May 1998; 
Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants, July 1999; and Addendum to 
the Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants, September 2002) identify 
several actions needed to recover these species, including: (1) 
Protecting habitat and controlling threats; (2) expanding existing wild 
populations; (3) conducting essential research; (4) developing and 
maintaining monitoring plans; (5) reestablishing wild populations 
within the historic range; and (6) validating and revising recovery 
criteria. We have derived the specific physical and biological features 
required for each of the plant species from studies of the species' 
habitat, ecology, and life history. In addition, we have reevaluted the 
physical or biological feature for each of the 85 species based on 
ecosystem definitions using species information from the 1984 and 2003 
critical habitat designations, and new scientific information that has 
become available since that time.
    In 1984 and 2003, the physical or biological features for each 
plant species were defined on the basis of the habitat features of the 
areas actually occupied by the plants, which included plant community, 
associated native plant species, locale information (e.g., steep rocky 
cliffs, talus slopes, gulches, stream banks), and elevation (49 FR 
44753 November 9, 1984; 68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 
18, 2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). In this proposed rule, we are 
proposing critical habitat in areas occupied by the species at the time 
of listing as well as areas currently unoccupied by the species but 
determined to be essential for their conservation (i.e., areas 
necessary to bring the species to the point at which the measures 
provided under the Act are no longer necessary). The physical or 
biological features have now been more precisely identified for these 
85 plant species, and now include elevation, precipitation, substrate, 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory characteristics. Since 2003, we have 
found that many areas where these species are currently or recently 
reported from are marginal habitat and that the species occurs there 
due to

[[Page 34527]]

remoteness or inaccessibility to feral ungulates. Therefore, the 1984 
and 2003 critical habitat designations may not have included all of the 
unoccupied areas that are essential for the conservation of the 
species.
    When designating critical habitat in occupied areas, we focus on 
the essential physical or biological features that may be essential to 
the conservation of the species and which may require special 
management considerations or protections. In unoccupied habitat, we 
focus on whether the area is essential to the conservation of the 
species. We have determined that the physical or biological features 
identified in the original critical habitat designations for these 85 
plant species can be improved, based on new information that has become 
available. The currently proposed physical or biological features for 
occupied areas, in conjunction with the unoccupied areas needed to 
expand and reestablish wild populations within their historical range, 
provide a more accurate picture of the geographic areas needed for the 
recovery of each species. We believe this information will be helpful 
to Federal agencies and our other partners, as we collectively work to 
recover these imperiled species.
    Under the Act and its implementing regulations, we are required to 
identify the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the 135 species for which we are proposing critical 
habitat; this includes both new proposed designations and proposed 
revised designations. We identify these features in areas occupied at 
the time of listing, focusing on the features' primary constituent 
elements. We consider the primary constituent elements (PCEs) to be the 
elements of physical or biological features that provide for a species' 
life-history processes and are essential to the conservation of the 
species. The PCEs identified in this proposed rule take into 
consideration the ecosystems in which each species occurs and reflect a 
distribution that we believe is essential to achieving the species' 
recovery needs within those ecosystems.
    In this proposal, PCEs for each of the 135 species are defined 
based on those physical or biological features essential to support the 
successful functioning of the ecosystem upon which each species 
depends, and which may require special management considerations or 
protection. As the conservation of each species is dependent upon a 
functioning ecosystem to provide its fundamental life requirements, 
such as a certain soil type, minimum level of rainfall, or suitable 
native host plant, we consider the physical or biological features 
present in the ecosystems described in this rule to provide the 
necessary PCEs for each species in this proposal. The ecosystem's 
features collectively provide the suite of environmental conditions 
within each ecosystem essential to meeting the requirements of each 
species, including the appropriate microclimatic conditions for 
germination and growth of the plants (e.g., light availability, soil 
nutrients, hydrologic regime, temperature); maintenance of upland 
habitat to provide for the proper ecological functioning of forest 
elements for the three tree snails and the two forest birds; and, in 
all cases, space within the appropriate habitats for population growth 
and expansion, as well as to maintain the historical geographical and 
ecological distribution of each species. In many cases, due to our 
limited knowledge of the specific life-history requirements for the 
species that are little-studied and occur in remote and inaccessible 
areas, the more general description of the physical or biological 
features that provide for the successful function of the ecosystem that 
is essential to the conservation of the species represents the best, 
and in many cases, the only, scientific information available. 
Accordingly, for purposes of this proposed rule, the physical or 
biological features of a properly functioning ecosystem are, at least 
in part, the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the 135 species at issue here that occur in those 
ecosystems.
    Table 4 identifies the physical or biological features of a 
functioning ecosystem for each of the ecosystem types identified in 
this proposed rule, and each species identified in this rule requires 
the physical or biological features for each ecosystem in which that 
species occurs, as noted in Table 4. These physical or biological 
features provide the PCEs for the individual species in each ecosystem. 
The physical or biological features are defined here by elevation, 
annual levels of precipitation, substrate type and slope, and the 
characteristic native plant genera that are found in the canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory levels of the vegetative community where 
applicable. If further information is available indicating additional, 
specific life-history requirements for some species, PCEs relating to 
these requirements are described separately and are termed ``unique 
PCEs for species,'' which are also identified in Table 5. The PCEs for 
each species are therefore composed of the physical or biological 
features found in its functioning ecosystem(s) in combination with 
additional unique requirements, if any, as shown in Table 5. Note that 
the PCEs identified in Table 5 for each species are directly related to 
the physical or biological features presented in detail in Table 4; 
thus, both Tables 4 and 5 must be read together to fully describe all 
of the PCEs for each species.

                                               Table 4--Physical or Biological Features in Each Ecosystem
                                                           [Read In association With Table 5]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                  One or more of these associated native plant genera
            Ecosystem                  Elevation            Annual             Substrate     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                         precipitation                              Canopy             Subcanopy          Understory
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal \1\.....................  <980 ft (< 300 m).  <20 in (<50 cm)...  Well-drained,       Hibiscus,           Gossypium, Sida,    Eragrostis,
                                                                           calcareous, talus   Myoporum,           Vitex.              Jacquemontia,
                                                                           slopes; weathered   Santalum,                               Lyceum, Nama,
                                                                           clay soils;         Scaevola.                               Sesuvium,
                                                                           ephemeral pools;                                            Sporobolus,
                                                                           mudflats.                                                   Vigna.
Lowland Dry \2\.................  <3,300 ft (<1,000   <50 in (<130 cm)..  Weathered silty     Diospyros,          Chamaesyce,         Alyxia, Artemisia,
                                   m).                                     loams to stony      Myoporum,           Dodonaea,           Bidens,
                                                                           clay, rocky         Pleomele,           Leptecophylla,      Chenopodium,
                                                                           ledges, little-     Santalum,           Osteomeles,         Nephrolepis,
                                                                           weathered lava.     Sapindus.           Psydrax,            Peperomia,
                                                                                                                   Scaevola,           Sicyos.
                                                                                                                   Wikstroemia.

[[Page 34528]]

 
Lowland Mesic \3\...............  <3,300 ft (<1,000   50-75 in (130-190   Shallow soils,      Acacia, Diospyros,  Dodonaea,           Carex,
                                   m).                 cm).                little to no        Metrosideros,       Freycinetia,        Dicranopteris,
                                                                           herbaceous layer.   Myrsine,            Leptecophylla,      Diplazium,
                                                                                               Pouteria,           Melanthera,         Elaphoglossum,
                                                                                               Santalum.           Osteomeles,         Peperomia.
                                                                                                                   Pleomele, Psydrax.
Lowland Wet \4\.................  <3,300 ft (<1,000   >75 in (>190 cm)..  Clays; ashbeds;     Antidesma,          Cibotium,           Alyxia, Cyrtandra,
                                   m).                                     deep, well-         Metrosideros,       Claoxylon, Kadua,   Dicranopteris,
                                                                           drained soils;      Myrsine, Pisonia,   Melicope.           Diplazium,
                                                                           lowland bogs.       Psychotria.                             Machaerina,
                                                                                                                                       Microlepia.
Montane Wet \5\.................  3,300-6,500 ft      >75 in (>190 cm)..  Well-developed      Acacia,             Broussaisia,        Ferns, Carex,
                                   (1,000 -2,000 m).                       soils, montane      Charpentiera,       Cibotium, Eurya,    Coprosma,
                                                                           bogs.               Cheirodendron,      Ilex, Myrsine.      Leptecophylla,
                                                                                               Metrosideros.                           Oreobolus,
                                                                                                                                       Rhynchospora,
                                                                                                                                       Vaccinium.
Montane Mesic \6\...............  3,300-6,500 ft      50-75 in (130-190   Deep ash deposits,  Acacia, Ilex,       Alyxia,             Ferns, Carex,
                                   (1,000-2,000 m).    cm).                thin silty loams.   Metrosideros,       Charpentiera,       Peperomia.
                                                                                               Myrsine,            Coprosma,
                                                                                               Nestegis,           Dodonaea, Kadua,
                                                                                               Nothocestrum,       Labordia,
                                                                                               Pisonia,            Leptecophylla,
                                                                                               Pittosporum,        Phyllostegia,
                                                                                               Psychotria,         Vaccinium.
                                                                                               Sophora,
                                                                                               Zanthoxylum.
Montane Dry \7\.................  3,300-6,500 ft      <50 in (<130 cm)..  Dry cinder or ash   Acacia,             Chamaesyce,         Bidens,
                                   (1,000-2,000 m).                        soils, loamy        Metrosideros,       Coprosma,           Eragrostis,
                                                                           volcanic sands,     Myoporum,           Dodonaea,           Melanthera,
                                                                           blocky lava, rock   Santalum, Sophora.  Dubautia,           Vaccinium.
                                                                           outcroppings.                           Leptecophylla,
                                                                                                                   Osteomeles,
                                                                                                                   Wikstroemia.
Subalpine \8\...................  6,500-9,800 ft      15-40 in (38-100    Dry ash, sandy      Chamaesyce,         Coprosma,           Ferns, Bidens,
                                   (2,000-3,000 m).    cm).                loam, rocky         Chenopodium,        Dodonaea,           Carex,
                                                                           undeveloped         Metrosideros,       Dubautia,           Deschampsia,
                                                                           soils, weathered    Myoporum,           Geranium,           Eragrostis,
                                                                           lava.               Santalum, Sophora.  Leptecophylla,      Gahnia, Luzula,
                                                                                                                   Vaccinium,          Panicum,
                                                                                                                   Wikstroemia.        Pseudognaphalium,
                                                                                                                                       Sicyos,
                                                                                                                                       Tetramolopium.
Alpine \9\......................  > 9,800 ft (>       30-50 in (75-125    Barren gravel,      none..............  Argyroxiphium,      None.
                                   3,000 m).           cm).                debris, cinders.                        Dubautia, Silene,
                                                                                                                   Tetramolopium.
Dry Cliff \10\..................  unrestricted......  <75 in (<190 cm)..  >65 degree slope,   none..............  Antidesma,          Bidens,
                                                                           rocky talus.                            Chamaesyce,         Eragrostis,
                                                                                                                   Diospyros,          Melanthera,
                                                                                                                   Dodonaea.           Schiedea.
Wet Cliff \11\..................  unrestricted......  >75 in (>190 cm)..  >65 degree slope,   none..............  Broussaisia,        Bryophytes, Ferns,
                                                                           shallow soils,                          Cheirodendron,      Coprosma,
                                                                           weathered lava.                         Leptecophylla,      Dubautia, Kadua,
                                                                                                                   Metrosideros.       Peperomia.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Coastal ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Coastal--Units 1-11; Kahoolawe--
  Coastal--Units 1-3; Lanai--Coastal--Units 1-3; Molokai--Coastal--Units 1-7.
\2\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Lowland Dry ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Lowland Dry--Units 1-6;
  Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry--Units 1-2; Lanai--Lowland Dry--Units 1-2; Molokai--Lowland Dry--Units 1-2.
\3\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Lowland Mesic ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Lowland Mesic--Units 1-3;
  Lanai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1; Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1.
\4\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Lowland Wet ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Lowland Wet--Units 1-8; Lanai--
  Lowland Wet--Units 1-2; Molokai--Lowland Wet--Units 1-3.
\5\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Montane Wet ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Montane Wet--Units 1-8; Lanai--
  Montane Wet--Unit 1; Molokai--Montane Wet--Units 1-3.
\6\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Montane Mesic ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Montane Mesic--Units 1-6;
  Molokai--Montane Mesic--Unit 1.

[[Page 34529]]

 
\7\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Montane Dry ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Montane Dry--Unit 1.
\8\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Subalpine ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Subalpine--Units 1-2.
\9\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Alpine ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Alpine--Unit 1.
\10\ The physical or biological features for the species in the Dry Cliff ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Dry Cliff--Units 1-7; Lanai--Dry
  Cliff--Units 1-3.
\11\Sec.  The physical or biological features for the species in the Wet Cliff ecosystem apply to the following units: Maui--Wet Cliff--Units 1-8;
  Lanai--Wet Cliff--Units 1-2; Molokai--Wet Cliff--Units 1-3.


[[Page 34530]]


     Table 5--Primary Constituent Elements for the Maui Nui Species Are A Combination of the Physical or Biological Features (See Table 4) In the Applicable Ecosystem(s) as Well as Unique Pces for Species, If any Are Identified
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                      Ecosystem                                                                                        Species-specific
                                -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     physical or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          biological
                                     Coastal        Lowland dry      Lowland mesic     Lowland wet      Montane wet    Montane mesic    Montane dry      Subalpine        Alpine         Dry cliff       Wet cliff         features
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Plants
 
Abutilon eremitopetalum........  ...............  LA.............
Acaena exigua..................  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  bogs.
Adenophorus periens............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA, LA, MO...  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  epiphytic.
Alectryon macrococcus var.       ...............  EMA............  ................  ...............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........
 auwahiensis.
Alectryon macrococcus var.       ...............  ...............  MO..............  WMA............  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
 macrococcus.
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp.   ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  alpine cinder
 macrocephalum.                                                                                                                                                                                                        deserts.
Asplenium dielerectum..........  ...............  WMA, LA........  WMA, MO.........  WMA, MO........  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............
Asplenium peruvianum var.        ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........
 insulare.
Bidens campylotheca ssp.         ...............  WMA............  WMA.............  ...............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......
 pentamera.
Bidens campylotheca ssp.         ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  stream banks.
 waihoiensis.
Bidens conjuncta...............  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha  ...............  EMA, LA........  LA..............  WMA............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  LA............
Bidens wiebkei.................  MO.............  ...............  ................  MO.............  MO............  MO............
Bonamia menziesii..............  ...............  EMA, MO........  LA, MO..........  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........
Brighamia rockii...............  EMA, WMA, MO...  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  MO............
Calamagrostis hillebrandii.....  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  Bogs.
Canavalia molokaiensis.........  MO.............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............
Canavalia pubescens............  LA.............  EMA............
Cenchrus agrimonioides.........  ...............  EMA, WMA.......  LA..............
Clermontia lindseyana..........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  EMA...........
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.     ...............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............
 brevipes.
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.     ...............  ...............  LA..............  EMA, WMA, LA...  EMA...........
 mauiensis.
Clermontia peleana.............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  epiphytic.
Clermontia samuelii............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  bog margins.
Colubrina oppositifolia........  ...............  EMA............  WMA.............
Ctenitis squamigera............  ...............  EMA, WMA.......  EMA, WMA, MO....  WMA............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  WMA, LA.......
Cyanea asplenifolia............  ...............  ...............  EMA.............  EMA, WMA.......
Cyanea copelandii ssp.           ...............  ...............  EMA.............  EMA............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........
 haleakalalensis.
Cyanea dunbariae...............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  ..............  MO............
Cyanea duvalliorum.............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........
Cyanea gibsonii................  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............
Cyanea glabra..................  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Cyanea grimesiana ssp.           ...............  ...............  ................  MO.............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............
 grimesiana.
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp.          ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........  EMA...........
 hamatiflora.
Cyanea horrida.................  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........
Cyanea kunthiana...............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA, WMA.......  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........
Cyanea lobata ssp. baldwinii...  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  LA............
Cyanea lobata ssp. lobata......  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Cyanea magnicalyx..............  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Cyanea mannii..................  ...............  ...............  MO..............  ...............  MO............  MO............
Cyanea maritae.................  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........
Cyanea mceldowneyi.............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........  EMA...........
Cyanea munroi..................  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO, LA........
Cyanea obtusa..................  ...............  WMA............  ................  ...............  ..............  EMA...........
Cyanea procera.................  ...............  ...............  MO..............  ...............  MO............  MO............

[[Page 34531]]

 
Cyanea profuga.................  ...............  ...............  MO..............  ...............  MO............
Cyanea solanacea...............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  MO............  MO............
Cyperus fauriei................  ...............  LA.............  MO..............  ...............  ..............  MO............
Cyperus pennatiformis..........  EMA............
Cyperus trachysanthos..........  ...............  MO LA..........  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  seasonally wet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       soil and pond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       margins.
Cyrtandra ferripilosa..........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........  EMA...........
Cyrtandra filipes..............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  WMA, MO........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Cyrtandra munroi...............  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA.......
Cyrtandra oxybapha.............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  WMA...........  EMA...........
Diplazium molokaiense..........  ...............  ...............  MO, LA..........  WMA............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA, WMA, LA..
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.        ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
 humilis.
Eugenia koolauensis............  ...............  MO.............
Festuca molokaiensis...........  ...............  ...............  MO..............
Flueggea neowawraea............  ...............  EMA............  MO..............
Geranium arboreum..............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  EMA...........
Geranium hanaense..............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  Bogs.
Geranium hillebrandii..........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  WMA...........  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  Bogs.
Geranium multiflorum...........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........
Gouania hillebrandii...........  ...............  WMA, KAH.......  MO..............
Gouania vitifolia..............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Hesperomannia arborescens......  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, MO, LA...
Hesperomannia arbuscula........  ...............  WMA............  ................  WMA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp.        MO.............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............
 immaculatus.
Hibiscus brackenridgei.........  LA, MO.........  EMA, WMA, LA,
                                                   KAH.
Huperzia mannii................  ...............  ...............  EMA.............  EMA, WMA.......  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  epiphytic.
Ischaemum byrone...............  EMA, MO........
Isodendrion pyrifolium.........  ...............  ...............  MO..............  WMA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........
Kadua cordata ssp. remyi.......  ...............  ...............  LA..............  LA.............
Kadua coriacea.................  ...............  WMA............
Kadua laxiflora................  ...............  ...............  MO, LA..........  WMA, LA........  LA............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA, LA.......
Kanaloa kahoolawensis..........  KAH............  KAH............
Kokia cookei...................  ...............  MO.............
Labordia tinifolia var.          ...............  ...............  LA..............  LA.............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............
 lanaiensis.
Labordia triflora..............  ...............  ...............  MO..............
Lysimachia lydgatei............  ...............  WMA............  ................  ...............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Lysimachia maxima..............  ...............  ...............  ................  MO.............  MO............
Marsilea villosa...............  MO.............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  seasonal wetland.
Melanthera kamolensis..........  ...............  EMA............
Melicope adscendens............  ...............  EMA............  ................  ...............  ..............  EMA...........
Melicope balloui...............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........
Melicope knudsenii.............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........
Melicope mucronulata...........  ...............  EMA............  MO..............  ...............  ..............  MO............  EMA...........
Melicope munroi................  ...............  ...............  MO..............  ...............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............
Melicope ovalis................  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........
Melicope reflexa...............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  MO............
Mucuna sloanei var. persericea.  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA............
Myrsine vaccinioides...........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  Bogs.
Neraudia sericea...............  ...............  EMA, WMA, KAH,   MO..............  ...............  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA.......
                                                   LA.
Nototrichium humile............  ...............  EMA............
Peperomia subpetiolata.........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........
Peucedanum sandwicense.........  EMA, MO........  ...............  ................  WMA, MO........
Phyllostegia bracteata.........  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  EMA...........
Phyllostegia haliakalae........  ...............  ...............  MO..............  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  EMA, LA.......
Phyllostegia hispida...........  ...............  ...............  ................  MO.............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............

[[Page 34532]]

 
Phyllostegia mannii............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  EMA, MO.......  EMA...........
Phyllostegia pilosa............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  ...............  EMA, MO.......
Pittosporum halophilum.........  MO.............
Plantago princeps..............  ...............  ...............  ................  MO.............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......
Platanthera holochila..........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA, WMA, MO..  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Pleomele fernaldii.............  ...............  LA.............  LA..............  LA.............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............
Portulaca sclerocarpa..........  LA.............
Pteris lidgatei................  ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMAMO.........
Remya mauiensis................  ...............  WMA............  WMA.............  WMA............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........
Sanicula purpurea..............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  Bogs.
Santalum haleakalae var.         ...............  EMA, WMA.......  WMA, LA, MO.....  WMA, LA........  LA............  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA.......
 lanaiense.
Schenkia sebaeoides............  WMA, MO........  LA.............
Schiedea haleakalensis.........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........
Schiedea jacobii...............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  EMA...........
Schiedea laui..................  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  MO............
Schiedea lydgatei..............  ...............  ...............  MO..............
Schiedea salicaria.............  ...............  WMA............
Schiedea sarmentosa............  ...............  ...............  MO..............
Sesbania tomentosa.............  WMA, KAH, LA,    EMA, WMA, KAH,   MO..............
                                  MO.              LA, MO.
Silene alexandri...............  ...............  ...............  MO..............
Silene lanceolata..............  ...............  LA.............  MO..............
Solanum incompletum............  ...............  EMA, LA........  EMA, LA.........  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  LA............
Spermolepis hawaiiensis........  ...............  EMA, WMA, LA...  LA, MO..........  ...............  ..............  MO............
Stenogyne bifida...............  ...............  ...............  MO..............  MO.............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............
Stenogyne kauaulaensis.........  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  ..............  WMA...........
Tetramolopium capillare........  ...............  WMA............  ................  ...............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.     ...............  LA.............
 lepidotum.
Tetramolopium remyi............  ...............  WMA, LA........
Tetramolopium rockii...........  MO.............
Vigna o-wahuensis..............  EMA, KAH.......  LA, KAH........  LA, MO..........
Viola lanaiensis...............  ...............  ...............  ................  ...............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............
Wikstroemia villosa............  ...............  ...............  ................  EMA, WMA.......  EMA...........  EMA...........
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.........  ...............  EMA............  WMA, MO.........  LA, MO.........  MO............  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........  EMA...........
 
             Birds
 
Akohekohe......................  ...............  ...............  WMA, MO.........  EMA, WMA, MO...  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA, WMA, MO..  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA, MO..
Kiwikiu........................  ...............  ...............  WMA, MO.........  EMA, WMA, MO...  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA, WMA, MO..  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA, MO..
 
             Snails
 
Newcombia cumingi (Newcomb's     ...............  ...............  ................  WMA............
 tree snail).
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai    ...............  ...............  ................  LA.............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............
 tree snail).

[[Page 34533]]

 
Partulina variabilis (Lanai      ...............  ...............  ................  LA.............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............
 tree snail).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EMA = east Maui
WMA = west Maui
LA = Lanai
MO = Molokai
KAH = Kahoolawe


[[Page 34534]]

    Some of the species addressed in this proposed rule occur in more 
than one ecosystem. The PCEs for these species are described separately 
for each ecosystem in which they occur. The reasoning behind this 
approach is that each species requires a different suite of 
environmental conditions depending upon the ecosystem in which it 
occurs. For example, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera will occur in 
association with different native plant species, depending on whether 
it is found within the lowland dry, lowland mesic, montane wet, montane 
mesic, dry cliff, or wet cliff ecosystems. Each of the physical or 
biological features described in each ecosystem in which the species 
occurs are essential to the conservation of the species, to retain its 
geographical and ecological distribution across the different ecosystem 
types in which it may occur. Each physical or biological feature is 
also essential to retaining the genetic representation that allows this 
species to successfully adapt to different environmental conditions in 
various native ecosystems. Although some of these species occur in 
multiple native ecosystems, their declining abundance in the face of 
ongoing threats, such as increasing numbers of nonnative plant 
competitors, indicates that they are not such broad habitat generalists 
as to be able to persist in highly altered habitats. Based on an 
analysis of the best available scientific information, functioning 
native ecosystems provide the fundamental biological requirements for 
the narrow-range endemics addressed in this proposed rule.
    Some examples may help to clarify our approach to describing the 
PCEs for each individual species. If we want to determine the PCEs for 
the plant Abutilon eremitopetalum, we look at Table 5 and see that the 
PCEs for A. eremitopetalum are provided by the physical or biological 
features in the lowland dry ecosystem. Table 4 indicates that the 
physical or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem include 
elevations of less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m); annual precipitation of 
less than 50 in (130 cm); weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky 
ledges, and little-weathered lava; and potential habitat for one or 
more genera of the subcanopy and understory plants Chamaesyce, 
Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, Psydrax, Scaevola, and 
Wikstroemia, and one or more of the genera of the canopy species 
Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, and Sapindus. As we do not 
specifically know the unique PCEs for A. eremitopetalum and this plant 
is found only in the lowland dry ecosystem, we believe that the 
physical or biological features for the lowland dry ecosystem best 
approximate the PCEs for A. eremitopetalum. Thus we use the physical 
and biological features provided in the ecosystem in which A. 
eremitopetalum is found as the PCEs for A. eremitopetalum.
    As another example, Table 4 indicates the physical or biological 
features for the plant Geranium hillebrandii include the ecosystem-
level physical or biological features for the montane wet and montane 
mesic ecosystems, depending on the locations, and also that this 
species has a species-specific PCE: bogs. The PCEs for G. hillebrandii 
are thus composed of the physical or biological features for each of 
the two ecosystems it occupies, as described in Table 4 for the montane 
wet and montane mesic ecosystems, as well as bogs. Table 5 is read in a 
similar fashion in conjunction with Table 4 to describe the PCEs for 
each of the 135 species for which we are proposing to designate 
critical habitat in this proposed rule.

Criteria Used to Identify Critical Habitat Boundaries

    We considered several factors in the selection and proposal of 
specific boundaries for critical habitat for these 135 species. We 
propose to designate critical habitat on lands that contain the 
physical or biological features essential to conserving multiple 
species, based on their shared dependence on the functioning ecosystems 
they have in common. Because the 11 ecosystem types addressed in this 
proposed rule do not form a single contiguous area, they are divided 
into geographic units: 100 plant critical habitat units, 88 forest bird 
critical habitat units, and 11 tree snail critical habitat units on the 
islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The 88 forest bird and 
10 of the 11 tree snail critical habitat units completely overlap the 
100 plant critical habitat units. The critical habitat unit designated 
for Newcomb's snail on west Maui only partially overlaps Maui--Lowland 
Wet--2.
    The proposed critical habitat is a combination of areas currently 
occupied by the species in that ecosystem, as well as areas that may be 
currently unoccupied. Due to the extremely remote and inaccessible 
nature of the area, surveys are relatively infrequent and may be 
limited in scope; therefore, it is difficult to say with certainty 
whether individual representatives of a rare species may or may not be 
present. However, the best available scientific information suggests 
that these species either currently occupy these areas or have occupied 
these areas in the past. A properly functioning ecosystem provides the 
life-history requirements of the species that make up that ecosystem, 
and the physical or biological features found in such an ecosystem are 
the PCEs essential for the conservation of the species that occur 
there. In other words, the occupied areas provide the physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the species 
occurring in the ecosystems we analyzed, by providing for the 
successful functioning of the ecosystem on which the species depend. 
However, due to the small population sizes, few numbers of individuals, 
and reduced geographic range of each of the 135 species for which 
critical habitat is here proposed, we have determined that a 
designation limited to the known present range of each species would be 
inadequate to achieve the conservation of those species. The areas 
believed to be unoccupied, and that may have been unoccupied at the 
time of listing, have been determined to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of the species because they provide the 
physical or biological features necessary for the expansion of existing 
wild populations and reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical range of the species. For 17 of the plant species (Acaena 
exigua, Clermontia peleana, Cyanea glabra, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyperus trachysanthos, Eugenia koolauensis, Gouania 
vitifolia, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua coriacea, Kokia cookei, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, Schiedea 
jacobii, Solanum incompletum, Tetramolopium capillare, and T. lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum), we are proposing to designate unoccupied areas only, 
as these species are not believed to be extant on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, 
or Kahoolawe. Designating unoccupied critical habitat for these species 
would promote conservation actions to restore their historical, 
geographical and ecological representation, which is essential for 
their recovery. Critical habitat boundaries for all species were 
delineated to include the functioning ecosystems on which they depend.
    In some cases, we have identified areas of critical habitat for 
species in multiple ecosystem areas. With the exception of Acaena 
exigua, Clermontia peleana, Cyanea glabra, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyperus trachysanthos, Eugenia koolauensis, Gouania 
vitifolia, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua coriacea, Kokia cookei, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, Schiedea 
jacobii, Solanum incompletum, Tetramolopium capillare,

[[Page 34535]]

and T. lepidotum ssp. Lepidotum, which are believed to be no longer 
extant on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, or Kahoolawe, all of the critical 
habitat units in these ecosystems contain some areas that are currently 
unoccupied, and that may have been unoccupied at the time of listing, 
but have been determined to be essential for the conservation of the 
species. Because of the small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes of each of the 135 species, each requires suitable habitat and 
space for the expansion of existing populations to achieve a level that 
could approach recovery. For example, although the plant Huperzia 
mannii is found in multiple critical habitat units across four 
ecosystem types, its entire distribution is comprised of a total of 
fewer than 100 individuals. The unoccupied areas of each unit are 
essential for the expansion of this species to achieve viable 
population numbers and maintain its historical geographical and 
ecological distribution.
    On Maui, there are two distinct geographic areas (east and west 
Maui) separated by an isthmus. Sixty-three of the plant species and the 
tree snail Newcombia cumingi, for which we are proposing critical 
habitat, are historically known from only east or west Maui. Thirty-
seven plant species (Adenophorus periens, Alectryon macrococcus var. 
auwahiensis, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum, Asplenium 
peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, 
Clermontia lindseyana, C. peleana, C. samuellii, Cyanea copelandii ssp. 
haleakalaensis, C. duvalliorum, C. hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. 
horrida, C. kunthiana, C. maritae, C. mceldowneyi, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Flueggea neowawraea, Geranium 
arboreum, G. multiflorum, Ischaemum byrone, Melanthera kamolensis, 
Melicope adscendens, M. balloui, M. knudsenii, M. mucronulata, M. 
ovalis, Mucuna sloanei var. persericea, Nototrichium humile, Peperomia 
subpetiolata, Phyllostegia haliakalae, P. mannii, P. pilosa, Schiedea 
haleakalensis, S. jacobii, Solanum incompletum, and Vigna o-wahuensis) 
are known only from the east Maui mountains and 26 plant species 
(Acaena exigua, Bidens conjuncta, Calamagrostis hillebrandii, 
Centaurium sebaeoides, Cyanea lobata ssp. lobata, C. magnicalyx, 
Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis, 
Geranium hillebrandii, Gouania hillebrandii, G. vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, K. laxiflora, Lysimachia lydgatei, Myrsine vaccinioides, 
Pteris lydgatei, Remyi mauiensis, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea 
salicaria, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, Tetramolopium capillare, and T. 
remyi), and the tree snail Newcombia cumingi, are known only from the 
west Maui mountains. For these species, we propose critical habitat in 
ecosystems only in the geographic area of historical occurrence.
    Current and historical species location information was used to 
develop initial critical habitat boundaries in each of the 11 
ecosystems that would individually and collectively provide for the 
conservation of the 135 species addressed in this proposed rule. The 
initial boundaries were superimposed over digital topographic maps of 
the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe and further 
evaluated. In general, land areas that were identified as highly 
degraded were removed from the proposed critical habitat units, and 
natural or manmade features (e.g., ridge lines, valleys, streams, 
coastlines, roads, obvious land features, etc.) were used to delineate 
the proposed critical habitat boundaries.
    The critical habitat areas described below constitute our best 
assessment of the physical or biological features essential for the 
recovery and conservation of the 135 species, and the unoccupied areas 
needed for the expansion of reduced populations. The approximate size 
of each of the 100 plant critical habitat units, the 88 forest bird 
critical habitat units, and the 11 tree snail critical habitat units, 
and the status of their land ownership, are identified in Tables 6A 
through 6H. The ecosystems in which critical habitat for each of the 
plant, forest bird, and tree snail species is proposed are identified 
in Tables 7A through 7C, along with areas under consideration for 
exclusion from critical habitat designation under section 4(b)(2) of 
the Act (see Exclusions, below). All forest bird and tree snail 
proposed critical habitat units overlap areas also proposed for 
designation as plant critical habitat.
    When determining critical habitat boundaries within this proposed 
rule, we made every effort to avoid including developed areas such as 
buildings, paved areas, and other structures that lack the physical or 
biological features essential for the conservation of the 135 species. 
The scale of the maps we prepared under the parameters for publication 
within the Code of Federal Regulations may not reflect the exclusion of 
such developed areas. Any such structures and the land under them 
inadvertently left inside critical habitat boundaries shown on the maps 
of this proposed rule have been excluded by text in the proposed rule 
and are not proposed for designation as critical habitat. Therefore, 
Federal actions involving these areas would not trigger section 7 
consultation with respect to critical habitat unless the specific 
action would affect the adjacent critical habitat or its primary 
constituent elements.

                Table 6A--Critical Habitat Proposed for 60 Plant Species on the Island of Molokai
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Coastal
    --Unit 1......................          250          101            0           54            0          195
    --Unit 2......................        3,544        1,434        1,032            0            0        2,511
    --Unit 3......................          862          349          859            3            0           <1
    --Unit 4......................           10            4           10            0            0            0
    --Unit 5......................            1          0.5            1            0            0            0
    --Unit 6......................        1,913          774          202            0            0        1,711
    --Unit 7......................          306          124            3            0            0          303
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Coastal.............        6,886        2,786        2,106           57            0        4,720
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Lowland Dry
    --Unit 1......................           70           28            0            0            0           70

[[Page 34536]]

 
    --Unit 2......................        3,201        1,295          945            0            0        2,255
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Dry.........        3,271        1,323          945            0            0        2,325
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Lowland Mesic
    --Unit 1......................       10,330        4,180        3,538            0            0        6,792
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Mesic.......       10,330        4,180        3,538            0            0        6,792
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Lowland Wet
    --Unit 1......................        3,628        1,468        2,195            0            0        1,433
    --Unit 2......................        1,952          790        1,356            0            0          597
    --Unit 3......................        8,074        3,267        1,128            0            0        6,945
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Wet.........       13,654        5,525        4,679            0            0        8,975
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Montane Wet
    --Unit 1......................        4,818        1,950        1,518            0            0        3,300
    --Unit 2......................          910          368          871            0            0           39
    --Unit 3......................          803          325           77            0            0          726
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Wet.........        6,531        2,643        2,466            0            0        4,065
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Montane Mesic
    --Unit 1......................        1,629          659          257            0            0        1,373
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Mesic.......        1,629          659          257            0            0        1,373
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Wet Cliff
    --Unit 1......................        1,888          764        1,399            0            0          489
    --Unit 2......................        1,280          518          462            0            0          818
    --Unit 3......................        1,362          551        1,137            0            0          225
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Wet Cliff...........        4,530        1,833        2,998            0            0        1,532
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total All Units.......       46,831       18,949       16,922           57            0       29,782
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 Table 6B--Critical Habitat Proposed for 38 Plant Species on the Island of Lanai
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Coastal:
    --Unit 1......................          373          151            0            0            0          373
    --Unit 2......................            2            1            2            0            0            0
    --Unit 3......................          509          206            0            0            0          509
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Coastal.............          886          359            2            0            0          883
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Lowland Dry:
    --Unit 1......................        9,766        3,952            0            0            0        9,766
    --Unit 2......................          939          380            0            0            0          939
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Dry.........       10,705        4,332            0            0            0       10,705
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Lowland Mesic:
    --Unit 1......................       11,172        4,521            0            0            3       11,170
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Mesic.......       11,172        4,521            0            0            3       11,170
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Lowland Wet:
    --Unit 1......................          374          152            0            0            0          374
    --Unit 2......................          232           94            0            0            0          232
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Wet.........          606          245            0            0            0          606
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Montane Wet:

[[Page 34537]]

 
    --Unit 1......................          248          101            0            0            0          248
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Wet.........          248          101            0            0            0          248
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Dry Cliff:
    --Unit 1......................           83           34            0            0            0           83
    --Unit 2......................          354          143            0            0            0          354
    --Unit 3......................          398          161            0            0            0          398
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Dry Cliff...........          835          338            0            0            0          835
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lanai--Wet Cliff:
    --Unit 1......................          731          296            0            0            0          731
    --Unit 2......................          230           93            0            0            0          230
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Wet Cliff...........          961          389            0            0            0          961
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total All Units...........       25,413       10,285            0            0            2       25,408
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 TABLE 6C--Critical Habitat Proposed for 91 Plant Species on the Island of Maui
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Coastal:
    --Unit 1......................            2            1            2            0            0            0
    --Unit 2......................           68           28           42            0            0           26
    --Unit 3......................           54           22           13            0            0           40
    --Unit 4......................          243           98          107            0            0          136
    --Unit 5......................           27           11           27            0            0            0
    --Unit 6......................          357          144          357            0            0            0
    --Unit 7......................          187           76           40            0            0          147
    --Unit 8......................          597          242          597            0            0           <1
    --Unit 9......................          393          159          184            0            5          205
    --Unit 10.....................          434          176          215            0            0          219
    --Unit 11.....................            6            3            6            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Coastal.............        2,368          960        1,590            0            5          773
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Lowland Dry:
    --Unit 1......................       22,196        8,983       12,999            0            0        9,197
    --Unit 2......................        2,612        1,057        1,851            0            0          762
    --Unit 3......................        1,089          441            0            0           <1        1,089
    --Unit 4......................        1,283          519        1,283            0            0            0
    --Unit 5......................        5,448        2,205        3,685            0            0        1,763
    --Unit 6......................          579          234            4            0            0          575
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Dry.........       33,207       13,439       19,822            0            1       13,386
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Lowland Mesic:
    --Unit 1......................        1,930          781        1,172          502            0          256
    --Unit 2......................        3,424        1,386        1,315            0            0        2,109
    --Unit 3......................          477          193          477            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Mesic.......        5,831        2,360        2,964          502            0        2,365
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Lowland Wet:
    --Unit 1......................       26,703       10,807       10,822        2,038            0       13,844
    --Unit 2......................        5,066        2,050           65            0            0        5,001
    --Unit 3......................        1,427          577        1,247            0            0          180
    --Unit 4......................        1,165          472          864            0          301            0
    --Unit 5......................        2,112          855           30            0            0        2,082
    --Unit 6......................          639          259          136            0            0          503
    --Unit 7......................          898          364          898            0            0            0
    --Unit 8......................          230           93          230            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 34538]]

 
        Total Lowland Wet.........       38,240       15,477       14,292        2,038          301       21,610
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Montane Wet:
    --Unit 1......................        7,815        3,162        1,067            0            0        6,747
    --Unit 2......................       16,687        6,753        4,075          875            0       11,737
    --Unit 3......................        2,228          902            0        2,228            0            0
    --Unit 4......................        1,833          742          180        1,653            0            0
    --Unit 5......................          387          156          222          165            0            0
    --Unit 6......................        3,964        1,604        1,113            0          471        2,380
    --Unit 7......................          608          246           80            0            0          528
    --Unit 8......................           46           19            0            0            0           46
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Wet.........       33,568       13,584        6,737        4,921          471       21,438
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Montane Mesic:
    --Unit 1......................       20,972        8,487        7,277        2,897           18       10,781
    --Unit 2......................          366          148          124            0            0          242
    --Unit 3......................          218           88          174            0            0           44
    --Unit 4......................           72           29           72            0            0            0
    --Unit 5......................          304          123          170            0            0          134
    --Unit 6......................           94           38            0            0            0           94
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Mesic.......       22,026        8,913        7,817        2,897           18       11,295
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Montane Dry:
    --Unit 1......................        4,988        2,019        2,962          323            0        1,703
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Dry.........        4,988        2,019        2,962          323            0        1,703
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Subalpine:
    --Unit 1......................       19,401        7,851       10,866        2,770            0        5,764
    --Unit 2......................       10,931        4,424            0        9,836            0        1,095
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Subalpine...........       30,332       12,275       10,866       12,606            0        6,859
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Alpine:
    --Unit 1......................        2,107          853          761          918            0          428
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Alpine..............        2,107          853          761          918            0          428
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Dry Cliff:
    --Unit 1......................        1,018          412            0          755            0          264
    --Unit 2......................          688          279            0          688            0            0
    --Unit 3......................          293          119            0          200            0           93
    --Unit 4......................          315          127            0          315            0            0
    --Unit 5......................        1,536          622        1,298            0            0          238
    --Unit 6......................          279          113          279            0            0            0
    --Unit 7......................          808          327            0            0            0          808
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Dry Cliff...........        4,937        1,999        1,577        1,958            0        1,403
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maui--Wet Cliff:
    --Unit 1......................          460          186            0            0            0          460
    --Unit 2......................        1,407          569          475          912            0           20
    --Unit 3......................          438          177            5          433            0            0
    --Unit 4......................          184           75          184            0            0            0
    --Unit 5......................        2,048          829           35            0            0        2,013
    --Unit 6......................        9,103        3,684        1,858            0        2,917        4,328
    --Unit 7......................          781          316          557            0            0          224
    --Unit 8......................          337          137          337            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Wet Cliff...........       14,758        5,973        3,451        1,345        2,917        7,045
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total All Units...........      192,362       77,852       72,839       27,508        3,713       88,305
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 34539]]


              Table 6D--Critical Habitat Proposed for Six Plant Species on the Island of Kahoolawe
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kahoolawe--coastal:
    --Unit 1......................        1,515          613        1,515            0            0            0
    --Unit 2......................           12            5           12            0            0            0
    --Unit 3......................          339          137          339            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Coastal.............        1,866          755        1,866            0            0            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry:
    --Unit 1......................        1,380          559        1,380            0            0            0
    --Unit 2......................        3,205        1,297        3,205            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Dry.........        4,585        1,856        4,585            0            0            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total All Units...........        6,451        2,611        6,451            0            0            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


  Table 6E--Critical Habitat Proposed for Two Forest Bird Species (Akohekohe and Kiwikiu) on the Island of Maui
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Mesic:
    Maui--Unit 1..................          477          193          477            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Mesic.......          477          193          477            0            0            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Wet:
    Maui--Unit 2..................       26,703       10,807       10,822        2,038            0       13,844
    Maui--Unit 3..................        5,066        2,050           65            0            0        5,001
    Maui--Unit 4..................        1,427          577        1,247            0            0          180
    Maui--Unit 5..................        1,165          472          864            0          301            0
    Maui--Unit 6..................        2,112          855           30            0            0        2,082
    Maui--Unit 7..................          639          259          136            0            0          503
    Maui--Unit 8..................          898          364          898            0            0            0
    Maui--Unit 9..................          230           93          230            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Wet.........       38,240       15,477       14,292        2,038          301       21,610
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Wet:
    Maui--Unit 10.................        7,815        3,162        1,067            0            0        6,747
    Maui--Unit 11.................       16,687        6,753        4,075          875            0       11,737
    Maui--Unit 12.................        2,228          902            0        2,228            0            0
    Maui--Unit 13.................        1,833          742          180        1,653            0            0
    Maui--Unit 14.................          387          156          222          165            0            0
    Maui--Unit 15.................        3,964        1,604        1,113            0          471        2,380
    Maui--Unit 16.................          608          246           80            0            0          528
    Maui--Unit 17.................           46           19            0            0            0           46
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Wet.........       33,568       13,584        6,737        4,921          471       21,438
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Mesic:
    Maui--Unit 18.................       20,972        8,487        7,277        2,897           18       10,781
    Maui--Unit 19.................          366          148          124            0            0          242
    Maui--Unit 20.................          218           88          174            0            0           44
    Maui--Unit 21.................           72           29           72            0            0            0
    Maui--Unit 22.................          304          123          170            0            0          134
    Maui--Unit 23.................           94           38            0            0            0           94
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Mesic.......       22,026        8,913        7,817        2,897           18       11,295
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Subalpine:
    Maui--Unit 24.................       19,401        7,851       10,866        2,770            0        5,764
    Maui--Unit 25.................       10,931        4,424            0        9,836            0        1,095
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Subalpine...........       30,332       12,275       10,866       12,606            0        6,859
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dry Cliff:

[[Page 34540]]

 
    Maui--Unit 26.................        1,018          412            0          755            0          264
    Maui--Unit 27.................          293          119            0          200            0           93
    Maui--Unit 28.................          315          127            0          315            0            0
    Maui--Unit 29.................        1,536          622        1,298            0            0          238
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Dry Cliff...........        3,162        1,280        1,298        1,270            0          595
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wet Cliff:
    Maui--Unit 30.................          460          186            0            0            0          460
    Maui--Unit 31.................        1,407          569          475          912            0           20
    Maui--Unit 32.................          438          177            5          433            0            0
    Maui--Unit 33.................          184           75          184            0            0            0
    Maui--Unit 34.................        2,048          829           35            0            0        2,013
    Maui--Unit 35.................        9,103        3,684        1,858            0        2,917        4,328
    Maui--Unit 36.................          781          316          557            0            0          224
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Wet Cliff...........       14,421        5,836        3,114        1,345        2,917        7,045
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total All Units...........      142,226       57,558       44,601       25,077        3,707       68,842
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table 6F--Critical Habitat Proposed for Two Forest Bird Species (Akohekohe and Kiwikiu) on the Island of Molokai
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Mesic
    Molokai--Unit 37..............       10,330        4,180        3,538            0            0        6,792
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Mesic.......       10,330        4,180        3,538            0            0        6,792
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Wet
    Molokai--Unit 38..............        3,628        1,468        2,195            0            0        1,433
    Molokai--Unit 39..............        1,952          790        1,356            0            0          597
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Wet.........        5,580        2,258        3,551            0            0        2,030
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Wet
    Molokai--Unit 40..............        4,818        1,950        1,518            0            0        3,300
    Molokai--Unit 41..............          910          368          871            0            0           39
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Wet.........        5,728        2,318        2,389            0            0        3,339
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Mesic
    Molokai--Unit 42..............        1,629          659          257            0            0        1,373
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Mesic.......        1,629          659          257            0            0        1,373
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wet Cliff
    Molokai--Unit 43..............        1,888          764        1,399            0            0          489
    Molokai--Unit 44..............        1,280          518          462            0            0          818
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Wet Cliff...........        3,168        1,282        1,861            0            0        1,307
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total All Units.......       26,435       10,697       11,596            0            0       14,841
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 34541]]


 Table 6G--Critical Habitat Proposed for Two Lanai Tree Snail Species (Partulina Semicarinata and P. Variabilis)
                                             on the Island of Lanai
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Wet
    Lanai--Unit 1.................          374          152            0            0            0          374
    Lanai--Unit 2.................          232           94            0            0            0          232
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Wet.........          606          246            0            0            0          606
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Wet
    Lanai--Unit 3.................          248          101            0            0            0          248
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Montane Wet.........          248          101            0            0            0          248
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wet Cliff
    Lanai--Unit 4.................          731          296            0            0            0          731
    Lanai--Unit 5.................          230           93            0            0            0          230
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Wet Cliff...........          961          389            0            0            0          961
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total All Units.......        1,815          736            0            0            0        1,815
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 Table 6H--Critical Habitat Proposed for Newcombia Cumingi on the Island of Maui
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Size of      Size of                   Landownership (acres)
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in   ---------------------------------------------------
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       County      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Wet
    Maui--Unit 1..................          599          242           56            0            0          542
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total Lowland Wet.........          599          242           56            0            0          542
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total All Units.......          599          242           56            0            0          542
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 34542]]


                             Table 7A--Plant Species for Which Critical Habitat Is Proposed for Designation in Each Ecosystem, and Areas Under Consideration for Exclusion Under Section 4(B)(2) of the Act
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Ecosystem                                                                                                    Total
                               --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                critical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Considered    habitat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for        proposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 exclusion    (inclusive
            Species                                                                                                                                                                                                 from       of areas
                                    Coastal       Lowland dry    Lowland mesic    Lowland wet     Montane wet    Montane mesic    Montane dry      Subalpine        Alpine         Dry cliff       Wet cliff      critical    considered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 habitat ac      for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (ha)      exclusion)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ac (ha)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plants:
    Abutilon eremitopetalum...  ..............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)       10,705
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,332)
    Acaena exigua *...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,364 (552)        4,618
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1,869)
    Adenophorus periens.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA, LA, MO...  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        9,463       35,729
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,828)     (14,459)
    Alectryon macrococcus var.  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       14,575       51,857
     auwahiensis.                                                                                                                                                                                                   (5,899)     (20,987)
    Alectryon macrococcus var.  ..............  ..............  MO............  WMA...........  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........       16,054       56,737
     macrococcus.                                                                                                                                                                                                   (6,498)     (22,962)
    Argyroxiphium sandwicense   ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............       10,151       53,411
     ssp. macrocephalum.                                                                                                                                                                                            (4,108)     (21,615)
    Asplenium dielerectum.....  ..............  WMA, LA.......  WMA, MO.......  WMA, MO.......  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  ..............       14,641       80,873
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (5,926)     (32,728)
    Asplenium peruvianum var.   ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............       18,180       80,254
     insulare.                                                                                                                                                                                                      (7,356)     (32,477)
    Bidens campylotheca ssp.    ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......       18,551       78,205
     pentamera.                                                                                                                                                                                                     (7,507)     (31,648)
    Bidens campylotheca ssp.    ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........        9,016       58,142
     waihoiensis.                                                                                                                                                                                                   (3,648)     (23,529)
    Bidens conjuncta..........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........        9,264       28,424
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,750)     (11,505)
    Bidens micrantha ssp.       ..............  EMA, LA.......  LA............  WMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  LA............  ..............       22,690      111,450
     kalealaha.                                                                                                                                                                                                     (9,183)     (45,104)
    Bidens wiebkei............  MO............  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        3,156       28,700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (1,277)    (111,613)
    Bonamia menziesii.........  ..............  EMA, MO.......  LA, MO........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........        9,482       66,562
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,838)     (26,533)
    Brighamia rockii..........  MO, EMA, WMA..  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  MO............  1,141 (462)       14,619
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (5,917)
    Calamagrostis hillebrandii  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,364 (552)        4,618
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1,869)
    Canavalia molokaiensis....  MO............  ..............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  1,324 (536)       35,400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (14,324)
    Canavalia pubescens.......  LA............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,874       26,783
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,782)     (10,840)
    Cenchrus agrimonioides....  ..............  EMA, WMA......  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,874       44,379
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,782)     (17,960)
    Clermontia lindseyana.....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,953       20,972
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,814)      (8,487)
    Clermontia oblongifolia     ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  1,819 (736)        3,515
     ssp. brevipes.                                                                                                                                                                                                            (142.348)
    Clermontia oblongifolia     ..............  ..............  LA............  EMA, WMA, LA..  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       14,526       78,968
     ssp. mauiensis.                                                                                                                                                                                                (5,878)     (31,958)
    Clermontia peleana *......  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    802 (325)       26,703
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (10,807)
    Clermontia samuelii.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,846       55,653
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,579)     (22,522)
    Colubrina oppositifolia...  ..............  EMA...........  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        7,681       29,798
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,109)     (12,060)

[[Page 34543]]

 
    Ctenitis squamigera.......  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA, MO..  WMA...........  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  WMA, LA.......       15,969       76,025
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (6,464)     (30,768)
    Cyanea asplenifolia.......  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,482       40,170
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,624)     (16,258)
    Cyanea copelandii ssp.      ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........        9,016       60,072
     haleakalaensis.                                                                                                                                                                                                (3,648)     (24,310)
    Cyanea dunbariae..........  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,201 (486)       25,613
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (10,364)
    Cyanea duvalliorum........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,846       55,653
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,579)     (22,522)
    Cyanea gibsonii...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............        0 (0)  1,209 (490)
    Cyanea glabra *...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........       22,897       61,459
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (9,266)     (24,872)
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp.      ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............       12 (5)       18,184
     grimesiana *.                                                                                                                                                                                                               (7,358)
    Cyanea hamatiflora ssp.     ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       15,799       76,625
     hamatiflora.                                                                                                                                                                                                   (6,393)     (31,009)
    Cyanea horrida............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........       15,167       52,411
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (6,137)     (21,209)
    Cyanea kunthiana..........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       22,843       92,780
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (9,244)     (37,548)
    Cyanea lobata ssp.          ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)    248 (101)
     baldwinii.
    Cyanea lobata ssp. lobata.  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........        7,900       23,806
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,198)      (9,636)
    Cyanea magnicalyx.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........        7,900       24,861
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,198)     (10,062)
    Cyanea mannii.............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,819 (736)       18,490
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (7,482)
    Cyanea maritae............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,846       55,653
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,579)     (22,522)
    Cyanea mceldowneyi........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       15,799       76,625
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (6,393)     (31,009)
    Cyanea munroi.............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO, LA........       12 (5)        5,491
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,222)
    Cyanea obtusa.............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,953       28,282
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,814)     (11,445)
    Cyanea procera............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,819 (736)       18,490
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (7,482)
    Cyanea profuga............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............   1,807 731)       16,861
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (6,823)
    Cyanea solanacea..........  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,819 (736)       32,144
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (13,007)
    Cyperus fauriei...........  ..............  LA............  MO............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    400 (162)       22,664
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (9,171)
    Cyperus pennatiformis.....  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)  1,535 (622)
    Cyperus trachysanthos *...  ..............  LA, MO........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)       13,976
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (5,655)
    Cyrtandra ferripilosa.....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       14,997       49,922
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (6,068)     (20,202)
    Cyrtandra filipes.........  ..............  ..............  MO............  WMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........        8,288       47,790
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,355)     (19,341)
    Cyrtandra munroi..........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA.......        7,900       25,015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,198)     (10,126)
    Cyrtandra oxybapha........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,317       25,590
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,366)     (10,356)
    Diplazium molokaiense.....  ..............  ..............  LA, MO........  WMA...........  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA, WMA, LA..  ..............       21,422       99,609
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (8,668)     (40,310)
    Dubautia plantaginea ssp.   ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  2,220 (899)       12,269
     humilis.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (4,966)
    Eugenia koolauensis *.....  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)        3,271
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1,323)
    Festuca molokaiensis......  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       10,330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,180)

[[Page 34544]]

 
    Flueggea neowawraea.......  ..............  EMA...........  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        7,262       36,227
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,939)     (14,661)
    Geranium arboreum.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............       10,884       56,292
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (4,405)     (22,781)
    Geranium hanaense.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,044       28,950
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,255)     (11,715)
    Geranium hillebrandii.....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,364 (552)        5,673
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,295)
    Geranium multiflorum......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............       18,180       80,254
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (7,356)     (32,477)
    Gouania hillebrandii......  ..............  WMA, KAH......  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       22,225
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (8,994)
    Gouania vitifolia *.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  2,220 (899)       12,269
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,966)
    Hesperomannia arborescens.  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA, MO...        9,331       35,828
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,777)     (14,501)
    Hesperomannia arbuscula...  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........        7,900       33,739
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,198)     (13,656)
    Hibiscus arnottianus ssp.   MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............    936 (379)       11,416
     immaculatus.                                                                                                                                                                                                                (4,619)
    Hibiscus brackenridgei....  LA, MO........  EMA, WMA, LA,   ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        7,798       59,540
                                                 MO, KAH.                                                                                                                                                           (3,156)     (24,095)
    Huperzia mannii...........  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       22,843       95,765
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (9,244)     (38,755)
    Ischaemum byrone..........  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    924 (374)        8,421
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (3,408)
    Isodendrion pyrifolium *..  ..............  ..............  MO............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........        8,288       36,759
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,355)     (14,878)
    Kadua cordata ssp. remyi..  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)       11,778
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,766)
    Kadua coriacea *..........  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)        7,310
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,958)
    Kadua laxiflora...........  ..............  ..............  LA, MO........  WMA, LA.......  LA............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA, LA.......        9,101       51,375
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,684)     (20,793)
    Kanaloa kahoolawensis.....  KAH...........  KAH...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)        6,451
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,611)
    Kokia cookei *............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)        3,271
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1,323)
    Labordia tinifolia var.     ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............        0 (0)       12,987
     lanaiensis.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (5,256)
    Labordia triflora.........  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       10,330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,180)
    Lysimachia lydgatei.......  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  2,220 (899)       20,634
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (8,350)
    Lysimachia maxima.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,419 (574)       20,185
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (8,168)
    Marsilea villosa..........  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    924 (374)        6,886
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,786)
    Melanthera kamolensis.....  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,874       25,897
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,782)     (10,487)
    Melicope adscendens.......  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       13,827       46,869
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (5,596)     (18,968)

[[Page 34545]]

 
    Melicope balloui..........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,846       55,653
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,579)     (22,522)
    Melicope knudsenii........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    748 (303)        4,988
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,019)
    Melicope mucronulata......  ..............  EMA...........  MO............  ..............  ..............  MO............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,823       42,844
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,571)     (17,339)
    Melicope munroi...........  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............    388 (157)       11,539
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,670)
    Melicope ovalis...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........        9,016       58,142
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,648)     (23,529)
    Melicope reflexa..........  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,807 (731)       30,515
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (12,348)
    Mucuna sloanei var.         ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    802 (325)       26,703
     persericea.                                                                                                                                                                                                                (10,807)
    Myrsine vaccinioides......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,364 (552)        4,618
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1,869)
    Neraudia sericea..........  ..............  EMA, WMA, LA,   MO............  ..............  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA.......  ..............       15,028       84,886
                                                 KAH.                                                                                                                                                               (6,082)     (34,353)
    Nototrichium humile *.....  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,874       25,897
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,782)     (10,481)
    Peperomia subpetiolata....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,044       28,950
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,255)     (11,715)
    Peucedanum sandwicense....  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  WMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        6,604       33,612
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (2,673)     (13,603)
    Phyllostegia bracteata *..  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  EMA...........       25,394       98,898
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (10,276)     (40,023)
    Phyllostegia haliakalae *.  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  EMA, LA.......    558 (226)       14,615
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (5,914)
    Phyllostegia hispida......  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  1,431 (579)       21,391
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (8,656)
    Phyllostegia mannii.......  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  EMA, MO.......  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       16,804       80,437
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (6,799)     (32,550)
    Phyllostegia pilosa.......  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  EMA, MO.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        9,851       45,811
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,985)     (18,538)
    Pittosporum halophilum....  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    924 (374)        6,886
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,786)
    Plantago princeps.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  EMA, WMA......        3,560       32,355
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (1,442)     (13,093)
    Platanthera holochila.....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA, WMA, MO..  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........       13,047       52,368
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (5,279)     (21,193)
    Pleomele fernaldii........  ..............  LA............  LA............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............        0 (0)       24,279
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (9,825)
    Portulaca sclerocarpa.....  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)    886 (359)
    Pteris lidgatei...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, MO.......        9,331       34,867
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,777)     (14,112)
    Remya mauiensis...........  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........  WMA...........  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........        8,707       36,072
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,524)     (14,599)
    Sanicula purpurea.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,364 (552)        4,618
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1,869)
    Santalum haleakalae var.    ..............  EMA, WMA......  WMA, LA, MO...  WMA, LA.......  LA............  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA, LA.......       24,483      112,875
     lanaiense.                                                                                                                                                                                                     (9,909)     (45,681)
    Schenkia sebaeoides.......  WMA, MO.......  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,129 (457)       18,424
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (7,456)
    Schiedea haleakalensis....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA...........  ..............        3,540       32,646
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (1,434)     (13,211)
    Schiedea jacobii *........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,044       28,950
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,254)     (11,715)
    Schiedea laui.............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  1,419 (574)        6,531
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,643)
    Schiedea lydgatei.........  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       10,330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,180)
    Schiedea salicaria........  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)        7,310
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,958)

[[Page 34546]]

 
    Schiedea sarmentosa.......  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       10,330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,180)
    Sesbania tomentosa........  WMA, MO, LA,    EMA, WMA, LA,   MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,391       72,569
                                 KAH.            MO, KAH.                                                                                                                                                           (3,396)     (29,368)
    Silene alexandri..........  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       10,330
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (4,180)
    Silene lanceolata.........  ..............  LA............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       21,035
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (8,512)
    Solanum incompletum *.....  ..............  EMA, LA.......  EMA, LA.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  LA............  ..............       10,057       80,871
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (4,070)     (32,728)
    Spermolepis hawaiiensis...  ..............  EMA, WMA, LA..  LA, MO........  ..............  ..............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        8,075       67,043
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (3,268)     (25,131)
    Stenogyne bifida..........  ..............  ..............  MO............  MO............  MO............  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  MO............        2,632       36,674
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (1,065)     (14,840)
    Stenogyne kauaulaensis....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)  1,055 (426)
    Tetramolopium capillare *.  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  WMA...........  2,220 (899)       22,202
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (8,986)
    Tetramolopium lepidotum     ..............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)       10,705
     ssp. lepidotum *.                                                                                                                                                                                                           (4,332)
    Tetramolopium remyi.......  ..............  WMA, LA.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)       18,015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (7,290)
    Tetramolopium rockii......  MO............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    924 (374)        6,886
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (2,786)
    Vigna o-wahuensis.........  EMA, KAH......  LA, KAH.......  MO, LA........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............    388 (157)       40,193
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (16,266)
    Viola lanaiensis..........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............        0 (0)  2,044 (828)
    Wikstroemia villosa.......  ..............  ..............  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............       21,479       59,528
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (8,692)     (24,090)
    Zanthoxylum hawaiiense....  ..............  EMA...........  WMA, MO.......  LA, MO........  MO............  EMA, WMA......  EMA...........  EMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............       20,372      118,266
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (8,244)     (47,860)
Areas Considered for Exclusion  1,129 (457)...  6,874 (2,782).  1,195 (484)...  6,482 (2,623).  10,827 (4,380)  7,766 (3,143).  748 (303).....  3,183 (1,288).  15 (6)........  357 (144).....  2,402 (973)...  ...........  ...........
 by Ecosystem, ac (ha).
Total Area Proposed CH          12,006 (4,860)  51,768          27,333          52,500          40,347          23,656 (9,572)  4,988 (2,019).  30,332          2,107 (853)...  5,772 (2,336).  20,249 (8,195)  ...........  ...........
 (including areas considered                     (20,950).       (11,061).       (21,247).       (16,328).                                       (12,275).
 for exclusion).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EMA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem in the east Maui mountains.
WMA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem in the west Maui mountains.
LA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem on Lanai.
MO = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem on Molokai.
KAH = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem on Kahoolawe.
The area known to be occupied by species for which the unit is designated also provides area essential to the conservation of all of the species that occur in that particular ecosystem, even if the area is currently unoccupied by
  those species. Those areas provide the space and appropriate environmental conditions for activities such as seed dispersal and reproduction that will serve to expand the existing populations.
* This species may no longer occur in the wild on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, or Kahoolawe.


[[Page 34547]]


                                           Table 7B--Forest Bird Species for Which Critical Habitat Is Designated in Each Ecosystem, and Areas Considered for Exclusion Under Section 4(b)(2)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Ecosystem                                                                                     Considered
                               --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     for         Total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 exclusion     critical
            Species                                                                                                                                                                                                 from       habitat
                                    Coastal       Lowland dry    Lowland mesic    Lowland wet     Montane wet    Montane mesic    Montane dry     Sub-alpine        Alpine         Dry cliff       Wet cliff      critical   proposed ac
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 habitat ac      (ha)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (ha)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Forest Bird:
    Akohekohe.................  ..............  ..............  WMA, MO.......  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA, WMA, MO..  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA, MO..       31,405      168,663
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (12,710)     (67,632)
    Kiwikiu...................  ..............  ..............  WMA, MO.......  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA, WMA, MO..  EMA, WMA, MO..  ..............  EMA...........  ..............  EMA, WMA......  EMA, WMA, MO..       31,405      168,663
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (12,710)     (67,632)
Area Considered for Exclusion   ..............  ..............  388 (157).....  6,482 (2,624).  10,827 (4,380)  7,766 (3,143).  ..............  3,813 (1,288).  ..............  357 (145).....  2,402 (973)...  ...........  ...........
 ac (ha).
Total Area Proposed Critical    ..............  ..............  10,807 (4,373)  43,820          39,297          23,656 (9,572)  ..............  30,332          ..............  3,162 (1,279).  17,589 (7,118)  ...........  ...........
 Habitat (including area                                                         (17,735).       (15,902).                                       (12,275).
 considered for exclusion) ac
 (ha).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EMA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem in the east Maui mountains.
WMA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem in the west Maui mountains.
MO = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem on Molokai.
The area known to be occupied by species for which the unit is designated also provides area essential to the conservation of all of the species that occur in that particular ecosystem, even if the area is currently unoccupied by
  those species. Those areas provide the space and appropriate environmental conditions for activities such as food gathering and reproduction that will serve to expand the existing populations.


   Table 7C--Tree Snail Species for Which Critical Habitat Is Designated in Each Ecosystem and Areas Considered for Exclusion Under 4(B)(2) Forest Bird Species for Which Critical Habitat Is Designated in Each Ecosystem, and Areas
                                                                                             Considered for Exclusion Under Section 4(b)(2)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Ecosystem                                                                                     Considered
                               --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     for         Total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 exclusion     critical
            Species                                                                                                                                                                                                 from       habitat
                                    Coastal       Lowland dry    Lowland mesic    Lowland wet     Montane wet    Montane mesic    Montane dry     Sub-alpine        Alpine         Dry cliff       Wet cliff      critical   proposed ac
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 habitat ac      (ha)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (ha)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tree Snail:
    Newcombia cumingi.........  ..............  ..............  ..............  WMA...........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............        0 (0)    599 (242)
Area Considered for Exclusion   ..............  ..............  ..............  0 (0).........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ...........  ...........
 ac (ha).
Total Proposed CH ac (ha).....  ..............  ..............  ..............  599 (242).....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ...........  ...........
    Partulina semicarinata....  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............        0 (0)  1,815 (736)
    Partulina variabilis......  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............  LA............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  LA............        0 (0)  1,815 (736)
Area Considered for Exclusion   ..............  ..............  ..............  0 (0).........  0 (0).........  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  0 (0).........  ...........  ...........
 ac (ha).
Total Area Proposed CH          ..............  ..............  ..............  606 (246).....  248 (101).....  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  ..............  961 (389).....  ...........  ...........
 (including area considered
 for exclusion) ac (ha).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
WMA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem in the west Maui mountains.
LA = critical habitat within indicated ecosystem on Lanai.
The area known to be occupied by species for which the unit is designated also provides area essential to the conservation of all of the species that occur in that particular ecosystem, even if the area is currently unoccupied by
  those species. Those areas provide the space and appropriate environmental conditions for activities such as food gathering and reproduction that will serve to expand the existing populations.


[[Page 34548]]

Special Management Considerations or Protections

    The term critical habitat is defined in section 3(5)(A) of the Act, 
in part, as geographic areas on which are found these physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the species and 
``which may require special management considerations or protection.''
    In identifying critical habitat in occupied areas, we determine 
whether those areas that contain the features essential to the 
conservation of the species require any special management actions. 
Although the determination that special management may be required is 
not a prerequisite to designating critical habitat in unoccupied areas, 
special management is needed throughout all of the proposed critical 
habitat units. The following discussion of special management needs is 
therefore applicable to each of the 135 Maui Nui species for which we 
are herein proposing to designate critical habitat.
    The 135 species for which we are proposing to designate critical 
habitat include 118 species that are currently found in the wild on 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, 10 plant species which were 
historically found on one or more of these islands, but are currently 
found only on other Hawaiian Islands (Clermontia peleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyperus trachysanthos, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua coriacea, Nototrichium 
humile, Solanum incompletum, and Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum), 6 plant species that may not be currently extant in the 
wild (Acaena exigua, Cyanea glabra, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. 
haliakalae, Schiedea jacobii, and Tetramolopium capillare), and 1 plant 
species, Kokia cookei, which exists only in cultivation. For each of 
the 118 species currently found in the wild on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, 
and Kahoolawe, we have determined that the features essential to their 
conservation are those required for the successful functioning of the 
ecosystem(s) in which they occur (see Tables 4 and 5, above). As 
described earlier, in some cases, additional species-specific primary 
constituent elements were also identified (see Table 5, above). Special 
management considerations or protections are necessary throughout the 
critical habitat areas proposed here to avoid further degradation or 
destruction of the habitat that provides those features essential to 
their conservation. The primary threats to the physical or biological 
features essential to the conservation of all of these species include 
habitat destruction and modification by nonnative ungulates, 
competition with nonnative species, hurricanes, landslides, rockfalls, 
flooding, fire, drought, and climate change. The three tree snails are 
additionally threatened by predation by the rosy wolf snail. The 
reduction of these threats will require the implementation of special 
management actions within each of the critical habitat areas identified 
in this proposed rule.
    All proposed critical habitat requires active management to address 
the ongoing degradation and loss of native habitat caused by nonnative 
ungulates (pigs, goats, mouflon sheep, axis deer, and cattle). 
Nonnative ungulates also impact the habitat through predation and 
trampling. Without this special management, habitat containing the 
features that are essential for the conservation of these species will 
continue to be degraded and destroyed.
    All proposed critical habitat requires active management to address 
the ongoing degradation and loss of native habitat caused by nonnative 
plants. Special management is also required to prevent the introduction 
of new nonnative plant species into native habitats. Particular 
attention is required in nonnative plant control efforts to avoid 
creating additional disturbances that may facilitate the further 
introduction and establishment of invasive plant seeds. Precautions are 
also required to avoid the inadvertent trampling of listed plant 
species in the course of management activities.
    The active control of nonnative plant species will help to address 
the threat posed by fire to 39 of the proposed ecosystem critical 
habitat units in particular: Maui--Coastal--Units 4 through 7; Maui--
Lowland Dry--Units 1 through 6; Maui--Lowland Mesic--Units 1 and 2; 
Maui--Montane Mesic--Units 1, 2, and 5; Maui--Dry Cliff--Units 1, 5, 
and 7; Kahoolawe--Coastal--Units 1 through 3; Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry--
Units 1 and 2; Lanai--Coastal--Units 1 and 3; Lanai--Lowland Dry--Units 
1 and 2; Lanai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1; Lanai--Dry Cliff--Units 1 
through 3; Molokai--Coastal--Units 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7; Molokai--Lowland 
Dry--Units 1 and 2; and Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1. This threat is 
largely a result of the presence of nonnative plant species such as the 
grasses Andropogon virginicus and Melinis minutiflora that increase the 
fuel load and quickly regenerate after a fire. These nonnative grass 
species can outcompete native plants that are not adapted to fire, 
creating a grass-fire cycle that alters ecosystem functions (D'Antonio 
and Vitousek 1992, pp. 64--66; Brooks et al. 2004, p. 680).
    Nine of the ecosystem critical habitat units (Maui--Lowland Wet--
Units 1 and 4; Maui--Montane Wet--Units 1 through 3; Maui--Montane 
Mesic--Unit 2; Maui--Wet Cliff--Units 6 and 7; and Molokai--Montane 
Wet--Unit 1) may require special management to reduce the threat of 
landslides, rockfalls, and flooding. These threaten to further degrade 
habitat conditions in these units and have the potential to eliminate 
some occurrences of 50 plant species (e.g., Adenophorus periens, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. 
conjuncta, B. wiebkei, Bonamia menziesii, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
brevipes, C. oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, C. samuelii, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, C. 
duvalliorum, C. hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, 
C. magnicalyx, C. mannii, C. maritae, C. mceldowneyi, C. profuga, C. 
solanaea, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. humilis, Geranium hanaense, G. multiflorum, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia mannii, Kadua laxiflora, Lysimachia 
lydgatei, L. maxima, Melicope balloui, M. ovalis, Phyllostegia hispida, 
P. mannii, P. pilosa, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Pteris 
lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea 
laui, Stenogyne bifida, S. kauaulaensis, Wikstroemia villosa, and 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense) found on steep slopes and cliffs, or in narrow 
gulches.
    In summary, we find that each of the areas we are proposing as 
critical habitat contains features essential for the conservation of 
the species that may require special management considerations or 
protection to ensure the conservation of the 135 species for which we 
are proposing critical habitat. These special management considerations 
and protections are required to preserve and maintain the essential 
features provided to these species by the ecosystems upon which they 
depend. The specific areas proposed for critical habitat that are 
outside the geographical area occupied by these species have been 
determined to be essential for their conservation.

Proposed Critical Habitat Designation

    We are proposing 271,062 ac (109,695 ha) as critical habitat in 11 
ecosystem types for 135 species. The proposed

[[Page 34549]]

critical habitat is comprised of 100 critical habitat units for the 
plants, 44 critical habitat units for each of the 2 forest birds, 5 
critical habitat units for each of the Lanai tree snails, and one 
critical habitat unit for the Maui tree snail Newcombia cumingi (see 
Tables 6A-6H, above, for details). The proposed critical habitat 
includes land under State, County of Maui, Federal (Haleakala National 
Park; Kalaupapa National Historical Park (NHP), Department of Homeland 
Security--Coast Guard), and private ownership. The critical habitat 
units we describe below constitute our current best assessment of those 
areas that meet the definition of critical habitat for the 135 species 
of plants and animals.

Descriptions of Proposed Critical Habitat Units

    Critical habitat designations for the 130 plant species, the 2 
forest birds, and the 3 tree snails would be published in separate 
sections of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR); critical habitat 
would be published in 50 CFR 17.99(c), (d), (e)(1), (e)(2), (f), (m), 
and (n) for plants on Molokai, Maui and Kahoolawe, and Lanai; in 50 CFR 
17.95(b) for the two forest birds; and in 50 CFR 17.95(f) for the three 
tree snail species. However, the proposed critical habitat for plants, 
birds, and tree snails overlap each other in many areas of Molokai, 
Maui, and Lanai. For example, ``Lanai--Lowland Wet--Unit 1'' and the 
Lanai tree snail unit ``Partulina variabilis--Unit 1--Lowland Wet'' 
correspond to the same geographic area. Therefore, because the unit 
boundaries are the same, we are describing them only once to avoid 
redundancy and reduce publication costs for this proposed rule, as 
indicated by ``(and)'' following the unit name.
    As provided under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, all or portions of 
each of these areas may be considered for exclusion from critical 
habitat when this rule is finalized. Exclusions are considered based on 
the relative benefits of including or excluding an area from critical 
habitat, and includes the consideration of information provided during 
the public comment period on potential economic or other impacts of 
this proposed critical habitat designation. Exclusions from critical 
habitat may be made at the discretion of the Secretary (as described 
below, under ``Exclusions''). The consideration of potential economic 
impacts or other relevant impacts of critical habitat applies solely to 
the designation of critical habitat, and is not a factor in our 
assessment of whether a species warrants listing as endangered or 
threatened under the Act.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 1 consists of 2 ac (1 ha) on Keopuka Rock on 
the northern coast of east Maui. This unit is State-owned, and is 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary. It is occupied by the plants 
Ischaemum byrone and Peucedanum sandwicense, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Coastal--Unit 1 is not known 
to be occupied by Brighamia rockii, Cyperus pennatiformis, or Vigna o-
wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 2 consists of 42 ac (17 ha) of State land, and 
26 ac (11 ha) of privately owned land, from Wahinepee Stream to Moiki 
Point on the northern coast of east Maui. This unit includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Maui--
Coastal--Unit 2 is not currently occupied by Brighamia rockii, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, or Vigna o-
wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the physical or biological features necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 3 consists of 13 ac (5 ha) of State land, and 
40 ac (16 ha) of privately owned land, from Waianu to Wailua Nui Bay on 
the northern coast of east Maui. This unit is occupied by the plant 
Ischaemum byrone and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Maui--Coastal--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by Brighamia 
rockii, Cyperus pennatiformis, Peucedanum sandwicense, or Vigna o-
wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 4 consists of 107 ac (43 ha) of State land, and 
136 ac (55 ha) of privately owned land, from Papiha Point to Honolulu 
Nui Bay on the northeastern coast of east Maui. This unit is occupied 
by the plants Ischaemum byrone and Peucedanum sandwicense, and includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Coastal--
Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by Brighamia rockii, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 5 consists of 27 ac (11 ha) of State land from 
Keakulikuli Point to Pailoa Bay on the northeastern coast of east Maui. 
This unit is occupied by the plant Ischaemum byrone and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory

[[Page 34550]]

native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the coastal ecosystem (See Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Maui--Coastal--Unit 5 is not known to be occupied 
by Brighamia rockii, Cyperus pennatiformis, Peucedanum sandwicense, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 6 consists of 357 ac (144 ha) of State land at 
Kamanamana on the southern coast of East Maui. This unit includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Maui--Coastal--Unit 6 is not currently occupied by Brighamia rockii, 
Cyperus pennatiformis, Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 7 consists of 40 ac (16 ha) of State land, and 
147 ac (59 ha) of privately owned land at Naholoku, from Kailio Point 
to Mokulau, on the southern coast of east Maui. This unit includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Maui--Coastal--Unit 7 is not currently occupied by Brighamia rockii, 
Cyperus pennatiformis, Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 8 consists of 597 ac (241 ha) of State land and 
less than 1 ac (ha) of privately owned land from Kiakeana Point to 
Manawainui on the southern coast of east Maui. This unit includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Maui--Coastal--Unit 8 is not currently occupied by Brighamia rockii, 
Cyperus pennatiformis, Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 9 consists of 184 ac (74 ha) of State land, 5 
ac (2 ha) of County land, and 205 ac (83 ha) of privately owned land, 
from Honokohau Bay to Kaikaina on the northwestern coast of west Maui. 
This unit is occupied by the plants Sesbania tomentosa and Schenkia 
sebaeoides, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem 
(see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Coastal--Unit 9 is not known to be occupied by Brighamia rockii, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of this coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within its historical 
range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
this species requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could approach 
recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 10 consists of 215 ac (87 ha) of State land and 
219 ac (89 ha) of privately owned land, from Kahakuloa Head to Waihee 
Point on the northeastern coast of west Maui. This unit is occupied by 
the plants Sesbania tomentosa and Schenkia sebaeoides, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Coastal--
Unit 10 is not known to be occupied by Brighamia rockii, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of this coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within its historical range. Due to 
the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, this species 
requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could approach recovery.
    Maui--Coastal--Unit 11 consists of 6 ac (3 ha) of State land on 
Mokeehia Island on the northeastern coast of west Maui. This unit is 
occupied by the plant Schenkia sebaeoides, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Coastal--Unit 11 is not 
currently occupied by Brighamia rockii or Sesbania tomentosa, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 consists of 12,999 ac (5,260 ha) of State 
land, and 9,197 ac (3,722 ha) of privately owned land, from Kanaio to 
Kahualau Gulch on the southern slopes of east Maui. This unit is 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Flueggea

[[Page 34551]]

neowawraea, Melanthera kamolensis, Melicope adscendens, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, 
and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Canavalia 
pubescens, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Melicope mucronulata, Neraudia sericea, Nototrichium 
humile, or Solanum incompletum, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 consists of 1,851 ac (749 ha) of State 
land, and 762 ac (308 ha) of privately owned land, at Keokea on the 
southern slopes of east Maui. This unit is occupied by the plants 
Bonamia menziesii, Canavalia pubescens, and Hibiscus brackenridgei, and 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 
4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Flueggea neowawraea, Melanthera 
kamolensis, Melicope adscendens, M. mucronulata, Neraudia sericea, 
Nototrichium humile, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Sesbania 
tomentosa, Solanum incompletum, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, or Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 3 consists of less than 1 ac (ha) of County 
land, and 1,089 ac (441 ha) of privately owned land, at Paeahu-Palauea 
on the southern slopes of east Maui. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Canavalia pubescens and Hibiscus brackenridgei, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Melanthera kamolensis, Melicope adscendens, M. mucronulata, 
Neraudia sericea, Nototrichium humile, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, Solanum incompletum, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we have determined this area to 
be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 4 consists of 1,283 ac (519 ha) of State 
land (including the Department of Land and Natural Resources) at Ahihi-
Kinau Natural Area Reserve on the southern slopes of east Maui. This 
unit is occupied by the plant Canavalia pubescens, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (See Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Melanthera kamolensis, Melicope 
adscendens, M. mucronulata, Neraudia sericea, Nototrichium humile, 
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, Solanum 
incompletum, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 consists of 3,685 ac (1,491 ha) of State 
land, and 1,763 ac (713 ha) of privately owned land, from Panaewa to 
Waikapu Valley on the western and southern slopes of west Maui. This 
unit is occupied by the plants Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Gouania hillebrandii, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Remya 
mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by 
Cyanea obtusa, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Kadua coriacea, Lysimachia 
lydgatei, Neraudia sericea, Schiedea salicaria, Tetramolopium 
capillare, or T. remyi, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because 
it provides the PCEs necessary

[[Page 34552]]

for the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical 
range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 consists of 4 ac (2 ha) of State land, 
and 575 ac (233 ha) of privately owned land, from Paleaahu Gulch to Puu 
Hona on the southern slopes of west Maui. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Hibiscus brackenridgei and Schiedea salicaria, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 6 is not known to be occupied by Asplenium dielerectum, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea obtusa, Gouania hillebrandii, Hesperomannia 
arbuscula, Kadua coriacea, Lysimachia lydgatei, Neraudia sericea, Remya 
mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium capillare, or T. remyi, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 consists of 1,172 ac (474 ha) of State 
land, 256 ac (104 ha) of privately owned land, and 502 ac (203 ha) of 
federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), from Manawainui Valley 
to Kukuiula on the eastern slopes of east Maui. This unit is occupied 
by the plants Cyanea asplenifolia, C. copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, 
and Huperzia mannii, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem (See Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Maui--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 is not known to be 
occupied by Ctenitis squamigera or Solanum incompletum, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical 
range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 consists of 1,315 ac (532 ha) of State 
land, and 2,109 ac (854 ha) of privately owned land, from Honokohau to 
Launiupoko on the western slopes of west Maui. This unit is occupied by 
the plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Colubrina oppositifolia, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, and includes the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 is not 
known to be occupied by Asplenium dielerectum, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of this lowland 
mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within its historical range. Due to 
its small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, this species 
requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could approach recovery.
Maui--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic
    This area consists of 477 ac (193 ha) of State land at Ukumehame on 
the southern slopes of west Maui. These units include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Maui--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by the plants Asplenium 
dielerectum, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Remya mauiensis, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 2--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 2--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 10,822 ac (4,379 ha) of State land, 13,844 ac 
(5,602 ha) of privately owned land, and 2,038 ac (825 ha) of federally 
owned land (Haleakala National Park), from Haiku Uka to Kipahulu Valley 
on the northern and eastern slopes of east Maui. These units include 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They 
are are occupied by the plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, 
Clermontia samuelii, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. copelandii ssp. 
haleakalaensis, C. duvalliorum, C. hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. 
kunthiana, C. maritae, C. mceldowneyi, Huperzia mannii, Melicope 
balloui, and M. ovalis. These units also contain unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, C. peleana, Mucuna 
sloanei var. persericea, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of

[[Page 34553]]

wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 3--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 3--Lowland Wet (and)
    This area consists of 65 ac (26 ha) of State land, and 5,001 ac 
(2,024 ha) of privately owned land (partially within Puu Kukui 
Watershed Preserve), from Kahana to Honokohua and Honolua valleys, on 
the northwestern slopes of west Maui. These units include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied 
by the plants Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. lobata, C. 
magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, and Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense. These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens conjuncta, B. 
micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Cyanea glabra, C. kunthiana, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, H. arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia bracteata, Pteris 
lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.

Newcombia cumingi--Unit 1--Lowland Wet

    This area consists of 543 ac (220 ha) of private land and 56 ac 
(23) of State land, between Honokahua and Honokowai valleys, on the 
western slopes of west Maui. This unit is occupied by the tree snail 
Newcombia cumingi, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Due 
to the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, this 
species requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could approach 
recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 4--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 4--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,247 ac (505 ha) of State land, and 180 ac 
(73 ha) of privately owned land (partially within Puu Kukui Watershed 
Preserve), at Honanana Valley on the northeastern slopes of west Maui. 
These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Bidens 
conjuncta, Cyanea asplenifolia, and Pteris lidgatei. These units also 
contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium 
dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia 
ssp. mauiensis, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea glabra, C. kunthiana, C. 
lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest birds, the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 5--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 5--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 864 ac (350 ha) of State land, and 301 ac 
(122 ha) of County land, at Kahakuloa Valley on the northeastern slopes 
of west Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Bidens 
conjuncta, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyrtandra munroi, and Hesperomannia 
arborescens. These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. 
kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, Ctenitis squamigera, 
Cyanea glabra, C. kunthiana, C. lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra 
filipes, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Huperzia 
mannii, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Phyllostegia bracteata, Pteris lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, 
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the 
forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving

[[Page 34554]]

population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 6--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 6--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 30 ac (12 ha) of State land, and 2,082 ac 
(843 ha) of privately owned land, at Iao Valley on the eastern side of 
west Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Alectryon 
macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, and Hesperomannia arbuscula. These 
units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by the plants Bidens conjuncta, 
B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. glabra, C. kunthiana, C. 
lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia mannii, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, Pteris lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest birds, the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 6 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 7--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 7--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 136 ac (55 ha) of State land, and 503 ac (204 
ha) of privately owned land, at upper Honokowai and Wahikuli valleys on 
the western slopes of west Maui. These units includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied 
by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, 
Cyanea asplenifolia, C. lobata, Cyrtandra munroi, and Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense. These units also contain unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 6 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens conjuncta, Clermontia oblongifolia 
ssp. mauiensis, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea glabra, C. kunthiana, C. 
magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, H. arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia bracteata, Pteris 
lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 7 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 8--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 8--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 898 ac (364 ha) of State land at Olowalu 
Valley, on the southern slopes of west Maui. These units include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). 
Although Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 7 is not currently occupied by the 
plants Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens conjuncta, 
B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. glabra, C. kunthiana, C. 
lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Pteris lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 9--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 9--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 230 ac (93 ha) of State land at upper 
Ukumehame Gulch, on the southern slopes of west Maui. These units 
include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Maui--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 is not currently occupied by the 
plants Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens conjuncta, 
B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. glabra, C. kunthiana, C. 
lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Pteris lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion

[[Page 34555]]

or reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels 
necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 10--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 10--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 1,067 ac (432 ha) of State land and 6,747 ac 
(2,730 ha) of privately owned land, at Haiku Uka on the northern slopes 
of east Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the montane 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Asplenium 
peruvianum var. insulare, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, C. duvalliorum, C. horrida, C. 
kunthiana, C. maritae, C. mceldowneyi, Diplazium molokaiense, Huperzia 
mannii, Melicope balloui, and Phyllostegia pilosa; and by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys). These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Adenophorus periens, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. 
campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Clermontia samuellii, Cyanea glabra, C. 
hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Geranium hanaense, 
G. multiflorum, Melicope ovalis, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, P. mannii, Platanthera holochila, Schiedea jacobii, or 
Wikstroemia villosa, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these montane wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 11--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 11--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 4,075 ac (1,649 ha) of State land, 11,737 ac 
(4,750 ha) of privately owned land, and 875 ac (354 ha) of federally 
owned land (Haleakala National Park), from Haiku Uka to Puukaukanu and 
upper Waihoi Valley, on the northern and northeastern slopes of east 
Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the montane 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Asplenium 
peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. 
campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Clermontia samuellii, Cyanea copelandii 
ssp. haleakalaensis, C. duvalliorum, C. hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, 
C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. mceldowneyi, Geranium hanaense, G. 
multiflorum, and Wikstroemia villosa; and by the forest birds, the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane 
Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Adenophorus 
periens, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, Cyanea glabra, C. 
maritae, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Diplazium molokaiense, Huperzia mannii, 
Melicope balloui, M. ovalis, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, P. mannii, P. pilosa, Platanthera holochila, and Schiedea 
jacobii, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 3 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 12--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 12--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 2,228 ac (902 ha) of federally owned land 
(Haleakala National Park) in Kipahulu Valley, on the northeastern 
slopes of east Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the 
plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. 
waihoiensis, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, C. hamatiflora ssp. 
hamatiflora, C. maritae, and Melicope ovalis; and by the forest bird, 
kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). These units also contain unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 3 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Asplenium peruvianum var. 
insulare, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, C. samuellii, Cyanea 
duvalliorum, C. glabra, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. mceldowneyi, 
Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium hanaense, G. 
multiflorum, Huperzia mannii, Melicope balloui, Peperomia subpetiolata, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, P. mannii, P. pilosa, Platanthera holochila, 
Schiedea jacobii, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest bird 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 4 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 13--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 13--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 180 ac (73 ha) of State land and 1,653 ac 
(669 ha) of federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), in Kaapahu 
Valley on the northeastern slopes of east Maui. These units include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They 
are occupied by the plants Clermontia samuellii, Cyanea copelandii ssp. 
haleakalaensis, C.

[[Page 34556]]

hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. maritae, 
Cyrtandra ferripilosa, and Huperzia mannii. These units also contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 4 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Asplenium 
peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. 
campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Cyanea duvalliorum, C. glabra, C. mceldowneyi, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Geranium hanaense, G. multiflorum, Melicope balloui, M. ovalis, 
Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. mannii, P. pilosa, 
Platanthera holochila, Schiedea jacobii, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by 
the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 5 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 14--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 14--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 222 ac (90 ha) of State land, and 165 ac (67 
ha) of federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), east of Kipahulu 
Valley on the eastern slopes of east Maui. These units include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). 
Although Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 5 is not currently occupied by the 
plants Adenophorus periens, Asplenium peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, 
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, C. samuellii, Cyanea copelandii 
ssp. haleakalaensis, C. duvalliorum, C. glabra, C. hamatiflora ssp. 
hamatiflora, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. maritae, C. mceldowneyi, 
Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium hanaense, G. 
multiflorum, Huperzia mannii, Melicope balloui, M. ovalis, Peperomia 
subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. mannii, P. pilosa, Platanthera 
holochila, Schiedea jacobii, or Wikstroemia villosa; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 6 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 15--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 15--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 1,113 ac (451 ha) of State land, 471 ac (191 
ha) of County land, and 2,380 ac (963 ha) of privately owned land, at 
the summit and surrounding areas on west Maui. These units include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They 
are occupied by the plants Bidens conjuncta, Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii, Cyanea kunthiana, Geranium hillebrandii, Myrsine 
vaccinioides, and Sanicula purpurea. These units also contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 6 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Acaena exigua, Cyrtandra oxybapha, 
Huperzia mannii, Phyllostegia bracteata, or Platanthera holochila; or 
by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 7 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 16--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 16--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 80 ac (32 ha) of State land, and 528 ac (214 
ha) of privately owned land, at Hanaula and Pohakea Gulch on the 
southeastern slopes of west Maui. These units include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied 
by the plants Cyrtandra oxybapha and Platanthera holochila, and contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 7 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Acaena exigua, Bidens conjuncta, 
Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Cyanea kunthiana, Geranium hillebrandii, 
Huperzia mannii, Myrsine vaccinioides, Phyllostegia bracteata, or 
Sanicula purpurea; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria 
dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane 
wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 8 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 17--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 17--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 46 ac (19 ha) of privately owned land at the 
summit of Kapilau Ridge on the eastern slopes of west Maui. These units 
include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Maui--Montane Wet--Unit 8 is not currently occupied by the 
plants Acaena exigua, Bidens conjuncta, Calamagrostis hillebrandii, 
Cyanea kunthiana, Cyrtandra oxybapha,

[[Page 34557]]

Geranium hillebrandii, Huperzia mannii, Myrsine vaccinioides, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Platanthera holochila, or Sanicula purpurea; or 
by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 18--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 18--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 7,277 ac (2,945 ha) of State land, 18 ac (7 
ha) of County land, 10,781 ac (4,363 ha) of privately owned land, and 
2,897 ac (1,172 ha) of federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), 
almost completely circumscribing the summit of Haleakala on east Maui. 
These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the montane mesic 
ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Argyroxiphium 
sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum, Asplenium dielerectum, A. peruvianum 
var. insulare, Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Clermontia 
lindseyana, Cyanea horrida, C. mceldowneyi, C. obtusa, Cyrtandra 
ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium arboreum, G. 
multiflorum, Huperzia mannii, Melicope adscendens, Neraudia sericea, 
and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense; and by the forest birds, the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane 
Mesic--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Cyanea glabra, C. 
hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. kunthiana, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. 
mannii, Wikstroemia villosa, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these montane mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical 
range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.

Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 2 (and)

Palmeria dolei--Unit 19--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 19--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 124 ac (50 ha) of State land, and 242 ac (98 
ha) of privately owned land, at Helu and the upper reaches of 
Puehuehunui on the southern slopes of west Maui. These units include 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). 
They are occupied by the plants Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea magnicalyx, 
Diplazium molokaiense, Lysimachia lydgatei, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense. These 
units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane 
Mesic--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Geranium 
hillebrandii, Huperzia mannii, or Remya mauiensis; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 3 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 20--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 20--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 174 ac (70 ha) of State land, and 44 ac (18 
ha) of privately owned land, at Lihau on the southwestern slopes of 
west Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the montane 
mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Geranium 
hillebrandii, Huperzia mannii, and Lysimachia lydgatei, and contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 3 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
magnicalyx, Diplazium molokaiense, Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or 
by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane mesic 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 4 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 21--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 21--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 72 ac (29 ha) of State land at Halepohaku and 
upper Ukumehame Gulch on the southern slopes of west Maui. These units 
include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the montane mesic ecosystem (see 
Table 4). They are occupied by the plant Lysimachia lydgatei, and 
contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 4 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
magnicalyx, Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium hillebrandii, Huperzia 
mannii, Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Stenogyne 
kauaulaensis, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by the forest birds, the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor

[[Page 34558]]

xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 22--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 22--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 170 ac (69 ha) of State land, and 134 ac (54 
ha) of privately owned land, at the upper reaches of Papalaua and 
Pohakea gulches on the southeastern slopes of west Maui. These units 
include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the montane mesic ecosystem (see 
Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Remya mauiensis and Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, and contain unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea magnicalyx, Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium 
hillebrandii, Huperzia mannii, Lysimachia lydgatei, Stenogyne 
kauaulaensis, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by the forest birds, the 
akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these montane mesic species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 6 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 23--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 23--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 94 ac (38 ha) of privately owned land at 
Kapilau Ridge on the eastern slopes of west Maui. These units include 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). 
Although Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 6 is not currently occupied by the 
plants Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea magnicalyx, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Geranium hillebrandii, Huperzia mannii, Lysimachia lydgatei, Remya 
mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, 
or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe 
(Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these montane mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Maui--Montane Dry--Unit 1 consists of 2,962 ac (1,199 ha) of State 
land, 1,703 ac (689 ha) of privately owned land, and 323 ac (131 ha) of 
federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), from Kanaio to Naholoku 
and Kaupo Gap along the southern slopes of east Maui. This unit 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the montane dry ecosystem (see Table 
4). It is occupied by the plants Melicope knudsenii, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, and contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Montane Dry--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Geranium 
arboreum, or Melicope mucronulata, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Subalpine--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 24--Subalpine (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 24--Subalpine
    This area consists of 10,866 ac (4,397 ha) of State land, 5,764 ac 
(2,333 ha) of privately owned land, and 2,770 ac (1,121 ha) of 
federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), from Kanaio north to 
Puu Nianiau and east to Kaupo Gap on east Maui. These units include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the subalpine ecosystem (see Table 4). They 
are occupied by the plants Asplenium peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens 
micrantha ssp. kalealaha, and Geranium arboreum; and by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys). These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Subalpine--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum, Geranium multiflorum, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Schiedea haleakalensis, Solanum incompletum, or 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these subalpine species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Subalpine--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 25--Subalpine (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 25--Subalpine
    This area consists of 1,095 ac (443 ha) of privately owned land, 
and 9,836 ac (3,981 ha) of federally owned land (Haleakala National 
Park), from the

[[Page 34559]]

summit north to Koolau Gap and east to Kalapawili Ridge on east Maui. 
These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the subalpine 
ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Argyroxiphium 
sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum, Geranium multiflorum, and Schiedea 
haleakalensis; and by the forest bird, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei). 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Subalpine--
Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Asplenium peruvianum 
var. insulare, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Geranium arboreum, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Solanum incompletum, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; 
or by the forest bird, the kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these subalpine species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Alpine--Unit 1 consists of 761 ac (308 ha) of State land, 428 
ac (173 ha) of privately owned land, and 918 ac (371 ha) of federally 
owned land (Haleakala National Park), at the summit of Haleakala on 
east Maui. This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and the subcanopy native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the alpine ecosystem (see Table 4). 
It is occupied by the plant Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. 
macrocephalum, and contains unoccupied areas we have determined to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of this alpine species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within its historical range. Due to its small numbers of 
individuals and low population sizes, this species requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could approach recovery.
Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 26--Dry Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 26--Dry Cliff
    This area consists of 264 ac (107 ha) of privately owned land and 
755 ac (305 ha) of federally owned land (Haleakala National Park), from 
Pakaoao to Koolau Gap on east Maui. These units include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by 
the plant Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, and contain unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Diplazium molokaiense, Plantago princeps, or 
Schiedea haleakalensis; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria 
dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry 
cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 consists of 688 ac (279 ha) of federally 
owned land (Haleakala National Park) from Haupaakea Peak to Kaupo Gap 
on east Maui. This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and the subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the dry cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4). It is occupied by the plants Plantago princeps 
and Schiedea haleakalensis, and contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera or Diplazium molokaiense, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these dry cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 27--Dry Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 27--Dry Cliff
    This area consists of 93 ac (38 ha) of privately owned land and 200 
ac (81 ha) of federally owned land (Haleakala National Park) on the 
eastern wall of Koolau Gap on east Maui. These units include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Maui--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by the plants Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Diplazium molokaiense, Plantago princeps, 
or Schiedea haleakalensis; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe 
(Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these dry cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 28--Dry Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 28--Dry Cliff
    This area consists of 315 ac (127 ha) federally owned land 
(Haleakala National Park), along Kalapawili Ridge on east Maui. These 
units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and the subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 is not currently occupied by the 
plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Plantago princeps, or Schiedea haleakalensis; or by the forest birds, 
the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these

[[Page 34560]]

dry cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 5 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 29--Dry Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 29--Dry Cliff
    This area consists of 1,298 ac (525 ha) of State land, and 238 ac 
(96 ha) of privately owned land, from Helu and across Olowalu to 
Ukumehame Gulch, on west Maui. These units include the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 5 
is not currently occupied by the plants Bonamia menziesii, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua 
laxiflora, Neraudia sericea, or Tetramolopium capillare; or by the 
forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 consists of 279 ac (113 ha) of State land 
along the east wall of Ukumehame Gulch on west Maui. This unit includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 is not currently occupied by the plants Bonamia 
menziesii, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Neraudia sericea, or Tetramolopium 
capillare, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Dry Cliff--Unit 7 consists of 808 ac (327 ha) of privately 
owned land at Waikapu Valley on west Maui. This unit includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Maui--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7 is not currently occupied by the plants Bonamia 
menziesii, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Neraudia sericea, or Tetramolopium 
capillare, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 30--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 30--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 460 ac (186 ha) of privately owned land from 
upper Haiku Uka to Keanae Valley on the northern slopes of east Maui. 
These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and the subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the wet cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera and Cyanea horrida, and by the forest bird, 
the kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). These units also contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
waihoiensis, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, Melicope ovalis, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, or Plantago princeps; or by the 
forest bird, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet 
cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 31--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 31--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 475 ac (192 ha) of State land, 20 ac (8 ha) 
of privately owned land, and 912 ac (369 ha) of federally owned land 
(Haleakala National Park), from Kalapawili Ridge along Kipahulu Valley 
and north to Puuhoolio, on the northeastern slopes of east Maui. These 
units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and the subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). They are occupied by the plants Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, 
B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea copelandii ssp. 
haleakalaensis, Melicope ovalis, and Plantago princeps. These units 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea horrida, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, or P. haliakalae; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe 
(Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 32--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 32--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 5 ac (2 ha) of State land and 433 ac (175 ha) 
federally owned land (Haleakala National Park) along the south rim of 
Kipahulu Valley on east Maui. These units include the

[[Page 34561]]

mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by the plants Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Cyanea 
copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, C. horrida, Melicope ovalis, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, or Plantago princeps; or by the 
forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 33--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 33--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 184 ac (75 ha) of State land along the north 
wall of Waihoi Valley, on the northeastern slopes of east Maui. These 
units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and the subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). They are occupied by the plant Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
waihoiensis, and contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--
Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants Bidens campylotheca 
ssp. pentamera, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis, C. horrida, 
Melicope ovalis, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, or Plantago 
princeps; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and 
kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 34--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 34--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 35 ac (14 ha) of State land and 2,013 ac (814 
ha) of privately owned land, along Honokohau Stream on the north side 
of west Maui. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and the subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the wet cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Bidens 
conjuncta, Cyanea lobata, Cyrtandra munroi, and Hesperomannia 
arborescens, and contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Bonamia menziesii, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea glabra, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. humilis, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Lysimachia lydgatei, Plantago 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, 
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Tetramolopium capillare; or by 
the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 35--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 35--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 1,858 ac (752 ha) of State land, 2,917 ac 
(1,181 ha) of County land, and 4,328 ac (1,752 ha) of privately owned 
land, at the summit ridges of west Maui. These units include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by 
the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bidens conjuncta, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. humilis, Hesperomannia arborescens, Kadua laxiflora, 
Lysimachia lydgatei, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Pteris 
lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense. 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--
Unit 6 is not known to be occupied by the plants Bidens campylotheca 
ssp. pentamera, Bonamia menziesii, Cyanea glabra, Cyanea lobata, 
Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, or 
Tetramolopium capillare; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe 
(Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 7 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 36--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 36--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 557 ac (225 ha) of State land and 224 ac (91 
ha) of privately owned land, along Kapaloa and Amalu streams on the 
northwestern side of west Maui. These units include the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Ctenitis squamigera, 
Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, and Platanthera holochila, and contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 7 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Bidens

[[Page 34562]]

campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. conjuncta, Cyanea glabra, C. lobata, C. 
magnicalyx, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua 
laxiflora, Lysimachia lydgatei, Plantago princeps, Pteris lidgatei, 
Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Tetramolopium 
capillare; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and 
kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 consists of 337 ac (137 ha) of State land 
along Kahakuloa Stream on the north side of west Maui. This unit 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). It is 
occupied by the plant Cyrtandra filipes, and contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Maui--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, B. conjuncta, Bonamia menziesii, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
glabra, C. lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra munroi, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. humilis, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
H. arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Lysimachia 
lydgatei, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, 
Remya mauiensis, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, or Tetramolopium 
capillare, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Kahoolawe--Coastal--Unit 1 consists of 1,515 ac (613 ha) of State 
land from Kaneloa to Lae o Kaule, including Aleale, along the southern 
and eastern coast of Kahoolawe. It is occupied by the plant Kanaloa 
kahoolawensis and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Kahoolawe--Coastal--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Sesbania tomentosa or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the physical or biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Kahoolawe--Coastal--Unit 2 consists of 12 ac (5 ha) of State land 
on Puukoae, an islet off the southern coast of Kahoolawe. It is 
occupied by the plant Sesbania tomentosa and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Kahoolawe--Coastal--Unit 2 is not 
known to be occupied by Kanaloa kahoolawensis or Vigna o-wahuensis, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Kahoolawe--Coastal--Unit 3 consists of 339 ac (137 ha) of State 
land from Laepaki to Puhianenue along the western coast of Kahoolawe. 
This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem 
(see Table 4). Although Kahoolawe--Coastal--Unit 3 is not known to be 
occupied by Kanaloa kahoolawensis, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-
wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 consists of 1,380 ac (559 ha) of 
State land, north of Waihonu Gulch on west Kahoolawe. This unit 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied 
by Gouania hillebrandii, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Kanaloa kahoolawensis, 
Neraudia sericea, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 consists of 3,205 ac (1,297 ha) of 
State land from Lua o Kealialuna to Puu o Moaulaiki and Luamakika on 
the eastern side of Kahoolawe. This unit includes the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Kahoolawe--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by Gouania 
hillebrandii, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Kanaloa kahoolawensis, Neraudia 
sericea, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat

[[Page 34563]]

and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Coastal--Unit 1 consists of 373 ac (151 ha) of privately 
owned land, from Huawai Bay to Kapihaa Bay on the southern coast of 
Lanai. This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Lanai--Coastal--Unit 1 is not known 
to be occupied by Canavalia pubescens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Portulaca sclerocarpa, or Sesbania tomentosa, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Coastal--Unit 2 consists of 2 ac (1 ha) on Poopoo islet off 
of the southern coast of Lanai, and is classified as a State Seabird 
Sanctuary. This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Lanai--Coastal--Unit 2 is not known 
to be occupied by Canavalia pubescens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Portulaca sclerocarpa, or Sesbania tomentosa, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Coastal--Unit 3 consists of 509 ac (206 ha) of privately 
owned land, from Laehi to Nahoko on the northeastern coast of Lanai. 
This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem 
(see Table 4). Although Lanai--Coastal--Unit 3 is not known to be 
occupied by Canavalia pubescens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Portulaca 
sclerocarpa, or Sesbania tomentosa, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 consists of 9,766 ac (3,952 ha) of 
privately owned land, from Maunalei Gulch to Puumahanalua, along the 
northeastern and southeastern slopes of Lanai. This unit includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). It 
is occupied by the plants Abutilon eremitopetalum, Schenkia sebaeoides, 
and Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Lanai--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Cyperus 
fauriei, C. trachysanthos, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Neraudia sericea, 
Pleomele fernaldii, Sesbania tomentosa, Silene lanceolata, Solanum 
incompletum, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, T. remyi, or Vigna 
o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the physical or biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 consists of 939 ac (380 ha) of privately 
owned land, south of Paliamano Gulch on the western slopes of Lanai. 
This unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland dry 
ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Lanai--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Abutilon eremitopetalum, Asplenium 
dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Cyperus fauriei, C. 
trachysanthos, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Neraudia sericea, Pleomele 
fernaldii, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania tomentosa, Silene lanceolata, 
Solanum incompletum, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, T. remyi, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 consists of 3 ac (1 ha) of County land 
and 11,170 ac (4,520 ha) of privately owned land, from Kanepuu south to 
Awehi and north to Kauiki, along the central ridges of Lanai. This unit 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see 
Table 4). It is occupied by the plants Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, 
Bonamia menziesii, Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Lanai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by 
the plants Cenchrus agrimonioides, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
mauiensis, Diplazium molokaiense, Kadua cordata ssp. remyi, K. 
laxiflora, Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis, Solanum incompletum, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.

[[Page 34564]]

Lanai--Lowland Wet--Unit 1

Partulina semicarinata--Unit 1--Lowland Wet

Partulina variabilis--Unit 1--Lowland Wet

    This area consists of 374 ac (152 ha) of privately owned land, from 
upper Hulopoe and Kaiholena gulches to Puuaalii in central Lanai. These 
units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified 
as physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see 
Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Kadua cordata ssp. remyi, 
Pleomele fernaldii, and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense; and by the 
Lanai tree snails Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis, and contain 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Lanai--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
mauiensis, Kadua laxiflora, Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis, or 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because 
it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Lanai--Lowland Wet--Unit 2

Partulina semicarinata--Unit 2--Lowland Wet

Partulina variabilis--Unit 2--Lowland Wet

    This area consists of 232 ac (94 ha) of privately owned land, just 
below the cliffs of Lanaihale, in central Lanai. These units include 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They 
are occupied by the plants Pleomele fernaldii and Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense, and contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Lanai--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, Kadua cordata ssp. remyi, K. laxiflora, 
Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by 
the Lanai tree snails Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Lanai--Montane Wet--Unit 1

Partulina semicarinata--Unit 3--Montane Wet

Partulina variabilis--Unit 3--Montane Wet

    This area consists of 248 ac (101 ha) of privately owned land, from 
Puuallii across the summit to Lanaihale and Waiakeakua, in central 
Lanai. These units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the montane 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). They are occupied by the plants Cyanea 
gibsonii, C. lobata, Cyrtandra munroi, Kadua laxiflora, Melicope 
munroi, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Viola lanaiensis; and 
by the Lanai tree snails Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis. 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Lanai--Montane 
Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants Adenophorus 
periens or Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane 
wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 consists of 83 ac (34 ha) of privately 
owned land at Kaiholena Gulch in central Lanai. This unit includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Lanai--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Brighamia 
rockii, Ctenitis squamigera, Diplazium molokaiense, Neraudia sericea, 
Phyllostegia haliakalae, Pleomele fernaldii, Solanum incompletum, or 
Viola lanaiensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 consists of 354 ac (143 ha) of privately 
owned land, at upper Maunalei Gulch in central Lanai. This unit 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). It is 
occupied by the plant Pleomele fernaldii, and contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Lanai--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. 
kalealaha, Brighamia rockii, Ctenitis squamigera, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Neraudia sericea, Phyllostegia haliakalae, Solanum 
incompletum, or Viola lanaiensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Lanai--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 consists of 398 ac (161 ha) of privately 
owned land at upper Hauola Gulch in central Lanai. This unit includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Lanai--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by the plants 
Asplenium

[[Page 34565]]

dielerectum, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Brighamia rockii, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Diplazium molokaiense, Neraudia sericea, 
Phyllostegia haliakalae, Pleomele fernaldii, Solanum incompletum, or 
Viola lanaiensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Lanai--Wet Cliff--Unit 1

Partulina semicarinata--Unit 4--Wet Cliff

Partulina variabilis--Unit 4--Wet Cliff

    This area consists of 731 ac (296 ha) of privately owned land, from 
Waialaia and Kunoa gulches to Puukole, in central Lanai. These units 
include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). They are 
occupied by the plants Ctenitis squamigera, Cyrtandra munroi, Melicope 
munroi, Pleomele fernaldii, and Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense; and 
by the Lanai tree snails Partulina semicarinata and P. variabilis. 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Lanai--Wet Cliff--
Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea gibsonii, C. 
munroi, Hesperomannia arborescens, Kadua laxiflora, Labordia tinifolia 
var. lanaiensis, Phyllostegia haliakalae, or Viola lanaiensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. 
Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are 
essential to achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Lanai--Wet Cliff--Unit 2

Partulina semicarinata--Unit 5--Wet Cliff

Partulina variabilis--Unit 5--Wet Cliff

    This area consists of 230 ac (93 ha) of privately owned land, from 
Kehewai Ridge to Haalelepaakai and Waiakeakua, in central Lanai. These 
units include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and the subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). They are occupied by the plants Cyanea munroi, Labordia tinifolia 
var. lanaiensis, Pleomele fernaldii, and Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, and contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Lanai--Wet Cliff--
Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Ctenitis squamigera, 
Cyanea gibsonii, Cyrtandra munroi, Hesperomannia arborescens, Kadua 
laxiflora, Melicope munroi, Phyllostegia haliakalae, or Viola 
lanaiensis; or by the Lanai tree snails Partulina semicarinata and P. 
variabilis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 1 consists of 195 ac (79 ha) of privately 
owned land, and 54 ac (22 ha) of federally owned land (U.S. Coast 
Guard) at Laau Point, from Kahaiawa to Keawakalani, along the western 
coast of Molokai. This unit is occupied by the plant Marsilea villosa, 
and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Molokai--Coastal--
Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, 
Canavalia molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, H. 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, Pittosporum 
halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania tomentosa, or Tetramolopium 
rockii, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 2 consists of 1,032 ac (418 ha) of State 
land, and 2,511 ac (1,016 ha) of privately owned land (partly within 
The Nature Conservancy's Moomomi Preserve), from Ilio Point to 
Nenehanaupo, along the northwestern coast of Molokai. This unit is 
occupied by the plants Marsilea villosa, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii, and includes the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Molokai--Coastal--Unit 2 is not 
known to be occupied by Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, H. brackenridgei, 
Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, or Pittosporum halophilum, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 3 consists of 859 ac (348 ha) of State land, 
less than 1 acre (ha) of privately owned land, and 3 ac (1 ha) of 
federally owned land (Kalaupapa National Historical Park), from Kahiu 
Point to Wainene, along the north-central coast of Molokai. This unit 
is occupied by the plants Canavalia molokaiensis, Pittosporum 
halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, and Tetramolopium rockii, and includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant

[[Page 34566]]

species identified as physical or biological features in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Molokai--Coastal--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by Bidens 
wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, H. 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, or Sesbania tomentosa, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 4 consists of 10 ac (4 ha) on Mokapu Island 
on the northern coast of Molokai. This area is State-owned, and is 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Peucedanum sandwicense and Pittosporum halophilum, and includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Molokai--Coastal--
Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, 
Canavalia molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, H. 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Sesbania tomentosa, 
Schenkia sebaeoides, or Tetramolopium rockii, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 5 consists of 1 ac (0.5 ha) on Huelo islet 
on the northern coast of Molokai. This area is State-owned, and is 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Brighamia rockii and Pittosporum halophilum, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Molokai--Coastal--
Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, H. brackenridgei, 
Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum sandwicense, Schenkia 
sebaeoides, Sesbania tomentosa, or Tetramolopium rockii, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 6 consists of 202 ac (82 ha) of State land, 
and 1,711 ac (692 ha) of privately owned land, from Kaholaiki Bay to 
Halawa Bay, on the northeastern coast of Molokai. This unit is occupied 
by the plants Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia molokaiensis, Hibiscus 
arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Ischaemum byrone, and Peucedanum 
sandwicense, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Molokai--Coastal--Unit 6 is not known to be occupied by 
Brighamia rockii, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Marsilea villosa, Pittosporum 
halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania tomentosa, or Tetramolopium 
rockii, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction are essential to achieving population levels necessary 
for recovery.
    Molokai--Coastal--Unit 7 consists of 3 ac (1 ha) of State land and 
303 ac (123 ha) of privately owned land at Alanuipuhipaka Ridge and 
Honokoi Gulch, on the northeastern coast of Molokai. This unit includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although 
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 7 is not known to be occupied by Bidens wiebkei, 
Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. 
immaculatus, H. brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Tetramolopium rockii, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 consists of 70 ac (28 ha) of privately 
owned land, in west-central Molokai. This unit includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Molokai--
Lowland Dry--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by Bonamia menziesii, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Eugenia koolauensis, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Kokia cookei, or Sesbania tomentosa, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 consists of 945 ac (383 ha) of State 
land, and 2,255 ac (913 ha) of privately owned land, from Kamiloloa to 
Makolelau, on the southern slopes of Molokai. This unit includes the 
mixed

[[Page 34567]]

herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Molokai--
Lowland Dry--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by Bonamia menziesii, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Kokia cookei, or 
Sesbania tomentosa, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 37-- Lowland Mesic
    This area consists of 3,538 ac (1,432 ha) of State land, and 6,792 
ac (2,749 ha) of privately owned land, from Waianui Gulch to Mapulehu, 
in central Molokai. These units are occupied by the plants Alectryon 
macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, Canavalia molokaiensis, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea dunbariae, C. mannii, C. profuga, Cyperus fauriei, 
Cyrtandra filipes, Festuca molokaiensis, Gouania hillebrandii, Labordia 
triflora, Melicope mucronulata, Neraudia sericea, Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense, Schiedea lydgatei, S. sarmentosa, Silene alexandri, S. 
lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Vigna o-wahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense, and include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (see Table 4). These units also contain unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by 
Bonamia menziesii, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea 
procera, C. solanacea, Diplazium molokaiense, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Melicope munroi, M. reflexa, 
Phyllostegia haliakalae, P. mannii, P. pilosa, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Stenogyne bifida; or the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) 
and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to 
be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 38--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 38-- Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 2,195 ac (888 ha) of State land, and 1,433 ac 
(580 ha) of privately owned land (partly within The Nature 
Conservancy's Pelekunu Preserve), from Pelekunu Valley to Wailau 
Valley, in north-central Molokai. These units are occupied by the 
plants Canavalia molokaiensis and Cyrtandra filipes, and include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). 
These units also contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Molokai--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by Asplenium dielerectum, 
Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea 
dunbariae, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. solanacea, Lysimachia 
maxima, Melicope reflexa, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia hispida, 
P. mannii, Plantago princeps, Stenogyne bifida, or Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and 
kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 39--Lowland Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 39-- Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,356 ac (549 ha) of State land and 597 ac 
(241 ha) of privately owned land, from Kahanui to Pelekunu Valley, in 
north-central Molokai. These units are occupied by the plant Lysimachia 
maxima, and include the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (see Table 4). These units also contain unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by 
Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia molokaiensis, 
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea dunbariae, C. grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, Melicope reflexa, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia hispida, P. mannii, Plantago 
princeps, Stenogyne bifida, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 consists of 1,128 ac (457 ha) of State 
land, and 6,945 ac (2,811 ha) of privately owned land, from Waiahookalo 
and Kahiwa gulches south to Mapulehu, on eastern Molokai. This unit is 
occupied by the plants Bidens wiebkei, Cyrtandra filipes, and Melicope 
reflexa, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild

[[Page 34568]]

populations. Although Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 is not known to be 
occupied by Asplenium dielerectum, Canavalia molokaiensis, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea dunbariae, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. solanacea, Lysimachia maxima, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia hispida, P. mannii, Plantago princeps, Stenogyne bifida, 
or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because 
it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 40--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 40--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 1,518 ac (615 ha) of State land, and 3,300 ac 
(1,336 ha) of privately owned land, from the headwaters of Waialelia 
Stream and above Pelekunu Valley, eastward along the summit area to 
Mapulehu, in north-central Molokai. These units are occupied by the 
plants Adenophorus periens, Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia oblongifolia 
ssp. brevipes, Cyanea mannii, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Lysimachia 
maxima, Phyllostegia hispida, P. mannii, Platanthera holochila, Pteris 
lidgatei, Schiedea laui, and Stenogyne bifida, and include the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). These units also 
contain unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by Cyanea procera, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Melicope reflexa, Phyllostegia pilosa, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; or by 
the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 41--Montane Wet (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 41--Montane Wet
    This area consists of 871 ac (353 ha) of State land, and 39 ac (16 
ha) of privately owned land, from Honukaupu to Olokui (between Pelekunu 
and Wailau valleys), in north-central Molokai. These units include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). 
Although Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by 
Adenophorus periens, Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
brevipes, Cyanea mannii, C. procera, C. profuga, C. solanacea, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Lysimachia maxima, Melicope reflexa, 
Phyllostegia hispida, P. mannii, P. pilosa, Platanthera holochila, 
Pteris lidgatei, Schiedea laui, Stenogyne bifida, or Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and 
kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 3 consists of 77 ac (31 ha) of State 
land, and 726 ac (294 ha) of privately owned land, above the east rim 
of Wailau Valley on eastern Molokai. This unit is occupied by the plant 
Melicope reflexa, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the montane 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by 
Adenophorus periens, Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
brevipes, Cyanea mannii, C. procera, C. profuga, C. solanacea, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Lysimachia maxima, Phyllostegia hispida, P. 
mannii, P. pilosa, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Schiedea 
laui, Stenogyne bifida, or Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
montane wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Montane Mesic--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 42--Montane Mesic (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 42--Montane Mesic
    This area consists of 257 ac (104 ha) of State land, and 1,373 ac 
(555 ha) of privately owned land (partly within The Nature 
Conservancy's Kamakou Preserve), from Kamiloloa to Makolelau in central 
Molokai. These units are occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bidens wiebkei, Cyanea mannii, C. procera, Cyperus fauriei, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and include the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). 
Although Molokai--Montane Mesic--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by 
Asplenium dielerectum, Cyanea dunbariae, C. solanacea, Kadua laxiflora, 
Melicope mucronulata, Neraudia sericea, Plantago princeps, or Stenogyne 
bifida; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and 
kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane mesic 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within their historical range. Due to their small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving 
population levels necessary for recovery.

[[Page 34569]]

Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 43--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 43--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 1,399 ac (566 ha) of State land, and 489 ac 
(198 ha) of privately owned land, and encircles the plateau between 
Pelekunu and Wailau valleys, in north-central Molokai. These units are 
occupied by the plants Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, 
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Hesperomannia arborescens, and 
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, and include the mixed herbland 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Molokai--Wet Cliff--
Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. munroi, Phyllostegia hispida, Pteris lidgatei, or 
Stenogyne bifida; or by the forest birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria 
dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet 
cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.
Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 (and)
Palmeria dolei--Unit 44--Wet Cliff (and)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 44--Wet Cliff
    This area consists of 462 ac (187 ha) of State land, and 818 ac 
(331 ha) of privately owned land (partly within The Nature 
Conservancy's Pelekunu Preserve), along the rim of Pelekunu Valley from 
Kipapa Ridge to Mapulehu, in central Molokai. These units are occupied 
by the plant Phyllostegia hispida, and include the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and the subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). These units also contain unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 is not known to be 
occupied by Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
munroi, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. 
immaculatus, Pteris lidgatei, or Stenogyne bifida; or by the forest 
birds, the akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and kiwikiu (Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys), we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within their historical range. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction are essential to achieving population 
levels necessary for recovery.
    Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 consists of 1,137 ac (460 ha) of State 
land, and 225 ac (91 ha) of privately owned land, along the rim of 
Wailau Valley from Mapulehu to Kahiwa Gulch, in eastern Molokai. This 
unit includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and the subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by 
Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
brevipes, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. munroi, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Phyllostegia 
hispida, Pteris lidgatei, or Stenogyne bifida, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet 
cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historical range. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction are essential to 
achieving population levels necessary for recovery.

Effects of Critical Habitat Designation

Section 7 Consultation

    Section 7(a)(2) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies, 
including the Service, to ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or 
carry out are not likely to destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat. Decisions by the Fifth and Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals have 
invalidated our definition of ``destruction or adverse modification'' 
(50 CFR 402.02) (See Gifford Pinchot Task Force v. U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 378 F. 3d 1059 (9th Cir. 2004) and Sierra Club v. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 245 F.3d 434, 442F (5th Cir. 2001)), 
and we do not rely on this regulatory definition when analyzing whether 
an action is likely to destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. 
Under the statutory provisions of the Act, we determine destruction or 
adverse modification on the basis of whether, with implementation of 
the proposed Federal action, the affected critical habitat would remain 
functional (or retain those physical or biological features that relate 
to the current ability of the area to support the species) to serve its 
intended conservation role for the species.
    If a species is listed or critical habitat is designated, section 
7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities 
they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of the species or to destroy or adversely modify 
its critical habitat. If a Federal action may affect a listed species 
or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency (action agency) 
must enter into consultation with us. As a result of this consultation, 
we document compliance with the requirements of section 7(a)(2) through 
our issuance of:
    (1) A concurrence letter for Federal actions that may affect, but 
are not likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat; 
or
    (2) A biological opinion for Federal actions that may affect, and 
are likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat.
    If we issue a biological opinion concluding that a project is 
likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat, we also provide 
reasonable and prudent alternatives to the project, if any are 
identifiable. We define ``reasonable and prudent alternatives'' at 50 
CFR 402.02 as alternative actions identified during consultation that:
     Can be implemented in a manner consistent with the 
intended purpose of the action;
     Can be implemented consistent with the scope of the 
Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction;
     Are economically and technologically feasible; and
     Would, in the Director's opinion, avoid jeopardizing the 
continued existence of the listed species or destroying or adversely 
modifying critical habitat.
    Reasonable and prudent alternatives can vary from slight project 
modifications to extensive redesign or relocation of the project. Costs 
associated with implementing a

[[Page 34570]]

reasonable and prudent alternative are similarly variable.
    Regulations at 50 CFR 402.16 require Federal agencies to reinitiate 
formal consultation on previously reviewed actions in instances where 
we have listed a new species or subsequently designated critical 
habitat that may be affected and the Federal agency has retained 
discretionary involvement or control over the action (or the agency's 
discretionary involvement or control is authorized by law). 
Consequently, Federal agencies may sometimes need to request 
reinitiation of consultation with us on actions for which formal 
consultation has been completed, if they have retained discretionary 
involvement or control and the action may affect subsequently listed 
species or designated critical habitat.
    Federal activities that may adversely affect the species included 
in this proposed rule or their designated critical habitat require 
section 7 consultation under the Act. Examples of actions that are 
subject to the section 7 consultation process are actions on State, 
tribal, local, or private lands that require a Federal permit (such as 
a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under section 404 of the 
Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), or a permit from us under 
section 10 of the Act), or activities involving some other Federal 
action (such as funding from the Federal Highway Administration, 
Federal Aviation Administration, or the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency). Federal actions not affecting listed species or critical 
habitat, and actions on State, tribal, local, or private lands that are 
not federally funded, authorized, or permitted, do not require section 
7 consultations.

Application of the Jeopardy and Adverse Modification Standards

Application of the Jeopardy Standard
    The jeopardy analysis usually expresses the survival and recovery 
needs of a listed species in a qualitative fashion without making 
distinctions between what is necessary for survival and what is 
necessary for recovery. Generally, the jeopardy analysis focuses on the 
status of a species, the factors responsible for that condition, and 
what is necessary for the species to survive and recover. An emphasis 
is also placed on characterizing the condition of the species in the 
area affected by the proposed Federal action. That context is then used 
to determine the significance of adverse and beneficial effects of the 
proposed Federal action and any cumulative effects for purposes of 
making the jeopardy determination. The jeopardy analysis also considers 
any conservation measures that may be proposed by a Federal action 
agency to minimize or compensate for adverse effects to the species or 
to promote its recovery.
Application of the Adverse Modification Standard
    The analytical framework described in the Director's December 9, 
2004, memorandum is used to complete section 7(a)(2) analysis for 
Federal actions affecting critical habitat. The key factor related to 
the adverse modification determination is whether, with implementation 
of the proposed Federal action, the affected critical habitat would 
continue to serve its intended conservation role for the species, or 
would retain its current ability for the essential features to be 
functionally established. Activities that may destroy or adversely 
modify critical habitat are those that alter the essential features, or 
the essential habitat qualities of unoccupied habitat, to an extent 
that appreciably reduces the conservation value of critical habitat for 
the 135 species identified in this proposed rule.
    Section 4(b)(8) of the Act requires us to briefly evaluate and 
describe, in any proposed or final regulation that designates critical 
habitat, activities involving a Federal action that may destroy or 
adversely modify such habitat, or that may be affected by such 
designation. Activities that, when carried out, funded, or authorized 
by a Federal agency, may destroy or adversely modify critical habitat 
for the 135 species, and therefore may be affected by this proposed 
designation, include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Activities that might appreciably degrade or destroy the 
physical or biological features for the species including, but not 
limited to, the following: Overgrazing; maintaining or increasing feral 
ungulate levels; clearing or cutting native live trees and shrubs 
(e.g., woodcutting, bulldozing, construction, road building, mining, 
herbicide application); and taking actions that pose a risk of fire.
    (2) Activities that may alter watershed characteristics in ways 
that would appreciably reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, 
wetland, aquatic, or vegetative communities. Such activities include 
new water diversion or impoundment, excess groundwater pumping, and 
manipulation of vegetation through activities such as the ones 
mentioned in (1), above.
    (3) Recreational activities that may appreciably degrade 
vegetation.
    (4) Mining sand or other minerals.
    (5) Introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative plant 
species.
    (6) Importing nonnative species for research, agriculture, and 
aquaculture, and releasing biological control agents.

Application of Section 4(a)(3) of the Act

    The Sikes Act Improvement Act of 1997 (Sikes Act) (16 U.S.C. 670a) 
required each military installation that includes land and water 
suitable for the conservation and management of natural resources to 
complete an integrated natural resources management plan (INRMP) by 
November 17, 2001. An INRMP integrates implementation of the military 
mission of the installation with stewardship of the natural resources 
found on the base. Each INRMP includes:
     An assessment of the ecological needs on the installation, 
including the need to provide for the conservation of listed species;
     A statement of goals and priorities;
     A detailed description of management actions to be 
implemented to provide for these ecological needs; and
     A monitoring and adaptive management plan.
    Among other things, each INRMP must, to the extent appropriate and 
applicable, provide for fish and wildlife management; fish and wildlife 
habitat enhancement or modification; wetland protection, enhancement, 
and restoration where necessary to support fish and wildlife; and 
enforcement of applicable natural resource laws.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (Pub. 
L. 108-136) amended the Act to limit areas eligible for designation as 
critical habitat. Specifically, section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act (16 
U.S.C. 1533(a)(3)(B)(i)) provides: ``The Secretary shall not designate 
as critical habitat any lands or other geographical areas owned or 
controlled by the Department of Defense, or designated for its use, 
that are subject to an integrated natural resources management plan 
prepared under section 101 of the Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. 670a), if the 
Secretary determines in writing that such plan provides a benefit to 
the species for which critical habitat is proposed for designation.''
    We consult with the military on the development and implementation 
of INRMPs for installations with listed species. We analyze INRMPs 
developed by military installations located within the areas that were 
being considered for critical habitat designation during the

[[Page 34571]]

development of this proposed rule to determine if these installations 
may warrant consideration for exemption under section 4(a)(3) of the 
Act. There are no Department of Defense (DOD) lands within this 
proposed critical habitat designation. Therefore, no lands have been 
exempted from this proposed critical habitat designation under section 
4(a)(3) of the Act.

Exclusions

Application of Section 4(b)(2) of the Act

    Section 4(b)(2) of the Act states that the Secretary must designate 
or make revisions to critical habitat on the basis of the best 
available scientific data after taking into consideration the economic 
impact, national security impact, and any other relevant impacts of 
specifying any particular area as critical habitat. The Secretary may 
exclude an area from critical habitat if he determines that the 
benefits of such exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such 
area as part of the critical habitat, unless he determines, based on 
the best scientific data available, that the failure to designate such 
area as critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species. 
The Secretary may exclude an area from critical habitat based on 
economic impacts, impacts to national security, or any other relevant 
impacts.
    In considering whether to exclude a particular area from the 
designation, we must identify the benefits of including the area in the 
designation, identify the benefits of excluding the area from the 
designation, and determine whether the benefits of exclusion outweigh 
the benefits of inclusion. If, based on this analysis, the Secretary 
makes this determination, he can exercise his discretion to exclude the 
area only if such exclusion would not result in the extinction of the 
species.
    When considering the benefits of inclusion for an area, we consider 
the additional regulatory benefits that area would receive from the 
protection from adverse modification or destruction as a result of 
actions with a Federal nexus, the educational benefits of mapping 
habitat essential for recovery of the listed species, and any benefits 
that may result from a designation due to State or Federal laws that 
may apply to critical habitat. Benefits could include public awareness 
of the presence of listed species and the importance of habitat 
protection, and in cases where a Federal nexus exists, increased 
habitat protection due to the protection from adverse modification or 
destruction of critical habitat.
    When considering the benefits of exclusion, we consider factors 
such as whether exclusion of a specific area is likely to result in 
conservation; the continuation, strengthening, or encouragement of 
partnerships; or the implementation of a management plan that provides 
equal to or more conservation than a critical habitat designation would 
provide. In the case of the 135 Maui Nui species, there may be little 
additional regulatory effect resulting from the designation in areas 
occupied by 1 or more of the 135 species; however, the benefits of 
designating critical habitat include educational benefits resulting 
from identification of the features essential to the conservation these 
species and the delineation of areas important for their recovery. 
Further, there may be additional benefits realized by providing 
landowners, stakeholders, and project proponents greater certainty 
about which specific areas are important for the Maui Nui species. 
Thus, critical habitat designation increases public awareness of the 
presence the Maui Nui species and the importance of habitat protection 
and, in cases where a Federal nexus exists, increases habitat 
protection for these species due to the protection from adverse 
modification or destruction of critical habitat.
    In evaluating the existence of a conservation plan when considering 
the benefits of exclusion, we consider a variety of factors including, 
but not limited to, whether the plan is finalized; how it provides for 
the conservation of the essential physical or biological features; 
whether there is a reasonable expectation that the conservation 
management strategies and actions contained in a management plan are 
likely to be implemented into the future; whether the conservation 
strategies in the plan are likely to be effective; and whether the plan 
contains a monitoring program or adaptive management to ensure that the 
conservation measures are effective and can be adapted in the future in 
response to new information.
    After evaluating the benefits of inclusion and the benefits of 
exclusion, the two sides are carefully weighed to determine whether the 
benefits of exclusion outweigh those of inclusion. If they do, we then 
determine whether exclusion of the particular area would result in the 
extinction of the species. If exclusion of an area from critical 
habitat will result in extinction, it will not be excluded from the 
designation.
    The Secretary can consider the existence of conservation 
agreements, other land management plans and voluntary partnerships with 
Federal, private, State, and tribal entities when making decisions 
under section 4(b)(2) of the Act. In weighing the benefits of inclusion 
versus exclusion, we may consider factors such as: (1) Whether the plan 
provides specific information on how it protects the species and the 
physical or biological features, and whether the plan is at a 
geographic scope commensurate with the species; (2) whether the plan is 
complete and will be effective at conserving and protecting the 
physical or biological features; (3) whether a reasonable expectation 
exists that conservation management strategies and actions will be 
implemented, that those responsible for implementing the plan are 
capable of achieving the objectives, that an implementation schedule 
exists, and that adequate funding exists; (4) whether the plan provides 
assurances that the conservation strategies and measures will be 
effective (i.e., identifies biological goals, has provisions for 
reporting progress, and is of a duration sufficient to implement the 
plan); (5) whether the plan has a monitoring program or adaptive 
management to ensure that the conservation measures are effective; (6) 
the degree to which the record supports a conclusion that a critical 
habitat designation would impair the benefits of the plan; (7) the 
extent of public participation; (8) demonstrated track record of 
implementation success; (9) level of public benefits derived from 
encouraging collaborative efforts and encouraging private and local 
conservation efforts; and (10) the effect designation would have on 
partnerships. We will also consider whether these efforts would be 
affected by critical habitat and, if so, whether this would outweigh 
the advantages of critical habitat.
    Based on the information provided by entities seeking exclusion, as 
well as any additional public comments we receive, we will evaluate 
whether certain lands in proposed critical habitat may be appropriate 
for exclusion from the final designation. If our analysis results in a 
determination that the benefits of excluding particular areas from the 
final designation outweigh the benefits of designating those areas as 
critical habitat, then the Secretary may exercise his discretion to 
exclude the particular areas from the final designation.
    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we must consider all relevant 
impacts, including economic impacts. In addition to economic impacts, 
we consider a number of factors in a section 4(b)(2) analysis. For 
example, we consider whether there are lands owned by the DOD where a 
national security impact might exist. We also consider whether Federal 
or private landowners

[[Page 34572]]

or other public agencies have developed management plans or HCPs for 
the area or whether there are conservation partnerships that would be 
encouraged or discouraged by designation of, or exclusion from, 
critical habitat in an area. We also consider any social impacts that 
might occur because of the designation. To ensure that our final 
determination is based on the best available information, we are 
inviting comments on any foreseeable economic, national security, or 
other potential impacts resulting from this proposed designation of 
critical habitat from governmental, business, or private interests and, 
in particular, any potential impacts on small businesses.

Exclusions Based on Economic Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider the economic impacts 
of specifying any particular area as critical habitat. In order to 
consider economic impacts, we are preparing an analysis of the probable 
economic impacts of the proposed critical habitat designation and 
related factors.
    We will announce the availability of the draft economic analysis as 
soon as it is completed, at which time we will seek public review and 
comment. At that time, copies of the draft economic analysis will be 
available for downloading from the Internet at the Federal eRulemaking 
Portal: http://www.regulations.gov, or by contacting the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office directly (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT). During the development of a final designation, we will 
consider economic impacts, public comments, and other new information, 
and as an outcome of our analysis of this information, we may exclude 
areas from the final critical habitat designation under section 4(b)(2) 
of the Act and our implementing regulations at 50 CFR 424.19.

Exclusions Based on National Security Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider whether there are 
lands owned or managed by the DOD where a national security impact 
might exist. There are no DOD lands within this proposed critical 
habitat designation, and we are unaware of any potential impacts to 
national security on any lands within the proposed critical habitat 
designation. Therefore, we do not propose to exert our discretion to 
exclude any areas from the final designation based on impacts on 
national security, but will fully consider all comments in this regard 
in the final critical habitat designation.

Exclusions Based on Other Relevant Factors

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider any other relevant 
impacts, in addition to economic impacts and impacts to national 
security. We consider a number of factors, including whether the 
landowners have developed any conservation plans or other management 
plans for the area, or whether there are conservation partnerships that 
would be encouraged by designation of, or exclusion from, critical 
habitat. We also consider any social impacts that might occur because 
of the designation.
    Most federally listed species in the United States will not recover 
without cooperation of non-Federal landowners. More than 60 percent of 
the United States is privately owned (Lubowski et al. 2006, p. 35), and 
at least 80 percent of endangered or threatened species occur either 
partially or solely on private lands (Crouse et al. 2002, p. 720). In 
the State of Hawaii, 84 percent of landownership is non-Federal (U.S. 
General Services Administration, in Western States Tourism Policy 
Council, 2009). Stein et al. (2008, p. 340) found that only about 12 
percent of listed species were found almost exclusively on Federal 
lands (90 to 100 percent of their known occurrences restricted to 
Federal lands) and that 50 percent of listed species are not known to 
occur on Federal lands at all.
    Given the distribution of listed species with respect to 
landownership, conservation of listed species in many parts of the 
United States is dependent upon working partnerships with a wide 
variety of entities and the voluntary cooperation of many non-Federal 
landowners (Wilcove and Chen 1998, p. 1,407; Crouse et al. 2002, p. 
720; James 2002, p. 271). Building partnerships and promoting voluntary 
cooperation of landowners is essential to understanding the status of 
species on non-Federal lands and necessary to implement recovery 
actions, such as the reintroduction of listed species, habitat 
restoration, and habitat protection.
    Many non-Federal landowners derive satisfaction from contributing 
to endangered species recovery. Conservation agreements with non-
Federal landowners, safe harbor agreements, other conservation 
agreements, easements, and State and local regulations enhance species 
conservation by extending species protections beyond those available 
through section 7 consultations. We encourage non-Federal landowners to 
enter into conservation agreements based on a view that we can achieve 
greater species conservation on non-Federal lands through such 
partnerships than we can through regulatory methods (USFWS and NOAA 
1996c (61 FR 63854, December 2, 1996)).
    Many private landowners, however, are wary of the possible 
consequences of attracting endangered species to their property. 
Mounting evidence suggests that some regulatory actions by the 
government, while well intentioned and required by law, can (under 
certain circumstances) have unintended negative consequences for the 
conservation of species on private lands (Wilcove et al. 1996, pp. 5-6; 
Bean 2002, pp. 2-3; James 2002, pp. 270-271; Koch 2002, pp. 2-3). Many 
landowners fear a decline in their property value due to real or 
perceived restrictions on land-use options where endangered or 
threatened species are found. Consequently, harboring endangered 
species is viewed by many landowners as a liability. This perception 
results in anti-conservation incentives because maintaining habitats 
that harbor endangered species represents a risk to future economic 
opportunities (Main et al. 1999, pp. 1,264-1,265; Brook et al. 2003, 
pp. 1,644-1,648).
    According to some researchers, the designation of critical habitat 
on private lands significantly reduces the likelihood that landowners 
will support and carry out conservation actions (Main et al. 1999, p. 
1,263; Bean 2002, p. 2). The magnitude of this negative outcome is 
greatly amplified in situations where active management measures (such 
as reintroduction, fire management, and control of invasive species) 
are necessary for species conservation (Bean 2002, pp. 3-4). We believe 
the judicious exclusion of specific areas of non-federally owned lands 
from critical habitat designations can contribute to species recovery 
and provide a superior level of conservation than critical habitat 
alone.
    The purpose of designating critical habitat is to contribute to the 
conservation of endangered and threatened species and the ecosystems 
upon which they depend. The outcome of the designation, triggering 
regulatory requirements for actions funded, authorized, or carried out 
by Federal agencies under section 7(a)(2) of the Act, can sometimes be 
a disincentive to conservation on non-Federal lands. Thus, the benefits 
of excluding areas that are covered by partnerships or voluntary 
conservation efforts can, in specific circumstances, be high.
    For the reasons discussed under the ``Application of Section 
4(b)(2) of the Act'' section of this rule, if the Secretary decides to 
exercise his discretion under

[[Page 34573]]

section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we have identified certain areas that we 
are considering excluding from the final critical habitat designation 
for 135 plant and animal species. However, we solicit comments on the 
inclusion or exclusion of such particular areas (See ``Public 
Comments'' section). During the development of the final designation, 
we will consider economic impacts, public comments, and other new 
information before deciding if inclusion or exclusion of these areas is 
warranted. As a result, additional particular areas, in addition to 
those identified below for potential exclusion in this proposed rule, 
may be excluded from the final critical habitat designation under 
section 4(b)(2) of the Act.

Conservation Partnerships on Non-Federal Lands

    The Nature Conservancy's Kapunakea Preserve and Waikamoi Preserve 
on Maui, and Kamakou Preserve and Moomomi Preserve on Molokai:
    We are considering excluding 10,038 ac (4,061 ha) of habitat within 
TNC's Kapunakea Preserve on west Maui and Waikamoi Preserve on east 
Maui, and Kamakou Preserve and Moomomi Preserve on Molokai (Figures 2 
and 3).
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P
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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.002

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
Maui
    Kapunakea Preserve encompasses 1,339 ac (542 ha) on west Maui. This 
preserve was established through a perpetual conservation easement with 
Pioneer Mill Company, Ltd. (succeeded by Kaanapali Land Management 
Corp.), in 1992, to protect the natural, ecological, and wildlife 
features of one of the highest quality native areas in Hawaii (TNCH 
2008, p. 5). Ten plant species included in this rule (Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Bonamia menziesii, 
Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea lobata, Cyrtandra 
filipes, C. munroi, Platanthera holochila, and Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense) are reported from the preserve. Kapunakea Preserve falls 
within four proposed critical habitat units for plants (Maui--Lowland 
Mesic--2, Maui--Lowland Wet--6, Maui--Montane Wet--6, and Maui--Wet 
Cliff--7), and six proposed units for the akohekohe and kiwikiu 
(Palmeria dolei--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 
7--Lowland Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 15--Montane Wet, Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 15--Montane Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 36--Wet Cliff, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 36--Wet Cliff). These units are occupied 
by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, B. conjuncta, B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Bonamia 
menziesii, Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Colubrina oppositifolia, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. kunthiana, C. lobata, 
Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Geranium hillebrandii, Myrsine 
vaccinioides, Platanthera holochila, Remya mauiensis, Sanicula 
purpurea, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, and Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense. This area contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to 
the conservation of 21 plant species, Acaena exigua, Asplenium

[[Page 34575]]

dielerectum, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, Cyanea glabra, C. 
magnicalyx, Cyrtandra oxybapha, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. humilis, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
H. arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, 
Lysimachia lydgatei, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia bracteata, 
Plantago princeps, Pteris lidgatei, Tetramolopium capillare, and 
Wikstroemia villosa, and the akohekohe and kiwikiu.
    Waikamoi Preserve encompasses 5,140 ac (2,080 ha) along the 
northern border of Haleakala National Park on east Maui. The preserve 
was established in 1983, through a perpetual conservation easement with 
Haleakala Ranch Company, to protect one of the largest intact native 
rain forests in Hawaii (TNCH 2006a, p. 3). Eight plant species included 
in this rule (Asplenium peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens campylotheca 
ssp. pentamera, Cyanea horrida, C. kunthiana, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Geranium arboreum, G. multiflorum, and Phyllostegia pilosa), and the 
akohekohe and kiwikiu, are reported from the preserve. Waikamoi 
Preserve falls within 8 proposed critical habitat units for plants 
(Maui--Montane Wet--1, Maui--Montane Wet--2, Maui--Montane Mesic--1, 
Maui--Subalpine--1, Maui--Subalpine--2, Maui--Dry Cliff--1, Maui--Dry 
Cliff--3, and Maui--Wet Cliff--1), and 16 proposed units for the 
akohekohe and kiwikiu (Palmeria dolei--Unit 10--Montane Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 10--Montane Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 
11--Montane Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 11--Montane Wet, 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 
18--Montane Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 24--Subalpine, Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 24--Subalpine, Palmeria dolei--Unit 25--Subalpine, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 25--Subalpine, Palmeria dolei--Unit 26--
Dry Cliff, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 26--Dry Cliff, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 27--Dry Cliff, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 27--Dry 
Cliff, Palmeria dolei--Unit 30--Wet Cliff, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 30--Wet Cliff). These units are occupied by the 
plants Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum, Asplenium 
dielerectum, A. peruvianum var. insulare, Bidens campylotheca ssp. 
pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, B. micrantha ssp. 
kalealaha, Clermontia lindseyana, C. oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, C. 
samuelii, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalensis, C. duvalliorum, C. 
hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. maritae, C. 
mceldowneyi, C. obtusa, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Geranium arboreum, G. hanaense, G. multiflorum, Huperzia 
mannii, Melicope adscendens, M. balloui, Neraudia sericea, Phyllostegia 
pilosa, Plantago princeps, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea 
haleakalensis, and Wikstroemia villosa, and the akohekohe and kiwikiu. 
This area contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of 12 other plant species (Adenophorus periens, Alectryon 
macrococcus, C. glabra, Melicope ovalis, Peperomia subpetiolata, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, P. haliakalae, P. mannii, Platanthera 
holochila, Schiedea jacobii, Solanum incompletum, and Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense).
Molokai
    Kamakou Preserve is located in the east Molokai mountains and 
encompasses 2,632 ac (1,065 ha). This preserve was established in 1982, 
through a perpetual conservation easement with Molokai Ranch, to 
protect endemic forest bird habitat and is the primary ground and 
surface water source area on the island (TNCH 2006b, p. 2). Nineteen 
plant species included in this rule (Adenophorus periens, Asplenium 
dielerectum, Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia molokaiensis, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea mannii, C. procera, C. solanacea, 
Cyperus faurei, Lysimachia maxima, Melicope mucronulata, Phyllostegia 
hispida, P. mannii, Platanthera holochila, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Schiedea laui, Stenogyne bifida, Vigna o-wahuensis, and 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense) are reported from the preserve. Kamakou 
Preserve falls within four proposed critical habitat units for plants 
(Molokai--Lowland Mesic--1, Molokai--Montane Wet--1, Molokai--Montane 
Mesic--1, and Molokai--Wet Cliff--2) and eight proposed units for the 
akohekohe and kiwikiu (Palmeria dolei--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 
40--Montane Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 40--Montane Wet, 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 42--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 
42--Montane Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 44--Wet Cliff, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 44--Wet Cliff). These units are occupied by the 
plants Adenophorus periens, Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium 
dielerectum, Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia molokaiensis, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea dunbariae, C. 
mannii, C. procera, C. profuga, C. solanacea, Cyperus faurei, Cyrtandra 
filipes, Festuca molokaiensis, Gouania hillebrandii, Labordia triflora, 
Lysimachia maxima, Melicope mucronulata, Neraudia sericea, Phyllostegia 
hispida, P. mannii, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, Schiedea laui, S. lydgatei, S. sarmentosa, 
Silene alexandri, S. lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Stenogyne 
bifida, Vigna o-wahuensis, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense. This area 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential for the conservation of 
16 other plant species (Bonamia menziesii, Brighamia rockii, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. munroi, Diplazium molokaiense, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Flueggea neowawraea, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hibiscus 
arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, 
Melicope reflexa, Phyllostegia haliakalae, P. pilosa, Plantago 
princeps, and Sesbania tomentosa), and to the akohekohe and kiwikiu.
    Moomomi Preserve encompasses 924 ac (374 ha) along the northwest 
shore of Molokai that are owned by TNC. This preserve was established 
in 1988, to protect the most intact coastal ecosystem in Hawaii, with 
nesting seabirds, nesting green sea turtles, and a variety of native 
coastal plants (TNCH 2005, pp. 2-3). One plant species included in this 
rule, Tetramolopium rockii, is reported from the Preserve. Moomomi 
Preserve falls within one proposed critical habitat unit, Molokai--
Coastal--2. This unit is occupied by Marsilea villosa, Schenkia 
sebaeoides, Sesbania tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii. This area 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
eight other plant species (Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, H. brackenridgei, 
Ischaemum byrone, Peucedanum sandwicense, and Pittosporum halophilum).
    All four preserves were established by grants of perpetual 
conservation easements from the private landowners to TNC, or are owned 
by TNC, and are included in the State's Natural Area Partnership (NAP) 
programs which provides matching funds for the management of private 
lands that have been permanently dedicated to conservation (TNCH 2005, 
pp. 2-3; TNCH 2006a, p. 3; TNCH 2006b, p. 2; TNCH 2008, p. 50). These 
partnerships

[[Page 34576]]

with the State began in 1983 (with Haleakala Ranch) for Waikamoi, and 
were followed in 1992 (with Kaanapali Land Management Corporation) for 
Kapunakea, in 1995 (with Molokai Ranch) for Kamakou, and in 1995 for 
Moomomi (TNC-owned). Under the NAP program, the State of Hawaii 
provides matching funds on a two-for-one basis for management of 
private lands dedicated to conservation. In order to qualify for this 
program, the land must be dedicated in perpetuity through transfer of 
fee title or a conservation easement to the State or a cooperating 
entity. The land must be managed by the cooperating entity or a 
qualified landowner according to a detailed management plan approved by 
the Board of Land and Natural Resources. Once approved, the 6-year 
partnership agreement between the State and the managing entity is 
automatically renewed each year so that there are always 6 years 
remaining in the term, although the management plan is updated and 
funding amounts are reauthorized by the board at least every 6 years. 
By April 1 of any year, the managing partner may notify the State that 
it does not intend to renew the agreement; however, in such case, the 
partnership agreement remains in effect for the balance of the existing 
6-year term, and the conservation easement remains in full effect in 
perpetuity. The conservation easement may be revoked by the landowner 
only if State funding is terminated without the concurrence of the 
landowner and cooperating entity. Prior to terminating funding, the 
State must conduct one or more public hearings. The NAP program is 
funded through real estate conveyance taxes placed in a Natural Area 
Reserve Fund. Participants in the NAP program must provide annual 
reports to the DLNR and the DLNR makes annual inspections of the work 
in the reserve areas (see State of Hawaii 1999, H.R.S. 195-D; State of 
Hawaii 1996, H.A.R. 13-210).
    Management programs within the preserves are documented in long-
range management plans and yearly operational plans. These plans detail 
management measures that protect, restore, and enhance rare plants and 
animals and their habitats within the preserves and in adjacent areas. 
These management measures address factors then threaten the 135 species 
in this rule for which critical habitat is proposed, including control 
of nonnative species of ungulates, rodents, and weeds. In addition, 
habitat restoration and monitoring are also included in these plans.
    The primary management goals for each of the four TNC preserves are 
to: (1) Prevent degradation of native forest and shrubland by reducing 
feral ungulate damage; (2) improve or maintain the integrity of native 
ecosystems in selected areas of the preserve by reducing the effects of 
nonnative plants; (3) conduct small mammal control and reduce their 
negative impacts where possible; (4) monitor and track the biological 
and physical resources in the preserve and evaluate changes in these 
resources over time, and encourage biological and environmental 
research; (5) prevent extinction of rare species in the preserve; (6) 
build public understanding and support for the preservation of natural 
areas, and enlist volunteer assistance for preserve management; and (7) 
protect the resources from fires in and around the preserve (applicable 
to preserves in high fire-risk areas) (TNCH 2005, 148 pp. + appendices; 
TNCH 2006a, 23 pp. + appendices; TNCH 2006b, 21 pp. + appendices; TNCH 
2008, 30 pp.).
    The goal of TNCs ungulate program (see (1), above) is to bring 
feral ungulate populations to zero within the preserves as rapidly as 
possible, and to prevent domestic livestock from entering a preserve. 
Specific management actions to address feral ungulate impacts include 
the construction of fences, including strategic fences (fences placed 
in proximity to natural barriers such as cliffs); annual monitoring of 
ungulate presence in transects; monthly boundary fence inspections; and 
trained staff and volunteer hunting. As axis deer also pose a threat to 
the preserves, TNC is a member of the Maui Axis Deer Group (MADG), and 
TNC meets regularly with MADG to seek management solutions. Ungulate 
management actions also include working with community hunters in 
conjunction with watershed partnerships for each island. By monitoring 
ungulate activity within each of the preserves, the staff is able to 
assess the success of the hunting program. If increased hunting 
pressure does not reduce feral ungulate activity in a preserve, 
preserve staff work with the hunting group to identify and implement 
alternative methods (TNCH 2005, pp. 7-8; TNCH 2006a, pp. 7-10; TNCH 
2006b, pp. 8-9; TNCH 2008, pp. 9-10).
    The nonnative plant control program (see (2), above) for each of 
the four TNC preserves focuses on controlling habitat-modifying 
nonnative plants (weeds) in intact native communities and preventing 
the introduction of additional nonnative plants. Based on the degree of 
threat to native ecosystems, weed priority lists have been compiled for 
each of the preserves, and control and monitoring of the highest 
priority species are ongoing. Weeds are controlled manually, 
chemically, or through a combination of both. Preventive measures 
(prevention protocol) are required by all who enter each of the 
preserves. This protocol includes such things as brushing footgear 
before entering the preserve to remove seeds of nonnative plants. Weeds 
are monitored along transects annually. Weed priority maps are 
maintained semi-annually. Staff participate as members of the Melastome 
Action Committee and the Maui and Molokai Invasive Species committees 
(MISC and MoMISC), and cooperate with the State Division of 
Conservation and Resources Enforcement (DOCARE) in marijuana control, 
as needed (TNCH 2005, pp. 8-9; TNCH 2006a, pp. 11-13; TNCH 2006b, pp. 
10-12; TNCH 2008, pp. 11-13).
    The Nature Conservancy controls or prevents entry of nonnative 
mammals such as rats, cats (Felis catus), mongoose (Herpestes 
auropunctatus), and dogs (Canis familiaris), on their preserves (see 
(3), above). These mammals have negative impacts on reproduction and 
persistence of native plants and animals. Independent studies and 
research regarding the effects of small nonnative mammals on native 
ecosystems on all four preserves is encouraged by TNC. Small mammal 
trapping is conducted in Moomomi Preserve to protect ground nesting 
native seabirds from predation (TNCH 2005, p. 6). While the most 
effective control methods for rats on TNC preserves are still under 
investigation, an intensive rat baiting program is in place at Kamakou 
Preserve to control rats, which prey upon native snails and plants 
(TNCH 2006a, pp. 2, 6; TNCH 2009b, p. 21). The Nature Conservancy's 
predator control program is directed by adaptive management (TNCH 
2010a, pp. 3-5).
    Natural resource monitoring and research address the need to track 
the biological and physical resources of the preserves and evaluate 
changes in these resources to guide management programs, and contribute 
to prevention of extinction of rare species (see (4) and (5), above). 
Vegetation is monitored throughout each preserve to document long-term 
ecological changes, and rare plant species are monitored to assess 
population status. The Nature Conservancy provides logistical and other 
support to PEPP, including implementing threat abatement measures on 
their preserves (TNCH 2010a, p. 13). Bird surveys are

[[Page 34577]]

conducted every 5 years to document the relative abundance of all bird 
species in the the preserves (TNCH 2010b, p. 16). Portions of the four 
preserves are adjacent to other areas managed to protect natural 
resources. Agreements with those land managers are used to coordinate 
management efforts, and to share staff, equipment, and expertise to 
maximize management efficiency. The Nature Conservancy takes an active 
part in planning and coordinating conservation actions with, and is a 
member of, the East Maui Watershed Partnership (EMWP), the West Maui 
Mountains Watershed Partnership (WMMWP), and the East Molokai Watershed 
Partnership (EMOWP) (TNCH 2006a, p. 3; TNCH 2008, p. 21; TNCH 2010a, p. 
2).
    The Nature Conservancy's goal to increase conservation and advocacy 
for native ecosystems in Hawaii is implemented through their public 
outreach program (see (6), above). The Nature Conservancy provides 
sites and volunteer work for youth groups such as Ho'ikaika and 
AmeriCorps, and summer internships for youth and young adults (Alu 
Like, State Summer Youth Employment Program, Molokai Environmental 
Preservation Organization, and the Natural Resources Academy), 
providing students with hands-on experience in natural resource 
conservation. Other community groups, such as the Molokai Advisory 
Council, Molokai Hunting Working Group, and Kamalo Conservation 
Advisors, are encouraged to participate in the decision-making process 
for TNC's natural resources programs. The Nature Conservancy staff 
present slide shows and talks as requested by community and school 
groups, and lead guided hikes in their preserves for public schools and 
targeted community members. The Nature Conservancy produces a quarterly 
newsletter distributed on Molokai to inform the local community 
regarding conservation activities and opportunities (TNCH 2006b, pp. 
18-19; TNCH 2008, p. 20).
    Fire management is an important goal for two Molokai preserves 
(Kamakou Preserve on Molokai and Kapunakea Preserve on west Maui (TNCH 
2006b, p. 15; TNCH 2008, p. 22) (see (7), above). Wildfire management 
plans are updated annually. Staff is provided with fire suppression 
training, roads are maintained for access and as fire breaks, and 
equipment is supplied as needed to allow immediate response to fire 
threats (TNCH 2005, p. 13).
    The four TNC preserves, and the continuing protection and 
management of the native plants, animals, and their habitats provided 
by TNC and cooperating landowners and partners within the preserves, 
provide a conservation benefit to the 106 species for which critical 
habitat is proposed on TNC lands. Designation of critical habitat on 
these lands could be a disincentive to this land manager, who has 
demonstrated a willingness to manage these lands in a manner compatible 
with the conservation of listed and non-listed species; therefore, we 
are considering excluding these four TNC preserves from the designation 
of critical habitat. We are requesting comments and information 
regarding these areas and will determine whether these lands may 
warrant exclusion from critical habitat for the 106 species for which 
critical habitat is proposed on TNC lands, in our final rule.
Maui Land and Pineapple Company
    The Service is considering excluding 8,931 ac (3,614 ha) of habitat 
associated with Maui Land and Pineapple Company's (ML & P) lands, 
including Puu Kukui WP (Figure 4).

[[Page 34578]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.003

    Fourteen plant species (Bidens conjuncta, Ctenitis squamigera, 
Cyanea asplenifolia, C. kunthiana, C. lobata, C. magnicalyx, Cyrtandra 
filipes, C. munroi, Hesperomania arborescens, H. arbuscula, Myrsine 
vaccinioides, Sanicula purpurea, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, 
and Sesbania tomentosa) occur in this area. The area under 
consideration falls within seven proposed critical habitat units for 
plants (Maui--Coastal--9, Maui--Lowland Mesic--2, Maui--Lowland Wet--2, 
Maui--Lowland Wet--3, Maui--Montane Wet--6, Maui--Wet Cliff--5, and 
Maui--Wet Cliff--7), and eight proposed critical habitat units for 
birds (Palmeria dolei--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--
Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 15--Montane Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 15--Montane Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 
34--Wet Cliff, and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 34--Wet Cliff). These 
units are occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. conjuncta, Bonamia menziesii, 
Calamagrostis hillebrandii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea asplenifolia, C. kunthiana, C. lobata, C. 
magnicalyx, Cyrtandra filipes, C. munroi, Geranium hillebrandii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Myrsine vaccinioides, Platanthera holochila, 
Pteris lidgatei, Remya mauiensis, Sanicula purpurea, Santalum 
haleakalae var. lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, Schenkia sebaeoides, and 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense. This area contains habitat that is unoccupied 
but essential to the conservation of 20 other plant species (Acaena 
exigua, Asplenium dielerectum, Brighamia rockii, Bidens micrantha ssp. 
kalealaha, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, Cyanea glabra, 
Cyrtandra oxybapha, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. 
humilis, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Huperzia mannii, 
Isodendrion

[[Page 34579]]

pyrifolium, Kadua laxiflora, Lysimachia lydgatei, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Phyllostegia bracteata, Plantago princeps, Tetramolopium 
capillare, and Wikstroemia villosa), and to the akohekohe and kiwikiu.
    We are proposing critical habitat in a portion of Puu Kukui WP (599 
ac (242 ha)) where the remaining nine wild individuals of the tree 
snail Newcombia cumingi occur (Newcombia cumingi--Unit 1--Lowland Wet). 
While this area overlaps proposed critical habitat plant unit Maui--
Lowland Wet--2 that is being considered for exclusion from critical 
habitat for plant species, we are not considering excluding these 599 
ac (242 ha) from critical habitat for N. cumingi because there is no 
beneficial management in place or implemented for the conservation of 
these snails. However, we encourage the private landowner to work 
collaboratively with the Service to develop appropriate management 
plans, actions, or protections for this species. We are available and 
prepared to work with the private landowner for the protection and 
conservation of N. cumingi on Puu Kukui WP, and will consider all 
management or protective measures for this species in our final 
critical habitat rule, provided these measures are in place within a 
timreframe consistent with the rulemaking schedule for this regulatory 
action.
    Puu Kukui WP is the largest privately owned watershed preserve in 
the State. The ML & P Company has proactively managed the preserve 
since 1988, and joined the State of Hawaii's NAP program in July 1992. 
The NAP program contract has been continually renewed since that time, 
and the contract for fiscal years 2012-2018 is scheduled to be renewed 
in 2011 (ML & P 2010, p. 5; Yuen 2011, in litt.). The primary 
management goals as outlined in the current Puu Kukui WP management 
plan for the NAP program, fiscal years 2012-2018 are to: (1) Eliminate 
ungulate activity in all Puu Kukui WP management units; (2) reduce the 
range of habitat-modifying weeds and prevent introduction of nonnative 
plants; (3) track biological and physical resources in the watershed 
and evaluate changes in these resources over time, including the 
identification of new threats to the watershed, and provide logistical 
support to approved research projects that will improve management 
understanding of the watershed's resources; (4) prevent the extinction 
of rare species in the watershed; (5) expose the community to projects 
focusing on preserving and enhancing native plant and animal 
communities; (6) assist the long-term management of the native 
ecosystems of west Maui by the WMMWP; and (7) provide adequate manpower 
and equipment to meet the goals and objectives of the plan. Over 20 
years of feral ungulate management has shown that the use of snares and 
fences has been an effective means of ungulate control, with 60 percent 
of the preserve not seeing pig activity for 5 or more years. Accessible 
fences and those with direct ungulate pressure are maintained 
quarterly. The nonnative plant control program focuses on areas with 
rare native species, and the maintenance of the most pristine areas, 
keeping them as weed-free as possible with manual and mechanical 
control. ML & P Company also supports rare plant monitoring and 
propagule collection by the PEPP. Natural resource monitoring and 
research address the need to track biological and physical resources in 
order to guide management programs. Vegetation is monitored through 
permanent photo points; nonnative species are monitored along permanent 
transects; and rare, endemic, and indigenous species are also 
monitored. The ML & P Company has received funding in eight separate 
agreements (over $400,000) with the Service to survey for rare plants 
on their lands and to build feral ungulate control fences for the 
protection of listed plants. Additionally, logistical and other support 
for native bird and invertebrate studies by independent researchers and 
interagency cooperative agreements is provided. However, one area of 
concern is the lack of management efforts for the proposed endangered 
N. cumingi (ML & P 2009, p. 7). Currently, there is no ongoing predator 
control in the area where the snail is found.
    The ML & P Company is a member of the WMMWP, established in 1998. 
Management priorities for the partnership include feral animal control, 
weed control, human activities management, public education and 
awareness, water and watershed monitoring, and management coordination 
improvements. The partnership benefits forest conservation by: (1) 
Enabling land managers to construct fences and remove feral ungulates 
across land ownership boundaries; (2) allowing for more comprehensive 
conservation planning; (3) expanding the partners' ability to protect 
forest lands quickly and efficiently; (4) making more efficient use of 
resources and staff; (5) allowing for greater unity in attaining public 
funding; and (6) providing greater access to other funding 
opportunities. The WMMWP provides annual progress reports regarding the 
success of management actions and benefits provided to species and 
watershed habitat.
    The protection and management of the native plants and their 
habitats in the Puu Kukui WP that is provided by ML & P Company, the 
WMMWP, and cooperating landowners and partners providea conservation 
benefit for 44 endangered and proposed endangered plant species and the 
endangered akohekohe and kiwikiu, and their associated ecosystems. 
Designation of critical habitat on these managed lands could be a 
disincentive to the landowner who has demonstrated a willingness to 
manage these lands in a manner compatible with the conservation of 
listed and non-listed species; therefore, we are considering excluding 
8,931 ac (3,614 ha) of land owned and managed by ML & P Company from 
the designation of critical habitat. We are requesting comments and 
information regarding these areas and will determine whether these 
lands may warrant exclusion from critical habitat for the 44 plants and 
2 animal species (akohekohe and kiwikiu) for which critical habitat is 
proposed on ML & P Company lands, in our final rule.
Ulupalakua Ranch
    The Service is considering excluding 6,537 ac (2,645 ha) of habitat 
associated with Ulupalakua Ranch lands, on the southwest slope of east 
Maui (Figure 5).

[[Page 34580]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.004

    Eight plant species included in this rule (Alectryon macrococcus, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Flueggea neowawraea, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Melicope adscendens, M. knudsenii, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiensis, 
and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense) are reported from this area. The area under 
consideration falls within six proposed critical habitat units for 
plants (Maui--Coastal--6, Maui--Lowland Dry--1, Maui--Lowland Dry--3, 
Maui--Montane Mesic--1, Maui--Montane Dry--1, and Maui--Subalpine--1), 
and four proposed units for the akohekohe and kiwikiu (Palmeria dolei--
Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 18--Montane 
Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 24--Subalpine, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 24--Subalpine). These units are occupied by the 
plants Alectryon macrococcus, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. 
macrocephalum, Asplenium dielerectum, A. peruvianum var. insulare, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha, 
Bonamia menziesii, Canavalia pubescens, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Clermontia lindseyana, Cyanea horrida, C. mceldowneyi, C. obtusa, 
Cyrtandra ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, Diplazium molokaiense, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Geranium arboreum, G. multiflorum, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Huperzia mannii, Melanthera kamolensis, Melicope adscendens, M. 
knudsenii, Neraudia sericea, Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense, 
Sesbania tomentosa, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense. This area contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to 
the conservation of 17 other endangered or proposed endangered plant 
species (Brighamia rockii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea glabra, C. hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. 
kunthiana, Cyperus pennatiformis, Ischaemum byrone, Melicope 
mucronulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, P. mannii, Schiedea haleakalensis, Solanum incompletum, 
Vigna o-wahuensis, and Wikstroemia villosa), and to the akohekohe and 
kiwikiu.
    Ulupalakua Ranch is involved in several important voluntary 
conservation agreements with the

[[Page 34581]]

Service and is currently carrying out activities on their lands for the 
conservation of rare and endangered species and their habitats. In 1997 
and 1998, respectively, Ulupalakua Ranch entered into the Partners for 
Fish and Wildlife Auwahi and Puu Makua agreements to protect and 
restore dryland forest, including construction of ungulate exclosure 
fences, a greenhouse to propagate rare plants for outplanting, an 
access road, and propagation and outplanting of native plants. 
Preservation of habitat in Auwahi and Puu Makua benefits the 48 listed 
and proposed plant and animal species discussed above. Over the last 14 
years, the Service has provided funding for 3 projects in the Auwahi 
area (Auwahi I, II, and III). Labor, material, and technical assistance 
is provided by Ulupalakua Ranch, U.S. Geological Survery-Biological 
Resources Discipline (USGS-BRD), and volunteers. The Auwahi I project 
area encompasses 10 ac (4 ha) on the southwest slope of Haleakala. 
Ulupalakua Ranch and its partners built an ungulate exclosure fence; 
outplanted native plants, including the listed endangered plants 
Alectryon macrococcus var. auwahiensis and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense; and 
removed all nonnative plants and feral ungulates within the fenced 
exclosure. The Auwahi II project area encompasses 23 ac (9 ha) adjacent 
to Auwahi I, and the Auwahi III project area encompasses an additional 
181 ac (73 ha) (USFWS 2009, in litt.). Ulupalakua Ranch and its 
partners built additional ungulate exclosure fences, propagated and 
outplanted native plants, and removed nonnative plants and feral 
ungulates within the fenced exclosures (USFWS 2009, in litt.). Within 5 
years of fence construction and nonnative species management 
activities, these three areas have been transformed from nonnative 
grasslands to a native species-dominated, self-sustaining, dryland 
forest.
    Community volunteer participation is a key element to the success 
of these projects, and monthly volunteer trips often exceed 50 
participants from a pool of 700 interested Maui residents, including 
school groups, Hawaiian native dance groups, canoe clubs, and other 
special interest groups.
    In 1998, Ulupalakua Ranch entered a 10-year partnership with Ducks 
Unlimited (a private conservation organization) and the Natural 
Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) 
to create four wetland complexes (completed in 2001) suitable for two 
endangered birds, the Hawaiian goose or nene (Branta sandvicensis) and 
Hawaiian duck or koloa (Anas wyvilliana) (NRCS 2001, pp. 1-2). While 
the endangered nene and koloa are not addressed in this proposed rule, 
the establishment of wetland complexes for these endangered birds 
demonstrates the willingness of Ulupalakua Ranch to protect and 
conserve native plants and animals on their lands.
    Between 1999 and 2007, the Service and the DOFAW NARs Fund provided 
funding for habitat restoration at Puu Makua. Ulupalakua Ranch and its 
partners, which include USGS-BRD, the Leeward Haleakala Watershed 
Restoration Partnership, and volunteers, built a 100-ac (40-ha) 
ungulate exclosure, removed feral ungulates and controlled nonnative 
plants within the fenced exclosure, and outplanted native plants. This 
project provides public outreach through on going volunteer 
participation to control nonnative plants and outplant native plants.
    Impacts to habitat resulting from the installation and operation of 
eight wind turbines by Auwahi Wind at Ulupalakua Ranch (within an area 
considered as part of proposed Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 1) were 
addressed in a Habitat Conservation Plan. Auwahi Wind will offset the 
development of 0.3 ac (0.1 ha) of native habitat and 28 ac (11 ha) of 
degraded habitat with 6 ac (2.4 ha) of habitat restoration at 
Ulupalakua Ranch's Auwahi project area. The Service issued a section 10 
permit for the Auwahi Wind project in January, 2012.
    The Honuaula Partners with Ulupalakua Ranch, are offsetting impacts 
to species from development of an area that is part of proposed Maui--
Lowland Dry--Unit 3 in a 400 ac (162 ha) area of Ulupalakua Ranch land 
above Kanaio NAR.
    The ongoing management strategies at Auwahi and Puu Makua are 
consistent with recovery objectives outlined in the recovery plans for 
the 46 plant species and the akohekohe and kiwikiu (USFWS 1995a; USFWS 
1995b; USFWS 1996a; USFWS 1996b; USFWS 1997; USFWS 1998a; USFWS 1998b; 
USFWS 1998c; USFWS 1999; USFWS 2002; USFWS 2006; 61 FR 53130). 
Designation of critical habitat on the 6,538 ac (2,644 ha) of 
Ulupalakua Ranch lands could be a disincentive to the landowner, who 
has demonstrated a willingness to manage these lands in a manner 
compatible with the conservation of listed and non-listed species; 
therefore, we are considering excluding 6,538 ac (2,644 ha) of land 
owned and managed by Ulupalakua Ranch from the designation of critical 
habitat. We are requesting comments and information regarding these 
areas and will determine whether these lands may warrant exclusion from 
critical habitat for the 48 plants and animals for which critical 
habitat is proposed on Ulupalakua Ranch lands, in our final rule.
Haleakala Ranch Company
    In addition to the Haleakala Ranch Company lands managed by TNC as 
Waikamoi Preserve under a perpetual conservation easement (see 
discussion above), the Service is considering excluding 8,746 ac (3,539 
ha) of habitat associated with Haleakala Ranch Company lands on east 
Maui (Figure 6).

[[Page 34582]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.005

    Four plant species included in this rule (Argyroxiphium sandwicense 
ssp. macrocephalum, Canavalia pubescens, Geranium arboreum, and 
Hibiscus brackenridgei) and the akohekohe and kiwikiu are reported from 
this area. The area under consideration falls within seven proposed 
critical habitat units for plants (Maui--Lowland Dry--1, Maui--Lowland 
Dry--2, Maui--Montane Wet--1, Maui--Montane Mesic--1, Maui--Montane 
Dry--1, Maui--Subalpine--1, and Maui--Alpine--1), and six proposed 
units for the akohekohe and kiwikiu (Palmeria dolei--Unit 10--Montane 
Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 10--Montane Wet, Palmeria dolei--
Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 18--Montane 
Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 24--Subalpine, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 24--Subalpine). These units are occupied by the 
plants Alectryon macrococcus, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. 
macrocephalum, Asplenium dielerectum, A. peruvianum var. insulare, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha, 
Bonamia menziesii, Canavalia pubescens, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Clermontia lindseyana, C. oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, Cyanea 
copelandii ssp. haleakalensis, C. duvalliorum, C. horrida, C. 
kunthiana, C. maritae, C. mceldowneyi, C. obtusa, Cyrtandra 
ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, Diplazium molokaiense, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Geranium arboreum, G. multiflorum, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Huperzia 
mannii, Melanthera kamolensis, Melicope adscendens, M. balloui, M. 
knudsenii, Neraudia sericea, Phyllostegia pilosa, Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense, Sesbania tomentosa, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense, and by the akohekohe and kiwikiu. This area 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to Adenophorus periens, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Clermontia samuelii, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea glabra, C. hamatiflora ssp. 
hamatiflora, Geranium hanaense, Melicope mucronulata, M. ovalis, 
Nototrichium humile, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia bracteata, P. 
mannii, Platanthera holochila, Schiedea haleakalensis, S. jacobii, 
Solanum incompletum, and Wikstroemia villosa.

[[Page 34583]]

    Haleakala Ranch Company is involved in several important voluntary 
conservation agreements with the Service and is currently carrying out 
activities on their lands for the conservation of rare and endangered 
species and their habitats. Haleakala Ranch Company is a member of the 
EMWP, which was formed in 1991, as a model for large-scale forest 
protection in Hawaii. The members agree to pool resources and implement 
a watershed management program to protect 100,000 ac (40,469 ha) of 
forest across east Maui (EMWP 2009). The management program includes: 
(1) Control of feral pigs by public hunting in the privately owned 
lower watershed areas; (2) control of the invasive plant miconia; and 
(3) construction of ungulate exclosure fences to protect 12,000 ac 
(4,856 ha) of lowland and montane wet forest (Tri-Isle Resource 
Conservation and Development Council, Inc. 2011). In partnership with 
DOFAW, Haleakala Ranch controls feral ungulates (e.g., axis deer and 
goats) on their lands in lowland dry habitat at Waiopae, on the south 
coast of east Maui. In addition to feral ungulate control, Haleakala 
Ranch and DOFAW control invasive plants that threaten wild populations 
of two endangered plants, Alectryon macrococcus and Melanthera 
kamolensis.
    In 1999, Haleakala Ranch entered into an agreement with the 
Partners for Fish and Wildlife, USGS-BRD, and DHHL, for habitat 
protection at Puu o Kali, on the west slope of Haleakala. This 
agreement funded management actions to conserve and protect native 
dryland forest, including construction of a fence to exclude nonnative 
axis deer and feral goats, nonnative plant control, and propagation and 
outplanting of native plants. The project area was accessed through 
cooperation of the landowner, Haleakala Ranch. Currently, 236 ac (96 
ha) are protected within the fenced area, and all axis deer and goats 
were removed from the fenced area.
    In 2001, the Service and NRCS provided funding for management 
actions to conserve and protect the endangered plant Geranium arboreum 
and subalpine habitat on Puu Pahu on the northwestern slopes of 
Haleakala (USFWS 2007b). These management actions include construction 
of ungulate exclosure fences and removel of ungulates within the fenced 
area. The first increment of the fence is completed and encloses 
approximately 670 ac (271 ha) (Higashino 2011, in litt.). Upon project 
completion, the fenced area will adjoin the fenced area of Haleakala 
National Park at 7,500 ft (2,290 m), and will exclude ungulates and 
allow for their removal from an area larger than 670 ac (271 ha) (USFWS 
2007b).
    In 2009, Haleakala Ranch entered into a safe harbor agreement (SHA) 
with the Hawaii DLNR and the Service, to establish a population of the 
endangered nene on their lands at Waiopae. While the endangered nene is 
not a species addressed in this proposed rule, the establishment of a 
SHA for this endangered bird demonstrates the willingness of Haleakala 
Ranch to protect and conserve native plants and animals on their lands.
    The protection and management of habitat at Puu o Kali, Puu Pahu, 
and Waiopae are consistent with the recovery objectives outline in the 
recovery plans for the 55 plant species and the akohekohe and kiwikiu 
(USFWS 1995a; USFWS 1995b; USFWS 1996a; USFWS 1996b; USFWS 1997; USFWS 
1998a; USFWS 1998b; USFWS 1999; USFWS 2002; USFWS 2006; 61 FR 53130). 
Designation of critical habitat on the 9,796 ac (4,072 ha) of Haleakala 
Ranch Company lands could be a disincentive to the landowner, who has 
demonstrated a willingness to manage these lands in a manner compatible 
with the conservation of listed and non-listed species; therefore, we 
are considering excluding 8,746 ac (3,539 ha) of land owned and managed 
by Haleakala Ranch Company from the designation of critical habitat. We 
are requesting comments and information regarding these areas and will 
determine whether these lands may warrant exclusion from critical 
habitat for the 57 plant and animal species for which critical habitat 
is propose on Haleakala Ranch Company lands, in our final rule.
East Maui Irrigation Company, Ltd.
    The Service is considering excluding 6,721 ac (2,720 ha) of habitat 
associated with East Maui Irrigation Company's (EMI) lands in Haiku Uka 
(below Waikamoi Preserve, from Opana Gulch to Pohakupalaha) on east 
Maui (Figure 7).

[[Page 34584]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.006

    Ten plant species included in this rule (Asplenium peruvianum var. 
insulare, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalensis, C. gibsonii, C. 
hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. mceldowneyi, 
Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium multiflorum, and Santalum haleakalae 
var. lanaiense), and the akohekohe and kiwikiu are reported from this 
area.
    The area under consideration falls within 6 proposed critical 
habitat units for plants (Maui--Lowland Wet--1, Maui--Montane Wet--1, 
Maui--Montane Wet--2, Maui--Montane Mesic--1, Maui--Subalpine--2, and 
Maui--Wet Cliff--1), and 12 proposed critical habitat units for the 
akohekohe and kiwikiu (Palmeria dolei--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 2-Lowland Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 10--
Montane Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 10--Montane Wet, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 11--Montane Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 11--Montane 
Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--
Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 25--Subalpine, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 25--Subalpine, Palmeria dolei--Unit 30--
Wet Cliff, and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 30--Wet Cliff). These 
units are occupied by the plants Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. 
macrocephalum, Asplenium dielerectum, A. peruvianum var. insulare, 
Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, B. campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, 
Clermontia lindseyana, C. oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, C. samuelii, 
Cyanea asplenifolia, C. copelandii ssp. haleakalensis, C. duvalliorum, 
C. hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora, C. horrida, C. kunthiana, C. maritae, 
C. mceldowneyi, C. obtusa, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, C. oxybapha, 
Diplazium molokaiense, Geranium arboreum, G. hanaense, G. multiflorum, 
Huperzia mannii, Melicope adscendens, M. balloui, M. ovalis, Neraudia 
sericea, Phyllostegia pilosa, Schiedea haleakalensis, and Wikstroemia 
villosa. This area contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of 15 other plant species (Adenophorus periens, Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bidens

[[Page 34585]]

micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Clermontia peleana, Cyanea glabra, Mucuna 
sloanei var. persericea, Peperomia subpetiolata, Phyllostegia 
bracteata, P. haliakalae, P. mannii, Plantago princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Schiedea jacobii, Solanum incompletum, and Zanthoxylum 
hawaiiense).
    East Maui Irrigation Company, Ltd., a subsidiary of Alexander and 
Baldwin, owns and operates a ditch system that diverts more than 60 
billion gallons per year of surface water from east Maui to central 
Maui for agricultural, domestic, and other uses. In 1991, EMI, along 
with the major landowners and land managers (TNC, Maui County, DLNR, 
and private ranches) of the windward slope of east Maui (encompassing 
approximately 100,000 ac (40,500 ha)), formed the East Maui Watershed 
Partnership (EMWP). The EMWP prepared a management plan in 1993, to 
protect the biological and water resources within the partnership lands 
(EMWP 2009, App. B). The plan identified five priority management 
activities: (1) Watershed resource monitoring, (2) feral animal 
control, (3) invasive weed control, (4) management infrastructure, and 
(5) public education and awareness programs.
    In 1993, EMI and DLNR entered into a right-of-entry agreement to 
permit the use of EMI roads by public hunters in the area of Haiku Uka, 
with the intention of increasing hunting activities to control feral 
pigs, goats, and axis deer in the Koolau FR. In 1996, constituents of 
the EMWP prepared an ungulate exclusion fencing strategy to preserve 
and protect 12,000 ac (4,856 ha) of land (called the core area) on the 
east Maui slope between Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Koolau Gap, 
including the Haiku Uka area, and TNC's Waikamoi Preserve (EMWP 2009, 
p. 3). Approximately 7,000 ac (2,833 ha) of the core area consists of 
State forest reserve and EMI lands, and approximately 5,000 ac (2,024 
ha) are within TNC's Waikamoi Preserve. In 2005 and 2006, the Service 
and others provided funding for the construction of an ungulate 
exclusion fence at 3,600 ft (1,100 m) elevation and for improving 
hunter access to EMWP lands. The fence extends from Hanawi Natural Area 
Reserve west to Kaupo Gap, and protects approximately 7,000 ac (2,833 
ha) of native forest, including forest in Haiku Uka. The Waikamoi 
Preserve and Haleakala National Park fences provide the upper boundary 
of the fenced area (TNC 2006l). The fence was completed in 2006, and 
the enclosed area of 7,000 ac (2,833 ha) is divided into five units 
(Honomanu, Koolau Gap, Waluanui, Wailuaiki, and Kopiliua), which are 
managed through the cooperation of landowners, including EMI, and other 
partners (EMWP 2009, pp. 3-17).
    The 1993 EMWP management plan was revised in 2006 and included 
recommendations for improving threat assessment and feral pig control, 
and developing more cost-effective methods for natural resource 
assessments. In 2008 and 2009, the Service provided funding for feral 
pig reduction and fence monitoring on EMI lands in Haiku Uka (USFWS 
2008; USFWS 2009, in litt.).
    The 2006 EMWP management plan was revised in 2009, to provide long-
term protection of the east Maui watershed resources such as ground and 
surface water, native plants and animals and their habitat, hunting 
opportunities, commercial harvests, cultural resources, and ecotourism. 
The 2009 EMWP management plan provides detailed management objectives 
for protection of the east Maui watershed resources, and recommends 
that the effectiveness of ongoing management actions be evaluated and 
modified, as needed, after 5 years (EMWP 2009, pp. 3-17, + appendices). 
The 2009 EMWP management plan describes specific management actions for 
the protection of the EMWP lands, including Haiku Uka. These management 
actions include ungulate (i.e., feral pigs) control through hunting, 
fencing, fence maintenance, and research on effective feral animal 
control actions; weed control by controlling existing weeds, preventing 
the introduction of new weeds, and supporting research on weed control; 
development of a management program for rare and endangered species 
that includes surveys, species monitoring, propagation and outplanting 
of rare plants and release of rare birds, as well as implementing 
threat abatement actions; monitoring changes in vegetation (both native 
and nonnative), native forest birds, stream animals, stream flow, and 
rainfall; monitoring changes in cultural resources and maintaining and 
expanding public support for the east Maui watershed; and maintaining 
existing and developing new funding sources (EMWP 2009, pp. 13-17).
    As of 2009, the majority of feral ungulates (i.e., feral pigs) were 
removed from the five management units (described above). In addition, 
there are few to no feral pigs in Haiku Uka due to their control by 
hunting and the construction of exclusion fences (Jokiel 2009, pers. 
comm.). While native forest dominates Haiku Uka, weed control is 
ongoing, particularly within disturbance corridors where new weed 
species are likely to be introduced (e.g., camps, trails, and 
helicopter landing zones).
    The protection and management of the native plants and their 
habitats in Haiku Uka that is provided by EMI and the EMWP and 
cooperating landowners and partners provides a conservation benefit for 
46 endangered and proposed endangered plant species and the endangered 
akohekohe and kiwikiu, and their associated ecosystems. Designation of 
critical habitat on these managed lands could be a disincentive to the 
landowner, who has demonstrated a willingness to manage these lands in 
a manner compatible with the conservation of listed and non-listed 
species; therefore, we are considering excluding 6,721 ac (2,720 ha) of 
land owned and managed by EMI from the designation of critical habitat. 
We are requesting comments and information regarding these areas and 
will determine whether these lands may warrant exclusion from critical 
habitat for the 46 plant and 2 animal species (akohekohe and kiwikiu) 
for which critical habitat is proposed on EMI lands, in our final rule.

Peer Review

    In accordance with our joint policy published in the Federal 
Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we will seek the expert 
opinions of at least three appropriate and independent specialists 
regarding this proposed rule. The purpose of such review is to ensure 
that our proposed listings and critical habitat designations are based 
on scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analyses. We have posted 
our proposed peer review plan on our Web site at http://www.fws/pacific/informationquality. We will invite these peer reviewers to 
comment, during the public comment period, on the specific assumptions 
and conclusions regarding the proposed listings and designation of 
critical habitat.
    We will consider all comments and information we receive during the 
comment period on this proposed rule during our preparation of a final 
determination. Accordingly, our final decision may differ from this 
proposal.

Public Hearings

    The Act provides for one or more public hearings on this proposal, 
if requested. Requests for public hearings must be made within 45 days 
of the publication of this proposal (see DATES). We will schedule 
public hearings on this proposal, if any are requested, and announce 
the dates, times, and place of those hearings, in the Federal Register 
and local newspapers at least 15 days before the first hearing.
    Persons needing reasonable accommodations to attend and

[[Page 34586]]

participate in a public hearing should contact the Pacific Islands Fish 
and Wildlife Office at 808-792-9400 as soon as possible. To allow 
sufficient time to process requests, please call no later than one week 
before the hearing date. Information regarding this proposal is 
available in alternative formats upon request.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review--Executive Order 12866 and 13563

    Executive Order 12866 provides that the Office of Information and 
Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) will review all significant rules. The Office 
of Information and Regulatory Affairs has determined that this rule is 
not significant.
    Executive Order 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866 while 
calling for improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote 
predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most 
innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. 
The executive order directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches 
that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for 
the public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and 
consistent with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further 
that regulations must be based on the best available science and that 
the rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open 
exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in a manner consistent 
with these requirements.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA; 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996), whenever an agency must publish a notice of 
rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make 
available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that 
describes the effects of the rule on small entities (small businesses, 
small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no 
regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of the agency 
certifies the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. SBREFA amended RFA to require 
Federal agencies to provide a statement of the factual basis for 
certifying that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on 
a substantial number of small entities.
    Small entities include small organizations, such as independent 
nonprofit organizations; small governmental jurisdictions, including 
school boards and city and town governments that serve fewer than 
50,000 residents; and small businesses. Small businesses include 
manufacturing and mining concerns with fewer than 500 employees, 
wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, retail and 
service businesses with less than $5 million in annual sales, general 
and heavy construction businesses with less than $27.5 million in 
annual business, special trade contractors doing less than $11.5 
million in annual business, and agricultural businesses with annual 
sales less than $750,000. To determine if potential economic impacts to 
these small entities are significant, we consider the types of 
activities that might trigger regulatory impacts under this rule, as 
well as the types of project modifications that may result. In general, 
the term ``significant economic impact'' is meant to apply to a typical 
small business firm's business operations.
    To determine if a designation of critical habitat could 
significantly affect a substantial number of small entities, we 
consider the number of small entities affected within particular types 
of economic activities (e.g., housing development, grazing, oil and gas 
production, timber harvesting). We apply the ``substantial number'' 
test individually to each industry to determine if certification is 
appropriate. However, the SBREFA does not explicitly define 
``substantial number'' or ``significant economic impact.'' 
Consequently, to assess whether a ``substantial number'' of small 
entities is affected by this designation, this analysis considers the 
relative number of small entities likely to be impacted in an area. In 
some circumstances, especially with critical habitat designations of 
limited extent, we may aggregate across all industries and consider 
whether the total number of small entities affected is substantial. In 
estimating the number of small entities potentially affected, we also 
consider whether their activities have any Federal involvement.
    Under the Act, designation of critical habitat only affects 
activities carried out, funded, or permitted by Federal agencies. Some 
kinds of activities are unlikely to have any Federal involvement and so 
will not be affected by critical habitat designation. However, in some 
States, there are State laws that limit activities in designated 
critical habitat even where there is no Federal nexus. If there is a 
Federal nexus, Federal agencies will be required to consult with us 
under section 7 of the Act on activities they fund, permit, or carry 
out that may affect critical habitat. If we conclude, in a biological 
opinion, that a proposed action is likely to destroy or adversely 
modify critical habitat, we can offer ``reasonable and prudent 
alternatives.'' Reasonable and prudent alternatives are alternative 
actions that can be implemented in a manner consistent with the scope 
of the Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction, that are 
economically and technologically feasible, and that would avoid 
destroying or adversely modifying critical habitat.
    A Federal agency and an applicant may elect to implement a 
reasonable and prudent alternative associated with a biological opinion 
that has found adverse modification of critical habitat. An agency or 
applicant could alternatively choose to seek an exemption from the 
requirements of the Act or proceed without implementing the reasonable 
and prudent alternative. However, unless an exemption were obtained, 
the Federal agency or applicant would be at risk of violating section 
7(a)(2) of the Act if it chose to proceed without implementing the 
reasonable and prudent alternatives. We may also identify discretionary 
conservation recommendations designed to minimize or avoid the adverse 
effects of a proposed action on critical habitat, help implement 
recovery plans, or to develop information that could contribute to the 
recovery of the species.
    Within the proposed critical habitat designation, the types of 
actions or authorized activities that we have identified as potential 
concerns and that may be subject to consultation under section 7 if 
there is a Federal nexus are: (1) Activities that might degrade or 
destroy the primary constituent elements for the species, including, 
but not limited to (a) grazing, (b) maintaining or increasing feral 
ungulate levels, (c) clearing or cutting native live trees and shrubs, 
(d) bulldozing, (e) construction, (f) road building, (g) mining, (h) 
herbicide application, (i) taking actions that pose a risk of fire; (2) 
activities that may alter watershed characteristics in ways that would 
reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, wetland, aquatic, or 
vegetative communities (e.g., new water diversion or impoundment 
activities, groundwater pumping, and manipulation of vegetation through 
activities such as the ones mentioned above); (3) recreational 
activities that may degrade vegetation; (4) mining sand or other 
minerals; (5) introducing or encouraging the spread

[[Page 34587]]

of nonnative plant species; (6) importing nonnative species for 
research, agriculture, and aquaculture; and (7) releasing biological 
control agents.
    Three of the proposed critical habitat units (Maui--Lowland Dry--
Unit 3, Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, and Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5 
(which is also Palmeria dolei--Unit 22--Montane Mesic and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 22--Montane Mesic) contain commercial operations or 
proposed commercial operations. Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 3 totals 
approximately 1,089 ac (441 ha) and is located at Paeahu-Palauea on the 
southern slope of Haleakala on east Maui. Less than 1 ac (0.4 ha) of 
this unit is owned by Maui County, and 1,089 ac (445 ha) are privately 
owned. One of the private landowners (Honuaula Partners LLC) plans to 
develop approximately 130 ac (53 ha) of this unit for a resort and 
golf-course over a 13-year build-out period and expects to begin within 
the next few years (PBR Hawaii 2010, pp. 5-6). Honuaula Partners LLC is 
working with the State's DOFAW and the Service to develop a multi-
species habitat conservation plan (HCP), primarily to minimize and 
mitigate the effects of incidental take of the endangered Blackburn's 
sphinx moth (Manduca blackburni) and Hawaiian hoary bat or ope ape a 
(Lasiurus cinereus semotus), two species that are not addressed in this 
proposed rule, and to address impacts to the plant Canavalia pubescens, 
which is proposed for listing as endangered in this document. The 
Service will conduct an internal consultation under section 7 of the 
Act when considering Honuaula Partners LLC's HCP and application for an 
incidental take permit for the Blackburn's sphinx moth and ope ape a. 
In the consultation, the Service considers potential impacts to listed 
and proposed species, as well as potential impacts to designated and 
proposed critical habitat. At this time, we are unaware of any other 
ongoing or proposed project with a Federal nexus (e.g., Federal funds 
or Federal permits) in this proposed unit.
    Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 totals 5,448 ac (2,205 ha) and extends 
from Panaewa to Waikapu Valley on the western and southern slopes of 
west Maui. There are 3,685 ac (1,491 ha) of State land and 1,763 ac 
(713 ha) of private land in this proposed unit. Maui--Montane Mesic--
Unit 5 totals 304 ac (123 ha) and is located in the upper reaches of 
Papalaua and Pohakea gulches on the southeastern slopes of west Maui. 
Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5 is adjacent to and above (to the north of) 
Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, and consists of 170 ac (69 ha) of State and 
134 ac (54 ha) of privately owned lands. Kaheawa Wind Power LLC 
constructed 20 General Electric 1.5 megawatt wind turbine generators 
(WTGs) and associated structures, and realigned the existing four-wheel 
drive road on approximately 200 ac (81 ha) of State-leased land at 
Kaheawa Pastures, Ukumehame, Maui (called Kaheawa Project I). These 
WTGs are located in a single articulated row at an elevation extending 
from 2,000 to 3,000 ft (610 to 915 m) across proposed Maui--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5 and Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5 (which is also Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 22--Montane Mesic and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 22--
Montane Mesic). Kaheawa Wind Power LLC worked with the State's DOFAW 
and the Service to develop a multi-species HCP, primarily to minimize 
and mitigate the effects of incidental take of three federally listed 
birds (the endangered nene, endangered Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel or 
ua u (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), and the threatened Newell 
Townsend's shearwater or ao (Puffinus auricularis newelli)), and the 
endangered ope ape a. The Service conducted an internal consultation 
under section 7 of the Act on impacts of the proposed Kaheawa Project I 
on the four federally listed species and previously designated plant 
critical habitat prior to issuing the incidental take permit. Kaheawa 
Wind Power LLC plans to construct and operate 14 new 1.5 MW WTGs and 
associated structures on 143 ac (58 ha) of State-leased land (called 
Kaheawa Project II), approximately 2,000 ft (approximately 610 m) 
southeast of the southern end of Kaheawa Project I (outside of proposed 
critical habitat in Maui--Lowland--Dry Unit 5). Kaheawa Project II also 
includes plans to construct and operate a new maintenance building on 2 
ac (0.8 ha) of State-leased land within proposed Maui--Lowland Dry--
Unit 5. Kaheawa Wind Power LLC is working with the State's DOFAW and 
the Service to develop a multi-species HCP for Kaheawa Project II, 
primarily to minimize and mitigate the effects of incidental take of 
the federally listed nene, ua u, ao, and ope ape a. The Service 
conducted an internal consultation under section 7 of the Act on 
impacts of the proposed Kaheawa Project II on these four listed 
species, and issued a permit for construction and operation of the wind 
towers in January, 2012.
    None of the other 97 plant, 86 forest bird, and 11 tree snail 
proposed critical habitat units contains any significant residential, 
commercial, industrial, or golf-course projects; crop farming; or 
intensive livestock operations. Few projects are planned for locations 
in these other proposed critical habitat units. This situation reflects 
the fact that:
    (1) Most of the land is unsuitable for development, farming, or 
other economic activities due to the rugged mountain terrain, lack of 
access, and remote locations; and
    (2) Existing land-use controls severely limit development and most 
other economic activities in the mountainous interiors of the islands 
of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe.
    Existing and planned projects, land uses, and activities that could 
affect the proposed critical habitat but have no Federal involvement 
would not require section 7 consultation with the Service, so they are 
not restricted by the requirements of the Act. Further, although some 
existing and continuing activities involve the operation and 
maintenance of existing manmade features and structures (e.g., wind 
turbines and associated structures) in certain areas, these areas do 
not contain the physical or biological features for the species, and 
would not be impacted by the designation. Finally, for the anticipated 
projects and activities that will have Federal involvement, many are 
conservation efforts that will not negatively impact the species or 
their habitat, so they will not be subjected to a protracted informal 
section 7 consultation. We anticipate that a developer or other project 
proponent could modify a project or take measures to protect the 135 
Maui Nui species. The kinds of actions that may be included if future 
reasonable and prudent alternatives become necessary include 
conservation set-asides, management of competing nonnative species, 
restoration of degraded habitat, and regular monitoring. These measures 
are not likely to result in a significant economic impact to project 
proponents, as nearly all of the lands proposed for critical habitat 
designation are unsuitable for development, as well as for most 
commercial projects, land uses, and activities. This is due to their 
remote location, lack of access, and rugged terrain.
    In addition, Federal agencies may also need to reinitiate a 
previous consultation if discretionary involvement or control over the 
Federal action has been retained or is authorized by law and the 
activities may affect critical habitat. On November 9, 1984, we 
designated critical habitat for the endangered plant Gouania 
hillebrandii on Maui (49 FR 44753), and in 2003 and

[[Page 34588]]

2008, we designated critical habitat for 3 plants on Lanai (68 FR 1220; 
January 9, 2003); 41 plants on Molokai (68 FR 12982; March 18, 2003); 
60 plants on Maui and Kahoolawe (68 FR 25934; May 14, 2003); 
Blackburn's sphinx moth on Molokai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, and the island 
of Hawaii (68 FR 34710; June 10, 2003); and, most recently, for 12 
picture-wing flies on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii (73 FR 
73794; December 4, 2008). We discuss our formal and informal 
consultations conducted prior to 2003 on the islands of Lanai, Molokai, 
Maui, and Kahoolawe in our final rules to designate critical habitat on 
these islands (68 FR 1220, January 9, 2003; 68 FR 12982, March 18, 
2003; 68 FR 25934, May 14, 2003). Since the 2003 critical habitat 
designations on Lanai, Molokai, Maui, and Kahoolawe, and most recently 
in December 2008 on Molokai and Maui, we have conducted 17 formal 
consultations and 81 informal consultations on these islands (Table 8), 
in addition to consultations on Federal grants to State wildlife 
programs that do not affect small entities. Of these 98 formal and 
informal consultations, 10 formal consultations and 32 informal 
consultations were primarily consultations regarding Federal permits to 
Service employees to implement conservation actions for listed species. 
The remainder, 7 formal consultations and 49 informal consultations, 
involved (in order of frequency) the Department of Agriculture (USDA-
NRCS, USDA-Emergency Conservation Program (ECP), USDA-Animal and Plant 
Health Inspection Service (APHIS), USDA-Farm Services Agency (FSA), and 
USDA-Emergency Watershed Program (EWP), U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, 
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Environmental Protection 
Agency, National Science Foundation, Department of Housing and Urban 
Development, NPS, Sprint Nextel, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, University 
of Hawaii-Institute for Astronomy, U.S. Coast Guard, Hawaii Army 
National Guard, USGS-BRD, and Maui Electric Company (MECO).

          Table 8--Summary of Consultations on Molokai, Lanai, Maui and Kahoolawe Between 2003 and 2010
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   Total No. of                    Total No. of
                                                                     informal                         formal
                                                   Total No. of    consultations   Total No. of    consultations
                     Island                          informal       concerning        formal        concerning
                                                   consultations     critical      consultations     critical
                                                                      habitat                         habitat
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai.........................................              17               3               2               0
Lanai...........................................               3               0               1               0
Maui............................................              58               7              10               1
Kahoolawe.......................................               3               2               1               1
Multi-Island (includes one or more islands).....               0               0               3               0
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
    Total for all islands.......................              81              12              17               2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Two of the formal consultations concerned designated critical 
habitat, and we concurred with each agency's determination that the 
project, as proposed, was not likely to destroy or adversely modify 
critical habitat. One of the formal consultations was conducted on 
behalf of the U.S. Navy regarding controlled burns at Waikahalulu and 
Kamohio on the island of Kahoolawe. The U.S. Navy proposed to reduce 
and remove vegetation cover (by fire) in plant and Blackburn's sphinx 
moth critical habitat so that Navy contractors could safely locate 
unexploded ordinance (UXO) for removal and disposal. Although the 
controlled burn was carried out in an area that is also proposed for 
critical habitat in this rule, it was a single, one-time action that is 
not ongoing. The U.S. Navy ceased UXO removal operations on Kahoolawe 
in 2004. The other formal consultation is discussed above (see Kaheawa 
Project I). The Service may need to reinitiate internal consultation on 
future actions proposed (Kaheawa Project II) in Maui--Lowland Dry--Unit 
5 and Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5, if those actions may affect 
subsequently newly designated critical habitat.
    The majority of the 49 informal consultations that did not involve 
Service actions was related to project effects on seabird flyways, 
listed species and their associated habitats, and human interactions 
with endangered nene. About one third of the informal consultations was 
conducted with the USDA for proposed funding for habitat restoration 
projects under NRCS programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, 
Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program, and Environmental Quality 
Incentives Program, and the remaining consultations were agricultural 
projects under the FSA's Emergency Conservation Program.
    Twelve of the 81 informal consultations concerned designated 
critical habitat, and in all cases we concurred with each agency's 
determination that the project, as proposed, had no effect or was not 
likely to adversely modify critical habitat. These projects were evenly 
divided between conservation actions that would benefit listed species, 
construction, and agricultural operations. For the 69 informal 
consultations that did not concern designated critical habitat, we 
concurred with each agency's determination that the project, as 
proposed, was not likely to adversely affect listed species.
    In this rule, we are proposing to designate critical habitat on a 
total 271,062 ac (109,695 ha) of land. Forty-seven percent (127,807 ac 
(51,722 ha)) of this proposed critical habitat designation is already 
designated critical habitat for one or more species, and 53 percent 
(143,272 ac (57,980 ha)) of the proposed designation is on land newly 
proposed as critical habitat. Some of the Federal actions that were 
subject to previous section 7 consultation are on the lands we are 
proposing as critical habitat in this rule. Therefore, there may be a 
requirement to reinitiate consultation for some ongoing Federal 
projects.
    In the 2003 and 2008 economic analyses of the previous designation 
of critical habitat for the 102 species of plants on the islands of 
Lanai, Molokai, Maui, and Kahoolawe; Blackburn's sphinx moth; and 12 
picture-wing flies, we evaluated the potential economic effects on 
small business entities resulting from the protection of these species 
and their habitats related to the proposed designation of critical 
habitat and determined that it would not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. The RFA/SBREFA 
defines ``small governmental jurisdiction'' as the government of a 
city, county, town, school district, or special district with a 
population of less than 50,000. By this

[[Page 34589]]

definition, Maui County is not a small governmental jurisdiction 
because its population was estimated at 145,157 residents in 2009. 
Certain State agencies may be affected by the proposed critical habitat 
designation--such as the Department of Land and Natural Resources and 
the State Department of Transportation. However, for the purposes of 
the RFA, State governments are considered independent sovereigns, not 
small governments. The overlap between the previous critical habitat 
designations for the 102 plant species, Blackburn's sphinx moth, and 2 
of the 12 picture-wing flies and this proposed critical habitat 
designation is further evidence that this proposal is not likely to 
have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities.
    We have made an initial RFA finding that the proposed designation 
of critical habitat for the 135 species will not have a significant 
effect on a substantial number of small entities, for the reasons 
described above. However, we will defer making a final RFA finding in 
order to allow the public an opportunity to comment on potential 
economic consequences of this critical habitat proposal.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.)

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we make the following findings:
    (a) This rule would not produce a Federal mandate. In general, a 
Federal mandate is a provision in legislation, statute, or regulation 
that would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal 
governments, or the private sector, and includes both ``Federal 
intergovernmental mandates'' and ``Federal private sector mandates.'' 
These terms are defined in 2 U.S.C. 658(5)-(7). ``Federal 
intergovernmental mandate'' includes a regulation that ``would impose 
an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal governments'' with two 
exceptions. It excludes ``a condition of Federal assistance.'' It also 
excludes ``a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal 
program,'' unless the regulation ``relates to a then-existing Federal 
program under which $500,000,000 or more is provided annually to State, 
local, and tribal governments under entitlement authority,'' if the 
provision would ``increase the stringency of conditions of assistance'' 
or ``place caps upon, or otherwise decrease, the Federal Government's 
responsibility to provide funding,'' and the State, local, or tribal 
governments ``lack authority'' to adjust accordingly. At the time of 
enactment, these entitlement programs were: Medicaid; AFDC work 
programs; Child Nutrition; Food Stamps; Social Services Block Grants; 
Vocational Rehabilitation State Grants; Foster Care, Adoption 
Assistance, and Independent Living; Family Support Welfare Services; 
and Child Support Enforcement. ``Federal private sector mandate'' 
includes a regulation that ``would impose an enforceable duty upon the 
private sector, except (i) a condition of Federal assistance or (ii) a 
duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal program.''
    The designation of critical habitat does not impose a legally 
binding duty on non-Federal Government entities or private parties. 
Under the Act, the only regulatory effect is that Federal agencies must 
ensure that their actions do not destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat under section 7. While non-Federal entities that receive 
Federal funding, assistance, or permits, or that otherwise require 
approval or authorization from a Federal agency for an action, may be 
indirectly impacted by the designation of critical habitat, the legally 
binding duty to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat rests squarely on the Federal agency. Furthermore, to the 
extent that non-Federal entities are indirectly impacted because they 
receive Federal assistance or participate in a voluntary Federal aid 
program, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act would not apply, nor would 
critical habitat shift the costs of the large entitlement programs 
listed above onto State governments.
    (b) We do not believe that this rule would significantly or 
uniquely affect small governments. The lands we are proposing for 
critical habitat designation are owned by the County of Maui, the State 
of Hawaii, private citizens, and the Federal government. None of these 
entities fit the definition of ``small governmental jurisdiction.'' 
Therefore, a Small Government Agency Plan is not required. However, we 
will further evaluate this issue as we conduct our economic analysis, 
and we will review and revise this assessment as warranted.

Takings--Executive Order 12630

    In accordance with E.O. 12630 (Government Actions and Interference 
with Constitutionally Protected Private Property Rights), we have 
analyzed the potential takings implications of designating critical 
habitat for each of the 135 species in a takings implications 
assessment. The takings implications assessment concludes that this 
designation of critical habitat for each of these species does not pose 
significant takings implications for lands within or affected by the 
proposed designation.

Federalism--Executive Order 13132

    In accordance with E.O. 13132 (Federalism), this proposed rule does 
not have significant Federalism effects. A Federalism summary impact 
statement is not required. In keeping with Department of the Interior 
and Department of Commerce policy, we requested information from, and 
coordinated development of, this proposed critical habitat designation 
with appropriate State resource agencies in Hawaii. The critical 
habitat designation may have some benefit to these governments because 
the areas that contain the features essential to the conservation of 
the species would be more clearly defined, and the essential features 
themselves are specifically identified. While making this definition 
and identification does alter where and what federally sponsored 
activities may occur, it may assist local governments in long-range 
planning (rather than having them wait for case-by-case section 7 
consultations to occur).
    Where State and local governments require approval or authorization 
from a Federal agency for actions that may affect critical habitat, 
consultation under section 7(a)(2) would be required. While non-Federal 
entities that receive Federal funding, assistance, or permits, or that 
otherwise require approval or authorization from a Federal agency for 
an action, may be indirectly impacted by the designation of critical 
habitat, the legally binding duty to avoid destruction or adverse 
modification of critical habitat rests squarely on the Federal agency.

Civil Justice Reform--Executive Order 12988

    In accordance with E.O. 12988 (Civil Justice Reform), the Office of 
the Solicitor has determined that the rule does not unduly burden the 
judicial system and that it meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 
3(b)(2) of the Order. We proposed designating critical habitat in 
accordance with the provisions of the Act. This proposed rule uses 
standard property descriptions and identifies the physical and 
biological features within the designated areas to assist the public in 
understanding the habitat needs of each of the species being considered 
in this proposed rule.

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)

    This rule does not contain any new collections of information that 
require

[[Page 34590]]

approval by Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork 
Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). This rule will not 
impose recordkeeping or reporting requirements on State or local 
governments, individuals, businesses, or organizations. An agency may 
not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a 
collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB 
control number.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    It is our position that, outside the jurisdiction of the Circuit 
Court of the United States for the Tenth Circuit, we do not need to 
prepare environmental analyses as defined by NEPA (42 U.S.C. 4321 et 
seq.) in connection with designating critical habitat under the Act. We 
published a notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the 
Federal Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244). This assertion was 
upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Douglas 
County v. Babbitt, 48 F.3d 1495 (9th Cir. 1995), cert. denied 516 U.S. 
1042 (1996)).

Clarity of the Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the 
Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain 
language. This means that each rule we publish must:
    (a) Be logically organized;
    (b) Use the active voice to address readers directly;
    (c) Use clear language rather than jargon;
    (d) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and
    (e) Use lists and tables wherever possible.
    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us 
comments by one of the methods listed in the ADDRESSES section. To 
better help us revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as 
possible. For example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections 
or paragraphs that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences 
are too long, the sections where you feel lists or tables would be 
useful, etc.

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal 
Governments (59 FR 22951), E.O. 13175, and the Department of Interior's 
manual at 512 DM2, we readily acknowledge our responsibility to 
communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal Tribes on a 
government-to-government basis. In accordance with Secretarial Order 
3206 of June 5, 1997 ``American Indian Tribal Rights, Federal-Tribal 
Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act,'' we readily 
acknowledge our responsibilities to work directly with Tribes in 
developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to acknowledge that tribal 
lands are not subject to the same controls as Federal public lands, to 
remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to make information available 
to Tribes.
    We have determined that there are no tribal lands occupied at the 
time of listing that contain the features essential for the 
conservation, and no tribal lands that are essential for the 
conservation, of the 135 species. Therefore, we have not proposed 
designation of critical habitat for any of the 135 species on tribal 
lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued an Executive Order (E.O. 
13211; Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use) on regulations that significantly affect 
energy supply, distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires 
agencies to prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking 
certain actions. This proposed rule to designate critical habitat for 
135 species is not a significant regulatory action under E.O. 12866, 
and we do not expect it to significantly affect energy supplies, 
distribution, or use. When determining critical habitat boundaries 
within this proposed rule, we made every effort to avoid including 
developed areas such as buildings, paved areas, and other structures 
that lack the physical or biological features essential for the 
conservation of the 135 species. The scale of the maps we prepared 
under the parameters for publication within the Code of Federal 
Regulations may not reflect the exclusion of such developed areas. Any 
such structures and the land under them inadvertently left inside 
critical habitat boundaries shown on the maps of this proposed rule 
have been excluded by text in the proposed rule and are not proposed 
for designation as critical habitat. A wind energy generation facility 
operated by Kaheawa Wind Power LLC spans a portion of Maui--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5 and Maui--Montane Mesic--Unit 5. This man made facility 
does not provide the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species and, therefore, is not included in the 
proposed designation. Therefore, this action is not a significant 
energy action, and no Statement of Energy Effects is required. However, 
we will further evaluate this issue as we conduct our economic 
analysis, and we will review and revise this assessment as warranted.

References Cited

    A complete list of references cited in this rule is available on 
the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov and upon request from the 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT, above).

Authors

    The primary authors of this document are the staff members of the 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Proposed Regulation Promulgation

    Accordingly, we propose to amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter 
I, title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as set forth below:

PART 17--ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS

    1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 
4201-4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500; unless otherwise noted.

    2. Amend Sec.  17.11(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife, as follows:
    a. By revising the entries for ``Honeycreeper, crested'' and 
``Parrotbill, Maui (honeycreeper)'' under BIRDS to read as set forth 
below; and
    b. By adding entries for ``Snail, Lanai tree'' (Partulina 
semicarinata), ``Snail, Lanai tree'' (Partulina variabilis), and 
``Snail, Newcomb's tree'' (Newcombia cumingi), in alphabetical order 
under SNAILS, to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

[[Page 34591]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Species                                                   Vertebrate
------------------------------------------------------                        population where                    When                          Special
                                                         Historic  range       endangered or        Status       listed     Critical habitat     rules
           Common name              Scientific name                              threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
              Birds
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Honeycreeper, crested             Palmeria dolei.....  U.S.A. (HI)........  Entire.............  E                     1  17.95(b)                    NA
 (Akohekohe).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Parrotbill, Maui (Kiwikiu)......  Pseudonestor         U.S.A. (HI)........  Entire.............  E                     1  17.95(b)                    NA
                                   xanthophrys.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
             Snails
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Snail, Lanai tree...............  Partulina            U.S.A. (HI)........  NA.................  E             .........  17.95(f)                    NA
                                   semicarinata.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Snail, Lanai tree...............  Partulina            U.S.A. (HI)........  NA.................  E             .........  17.95(f)                    NA
                                   variabilis.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Snail, Newcomb's tree...........  Newcombia cumingi..  U.S.A. (HI)........  NA.................  E             .........  17.95(f)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. Amend Sec.  17.12(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Plants, as follows:
    a. By removing the entries for Centaurium sebaeoides, Cyanea 
dunbarii, Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii, Gahnia lanaiensis, Hedyotis 
schlechtendahliana var. remyi, Hedyotis mannii, Lipochaeta kamolensis, 
and Mariscus fauriei under FLOWERING PLANTS;
    b. By revising the entries for Abutilon eremitopetalum, Acaena 
exigua, Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha, Bonamia menziesii, Brighamia 
rockii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis, 
Clermontia peleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea lobata, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Cyrtandra munroi, Gouania hillebrandii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Kokia cookei, 
Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis, Melicope mucronulata, Melicope 
munroi, Neraudia sericea, Phyllostegia hispida, Platanthera holochila, 
Portulaca sclerocarpa, Sesbania tomentosa, Silene lanceolata, Solanum 
incompletum, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, Tetramalopium remyi, Vigna o-wahuensis, Viola lanaiensis, 
and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense under FLOWERING PLANTS, to read as set forth 
below;
    c. By adding entries for Bidens campylotheca ssp. pentamera, Bidens 
campylotheca ssp. waihoiensis, Bidens conjuncta, Calamagrostis 
hillebrandii, Canavalia pubescens, Cyanea asplenifolia, Cyanea 
dunbariae, Cyanea duvalliorum, Cyanea gibsonii, Cyanea horrida, Cyanea 
kunthiana, Cyanea magnicalyx, Cyanea maritae, Cyanea mauiensis, Cyanea 
munroi, Cyanea obtusa, Cyanea profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Cyperus 
fauriei, Cyrtandra ferripilosa, Cyrtandra filipes, Cyrtandra oxybapha, 
Festuca molokaiensis, Geranium hanaense, Geranium hillebrandii, Kadua 
cordata ssp. remyi, Kadua laxiflora, Melanthera kamolensis, Mucuna 
sloanei var. persericea, Myrsine vaccinioides, Peperomia subpetiolata, 
Phyllostegia bracteata, Phyllostegia haliakalae, Phyllostegia pilosa, 
Pittosporum halophilum, Pleomele fernaldii, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Schenkia sebaeoides, Schiedea jacobii, Schiedea laui, 
Schiedea salicaria, Stenogyne kauaulaensis, and Wikstroemia villosa in 
alphabetical order under FLOWERING PLANTS, to read as set forth below;
    d. By removing the entries for Asplenium fragile var. insulare, 
Diellia erecta, and Phlegmariurus mannii under FERNS AND ALLIES;
    e. By revising the entries for Adenophorus periens, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Diplazium molokaiense, Huperzia manii, and Marsilea 
villosa, under FERNS AND ALLIES to read as set forth below; and
    f. By adding entries for Asplenium dielerectum and Asplenium 
peruvianum var. insulare, in alphabetical order under FERNS AND ALLIES, 
to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Species
------------------------------------------------------    Historic range           Family           Status        When      Critical habitat    Special
         Scientific name              Common name                                                                listed                          rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
        Flowering Plants
 

[[Page 34592]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Abutilon eremitopetalum.........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Malvaceae..........  E                   435  17.99(m)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Acaena exigua...................  Liliwai............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rosaceae...........  E                   467  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bidens campylotheca ssp.          Kookoolau..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 pentamera.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bidens campylotheca ssp.          Kookoolau..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 waihoiensis.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bidens conjuncta................  Kookoolau..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha.  Kookoolau..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E                   467  17.99(e)(1), (m)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bonamia menziesii...............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Convolvulaceae.....  E                   559  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i), (k),
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Brighamia rockii................  Pua ala............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   480  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Calamagrostis hillebrandii......  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Poaceae............  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Canavalia pubescens.............  Awikiwiki..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Fabaceae...........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1), (m)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cenchrus agrimonioides..........  Kamanomano,          U.S.A. (HI)........  Poaceae............  E                   592  17.99(e)(1), (i),           NA
                                   (=Sandbur,                                                                              (m)
                                   agrimony).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.      Oha wai............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   467  17.99(e)(1), (m)            NA
 mauiensis.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Clermontia peleana..............  Oha wai............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   532  17.99(e)(1), (k)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea asplenifolia.............  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea dunbariae................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   594  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea duvalliorum..............  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea gibsonii.................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   435  17.99(m)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea grimesiana ssp.            Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   592  17.99(c), (i)               NA
 grimesiana.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea horrida..................  Haha nui...........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea kunthiana................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA

[[Page 34593]]

 
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea lobata...................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E                   467  17.99(e)(1), (m)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea magnicalyx...............  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea maritae..................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea mauiensis................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  NA                          NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea munroi...................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(c), (m)               NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea obtusa...................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea profuga..................  Haha...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea solanacea................  Popolo.............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Campanulaceae......  E             .........  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyperus fauriei.................  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Cyperaceae.........  E                   532  17.99(c), (m), (k)          NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyperus trachysanthos...........  Puukaa.............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Cyperaceae.........  E                   592  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (i), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra ferripilosa...........  Haiwale............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Gesneriaceae.......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra filipes...............  Haiwale............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Gesneriaceae.......  E             .........  17.99(c), (e)(1)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra munroi................  Haiwale............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Gesneriaceae.......  E                   467  17.99(e)(1), (m)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra oxybapha..............  Haiwale............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Gesneriaceae.......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Festuca molokaiensis............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Poaceae............  E             .........  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Geranium hanaense...............  Nohoanu............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Geraniaceae........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Geranium hillebrandii...........  Nohoanu............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Geraniaceae........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Gouania hillebrandii............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rhamnaceae.........  E                   165  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(2)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Hesperomannia arborescens.......  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E                   536  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (i), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Hibiscus brackenridgei..........  Mao hau hele.......  U.S.A. (HI)........  Malvaceae..........  E                   559  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(2), (i), (k),
                                                                                                                           (m)

[[Page 34594]]

 
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua cordata ssp. remyi........  Kopa...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rubiaceae..........  E                   666  17.99(m)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua laxiflora.................  Pilo...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rubiaceae..........  E                   480  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kokia cookei....................  Cooke's kokio......  U.S.A. (HI)........  Malvaceae..........  E                    74  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Labordia tinifolia var.           Kamakahala.........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Loganiaceae........  E                   666  17.99(m)                    NA
 lanaiensis.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melanthera kamolensis...........  Nehe...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E                   467  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope mucronulata............  Alani..............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rutaceae...........  E                   467  17.99(c), (e)(1)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope munroi.................  Alani..............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rutaceae...........  E                   666  17.99(c), (m)               NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Mucuna sloanei var. persericea..  Sea bean...........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Fabaceae...........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Myrsine vaccinioides............  Kolea..............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Myrsinaceae........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Neraudia sericea................  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Urticaceae.........  E                   559  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(2), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Peperomia subpetiolata..........  Alaala wai nui.....  U.S.A. (HI)........  Piperaceae.........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Phyllostegia bracteata..........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Lamiaceae..........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Phyllostegia haliakalae.........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Lamiaceae..........  E             .........  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Phyllostegia hispida............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Lamiaceae..........  E                   762  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Phyllostegia pilosa.............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Lamiaceae..........  E             .........  17.99(c), (e)(1)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pittosporum halophilum..........  Hoawa..............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Pittosporaceae.....  E             .........  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Platanthera holochila...........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Orchidaceae........  E                   592  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pleomele fernaldii..............  Hala pepe..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asparagaceae.......  E             .........  17.99(m)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Portulaca sclerocarpa...........  Poe................  U.S.A. (HI)........  Portulacaceae......  E                   532  17.99(k), (m)               NA
 

[[Page 34595]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Santalum haleakalae var.          Lanai sandalwood or  U.S.A. (HI)........  Santalaceae........  E                   215  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
 lanaiense.                        iliahi.                                                                                 (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schenkia sebaeoides.............  Awiwi..............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Gentianaceae.......  E                   448  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea jacobii................  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Caryophyllaceae....  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea laui...................  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Caryophyllaceae....  E             .........  17.99(c)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea salicaria..............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Caryophyllaceae....  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Sesbania tomentosa..............  Ohai...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Fabaceae...........  E                   559  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (e)(2),
                                                                                                                           (g), (i), (k), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Silene lanceolata...............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Caryophyllaceae....  E                   480  17.99(c), (i), (m)          NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Solanum incompletum.............  Popolo ku mai......  U.S.A. (HI)........  Solanaceae.........  E                   559  17.99(e)(1), (k),           NA
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Apiaceae...........  E                   559  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Stenogyne kauaulaensis..........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Lamiaceae..........  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.      None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E                   448  17.99(i), (m)               NA
 lepidotum.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Tetramolopium remyi.............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Asteraceae.........  E                   435  17.99(e)(1), (m)            NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Vigna o-wahuensis...............  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Fabaceae...........  E                   559  17.99(c), (e)(1),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(2), (i), (k),
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Viola lanaiensis................  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Violaceae..........  E                   435  17.99(m)                    NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Wikstroemia villosa.............  Akia...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Thymelaeaceae......  E             .........  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense..........  Ae.................  U.S.A. (HI)........  Rutaceae...........  E                   532  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
FERNS AND ALLIES................
 

[[Page 34596]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Adenophorus periens.............  Pendant kihi fern..  U.S.A. (HI)........  Grammitidaceae.....  E                   559  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i), (k),
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Asplenium dielerectum...........  Asplenium-leaved     U.S.A. (HI)........  Aspleniaceae.......  E                   559  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                   diellia.                                                                                (e)(1), (i), (k),
                                                                                                                           (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Asplenium peruvianum var.         None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Aspleniaceae.......  E                   553  17.99(e)(1), (k)            NA
 insulare.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Ctenitis squamigera.............  Pauoa..............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Aspleniaceae.......  E                   553  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Diplazium molokaiense...........  None...............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Aspleniaceae.......  E                   553  17.99(a)(1), (c),           NA
                                                                                                                           (e)(1), (i), (m)
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Huperzia mannii.................  Wawaeiole..........  U.S.A. (HI)........  Lycopodiaceae......  E                   467  17.99(e)(1)                 NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Marsilea villosa................  Ihi ihi............  U.S.A. (HI)........  Marsileaceae.......  E                   474  17.99 (c), (i)              NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
    4. Amend Sec.  17.95 as follows:
    a. In paragraph (b), by adding entries for ``Crested Honeycreeper 
(Akohekohe) (Palmeria dolei)'' and ``Maui Parrotbill (Kiwikiu) 
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys)'' in the same alphabetical order as these 
species occur in the table at Sec.  17.11(h); and
    b. In paragraph (f), by adding entries for ``Lanai tree snail 
(Partulina semicarinata),'' ``Lanai tree snail (Partulina 
variabilis),'' and ``Newcomb's tree snail (Newcombia cumingi),'' to the 
end of the paragraph, to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.95  Critical habitat--fish and wildlife.

* * * * *
    (b) Birds.
* * * * *
Crested Honeycreeper (Akohekohe) (Palmeria dolei)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Maui County, Hawaii, on 
the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In unit 1, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,500 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Deep ash deposits, thin silty loams.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Ilex, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Nestegis, 
Nothocestrum, Pisonia, Pittosporum, Psychotria, Sophora, Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Alyxia, Charpentiera, Coprosma, Dodonaea, Kadua, 
Labordia, Leptecophylla, Phyllostegia, Vaccinium.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Peperomia.
    (v) In units 24 and 25, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 6,500 and 9,800 ft (2,000 and 3,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Between 15 and 40 in (38 and 100 cm).

[[Page 34597]]

    (C) Substrate: Dry ash; sandy loam; rocky, undeveloped soils; 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Chamaesyce, Chenopodium, Metrosideros, Myoporum, 
Santalum, Sophora.
    (E) Subcanopy: Coprosma, Dodonaea, Dubautia, Geranium, 
Leptecophylla, Vaccinium, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bidens, Carex, Deschampsia, Eragrostis, 
Gahnia, Luzula, Panicum, Pseudognaphalium, Sicyos, Tetramolopium.
    (vi) In units 26, 27, 28, and 29, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (vii) In units 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (viii) In unit 37, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ix) In units 38 and 39, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (x) In units 40 and 41, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (xi) In unit 42, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Deep ash deposits, thin silty loams.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Ilex, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Nestegis, 
Nothocestrum, Pisonia, Pittosporum, Psychotria, Sophora, Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Alyxia, Charpentiera, Coprosma, Dodonaea, Kadua, 
Labordia, Leptecophylla, Phyllostegia, Vaccinium.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Peperomia.
    (xii) In units 43 and 44, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical or biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index maps of critical habitat units for the Akohekohe follow:

[[Page 34598]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.007


[[Page 34599]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.008


[[Page 34600]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.009

    (6) Palmeria dolei--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Maui County, Hawaii (477 
ac; 193 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 follows:

[[Page 34601]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.010

    (7) Palmeria dolei--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(26,703 ac, 10,807 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 2--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34602]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.011

    (8) Palmeria dolei--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (5,066 
ac, 2,050 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(1,427 ac, 577 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,165 ac, 472 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, 
Maui County, Hawaii (639 ac, 259 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (v) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 4--Lowland Wet 4, Palmeria dolei--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, and 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 7--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34603]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.012

    (9) Palmeria dolei--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (2,112 
ac, 855 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(898 ac, 364 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (230 ac, 93 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 9--Lowland Wet 
follows:

[[Page 34604]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.013

    (10) Palmeria dolei--Unit 10--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(7,815 ac, 3,162 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 11--Montane Wet, Maui 
County, Hawaii (16,687 ac, 6,753 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 12--Montane 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (2,228 ac, 902 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 13--
Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (1,833 ac, 742 ha); and Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 14--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (387 ac, 156 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 12.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 13.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (v) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 14.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (vi) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 10--Montane Wet, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 11--Montane Wet, Palmeria dolei--Unit 12--Montane Wet, 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 13--Montane Wet, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 14--
Montane Wet follows:

[[Page 34605]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.014

    (11) Palmeria dolei--Unit 15--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(3,964 ac, 1,604 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 16--Montane Wet, Maui 
County, Hawaii (608 ac, 246 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 17--Montane 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (46 ac, 19 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 15.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 16.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 17.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 15--Montane Wet, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 16--Montane Wet, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 17--Montane Wet 
follows:

[[Page 34606]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.015

    (12) Palmeria dolei--Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii 
(20,972 ac, 8,487 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 18.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 18--Montane Mesic follows:

[[Page 34607]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.016

    (13) Palmeria dolei--Unit 19--Montane Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii 
(366 ac, 148 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 20--Montane Mesic, Maui County, 
Hawaii (218 ac, 88 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 21--Montane Mesic, Maui 
County, Hawaii (72 ac, 29 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 22--Montane Mesic, 
Maui County, Hawaii (304 ac, 123 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 23--
Montane Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii (94 ac, 38 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 19.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 20.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 21.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 22.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (v) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 23.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (vi) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 19--Montane Mesic, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 20--Montane Mesic, Palmeria dolei--Unit 21--Montane Mesic, 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 22--Montane Mesic, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 23--
Montane Mesic follows:

[[Page 34608]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.017

    (14) Palmeria dolei--Unit 24--Subalpine, Maui County, Hawaii 
(19,401 ac, 7,851 ha), and Palmeria dolei--Unit 25--Subalpine, Maui 
County, Hawaii (10,931 ac, 4,424 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 24.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 25.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 24--Subalpine and Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 25--Subalpine follows:

[[Page 34609]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.018

    (15) Palmeria dolei--Unit 26--Dry Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (1,018 
ac, 412 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 27--Dry Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii 
(293 ac, 119 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 28--Dry Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (315 ac, 127 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 26.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 27.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 28.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 26--Dry Cliff, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 27--Dry Cliff, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 28--Dry Cliff 
follows:

[[Page 34610]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.019

    (16) Palmeria dolei--Unit 29--Dry Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (1,536 
ac, 622 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 29.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 29--Dry Cliff follows:

[[Page 34611]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.020

    (17) Palmeria dolei--Unit 30--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (460 
ac, 186 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 30.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 30--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 34612]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.021

    (18) Palmeria dolei--Unit 31--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (1,407 
ac, 569 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 32--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii 
(438 ac, 177 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 33--Wet Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (184 ac, 75 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 31.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 32.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 33.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.

[[Page 34613]]

    (iv) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 31--Wet Cliff, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 32--Wet Cliff, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 33--Wet Cliff 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.022

    (19) Palmeria dolei--Unit 34--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (2,048 
ac, 829 ha); Palmeria dolei--Unit 35--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii 
(9,103 ac, 3,684 ha); and Palmeria dolei--Unit 36--Wet Cliff Maui 
County, Hawaii (781 ac, 316 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 34.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 35.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 36.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 34--Wet Cliff, Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 35--Wet Cliff, and Palmeria dolei--Unit 36--Wet Cliff 
follows:

[[Page 34614]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.023

    (20) Palmeria dolei--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii 
(10,330 ac, 4,180 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 37.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic follows:

[[Page 34615]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.024

    (21) Palmeria dolei--Unit 38--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(3,628 ac, 1,468 ha), and Palmeria dolei--Unit 39--Lowland Wet, Maui 
County, Hawaii (1,952 ac, 790 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 38.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 39.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 38--Lowland Wet and 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 39--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34616]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.025

    (22) Palmeria dolei--Unit 40--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(4,818 ac, 1,950 ha), and Palmeria dolei--Unit 41--Montane Wet, Maui 
County, Hawaii (910 ac, 368 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 40.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 41.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 40--Montane Wet and 
Palmeria dolei--Unit 41--Montane Wet follows:

[[Page 34617]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.026


[[Page 34618]]


    (23) Palmeria dolei--Unit 42--Montane Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii 
(1,629 ac, 659 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 42.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 42--Montane Mesic follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.027
    
    (24) Palmeria dolei--Unit 43--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (1,888 
ac, 764 ha), and Palmeria dolei--Unit 44--Wet Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,280 ac, 518 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 43.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 44.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Palmeria dolei--Unit 43--Wet Cliff and Palmeria 
dolei--Unit 44--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 34619]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.028

* * * * *
Maui Parrotbill (Kiwikiu) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Maui County, Hawaii, on 
the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In unit 1, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:

[[Page 34620]]

    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Deep ash deposits, thin silty loams.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Ilex, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Nestegis, 
Nothocestrum, Pisonia, Pittosporum, Psychotria, Sophora, Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Alyxia, Charpentiera, Coprosma, Dodonaea, Kadua, 
Labordia, Leptecophylla, Phyllostegia, Vaccinium.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Peperomia.
    (v) In units 24 and 25, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 6,500 and 9,800 ft (2,000 and 3,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Between 15 and 40 in (38 and 100 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Dry ash; sandy loam; rocky, undeveloped soils; 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Chamaesyce, Chenopodium, Metrosideros, Myoporum, 
Santalum, Sophora.
    (E) Subcanopy: Coprosma, Dodonaea, Dubautia, Geranium, 
Leptecophylla, Vaccinium, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bidens, Carex, Deschampsia, Eragrostis, 
Gahnia, Luzula, Panicum, Pseudognaphalium, Sicyos, Tetramolopium.
    (vi) In units 26, 27, 28, and 29, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (vii) In units 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (viii) In unit 37, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ix) In units 38 and 39, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (x) In units 40 and 41, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (xi) In unit 42, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,000 and 6,000 ft (p. 268 says 3,300 and 
6,500) (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Deep ash deposits, thin silty loams.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Ilex, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Nestegis, 
Nothocestrum, Pisonia, Pittosporum, Psychotria, Sophora, Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Alyxia, Charpentiera, Coprosma, Dodonaea, Kadua, 
Labordia, Leptecophylla, Phyllostegia, Vaccinium.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Peperomia.
    (xii) In units 43 and 44, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical or biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index maps of critical habitat units for the Kiwikiu follow:

[[Page 34621]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.029


[[Page 34622]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.030


[[Page 34623]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.031


[[Page 34624]]


    (6) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic, Maui County, 
Hawaii (477 ac; 193 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.032

    (7) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (26,703 ac, 10,807 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 2--Lowland Wet 
follows:

[[Page 34625]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.033

    (8) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (5,066 ac, 2,050 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 4--Lowland 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (1,427 ac, 577 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--
Unit 5--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (1,165 ac, 472 ha); and 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (639 
ac, 259 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (v) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 
7--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34626]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.034

    (9) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (2,112 ac, 855 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 8--Lowland 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (898 ac, 364 ha); and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (230 ac, 93 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 9--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34627]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.035

    (10) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 10--Montane Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (7,815 ac, 3,162 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 11--Montane 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (16,687 ac, 6,753 ha); Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 12--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (2,228 ac, 902 
ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 13--Montane Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,833 ac, 742 ha); and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 14--
Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (387 ac, 156 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 12.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 13.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (v) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 14.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (vi) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 10--Montane Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 11--Montane Wet, Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 12--Montane Wet, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 13--
Montane Wet, and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 14--Montane Wet 
follows:

[[Page 34628]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.036

    (11) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 15--Montane Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (3,964 ac, 1,604 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 16--Montane 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (608 ac, 246 ha); and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 17--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (46 ac, 19 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 15.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 16.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 17.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 15--Montane Wet, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 16--Montane Wet, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 17--Montane Wet follows:

[[Page 34629]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.037

    (12) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 18--Montane Mesic, Maui County, 
Hawaii (20,972 ac, 8,487 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 18.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 18--Montane Mesic 
follows:

[[Page 34630]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.038

    (13) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 19--Montane Mesic, Maui County, 
Hawaii (366 ac, 148 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 20--Montane 
Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii (218 ac, 88 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--
Unit 21--Montane Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii (72 ac, 29 ha); 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 22--Montane Mesic, Maui County, Hawaii 
(304 ac, 123 ha); and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 23--Montane Mesic, 
Maui County, Hawaii (94 ac, 38 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 19.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 20.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 21.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 22.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (v) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 23.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (vi) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 19--Montane Mesic, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 20--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 21--Montane Mesic, Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 
22--Montane Mesic, and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 23--Montane Mesic 
follows:

[[Page 34631]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.039

    (14) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 24--Subalpine, Maui County, 
Hawaii (19,401 ac, 7,851 ha), and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 25--
Subalpine, Maui County, Hawaii (10,931 ac, 4,424 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 24.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 25.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 24--Subalpine and 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 25--Subalpine follows:

[[Page 34632]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.040

    (15) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 26--Dry Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,018 ac, 412 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 27--Dry 
Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (293 ac, 119 ha); and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 28--Dry Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (315 ac, 127 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 26.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 27.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 28.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 26--Dry Cliff, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 27--Dry Cliff, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 28--Dry Cliff follows:

[[Page 34633]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.041

    (16) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 29--Dry Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,536 ac, 622 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 29.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 29--Dry Cliff 
follows:

[[Page 34634]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.042


[[Page 34635]]


    (17) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 30--Wet Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (460 ac, 186 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 30.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 30--Wet Cliff 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.043

    (18) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 31--Wet Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,407 ac, 569 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 32--Wet 
Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (438 ac, 177 ha); and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 33--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (184 ac, 75 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 31.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 32.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 33.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 31--Wet Cliff, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 31--Wet Cliff, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 31--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 34636]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.044

    (19) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 34--Wet Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (2,048 ac, 829 ha); Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 35--Wet 
Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (9,103 ac, 3,684 ha); and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 36--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (781 ac, 316 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 34.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 35.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 36.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 34--Wet Cliff, 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 35--Wet Cliff, and Pseudonestor 
xanthophrys--Unit 36--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 34637]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.045

    (20) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic, Maui County, 
Hawaii (10,330 ac, 4,180 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 37.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 37--Lowland Mesic 
follows:

[[Page 34638]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.046

    (21) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 38--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (3,628 ac, 1,468 ha), and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 39--
Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (1,952 ac, 790 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 38.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 39.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 38--Lowland Wet 
and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 39--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34639]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.047

    (22) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 40--Montane Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (4,818 ac, 1,950 ha), and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 41--
Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (910 ac, 368 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 40.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 41.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 40--Montane Wet 
and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 41--Montane Wet follows:

[[Page 34640]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.048


[[Page 34641]]


    (23) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 42--Montane Mesic, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,629 ac, 659 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 42.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 42--Montane Mesic 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.049

    (24) Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 43--Wet Cliff, Maui County, 
Hawaii (1,888 ac, 764 ha), and Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 44--Wet 
Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii (1,280 ac, 518 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 43.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 44.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the Kiwikiu, Pseudonestor xanthophrys.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 43--Wet Cliff and 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys--Unit 44--Wet Cliff follows:

[[Page 34642]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.050

* * * * *
    (f) Clams and Snails.
* * * * *
Lanai tree snail (Partulina semicarinata)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Maui County, Hawaii, on 
the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1 and 2, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Lanai tree snail are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In unit 3, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Lanai tree snail are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iii) In units 4 and 5, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.

[[Page 34643]]

    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical or biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the Lanai tree snail 
(Partulina semicarinata) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.051

    (6) Partulina semicarinata--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (374 ac, 152 ha), and Partulina semicarinata--Unit 2--Lowland 
Wet, Maui County, Hawaii (232 ac, 94 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina semicarinata.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina semicarinata.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Partulina semicarinata--Unit 1--Lowland Wet and 
Partulina semicarinata--Unit 2--Lowland Wet follows:

[[Page 34644]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.052

    (7) Partulina semicarinata--Unit 3--Montane Wet, Maui County, 
Hawaii (248 ac, 101 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina semicarinata.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Partulina semicarinata--Unit 3--Montane Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.053

    (8) Partulina semicarinata--Unit 4--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii 
(731 ac, 296 ha), and Partulina semicarinata--Unit 5--Wet Cliff, Maui 
County, Hawaii (230 ac, 93 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina semicarinata.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina semicarinata.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Partulina semicarinata--Unit 4--Wet Cliff and 
Partulina semicarinata--Unit 5--Wet Cliff follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.054

    Lanai tree snail (Partulina variabilis)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Maui County, Hawaii, on 
the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1 and 2, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Lanai tree snail are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.

[[Page 34645]]

    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In unit 3, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat for the Lanai tree snail are:
    (A) Elevation: Between 3,300 and 6,500 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iii) In units 4 and 5, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical or biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the Lanai tree snail 
(Partulina variabilis) follows:

[[Page 34646]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.055


[[Page 34647]]


    (6) Partulina variabilis--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(374 ac, 152 ha), and Partulina variabilis--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Maui 
County, Hawaii (232 ac, 94 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina variabilis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina variabilis.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Partulina variabilis--Unit 1--Lowland Wet and 
Partulina variabilis--Unit 2--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.056

    (7) Partulina variabilis--Unit 3--Montane Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(248 ac, 101 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina variabilis.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Partulina variabilis--Unit 3--Montane Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.057

    (8) Partulina variabilis--Unit 4--Wet Cliff, Maui County, Hawaii 
(731 ac, 296 ha), and Partulina variabilis--Unit 5--Wet Cliff, Maui 
County, Hawaii (230 ac, 93 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina variabilis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Lanai tree snail, Partulina variabilis.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Partulina variabilis--Unit 4--Wet Cliff and 
Partulina variabilis--Unit 5--Wet Cliff follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.058

    Newcomb's tree snail (Newcombia cumingi)
    (1) The critical habitat unit is depicted for Maui County, Hawaii, 
on the map below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements. In unit 1, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the Newcomb's tree snail 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).

[[Page 34648]]

    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical or biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat map. Map was created in GIS, with coordinates 
in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum of 1983 (NAD 
83).
    (5) Newcombia cumingi--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, Maui County, Hawaii 
(599 ac, 243 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.]. This unit is 
critical habitat for the Newcomb's tree snail, Newcombia cumingi.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Newcombia cumingi--Unit 1--Lowland Wet follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.059
    
* * * * *


Sec.  17.96  [Amended]

    5. Amend Sec.  17.96 as follows:
    a. In paragraph (a) by removing the entry for ``Family Rhamnaceae: 
Gouania hillebrandii;'' and
    b. By removing and reserving paragraph (b).
    6. Amend Sec.  17.99 as follows:
    a. Revise the section heading to read as set forth below.
    b. Amend paragraph (a)(1) by removing the words listed in the

[[Page 34649]]

``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a)(1)(cxxxiv), the           Kauai 11--Centaurium  Kauai 11--Schenkia
 introductory text.            sebaeoides--a.        sebaeoides--a.
(a)(1)(clxxi), the            Kauai 11--Diellia     Kauai 11--Asplenium
 introductory text.            erecta--a.            dielerectum--a.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    c. Amend paragraph (a)(1) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(a)(1)(cxxxiv)(B) and (a)(1)(clxxi)(B), and adding in their place the 
maps set forth below.
    d. Amend paragraph (a)(1)(cdix), the Table of Protected Species 
Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for Kauai by removing the words 
listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the 
words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Kauai 11--Centaurium  Kauai 11--Schenkia
                               sebaeoides--a.        sebaeoides--a.
Species occupied............  Centaurium            Schenkia sebaeoides.
                               sebaeoides.
Unit name...................  Kauai 11--Diellia     Kauai 11--Asplenium
                               erecta--a.            dielerectum--a.
Species unoccupied..........  Diellia erecta......  Asplenium
                                                     dielerectum.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    e. Amend paragraph (b)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Gentianaceae: Centaurium          Family Gentianaceae: Schenkia
 sebaeoides (awiwi)..                     sebaeoides (awiwi).
Kauai 11--Centaurium sebaeoides--a.....  Kauai 11--Schenkia sebaeoides--
                                          a.
Centaurium sebaeoides..................  Schenkia sebaeoides.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    f. Amend paragraph (b)(2) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Aspleniaceae: Diellia erecta (no  Family Aspleniaceae: Asplenium
 common name).                            dielerectum (asplenium-leaved
                                          diellia).
Kauai 11--Diellia erecta--a............  Kauai 11--Asplenium
                                          dielerectum--a.
Diellia erecta.........................  Asplenium dielerectum.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    g. Revise paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f), to read as set forth 
below.
    h. Amend paragraph (i) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(i)(2), the introductory      Oahu 1--Centaurium    Oahu 1--Schenkia
 text.                         sebaeoides--a..       sebaeoides--a.
(i)(269), the introductory    Oahu 27--Centaurium   Oahu 27--Schenkia
 text.                         sebaeoides--b.        sebaeoides--a.
(i)(293), the introductory    Oahu 35--Diellia      Oahu 35--Asplenium
 text.                         erecta--a.            dielerectum--a.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    i. Amend paragraph (i) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(i)(2)(ii), (i)(269)(ii), and (i)(293)(ii), and adding in their place 
the maps set forth below.
    j. Amend paragraph (i)(305), the Table of Protected Species Within 
Each Critical Habitat Unit for Oahu, by removing the words listed in 
the ``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding 
in their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Oahu 1--Centaurium    Oahu 1--Schenkia
                               sebaeoides--a.        sebaeoides--a.
Unit name...................  Oahu 27--Centaurium   Oahu 27--Schenkia
                               sebaeoides--b.        sebaeoides--a.
Species unoccupied..........  Centaurium            Schenkia sebaeoides.
                               sebaeoides.
Unit name...................  Oahu 35--Diellia      Oahu 35--Asplenium
                               erecta--a.            dielerectum--a.
Species occupied............  Diellia erecta......  Asplenium
                                                     dielerectum.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    k. Amend paragraph (j)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

[[Page 34650]]



------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Gentianaceae: Centaurium          Family Gentianaceae: Schenkia
 sebaeoides (awiwi).                      sebaeoides (awiwi).
Oahu 1--Centaurium sebaeoides--a.......  Oahu 1--Schenkia sebaeoides--a.
Oahu 27--Centaurium sebaeoides--b......  Oahu 27--Schenkia sebaeoides--
                                          a.
Centaurium sebaeoides..................  Schenkia sebaeoides.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    l. Amend paragraph (j)(2) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Aspleniaceae: Diellia erecta      Family Aspleniaceae: Asplenium
 (asplenium-leaved diellia).              dielerectum (asplenium-leaved
                                          diellia).
Oahu 35--Diellia erecta--a.............  Oahu 35--Asplenium dielerectum--
                                          a.
Diellia erecta.........................  Asplenium dielerectum.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    m. Amend paragraph (k) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(k)(62), the introductory     Hawaii 17--Diellia    Hawaii 17--Asplenium
 text.                         erecta--a.            dielerectum--a.
(k)(65), the introductory     Hawaii 18--Diellia    Hawaii 18--Asplenium
 text.                         erecta--b.            dielerectum--b.
(k)(70), the introductory     Hawaii 19--Mariscus   Hawaii 19--Cyperus
 text.                         fauriei--a.           fauriei--a.
(k)(77), the introductory     Hawaii 24--Asplenium  Hawaii 24--Asplenium
 text.                         fragile var.          peruvianum var.
                               insulare--a.          insulare--a.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    n. Amend paragraph (k) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(k)(62)(ii), (k)(65)(ii), (k)(70)(ii), and (k)(77)(ii), and adding in 
their place the maps set forth below.
    o. Amend paragraph (k) by revising paragraph (k)(104), the Table of 
Protected Species Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for the Island of 
Hawaii, by removing the words listed in the ``Remove'' column below in 
all places that they appear and adding in their place the words listed 
in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Hawaii 24--Asplenium  Hawaii 24--Asplenium
                               fragile var.          peruvianum var.
                               insulare--a.          insulare--a.
Species occupied............  Asplenium fragile     Asplenium peruvianum
                               var. insulare.        var. insulare.
Unit name...................  Hawaii 17--Diellia    Hawaii 17--Asplenium
                               erecta--a.            dielerectum--a.
Unit name...................  Hawaii 18--Diellia    Hawaii 18--Asplenium
                               erecta--b.            dielerectum--b.
Species occupied............  Diellia erecta......  Asplenium
                                                     dielerectum.
Unit name...................  Hawaii 19--Mariscus   Hawaii 19--Cyperus
                               fauriei--a.           fauriei--a.
Species occupied............  Mariscus fauriei....  Cyperus fauriei.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    p. Amend paragraph (l)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus fauriei      Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 (NCN).                                   fauriei (NCN).
Hawaii 19--Mariscus fauriei--a.........  Hawaii 19--Cyperus fauriei--a.
Mariscus fauriei.......................  Cyperus fauriei.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    q. Amend paragraph (l)(2) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Aspleniaceae: Asplenium fragile   Family Aspleniaceae: Asplenium
 var. insulare (NCN).                     peruvianum var. insulare
                                          (NCN).
Hawaii 24--Asplenium fragile var.        Hawaii 24--Asplenium peruvianum
 insulare--a,.                            var. insulare--a.
Asplenium fragile var. insulare........  Asplenium peruvianum var.
                                          insulare.
Family Aspleniaceae: Diellia erecta      Family Aspleniaceae: Asplenium
 (asplenium-leaved diellia).              dielerectum (asplenium-leaved
                                          diellia).
Hawaii 17--Diellia erecta--a...........  Hawaii 17--Asplenium
                                          dielerectum--a.
Hawaii 18--Diellia erecta--b...........  Hawaii 18--Asplenium
                                          dielerectum--b.

[[Page 34651]]

 
Diellia erecta.........................  Asplenium dielerectum.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    r. Add new paragraphs (m) and (n), to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.99  Critical habitat; plants on the Hawaiian Islands, HI.

    (a) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (cxxxiv) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 67 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.060
    
* * * * *
    (clxxi) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 86 follows:

[[Page 34652]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.061

* * * * *
    (c) Maps and critical habitat unit descriptions for the island of 
Molokai, HI. Critical habitat units are described below. Coordinates 
are in UTM Zone 4 with units in meters using North American Datum of 
1983 (NAD83). The following map shows the general locations of the 
critical habitat units designated on the island of Molokai. Existing 
manmade features and structures, such as buildings, roads, railroads, 
airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and other urban landscaped 
areas, do not contain one or more of the physical and biological 
features. Federal actions limited to those areas, therefore, would not 
trigger a consultation under section 7 of the Act unless they may 
affect the species or physical or biological features in adjacent 
critical habitat.
    (1) NOTE: Map 1--Index map follows:

[[Page 34653]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.062

    (2) Molokai--Coastal--Unit 1 (250 ac, 101 ha) and Molokai--
Coastal--Unit 2 (3,544 ac, 1,434 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Coastal--Unit 1 and Molokai--Coastal--
Unit 2 (Map 2) follows:

[[Page 34654]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.063

    (3) Molokai--Coastal--Unit 3 (862 ac, 349 ha), Molokai--Coastal--
Unit 4 (10 ac, 4 ha), and Molokai--Coastal--Unit 5 (1 ac, 0.5 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Coastal--Unit 3, Molokai--Coastal--Unit 
4, and Molokai--Coastal--Unit 5 (Map 3) follows:

[[Page 34655]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.064

    (4) Molokai--Coastal--Unit 6 (1,913 ac, 774 ha) and Molokai--
Coastal--Unit 7 (306 ac, 124 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bidens wiebkei, Brighamia rockii, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Ischaemum byrone, Marsilea villosa, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Pittosporum halophilum, Schenkia sebaeoides, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Tetramolopium rockii.
    (iii) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Coastal--Unit 6 and Molokai--Coastal--
Unit 7 (Map 4) follows:

[[Page 34656]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.065


[[Page 34657]]


    (5) Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 (70 ac, 28 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii, Cyperus trachysanthos, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Kokia cookei, and Sesbania 
tomentosa.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 (Map 5) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.066
    
    (6) Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 (3,201 ac, 1,295 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii, Cyperus trachysanthos, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Kokia cookei, and Sesbania 
tomentosa.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 (Map 6) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.067
    
    (7) Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (10,330 ac, 4,180 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, 
Bonamia menziesii, Canavalia molokaiensis, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. 
brevipes, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea dunbariae, Cyanea mannii, Cyanea 
procera, Cyanea profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Cyperus fauriei, Cyrtandra 
filipes, Diplazium molokaiense, Festuca molokaiensis, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania hillebrandii, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua 
laxiflora, Labordia triflora, Melicope mucronulata, Melicope munroi, 
Melicope reflexa, Neraudia sericea, Phyllostegia haliakalae, 
Phyllostegia mannii, Phyllostegia pilosa, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Schiedea lydgatei, Schiedea sarmentosa, Sesbania tomentosa, 
Silene alexandri, Silene lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Stenogyne 
bifida, Vigna o-wahuensis, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (Map 7) follows:

[[Page 34658]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.068

    (8) Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (3,628 ac, 1,468 ha), Molokai--
Lowland Wet--Unit 2 (1,952 ac, 790 ha), and Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 
3 (8,074 ac, 3,267 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea dunbariae, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, 
Lysimachia maxima, Melicope reflexa, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia hispida, Phyllostegia mannii, Plantago princeps, Stenogyne 
bifida, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea dunbariae, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, 
Lysimachia maxima, Melicope reflexa, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia hispida, Phyllostegia mannii, Plantago princeps, Stenogyne 
bifida, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Asplenium dielerectum, Bidens wiebkei, Canavalia 
molokaiensis, Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea dunbariae, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea solanacea, Cyrtandra filipes, 
Lysimachia maxima, Melicope reflexa, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Phyllostegia hispida, Phyllostegia mannii, Plantago princeps, Stenogyne 
bifida, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Molokai--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 2, and Molokai--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 (Map 8) follows:

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.069

    (9) Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (4,818 ac, 1,950 ha), Molokai--
Montane Wet--Unit 2 (910 ac, 368 ha), and Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 3 
(803 ac, 325 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea mannii, Cyanea procera, Cyanea 
profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Hesperomannia arborescens, Lysimachia 
maxima, Melicope reflexa, Phyllostegia hispida, Phyllostegia mannii, 
Phyllostegia pilosa, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Schiedea 
laui, Stenogyne bifida, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea mannii, Cyanea procera, Cyanea 
profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Hesperomannia arborescens, Lysimachia 
maxima, Melicope reflexa, Phyllostegia hispida, Phyllostegia mannii, 
Phyllostegia pilosa, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Schiedea 
laui, Stenogyne bifida, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Bidens wiebkei, Clermontia 
oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea mannii, Cyanea procera, Cyanea 
profuga, Cyanea solanacea, Hesperomannia arborescens, Lysimachia 
maxima, Melicope reflexa, Phyllostegia hispida, Phyllostegia mannii, 
Phyllostegia pilosa, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Schiedea 
laui, Stenogyne bifida, and Zanthoxylum hawaiiense.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Molokai--Montane 
Wet--Unit 2, and Molokai--Montane Wet--Unit 3 (Map 9) follows:

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.070

    (10) Molokai--Montane Mesic--Unit 1 (1,629 ac, 659 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Asplenium dielerectum, 
Bidens wiebkei, Cyanea dunbariae, Cyanea mannii, Cyanea procera, Cyanea 
solanacea, Cyperus fauriei, Kadua laxiflora, Melicope mucronulata, 
Neraudia sericea, Plantago princeps, Santalum haleakalae var. 
lanaiense, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and Stenogyne bifida.
    (ii) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Montane Mesic--Unit 1 (Map 10) follows:

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.071

    (11) Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (1,888 ac, 764 ha), Molokai--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 2 (1,280 ac, 518 ha), and Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 (1,362 
ac, 551 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, 
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea munroi, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hibiscus 
arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Phyllostegia hispida, Pteris lydgatei, 
and Stenogyne bifida.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, 
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea munroi, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hibiscus 
arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Phyllostegia hispida, Pteris lydgatei, 
and Stenogyne bifida.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Brighamia rockii, Canavalia molokaiensis, 
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea munroi, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hibiscus 
arnottianus ssp. immaculatus, Phyllostegia hispida, Pteris lydgatei, 
and Stenogyne bifida.
    (iv) NOTE: Map of Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Molokai--Wet Cliff--
Unit 2, and Molokai--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 (Map 11) follows:

[[Page 34662]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP11JN12.072


  (12) Table of Protected Species Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for
                                 Molokai
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Unit name             Species occupied     Species unoccupied
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 1....  ....................  Bidens wiebkei.
                                                    Brighamia rockii.
                                                    Canavalia
                                                     molokaiensis.
                                                    Hibiscus arnottianus
                                                     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Ischaemum byrone.
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa.
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense.
                                                    Pittosporum
                                                     halophilum.
                                                    Schenkia sebaeoides.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 2....  ....................  Bidens wiebkei.
                                                    Brighamia rockii.
                                                    Canavalia
                                                     molokaiensis.
                                                    Hibiscus arnottianus
                                                     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Ischaemum byrone.

[[Page 34663]]

 
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa.
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense.
                                                    Pittosporum
                                                     halophilum.
                              Schenkia sebaeoides.  Schenkia sebaeoides.
                              Sesbania tomentosa..  Sesbania tomentosa.
                              Tetramolopium rockii  Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 3....  ....................  Bidens wiebkei.
                                                    Brighamia rockii.
                              Canavalia             Canavalia
                               molokaiensis.         molokaiensis.
                                                    Hibiscus arnottianus
                                                     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Ischaemum byrone.
                                                    Marsilea villosa.
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense.
                              Pittosporum           Pittosporum
                               halophilum.           halophilum.
                              Schenkia sebaeoides.  Schenkia sebaeoides.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
                              Tetramolopium rockii  Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 4....  ....................  Bidens wiebkei.
                                                    Brighamia rockii.
                                                    Canavalia
                                                     molokaiensis.
                                                    Hibiscus arnottianus
                                                     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Ischaemum byrone.
                                                    Marsilea villosa.
                              Peucedanum            Peucedanum
                               sandwicense.          sandwicense.
                              Pittosporum           Pittosporum
                               halophilum.           halophilum.
                                                    Schenkia sebaeoides.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 5....  ....................  Bidens wiebkei.
                              Brighamia rockii....  Brighamia rockii.
                                                    Canavalia
                                                     molokaiensis.
                                                    Hibiscus arnottianus
                                                     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Ischaemum byrone.
                                                    Marsilea villosa.
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense.
                              Pittosporum           Pittosporum
                               halophilum.           halophilum.
                                                    Schenkia sebaeoides.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 6....  Bidens wiebkei......  Bidens wiebkei.
                                                    Brighamia rockii.
                              Canavalia             Canavalia
                               molokaiensis.         molokaiensis.
                              Hibiscus arnottianus  Hibiscus arnottianus
                               ssp. immaculatus.     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                              Ischaemum byrone....  Ischaemum byrone.
                                                    Marsilea villosa.
                              Peucedanum            Peucedanum
                               sandwicense.          sandwicense.
                                                    Pittosporum
                                                     halophilum.
                                                    Schenkia sebaeoides.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Coastal--Unit 7....  ....................  Bidens wiebkei.
                                                    Brighamia rockii.
                                                    Canavalia
                                                     molokaiensis.
                                                    Hibiscus arnottianus
                                                     ssp. Immaculatus.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Ischaemum byrone.
                                                    Marsilea villosa.
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense.
                                                    Pittosporum
                                                     halophilum.
                                                    Schenkia sebaeoides.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     rockii.
Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 1  ....................  Bonamia menziesii.
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos.
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Kokia cookie.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.

[[Page 34664]]

 
Molokai--Lowland Dry--Unit 2  ....................  Bonamia menziesii.
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos.
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis.
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei.
                                                    Kokia cookie.
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa.
Molokai--Lowland Mesic--Unit  Alectryon             Alectryon
 1.                            macrococcus.          micrococcus.
                              Asplenium             Asplenium
                               dielerectum.          dielerectum.
                                                    Bonamia menziesii.
                              Canavalia             Canavalia
                               molokaiensis.         molokaiensis.
                                                    Clermontia
                                                     oblongifolia ssp.
                                                     Brevipes