[Federal Register Volume 76, Number 148 (Tuesday, August 2, 2011)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 46362-46594]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2011-17162]



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Vol. 76

Tuesday,

No. 148

August 2, 2011

Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 17





Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on 
Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species; 
Proposed Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 148 / Tuesday, August 2, 2011 / 
Proposed Rules

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043; MO 92210-0-0009]
RIN 1018-AV49


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species 
on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to 
list 23 species on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands as 
endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). 
We also propose to designate critical habitat for these 23 species, to 
designate critical habitat for 2 plant species that are already listed 
as endangered, and revise critical habitat for 99 plant species that 
are already listed as endangered or threatened. The proposed critical 
habitat designation totals 43,491 acres (ac) (17,603 hectares (ha)), 
and includes occupied and unoccupied habitat. Approximately 93percent 
of the area being proposed as critical habitat is already designated as 
critical habitat for the 99 plant species or other species. In this 
proposed rule we are also proposing a taxonomic revision of the 
scientific names of nine plant species.

DATES: We will consider comments received on or postmarked on or before 
October 3, 2011. Please note that if you are using the Federal 
eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES section below), the deadline for 
submitting an electronic comment is Eastern Time on this date. We must 
receive requests for public hearings, in writing, at the address shown 
in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section by September 16, 2011.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. In 
the box that reads ``Enter Keyword or ID,'' enter the docket number for 
this proposed rule, which is FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043. Check the box that 
reads ``Open for Comments/Submission,'' and click the Search Button. 
You should then see an icon that reads ``Submit a Comment.'' Please 
ensure that you have found the correct rulemaking before submitting 
your comment.
     U.S. mail or hand-delivery: Public Comments Processing, 
Attn: FWS-R1-ES-2010-0043; Division of Policy and Directives 
Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, MS 
2042; Arlington, VA 22203.
    We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. This 
generally means that we will post any personal information you provide 
us (see the Public Comments section below for more information).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Loyal Mehrhoff, Field Supervisor, 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Box 
50088, Honolulu, HI 96850; by telephone at 808-792-9400; or by 
facsimile at 808-792-9581. If you use a telecommunications device for 
the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 
800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Public Comments

    We intend that any final action resulting from this proposal will 
be based on the best scientific and commercial data available and be as 
accurate and as effective as possible. Therefore, we solicit comments 
or suggestions on this proposed rule from other concerned governmental 
agencies, the scientific community, industry, or other interested 
parties concerning this proposed rule. We particularly seek comments 
concerning:
    (1) Biological, commercial trade, or other relevant data concerning 
any threats (or lack thereof) to the 23 species proposed for listing, 
and regulations that may be addressing those threats.
    (2) Additional information concerning the range, distribution, and 
population size of each of the 23 species proposed for listing, 
including the locations of any additional populations of these species.
    (3) Any information on the biological or ecological requirements of 
the 23 species proposed for listing.
    (4) Current or planned activities in the areas occupied by both the 
23 species proposed for listing and the additional 101 plant species 
proposed for critical habitat designation or revision, and possible 
impacts of these activities on this species.
    (5) The reasons why we should or should not designate habitat for 
all species in this proposal as ``critical habitat'' under section 4 of 
the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et 
seq.), including whether there are threats to these species from human 
activity, the degree of which can be expected to increase due to the 
designation, and whether the benefit of designation would outweigh 
threats to these species caused by the designation, such that the 
designation of critical habitat is prudent.
    (6) Whether a revision of critical habitat is warranted for the 99 
plant species already listed as endangered or threatened under the Act.
    (7) Specific information on:
     The amount and distribution of critical habitat for the 
species included in this proposed rule;
     What areas currently occupied, and that contain the 
necessary physical or biological features essential for the 
conservation of the species, we should include in the designation and 
why;
     Whether special management considerations or protections 
may be required for the physical or biological features essential to 
the conservation of the species in this proposed rule; and
     What areas not currently occupied are essential to the 
conservation of the species and why.
    (8) Land use designations and current or planned activities in the 
areas occupied by the species, and the possible impacts of proposed or 
revised critical habitat on these designations or activities.
    (9) Any foreseeable economic, national security, or other relevant 
impacts of designating any area as critical habitat. We are 
particularly interested in any impacts on small entities, and the 
benefits of including or excluding areas that exhibit these impacts.
    (10) Whether the benefits of excluding any particular area from 
critical habitat outweigh the benefits of including that area as 
critical habitat under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, after considering 
the potential impacts and benefits of the proposed critical habitat 
designation. Under section 4(b)(2), we may exclude an area from 
critical habitat if we determine that the benefits of such exclusion 
outweigh the benefits of including that particular area as critical 
habitat, unless failure to designate that specific area as critical 
habitat will result in the extinction of the species. We request 
specific information on:
     The benefits of including specific areas in the final 
designation and supporting rationale;
     The benefits of excluding specific areas from the final 
designation and supporting rationale; and
     Whether any specific exclusions may result in the 
extinction of the species and why.
    (11) Whether our exemptions under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act 
of the lands on Department of Defense (DOD) land at Dillingham Military 
Reservation,

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Kahuku Training Area, Kawailoa Training Area, Makua Military 
Reservation, Schofield Barracks East Range, and Schofield Barracks 
Military Reservation, are or are not appropriate and why.
    (12) Information on the projected and reasonably likely impact of 
climate change on the species included in this proposed rule, and any 
special management needs or protections that may be needed in the 
critical habitat areas we are proposing.
    (13) Whether we could improve or modify our approach to designating 
critical habitat in any way to provide for greater public participation 
and understanding, or to better accommodate public concerns and 
comments.
    (14) Specific information on ways to improve the clarity of this 
rule as it pertains to completion of consultations under section 7 of 
the Act.
    (15) Comments on our proposal to revise the taxonomic 
classification for the nine plant species identified in this proposed 
rule.
    You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed 
rule by one of the methods listed in the ADDRESSES section. We request 
that you send comments only by the methods described in the ADDRESSES 
section.
    We will post your entire comment--including your personal 
identifying information--on http://www.regulations.gov. If you provide 
personal identifying information in addition to the required items 
specified in the previous paragraph, such as your street address, phone 
number, or e-mail address, you may request at the top of your document 
that we withhold this information from public review. However, we 
cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so.
    Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting 
documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be 
available for public inspection at http://www.regulations.gov, or by 
appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    You may obtain copies of the proposed rule by mail from the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT) 
or by visiting the Federal eRulemaking Portal at http://www.regulations.gov.

Background

    It is our intent to discuss below only those topics directly 
relevant to the listing of and designation of critical habitat for the 
species in this proposed rule.

Previous Federal Action

    Nineteen of the 23 species proposed for listing are candidate 
species (75 FR 69222; November 10, 2010). Candidate species are those 
taxa for which the Service has sufficient information on their 
biological status and threats to propose them for listing under the 
Act, but for which the development of a listing regulation has been 
precluded to date by other higher priority listing activities. The 
current candidate species addressed in this proposed listing rule 
include the plants Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, M. makahae, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, P. cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and 
Zanthoxylum oahuense; and the blackline Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum), the crimson Hawaiian damselfly (M. 
leptodemas), and the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (M. oceanicum). The 
candidate status of all of these species was most recently assessed and 
reaffirmed in the November 10, 2010, Notice of Review of Native Species 
that are Candidates for Listing as Threatened or Endangered (CNOR) (75 
FR 69222).
    On May 4, 2004, the Center for Biological Diversity petitioned the 
Secretary of the Interior to list 225 species of plants and animals, 
including the 19 candidate species listed above, as endangered or 
threatened under the provisions of the Act. Since then, we have 
published our annual findings on the May 4, 2004, petition (including 
our findings on the 19 candidate species listed above) in the CNORs 
dated May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24870), September 12, 2006 (71 FR 53756), 
December 6, 2007 (72 FR 69034), December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75176), 
November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57803), and November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69222).
    In addition to the 19 candidate species, we are proposing to list 
four species of plants endemic to Oahu, which include Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. waiolani, and Tetraplasandra 
lydgatei. These four Oahu plant species, as well as approximately 180 
others on the Hawaiian Islands, have been identified as the ``rarest of 
the rare'' Hawaiian plant species in need of immediate conservation, 
under the multi-agency (Federal, State, and private) Plant Extinction 
Prevention (PEP) Program. The goal of this program is to prevent the 
extinction of plant species that currently have fewer than 50 
individuals remaining in the wild on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, 
Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii (Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife 
(DOFAW) 2007; Service 2007). We believe these four endemic Oahu plant 
species warrant listing under the Act for the reasons discussed in the 
Summary of Factors Affecting the 23 Species Proposed for Listing 
section (below). Because these 4 plant species occur within 3 of the 7 
ecosystems identified in this proposed rule, and share common threats 
with the other 19 species proposed for listing under the Act, we have 
included them in this proposed rule to provide them with protection 
under the Act in an expeditious manner.
    On June 17, 2003, we published a final rule designating 
approximately 55,040 ac (22,274 ha) as critical habitat for 99 plant 
species on Oahu (68 FR 35950; June 17, 2003). If made final, this rule 
would supersede that designation. In addition, we are proposing 
critical habitat for two endangered plant species for which critical 
habitat has not been previously proposed or designated. When we listed 
the plant Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii in 1982 (47 FR 
36846), we found that the designation of critical habitat was not 
determinable, since we were unable to identify the biological needs of 
this species (see Proposed Taxonomic Name Changes below for additional 
information). When we listed the plant Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata as endangered in 1986 (58 FR 10518), we found that 
designation of critical habitat was not prudent because this plant was 
threatened by taking for lei-making, and the publication of plant 
locations could make this plant more vulnerable to collection by 
individuals. We have reviewed the best available information on both 
species, and have determined the designation of critical habitat is now 
prudent (see Prudency Determination below for additional information).

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Listing 23 Species on Oahu

    On the island of Oahu, as on most of the Hawaiian Islands, native 
species that occur in the same habitat types (ecosystems) depend on 
many of the same biological features and on the successful functioning 
of that ecosystem to survive. We have therefore organized the species 
addressed in this proposed rule by common ecosystems. Although the 
listing determination for each species is analyzed separately, we have

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organized the specific analysis for each species within the context of 
the broader ecosystem in which it occurs, to avoid redundancy. In 
addition, native species that share ecosystems often face a suite of 
common factors that may threaten them, and ameliorating or eliminating 
these threats requires similar management actions. Effective management 
of these threats often requires implementation of conservation actions 
at the ecosystem scale, to enhance or restore critical ecological 
processes and provide for long-term viability of those species in their 
native environment. Thus, by taking this approach, we hope not only to 
organize this proposed rule efficiently, but also to more effectively 
focus conservation management efforts on the common threats that occur 
across these ecosystems, restore ecosystem functionality for the 
recovery of each species, and provide conservation benefits for 
associated native species, thereby potentially precluding the need to 
list other species under the Act that occur in these shared ecosystems.
    We propose to list Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea 
lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, Doryopteris 
takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, Melicope 
hiiakae, Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma 
cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and 
Zanthoxylum oahuense; and the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies, endemic to the island of Oahu, as endangered species. 
These 23 species (20 plants and 3 damselflies) are found in 7 ecosystem 
types: coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, 
dry cliff, and wet cliff (Table 1).

    Table 1--The 23 Species and the Ecosystems Upon Which They Depend
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Ecosystem                             Species
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Coastal......................  Plants: Bidens amplectens.
Lowland Dry..................  Plants: Bidens amplectens, Doryopteris
                                takeuchii, Pleomele forbesii.
Lowland Mesic................  Plants: Cyanea calycina, Cyanea
                                lanceolata, Cyrtandra waiolani, Melicope
                                makahae, Platydesma cornuta var.
                                decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia
                                macrocarpa, Tetraplasandra lydgatei.
                               Animals: oceanic Hawaiian damselfly.
Lowland Wet..................  Plants: Cyanea calycina, Cyanea
                                lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia,
                                Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha,
                                Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani,
                                Melicope hiiakae, Melicope makahae,
                                Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta,
                                Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra
                                ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa,
                                Zanthoxylum oahuense.
                               Animals: crimson Hawaiian damselfly,
                                blackline Hawaiian damselfly, oceanic
                                Hawaiian damselfly.
Montane Wet..................  Plants: Cyanea calycina, Melicope
                                christophersenii.
Dry Cliff....................  Plants: Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope
                                makahae, Platydesma cornuta var.
                                decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia
                                macrocarpa.
Wet Cliff....................  Plants: Cyanea calycina, Cyanea
                                purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra kaulantha,
                                Cyrtandra sessilis, Melicope
                                christophersenii, Psychotria hexandra
                                ssp. oahuensis, Pterlyxia macrocarpa.
                               Animals: crimson Hawaiian damselfly,
                                oceanic Hawaiian damselfly.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Most of these species are found in multiple ecosystems. For each 
species, we identified and evaluated those factors that threaten the 
species and that may be common to all of the species at the ecosystem 
level. For example, the degradation of habitat by nonnative plants is 
considered a threat to each species within each ecosystem. As a result, 
this threat factor is considered to be a multiple ecosystem threat, as 
each individual species within each ecosystem faces a threat that is 
essentially identical in terms of the nature of the impact, its 
severity, its imminence, and its scope. We further identified and 
evaluated any threat factors that may be unique to certain species, 
that is, threat factors that do not apply to all species under 
consideration within the same ecosystem. For example, the threat of 
predation by nonnative fish is unique to the three damselflies in this 
proposed rule; it is not applicable to any of the other species 
proposed for listing. We have identified such threat factors, which 
apply only to certain species within the ecosystems addressed here, as 
species-specific threats.

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Determining Physical or Biological 
Features of Critical Habitat

    Under the Act, we are required to designate critical habitat to the 
maximum extent prudent and determinable concurrently with the 
publication of a final determination that a species is endangered or 
threatened. In this proposed rule, we are proposing to designate 
critical habitat for the 23 Oahu species for which we are also 
proposing endangered status. We are also proposing to designate 
critical habitat for two Oahu plants that are already listed as 
endangered species but for which critical habitat has not been 
designated. In addition, we are proposing to revise critical habitat 
for 99 Oahu plants already listed as endangered or threatened species. 
When critical habitat was designated for these 99 Oahu plant species in 
2003 (68 FR 35950; June 17, 2003), it was based primarily on the 
specific localities where the species were known to occur. We are 
proposing to revise critical habitat for these species because since 
then, we have learned that many native Hawaiian plants and animals 
currently occupy only areas of marginal habitat because the threats are 
reduced in these areas, and can thrive when reintroduced into 
historical habitats when threats are effectively managed. For this 
reason, we believe it is important to designate unoccupied habitat 
where it is essential for the recovery of the species. Based on new 
information on plant occurrences and a better understanding of the 
species' biological requirements, the physical or biological features 
have been more precisely identified, and now include elevation, 
precipitation, substrate, canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
characteristics. We believe the added precision will be helpful in 
identifying the special management considerations or protections needed 
in specific occupied areas to recover the species. In addition, because 
the 2003 designation focused on discrete areas occupied by the species 
at the time of listing, the result was an overlapping and confusing 
patchwork of critical habitat areas for the 99 plant species that was 
difficult for the public to interpret. Although this proposed revision 
of critical habitat is solely based on occupied areas with physical or 
biological features essential to the

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species' conservation, and unoccupied areas that are essential to the 
species' conservation, we believe the end result will provide for 
greater public understanding of the conservation and recovery needs of 
each of the species in the specific areas addressed in this proposed 
rule.
    In this proposed rule, we propose critical habitat for 124 species 
in 66 multiple-species critical habitat units. Although critical 
habitat is identified for each species individually, we have found that 
the conservation of each depends, at least in part, on the successful 
functioning of the physical or biological features of the commonly 
shared ecosystem. Each critical habitat unit identified in this 
proposed rule contains the physical or biological features essential to 
the conservation of those individual species that occupy that 
particular unit, or contains areas essential to the conservation of 
those species that do not presently occupy that particular unit but 
depend on that ecosystem type for recovery purposes. Where the unit is 
not occupied by a particular species, we believe it is still essential 
for the conservation of that species. The designation of unoccupied 
habitat allows for the expansion of its range and reintroduction of 
individuals into areas where it occurred historically, and provides 
area for recovery in the case of a stochastic event at one or more 
locations where the species occurs.
    Each of the areas proposed for designation represents critical 
habitat for multiple species, based upon their shared habitat 
requirements, and takes into account any species-specific conservation 
needs as appropriate. For example, the presence of a perennial stream 
is essential for the conservation of the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, 
but is not a requirement shared by all species within the same 
ecosystem; however, a functioning ecosystem is also essential to the 
damselfly because the ecosystem provides other physical or biological 
features that support the damselfly's specific life-history 
requirements.

The Island of Oahu

    The island of Oahu is the third oldest and third largest of the 
eight main Hawaiian Islands, located southeast of Kauai and northwest 
of Molokai and Lanai (Foote et al. 1972, p. 19; Department of 
Geography, University of Hawaii at Hilo (UHH) 1998, p. 7). It was 
formed from two shield volcanoes that ceased erupting about 1 to 2 
million years ago, and is about 600 square (sq) miles (mi) (1,557 sq 
kilometers (km)) in area (Macdonald and Abbot 1970, p. 265; Foote et 
al. 1972, p. 19; Department of Geography, UHH 1998, p. 7). Two mountain 
ranges resulted from these eruptions, the western Waianae range and 
eastern Koolau range. Oahu is characterized by the fact that the two 
mountain ranges are aligned perpendicular to the prevailing trade 
winds, so that distinctive leeward and windward climates result, with 
the Waianae range in the rain shadow of the Koolau range (Department of 
Geography, UHH 1998, p. 7; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 39). The maximum 
elevation on Oahu is 4,025 feet (ft) (1,225 meters (m)) at the summit 
of Mount Kaala in the Waianae Mountains, and this higher elevation area 
is not affected by the rain shadow (Blumenstock and Price 1972, p. 156; 
Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 39-41). The maximum elevation is relatively low 
compared to the higher Hawaiian Islands. Consequently, Oahu does not 
have dry alpine areas, as the mountains do not reach the height of the 
temperature inversion layer (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 38, 40). Rainfall 
ranges from less than 20 inches (in) (500 millimeters (mm)) to more 
than 250 in (6,350 mm) per year (Department of Geography, UHH 1998, p. 
7). Temperatures in the Hawaiian Islands differ by an average of 41 
degrees Fahrenheit ([deg]F) (22 degrees Celsius ([deg]C)) throughout 
the year. Since temperature decreases with increasing elevation, 
microclimates range from tropical to sub-arctic across the island chain 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 37-38), although the sub-arctic zone does not 
occur on Oahu.
    The current soil classification system for the Hawaiian Islands 
distinguishes soil types based on their measurable physical and 
chemical properties and environmental factors that influenced their 
formation. Widely ranging geological ages of rocks, different rates of 
weathering, and microclimates create these highly variable soils 
(Sherman 1972, pp. 205-207). Most soils are volcanic in origin; a few 
formed from organic material and sand (Foote et al. 1972, p. 1). On 
Oahu, sizable areas of highly weathered, red-colored oxisols (nutrient 
poor soils, red or yellowish) occur on the Schofield Plateau; in 
contrast, the Koolau and Waianae mountain ranges have large areas of 
rocky, unweathered entisols (soils with few or no horizontal layers) 
due to erosion (Gavenda et al. 1998, p. 92).
    Because of its age and relative isolation, species diversity and 
endemism are high in the Hawaiian archipelago (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, 
p. 45). However, the flora and fauna of Oahu have undergone extreme 
alterations because of past and present land use and other activities. 
Land with rich soils was altered by the early Hawaiians and, more 
recently, converted to agricultural use (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45) 
or pasture. Intentional and inadvertent introduction of alien plant and 
animal species has contributed to the reduction in range of native 
species on the island (throughout this proposal, the terms ``alien,'' 
``feral,'' ``nonnative,'' and ``introduced'' all refer to species that 
are not naturally native to the Hawaiian Islands.) Most of the taxa 
included in this proposed rule persist on steep slopes, precipitous 
cliffs, valley headwalls, and other regions where unsuitable topography 
has prevented urbanization and agricultural development, or where 
inaccessibility has limited encroachment by nonnative plant and animal 
species.

Oahu Ecosystems

    The seven Oahu ecosystems that support the species addressed in 
this proposed rule are described in the following sections.

Coastal

    The coastal ecosystem is found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands, 
with the highest species diversity found in the least populated coastal 
areas of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Kauai, and their 
associated islets. On Oahu, the coastal ecosystem includes mixed 
herblands, shrublands, and grasslands, from sea level to approximately 
980 ft (300 m) in elevation, generally within a narrow zone above the 
influence of waves to within 330 ft (100 m) inland, sometimes extending 
farther inland if strong prevailing onshore winds drive sea spray and 
sand dunes into the lowland zone (The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 2006a). 
The coastal vegetation zone is typically dry, with annual rainfall of 
less than 20 in (50 cm); however, windward rainfall may be high enough 
(up to 40 in (100 cm)) to support mesic-associated and sometimes wet-
associated vegetation (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, pp. 54-66). Biological 
diversity is low to moderate in this ecosystem, but may include some 
specialized plants and animals such as nesting seabirds and the rare 
native plant Sesbania tomentosa (ohai) (TNC 2006a). The plant Bidens 
amplectens, which is proposed for listing as endangered in this 
proposed rule, is reported from this ecosystem on Oahu (Hawaii 
Biodiversity and Mapping Program (HBMP) 2008; TNC 2007).

Lowland Dry

    The lowland dry ecosystem includes shrublands and forests generally 
below

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3,300 ft (1,000 m) elevation that receive less than 50 in (130 
centimeters (cm)) annual rainfall, or are in otherwise prevailingly dry 
substrate conditions. Areas consisting of predominantly native species 
in the lowland dry ecosystem are now rare; however, this ecosystem is 
found on the islands of Hawaii, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and 
Kauai, and is best represented on the leeward sides of the islands 
(Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 67). On Oahu, this ecosystem is typically 
found on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, and the leeward 
southern coast, including Diamond Head Crater (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, 
p. 67; TNC 2006b). Biological diversity is low to moderate in this 
ecosystem, and includes specialized animals and plants such as the 
Hawaiian owl or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Santalum 
ellipticum (iliahialoe) (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,220-1,221; TNC 
2006b). The plants Bidens amplectens, Doryopteris takeuchii, and 
Pleomele forbesii, which are proposed for listing as endangered in this 
proposed rule, are reported in this ecosystem on Oahu (HBMP 2008; TNC 
2007).

Lowland Mesic

    The lowland mesic ecosystem includes a variety of grasslands, 
shrublands, and forests, generally below 3,300 ft (1,000 m) elevation, 
that receive between 50 and 75 in (130 and 190 cm) annual rainfall, or 
are in otherwise mesic substrate conditions (TNC 2006c). In the 
Hawaiian Islands, this ecosystem is found on Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, 
Lanai, and Kauai, on both windward and leeward sides of the islands. On 
Oahu, this ecosystem is typically found on the leeward slopes of both 
the Waianae and Koolau Mountains (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 75; TNC 
2006c). Biological diversity is high in this system (TNC 2006c). The 
plants Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra waiolani, Melicope 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly, which are proposed for listing as endangered in 
this proposed rule, are reported in this ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 
2007).

Lowland Wet

    The lowland wet ecosystem is generally found below 3,300 ft (1,000 
m) elevation on the windward sides of the main Hawaiian Islands, except 
Kahoolawe and Niihau (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 85; TNC 2006d). These 
areas include a variety of wet grasslands, shrublands, and forests that 
receive greater than 75 in (190 cm) annual precipitation, or are in 
otherwise wet substrate conditions (TNC 2006d). On Oahu, this system is 
best developed in wet valleys and slopes along the summit of the Koolau 
Mountains, with a small area located on the windward side of the summit 
of the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2006d). Biological diversity is high in 
this system (TNC 2006d). The plants Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. sessilis, C. 
waiolani, Melicope hiiakae, M. makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. 
cornuta, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum oahuense; and the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, which are proposed for 
listing as endangered in this proposed rule, are reported in this 
ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).

Montane Wet

    The montane wet ecosystem is composed of natural communities 
(grasslands, shrublands, forests, and bogs) found at elevations 
generally between 3,300 and 6,600 ft (1,000 and 2,000 m), in areas 
where annual precipitation is greater than 75 in (190 cm) (TNC 2006e). 
This system is found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau 
and Kahoolawe (only the islands of Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii have areas 
above 4,020 ft (1,225 m)) (TNC 2006e). On Oahu, this ecosystem is found 
only at the summit of the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007). Biological 
diversity is moderate to high (TNC 2006e). Due to the restricted 
distribution of this ecosystem on Oahu, only the plants Cyanea calycina 
and Melicope christophersenii, which are proposed for listing as 
endangered in this proposed rule, are reported in this ecosystem (HBMP 
2008; TNC 2007).

Dry Cliff

    The dry cliff ecosystem is composed of vegetation communities 
occupying steep slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas that receive 
less than 75 in (190 cm) of rainfall annually, or are in otherwise dry 
substrate conditions (TNC 2006f). This ecosystem is found on all of the 
main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau, and on the island of Oahu is best 
represented along the leeward slopes of the Waianae Mountains (TNC 
2006f). A variety of shrublands occur within this ecosystem (TNC 
2006f). Biological diversity is low to moderate (TNC 2006f). The plants 
Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa, which are 
proposed for listing as endangered in this proposed rule, are reported 
in this ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007).

Wet Cliff

    The wet cliff ecosystem is generally composed of shrublands on 
near-vertical slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas that receive 
more than 75 in (190 cm) of annual precipitation, or in otherwise wet 
substrate conditions (TNC 2006g). This system is found on the islands 
of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai. On Oahu, this 
ecosystem is typically found along the entire length of the summit of 
the Koolau Mountains and at the summit of Mt. Kaala in the Waianae 
Mountains (TNC 2006g). Biological diversity is low to moderate (TNC 
2006g). The plants Cyanea calycina, C. purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, Melicope christophersenii, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa; and the crimson and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies, which are proposed for listing as endangered in 
this proposed rule, are reported in this ecosystem (HBMP 2008; TNC 
2007).

Species Description of the 23 Species Proposed for Listing

    Below is a brief description of each of the 23 species proposed for 
listing, presented in alphabetical order by genus. Plants are presented 
first, followed by animals.

Plants

    Bidens amplectens (kookoolau), a perennial or sometimes annual herb 
in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is restricted to windward cliffs 
and crests along the northern portion of the Waianae Mountains on the 
island of Oahu, in the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems, at 
elevations between 300 and 1,400 ft (90 and 430 m) (Ganders and Nagata 
1999, p. 271; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). This species intergrades with B. 
torta and forms hybrid swarms from near Kaena Point along the Waianae 
summit ridges to the head of Makua Valley (a hybrid swarm occurs where 
there is no reproductive barrier between distinct populations, or where 
a barrier has broken down). Pure B. amplectens is restricted to the 
windward cliffs and crests of the Waianae range (Ganders and Nagata 
1999, p. 271). Bidens amplectens was historically known from five 
locations spanning 7 mi (11 km) in the northern Waianae Mountains 
including Makaleha Valley, Uluhulu Gulch, Puu Pueo to Alau Gulch, 
Manini Gulch to Alau Gulch, and Nihoa Gulch (HBMP 2008).

[[Page 46367]]

At last observation, it totaled fewer than 1,000 individuals in four 
locations separated by less than 4 mi (6 km): Kealia Trail on the east 
side of Haili Gulch; Kapuna-Kamimi Ridge on the road to the Pahole 
Natural Area Reserve (NAR); Kealia east of Kawaiu Gulch; and from 
Kuaokala to Keawaula Ridge (J. Lau, in litt. 2001; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea calycina (haha), an unbranched shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is found in both the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, and 
wet cliff ecosystems (Lammers 1999, p. 483; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 
17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). In the Waianae Mountains, C. calycina occurs 
in Acacia-Metrosideros-Dicranopteris (koa-ohia-uluhe) forests at 
elevations between 1,800 and 3,920 ft (550 and 1,195 m), and in the 
Koolau Mountains this species occurs in wet Metrosideros-Dicranopteris 
forest and shrubland at elevations generally between 1,830 and 3,000 ft 
(558 and 900 m) (HBMP 2008). Historically, in the Waianae Mountains, 
plants were found from Palikea Gulch to Pualii Gulch (HBMP 2008). 
Currently, C. calycina is found from Pahole in the northern portion of 
the Waianae Mountains south along the summit to Palawai in 18 
occurrences totaling at least 170 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 
2008). In the Koolau Mountains, C. calycina was known historically 
along the entire length of the range (HBMP 2008). Currently, 22 
occurrences totaling between 155 and 169 individuals are known, from 
the most northern point at Kamananui Gulch along the summit ridges 
south to Konahuanui (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008). The combined 40 
occurrences total 325 to 339 individuals.
    Cyanea lanceolata (haha) is an unbranched shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae) that occurs in the southeastern Koolau Mountains 
in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems, at elevations 
generally between 1,000 and 2,500 ft (300 and 760 m) (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 483; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, this species was wide-ranging along the Koolau Mountains, 
from the northern Schofield-Waikane area to Wailupe at the southern end 
of the range, in at least 17 occurrences (HBMP 2008). Currently, there 
are 7 known occurrences, totaling fewer than 123 individuals, sparsely 
scattered over a much smaller area of the southern and northern Koolau 
range. The southern occurrences include Kului-Hawaii Loa, Wailupe, 
Mauumae, and Waialae Nui, with an unconfirmed report of individuals in 
Pia Valley (HBMP 2008; J. Lau, in litt. 2008). The northern occurrences 
include individuals north of Kawaiiki Stream, at Poamoho, and at 
Peahinaia (U.S. Army 2006).
    Cyanea purpurellifolia (haha) is an unbranched shrub in the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae) that occurs in the Koolau Mountains 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems, at elevations generally 
between 1,860 and 2,160 ft (570 and 660 m) (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, this species was known from a few individuals in the 
vicinity of Kaluanui Valley and north to Maakua-Papali Ridge (Lammers 
1999, p. 484; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 17; HBMP 2008). Currently, C. 
purpurellifolia occurs in the northern Koolau Mountains from Maakua-
Kaipapau to Punaluu-Kaluanui Ridge, in 5 occurrences totaling 
approximately 18 individuals (Plant Extinction Prevention (PEP) Program 
2008, pp. 20-21; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra gracilis (haiwale) (Gesneriaceae, African violet family) 
is a perennial shrub that is found in Metrosideros-Dicranopteris forest 
in the lowland wet ecosystem at approximately 1,600 ft (490 m) in 
elevation, on the leeward side of the southern Koolau Mountains (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 755; National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) 
Provenance Report 2004; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; PEP Program 2008, p. 16). 
Presumed extinct since the 1800s, 10 individuals of C. gracilis were 
discovered by botanists in Pia Valley in 2001 (NTBG Provenance Report 
2002). Between 2001 and 2008, only six to eight plants were observed at 
this location (NTBG Provenance Report 2002; PEP Program 2008, p. 16; A. 
Bakutis, in litt. 2008). It is apparently extirpated from historical 
locations in Palolo Valley, Konahuanui Gulch, and Manoa Valley (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 755; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra kaulantha (haiwale) is a perennial shrub in the African 
violet family (Gesneriaceae) found in dense shade in moist wooded 
gulches at elevations generally between 840 and 1,050 ft (255 and 320 
m), in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 763; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Cyrtandra kaulantha 
was historically known from the Waiahole Ditch trail and Kahanaiki 
Stream. It was considered ``locally common,'' and a collection was 
taken from a ``large colony'' in 1985 (W. Takeuchi, in litt. 1985; 
Wagner et al. 1999, p. 763; J. Lau, in litt. 2006). Prior to October 
2005, there were 34 wild individuals in 3 occurrences (15, 8, and 11 
individuals, respectively) in the subgulches of Waianu Valley (A. 
Bakutis, in litt. 2005). In 2005, the third occurrence was discovered 
crushed by a tree, leaving six living individuals (A. Bakutis, in litt. 
2005). In March 2006, it was reported that only one individual remained 
at the second occurrence, and that some individuals in the other two 
occurrences had fruit (A. Bakutis, in litt. 2006a). In addition, 4 more 
individuals were discovered at the site of the first occurrence, 
bringing the total number of wild individuals to 26 (Bakutis 2006a). In 
May 2006, another tree fall crushed 4 individuals in the third 
occurrence, leaving 2 remaining; however, a fourth occurrence of 4 
individuals was discovered in another subgulch, and 1 new individual 
was found in the first occurrence, bringing the total number of wild 
individuals to 27 (A. Bakutis, in litt. 2006a; Bakutis 2006b). All 
occurrences were visited again in April 2007, with a total of 28 wild 
individuals observed (PEP Program 2007, p. 17). Outplanting has been 
conducted in the four subgulches of Waianu Valley, but in areas some 
distance from the known occurrences. A total of 28 individuals were 
outplanted between 2005 and 2007. However, due to predation by 
nonnative slugs, only 12 outplanted individuals remained in 2007 (PEP 
Program 2007, p. 17). Cyrtandra kaulantha is therefore currently found 
in 5 occurrences totaling 28 wild and 12 outplanted individuals.
    Cyrtandra sessilis (haiwale) (Gesneriaceae, African violet family) 
is a small shrub that was historically known only from a few 
collections in wet gulch bottoms and slopes of mesic valleys in the 
windward Koolau Mountains (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 778). Typical habitat 
is Metrosideros forests at elevations generally between 1,600 and 2,200 
ft (490 and 670 m) in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008; A. Bakutis, in litt. 2008). In 1993, there were about 
200 individuals in the only known occurrence near the summit of the 
Schofield-Waikane Trail (HBMP 2008). In 2003, there were an estimated 
50 individuals in 2 occurrences (S. Perlman, in litt. 2003). Cyrtandra 
sessilis is currently known from 2 occurrences, one consisting of 75 
individuals along the Waikane-Schofield Trail in Kahana Valley and the 
second consisting of 5 individuals at Hawaii Loa Ridge near Pia Valley 
(S. Perlman, in litt. 2003; A. Bakutis, in litt. 2006c; HBMP 2008; A. 
Bakutis, in litt. 2008).
    Cyrtandra waiolani (haiwale), a small shrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae), is found in rich, partly sunny gulches; shady, 
moist banks above creeks; and wet gulch bottoms in

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mesic valleys in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 781; HBMP 2008). Cyrtandra waiolani was historically 
known from at least seven locations: five in the southern Koolau 
Mountains and two in the northern Koolau Mountains, at elevations 
generally between 800 and 3,000 ft (240 and 900 m) (HBMP 2008). Plants 
have not been since observed in these areas (HBMP 2008). Individuals 
likely representing C. waiolani, based on vegetative characteristics, 
were seen in 1994 along the ridge between Kaipapau and Maakua, and in 
2005 in Kahana, but these plants are no longer alive (J. Lau, in litt. 
2009). In 2005, individuals thought to be C. waiolani were found on the 
Kualono Ridge near Kaaawa; however, these plants were not flowering or 
fruiting at that time. Cuttings were taken for propagation and positive 
identification when flowering and fruiting occur (Hawaii Department of 
Land and Natural Resources (HDLNR) 2005; U.S. Army 2006; A. Bakutis, in 
litt. 2008; S. Ching, PEP, in litt. 2009; J. Lau, in litt. 2009). Many 
areas within the lowland mesic ecosystem in Kaaawa in the Koolau 
Mountains have not been surveyed for this species, including three of 
the historically known locations from Anahulu to Lanihuli. The Koolau 
mountain range is over 35 mi (58 km) in length. Historic surveys that 
we have records of from the 1800s did not cover the entire mountain 
range, but collections were made at seven widely distributed locations 
along the 35-mi (58-km) range. In the 1800s, forests in the Koolau 
Mountains were more intact at the summits; therefore, we believe that 
if seven collections were made, there were many more individuals in the 
wild. The plants were only known from a ridge between Kaipapau and 
Maakua in 1994, and from Kahana in 2005, but those plants are no longer 
present, which represents a population decline from seven (and more 
than seven historically) to zero. Botanists suggest that the species is 
likely still extant in these areas and may be found with more intensive 
surveying (Bakutis 2008a; J. Lau, in litt. 2009).
    Doryopteris takeuchii (no common name (NCN)) is a fern in the 
Pteridaceae family (Palmer 2003, p. 133). It occurs in dry shrubland on 
the slopes of Diamond Head Crater, a volcanic tuff cone on the southern 
coast of Oahu, at elevations generally between 140 and 300 ft (43 and 
91 m) (NTBG 2007, p.1). This area consists of pockets of native and 
nonnative species in the lowland dry ecosystem (TNC 2007). Little is 
known of the historical distribution of D. takeuchii. Currently, there 
are 101 to 124 clumps on the Kuilei cliffs and the southwest-facing 
gulches above Munro Trail on the outer slopes of the crater (NTBG 2007, 
p. 1).
    Korthalsella degeneri (hulumoa), a subshrub (a perennial with stems 
that are woody at the base) in the mistletoe family (Viscaceae), is 
parasitic on the native trees Sapindus oahuensis (kaulu) and Nestegis 
sandwicensis (olopua) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,339). This species 
occurs in diverse forest in the dry cliff ecosystem at elevations 
generally between 1,100 and 1,500 ft (335 and 457 m) in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). In 1938, K. degeneri 
was recorded from Makua Valley but little else is known of its 
historical range (HBMP 2008). Currently, this species is known only 
from one widespread occurrence in Makua Valley, estimated to be between 
900 and 1,000 individuals (J. Lau, in litt. 2000), and one occurrence 
of an unknown number of individuals in Makaha on the north-facing 
slopes of the southern side of the valley (U.S. Army 2006).
    Melicope christophersenii (alani), a shrub or tree in the rue 
family (Rutaceae), occurs in wet forest and shrubland in the montane 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems at elevations generally between 2,400 and 
4,010 ft (732 and 1,222 m) in the Waianae Mountains (Stone et al. 1999, 
pp. 1,184-1,185; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, M. 
christophersenii was known from the Mt. Kaala area of the Waianae 
Mountains, and as far south as Puu Kaua (HBMP 2008). Currently, there 
are 3 occurrences totaling approximately 250 individuals in the Waianae 
summit area, with the southernmost occurrence at Puu Hapapa (U.S. Army 
2006; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope hiiakae (alani) is a small tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae) that occurs in wet forest in the lowland wet ecosystem in 
the Koolau Mountains, generally between elevations of 1,300 and 2,260 
ft (396 and 689 m) (U.S. Army 2006; NTBG 2007, p. 3; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008). Historically, M. hiiakae was found along the entire length of 
the Koolau range (HBMP 2008). Currently there are 8 scattered 
occurrences totaling fewer than 40 individuals from Kawailoa to Waimalu 
(NTBG 2007, p. 3; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope makahae (alani), a shrubby tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), occurs in mesic and wet forest and shrubland in the lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains, 
at elevations generally between 2,200 and 2,900 ft (670 and 884 m) 
(Stone et al. 1999, p. 1,194; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, M. makahae was found in the central summit area of the 
Waianae Mountains on the west side of Mt. Kaala in Makaha Valley (Stone 
1963, p. 410; TNC 2007). Currently, there are 4 occurrences totaling 
fewer than 200 individuals north and west of the summit area of the 
Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008).
    Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta (NCN) is a palmoid (leaves dividing 
or radiating from one point) shrub in the rue family (Rutaceae) (Stone 
et al. 1999, pp. 1,209-1,210). It occurs in wet forest, shrubland, and 
gulches in the lowland wet ecosystem of the Koolau Mountains, at 
elevations generally between 1,900 and 2,500 ft (579 and 762 m) (U.S. 
Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically, this species was found 
along the entire length of the Koolau range, and at elevations below 
800 ft, from Pupukea to Wailupe Valley (HBMP 2008). Currently, 9 
occurrences (totaling 32 individuals) are restricted to the summit area 
of the northern Koolau Mountains, with only 1 occurrence (16 
individuals) near the summit of the southern Koolau Mountains (HBMP 
2008).
    Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens (NCN), a palmoid shrub in the rue 
family (Rutaceae), occurs in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems 
of the Waianae Mountains, at elevations generally between 1,990 and 
3,000 ft (607 and 914 m) (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,209-1,210; U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically this species was wide-ranging 
in the Waianae Mountains, from the Mokuleia Forest Reserve south to 
Kaluaa (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Currently, P. cornuta var. decurrens is 
found in 15 occurrences scattered from Pahole to Palawai Gulch, 
totaling 259 to 309 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008).
    Pleomele forbesii (hala pepe) is a tree in the asparagus 
(Asparagaceae) family (Smithsonian Department of Botany 2008). It 
occurs in mesic and dry forest and shrubland in the lowland dry, 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains, at elevations generally between 800 and 2,920 ft (244 
and 890 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,352; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, P. forbesii was found in at least 11 areas, totaling an 
unknown number of individuals, in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008). 
Currently, there are approximately 19 occurrences totaling 290 to 307 
individuals, from the Mokuleia Forest Reserve, west to Keaau and south 
to Nanakuli, in the Waianae Mountains, and one occurrence of a few

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individuals in the Koolau Mountains (J. Lau, in litt. 2008; HBMP 2008).
    Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis (kopiko), a tree in the coffee 
family (Rubiaceae), occurs in wet forest and shrubland in the lowland 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems of the Koolau Mountains, at elevations 
generally between 1,080 and 2,000 ft (329 and 610 m) (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1,166; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historically known only from the 
northern Koolau Mountains, this species is currently known from three 
occurrences in that area: one occurrence of 8 to 9 individuals in 
Maakua Gulch; 1 individual at Opaeula Gulch; and an estimated fewer 
than 10 individuals scattered between Kaipapau and Kaluanui, just south 
of Maakua Gulch (A. Bakutis, in litt. 2005; U.S. Army 2006; PEP Program 
2007, p. 25; HBMP 2008). A single individual was outplanted within a 
fenced area in Makaua Valley (February 2007) and has been observed to 
be healthy in subsequent monitoring visits (PEP Program 2007, p. 25).
    Pteralyxia macrocarpa (kaulu) is a tree in the dogbane family 
(Apocynaceae). It occurs in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains, in the 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems, at 
elevations generally between 1,100 and 2,800 ft (335 and 850 m) (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 220; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, this species was found along the entire length of the 
Koolau range and on the summit ridges of the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 
2008). Currently, P. macrocarpa is found from Kapuhi Gulch to North 
Palawai Gulch in the Waianae Mountains, in approximately 31 occurrences 
totaling between 233 and 289 individuals. In the Koolau Mountains, 7 
occurrences totaling 47 individuals occur in the most northern portion 
of this mountain range, while only 11 individuals in 2 occurrences are 
found in the southernmost portion of the range (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 
2008).
    Tetraplasandra lydgatei (NCN), a tree in the ginseng family 
(Araliaceae), is found in mesic forest in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
at elevations generally between 800 and 1,600 ft (240 and 490 m) in the 
Koolau Mountains (Motley 2005, p. 107; TNC 2007). In 2005, Motley 
formally recognized T. lydgatei as distinct from T. oahuensis (Motley 
2005; p. 105), and all known occurrences were surveyed at that time 
(PEP Program 2007, pp. 27-28). Formerly found from Niu Valley to the 
Halawa Ridge Trail, its distribution is now limited to two wild 
occurrences: one on the eastern slope of Hawaii Loa Ridge and another 
on the slopes of Kuliouou Valley. These occurrences total eight 
individuals (PEP Program 2007, pp. 27-28). In addition, 34 individuals 
have been outplanted in a fenced enclosure at Kulepeamoa Ridge (PEP 
Program 2007, p. 28).
    Zanthoxylum oahuense (ae), a small tree in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), occurs in wet forest in the lowland wet ecosystem at 
elevations generally between 2,060 and 2,720 ft (628 and 829 m) (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 1,216; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). This species was 
historically known from 17 areas along the entire length of the Koolau 
Mountains (HBMP 2008). Currently, Z. oahuense is restricted to the 
northern Koolau Mountains from Puu Kainapuaa along the summit to 
Waimano Stream, in 8 occurrences totaling approximately 29 individuals 
(U.S Army 2006; HBMP 2008).

Animals

    The crimson Hawaiian damselfly is a medium-sized, slender and 
delicate species, with adults measuring from 1.4 to 1.6 in (36 to 41 
mm) in length and having a wingspan of 1.5 to 1.6 in (39 to 42 mm). The 
species exhibits minimal striping and patterns. Males are primarily red 
and black in color, with females appearing somewhat paler and with 
green coloration present on the abdomen laterally (Polhemus and Asquith 
1996, p. 65).
    The crimson Hawaiian damselfly breeds in the slow reaches of 
streams and seep-fed pools (Williams 1936, p. 306; Zimmerman 1948a, p. 
369; Polhemus 1994a, p. 7; Polhemus 1994b, p. 37). Crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly naiads, the aquatic life-history stage, frequent open water, 
resting horizontally, submerged below the surface, or on submerged 
vegetation (Williams 1936, p. 309). Adults perch on streamside 
vegetation and patrol along the stream corridor, staying close to 
breeding pools (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 65).
    Between 1991 and 2003, over 150 sites were surveyed on the island 
of Oahu for native damselflies, and results indicate that one lowland 
species, the Pacific Hawaiian damselfly, has been extirpated from Oahu, 
and the orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly has been reduced to a single 
remnant population (Polhemus 2007, pp. 233-235). The crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly was known historically from approximately eight areas where 
it is now extirpated, including the windward side of the Waianae 
Mountains and scattered locations in the Koolau Mountains (Polhemus 
1994a, p. 7; Polhemus 1994b, pp. 37-38; Englund 1999, pp. 228-229, 231; 
Polhemus 2007, pp. 234, 238). In 2003, this species was not found 
during surveys of Kahana Stream and may be extirpated from this stream 
system (D. Polhemus, in litt. 2008). Currently, only five occurrences 
of the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are known, all from the Koolau 
Mountains in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems at Waiawa, north 
Halawa, Punaluu, Moanalua, and Hauula (TNC 2007; D. Polhemus, in litt. 
2008; HBMP 2008). All colonies of this damselfly are constrained to 
portions of streams not occupied by nonnative predatory fish--that is, 
stream portions above geologic or manmade barriers (e.g., waterfalls, 
steep gradients, dry stream midreaches, or constructed diversions). No 
estimates of population size for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are 
available.
    The blackline Hawaiian damselfly is a moderately-sized and delicate 
subspecies (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 73). It occurs in and along 
the slow sections or pools of mid-reach and headwater sections of 
perennial upland streams and in seep-fed pools along overflow channels 
bordering such streams. The adults measure from 1.4 to 1.8 in (35 to 45 
mm) in length and have a wingspan of 1.7 to 1.9 in (45 to 50 mm). 
Naiads remain concealed and are found in the water under stones or in 
mats of algae (Williams 1936, p. 318; Zimmerman 1948, pp. 371-372).
    The blackline Hawaiian damselfly was known historically from the 
Koolau and Waianae Mountains, from sea level to over 2,400 ft (732 m) 
(Williams 1936, p. 318; Polhemus 1994a, pp. 6-12). Currently, this 
species is found in the lowland wet ecosystem on the windward and 
leeward sides of the Koolau Mountains, in the headwaters and upper 
reaches of 17 streams: Koloa, Kaluanui, Helemano, Poamoho, Kahana, 
Waikane, Waiahole, Waianu, Waiawa, Kaalaea, Waihee, Kahaluu, north 
Halawa, Heeia, Kalihi, Moole, and Maunawili (TNC 2007; D. Polhemus, in 
litt. 2008; R. Wolff, USGS, in litt. 2008; HBMP 2008). Like the crimson 
Hawaiian damselfly, all colonies of the blackline Hawaiian damselfly 
are constrained to portions of streams not occupied by nonnative 
predatory fish--that is, stream portions above geologic or manmade 
barriers (e.g., waterfalls, steep gradients, dry stream midreaches, or 
constructed diversions). Currently, the 17 stream colonies are 
estimated to total 800 to 1,000 individuals, with approximately 50 
individuals per stream (D. Polhemus, in litt. 2008).
    The oceanic Hawaiian damselfly is a comparatively large and robust 
species. The adults measure from 1.8 to 1.9 in (47 to 50 mm) in length 
and have a

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wingspan of 2.0 to 2.2 in (51 to 55 mm). Both sexes exhibit prominent 
patterns including black stripes, but males are bright red in color 
while females are pale green. Immature individuals of this species are 
also large with long grasping legs and dagger-like gills (Polhemus and 
Asquith 1996, p. 77). The oceanic Hawaiian damselfly can be 
distinguished from other Oahu damselfly species by its large size, 
black stripes, and fast flight along flowing sections of streams.
    Individuals of the immature stage of the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly 
are found in swiftly flowing sections of streams, usually amid rocks 
and gravel in stream riffles (stream sections with sufficient gradient 
to create small standing waves) and small cascades on waterfalls 
(Williams 1936, pp. 321-322; Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 106). While 
capable of swimming, the naiads usually crawl among gravel or submerged 
vegetation. Older naiads frequently forage out of the actual stream 
channel and have been observed among wet moss on rocks, and wet rock 
walls and seeps (Williams 1936, pp. 321-323). Adults are very bold and 
strong flyers, and when disturbed frequently fly upward into the forest 
canopy overhanging the stream or waterfall (Williams 1936, p. 323; 
Polhemus 1994b, p. 48).
    Historically, the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly occurred on both the 
leeward and windward sides of the Koolau and Waianae Mountains, and was 
known, but is currently extirpated, from approximately 16 general 
localities, including the Waianae Mountains and all leeward streams of 
the Koolau Mountains (Englund and Polhemus 1994, p. 8). The species now 
currently occupies between 7 and 10 sites above 300 ft (100 m) in 
elevation on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains at Kaaawa, 
Kahaluu, Koloa, and Sacred Falls, in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, 
and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; Polhemus 2007, pp. 237-239; HBMP 
2008). Like the crimson and blackline Hawaiian damselflies, the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly is constrained to portions of streams not occupied 
by nonnative predatory fish--that is, stream portions above geologic or 
manmade barriers (e.g., waterfalls, steep gradients, dry stream 
midreaches, or constructed diversions). No estimates of population size 
for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly are available.

Summary of Factors Affecting the 23 Species Proposed for Listing

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533) and its implementing 
regulations (50 CFR part 424) set forth the procedures for adding 
species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. A species may be determined to be an endangered or threatened 
species due to one or more of the five factors described in section 
4(a)(1) of the Act: (A) The present or threatened destruction, 
modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or manmade 
factors affecting its continued existence. Listing actions may be 
warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly or in 
combination. Each of these factors is discussed below.
    In considering what factors might constitute threats to a species, 
we must look beyond the exposure of the species to a particular factor 
to evaluate whether the species may respond to that factor in a way 
that causes actual impacts to the species. If there is exposure to a 
factor and the species responds negatively, the factor may be a threat 
and, during the status review, we attempt to determine how significant 
a threat it is. The threat is significant if it drives, or contributes 
to, the risk of extinction of the species such that the species 
warrants listing as endangered or threatened as those terms are defined 
in the Act. However, the identification of factors that could impact a 
species negatively may not be sufficient to warrant listing the species 
under the Act. The information must include evidence sufficient to show 
that these factors are operative threats that act on the species to the 
point that the species meets the definition of endangered or threatened 
under the Act. That evidence is discussed below for each of the species 
proposed for listing in this proposed rule.
    If we determine that the level of threat posed to a species by one 
or more of the five listing factors is such that the species meets the 
definition of either endangered or threatened under section 3 of the 
Act, we would then propose that species for listing when resources 
become available to do so. The Act defines an endangered species as 
``in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of 
its range,'' and a threatened species as ``likely to become an 
endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range.'' The threats to each of the 
individual 23 species are summarized in Table 2, and discussed in 
detail below. Factor B (overutilization) is not included in the table, 
as no threats to the species fall under this category. If these species 
are listed under the Act, the final rule will refer readers to the 
proposed rule for the detailed discussion of threats, rather than 
republishing that information in the Federal Register.

Ecosystem Approach

    Each of the species proposed for listing in this proposed rule is 
adversely affected by the threats to the ecosystems on which it 
depends. There is information available on many of the threats that act 
on Hawaiian ecosystems, and for some ecosystems, there is a growing 
body of literature regarding these threats (e.g., non-native ungulates 
and invasive plant species). The best available information on 
ecosystem threats affecting the species therein is discussed below. 
Table 2 identifies the threats to the ecosystems and the individual 
species within those ecosystems that are affected by those threats. 
Information on threats specific to certain species is also discussed 
where necessary and available; however, we acknowledge that we do not 
completely understand all the threats to each species. Scientific 
research directed toward each of these species is limited because of 
their rarity and the generally challenging logistics associated with 
conducting field work in Hawaii (e.g., areas are typically remote, 
difficult to survey in a comprehensive manner, and the target species 
are exceptionally uncommon).

Ecosystem-Scale Threats That Affect the Proposed Species

    The following constitutes a list of ecosystem-scale threats that 
affect the proposed species in all of the seven ecosystems on Oahu:
    (1) Foraging and trampling of native plants by goats (Capra 
hircus), pigs (Sus scrofa) and other ungulates, which results in severe 
erosion of watersheds because these mammals inhabit terrain that is 
often steep and remote (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63). These events 
destabilize soils that support native plant communities, bury or damage 
native plants, and have adverse water quality effects due to runoff 
over exposed soils.
    (2) Disturbance of soils by feral pigs, which creates fertile 
seedbeds for alien plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 65).
    (3) Increased nutrient availability as a result of pigs rooting in 
nitrogen-poor soils, which facilitates the establishment of alien 
weeds. Alien weeds are more adapted to nutrient rich soils than native 
plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63), and rooting activity creates 
open areas in forests allowing alien species to completely replace 
native stands.

[[Page 46371]]

    (4) Ungulate destruction of seeds and seedlings of native plant 
species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 63), which facilitates the 
conversion of disturbed areas from native to nonnative vegetative 
communities.
    (5) Rodent damage to plant propagules, seedlings, or native trees, 
which changes forest composition and structure (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 67).
    (6) Feeding or defoliation of native plants from alien insects, 
which reduces geographic ranges of some species because of damage 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 71);
    (7) Alien insect predation on native insects, which affects 
pollination of native plant species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 71).
    (8) Significant changes in nutrient cycling processes because of 
large numbers of alien invertebrates such as earthworms, ants, slugs, 
isopods, millipedes, and snails, resulting in the changes to the 
composition and structure of plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 73).
    Each of the above threats is discussed in more detail below, and 
summarized in Table 2 below. The most-often cited effects of nonnative 
plants on native plant species are competition and displacement; 
competition may be for water or nutrients, or it may involve 
allelopathy (chemical inhibition of other plants). Alien plants may 
displace native species of plants by preventing their reproduction, 
usually by shading and taking up available sites for seedling 
establishment. Alien plant invasions may also alter entire ecosystems 
by forming monotypic stands, changing fire characteristics of native 
communities, altering soil-water regimes, changing nutrient cycling, or 
encouraging other nonnative organisms (Smith 1995; Vitousek et al. 1987 
in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 74).
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BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment 
of Its Habitat or Range
    The Hawaiian Islands are located over 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from the 
nearest continent. This isolation has allowed the few plants and 
animals that arrived in the Hawaiian Islands to evolve into many highly 
varied and endemic species (species that occur nowhere else in the 
world). The only native terrestrial mammals on the Hawaiian Islands are 
two bat taxa, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), and 
an extinct, unnamed insectivorous bat (Ziegler 2002, p. 245). The 
native plants of the Hawaiian Islands therefore evolved in the absence 
of mammalian predators, browsers, or grazers; many of the native 
species lost unneeded defenses against threats such as mammalian 
predation and competition with aggressive, weedy plant species that are 
typical of mainland environments (Loope 1992, p. 11; Gagne and Cuddihy 
1999, p. 45; Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 3-6). For example, Carlquist (in 
Carlquist and Cole 1974, p. 29) notes that ``Hawaiian plants are 
notably nonpoisonous, free from armament, and free from many 
characteristics thought to be deterrents to herbivores (oils, resins, 
stinging hairs, coarse texture).'' In addition, species restricted to 
highly specialized locations or food sources (e.g., some Hawaiian 
damselflies) are particularly vulnerable to changes (from nonnative 
species, hurricanes, fire, and climate change) in their habitat 
(Carlquist and Cole 1974, pp. 28-29; Loope 1992, pp. 3-6; Stone 1992, 
pp. 88-102).

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Introduced Ungulates

    Introduced mammals have greatly impacted the native vegetation, as 
well as the native fauna, of the Hawaiian Islands. Impacts to the 
native species and ecosystems of Hawaii accelerated following the 
arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778. The Cook expedition and 
subsequent explorers intentionally introduced a European race of pigs 
or boars and other livestock such as goats to serve as food sources for 
seagoing explorers (U.S. Geological Survey 1998, p. 752). The mild 
climate of the islands, combined with the lack of competitors or 
predators, led to the successful establishment of large populations of 
these introduced mammals, to the detriment of native Hawaiian species 
and ecosystems (Cox 1992, pp. 116-117). The presence of introduced 
alien mammals is considered one of the primary factors underlying the 
alteration and degradation of native vegetation and habitats on the 
island of Oahu (Cox 1992, pp. 118-119). Six of the seven ecosystems 
(lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff) and their associated species are currently threatened by the 
destruction or degradation of habitat due to nonnative ungulates 
(hoofed mammals), including pigs (Sus scrofa) and goats (Capra hircus) 
(HBMP 2008). Only the coastal ecosystem on Oahu is not currently 
threatened by nonnative ungulates (S. Perlman, in litt. 2007).
    Pigs have been described as the most pervasive and disruptive 
nonnative influence on the unique native forests of the Hawaiian 
Islands, and are widely recognized as one of the greatest current 
threats to forest ecosystems in Hawaii (Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; 
Anderson and Stone 1993, p. 195). European pigs, introduced to Hawaii 
by Captain James Cook in 1778, hybridized with domesticated Polynesian 
pigs, became feral, and invaded forested areas, especially wet and 
mesic forests and dry areas at high elevations. They are currently 
present on Kauai, Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii. The Hawaii 
Territorial Board of Agriculture and Forestry started a feral pig 
eradication project in the early 1900s that continued through 1958, 
removing 170,000 pigs from forests Statewide (Diong 1982 in Loope 1998, 
pp. 752-753).
    These introduced pigs are extremely destructive and have both 
direct and indirect impacts on native plant communities. While rooting 
in the earth in search of invertebrates and plant material, pigs 
directly impact native plants by disturbing and destroying vegetative 
cover, and trampling plants and seedlings. They may also reduce or 
eliminate plant regeneration by damaging or eating seeds and seedlings. 
Further discussion of predation by nonnative ungulates is under Factor 
C, below. Pigs are a major vector for the establishment and spread of 
competing invasive nonnative plant species, by dispersing plant seeds 
on their hooves and coats as well as through the spread of their feces 
(Diong 1982, pp. 169-170), and by fertilizing the disturbed soil with 
their feces (Matson 1990, p. 245; Siemann et al. 2009, p. 547). Pigs 
feed preferentially on the fruits of many nonnative plants, such as 
Passiflora tarminiana (banana poka) and Psidium cattleianum (strawberry 
guava), spreading the seeds of these invasive species through their 
feces as they travel in search of food. In addition, rooting pigs 
contribute to erosion by clearing vegetation and creating large areas 
of disturbed soil, especially on slopes (Smith 1985, pp. 190, 192, 196, 
200, 204, 230-231; Stone 1985, pp. 254-255, 262-264; Medeiros et al. 
1986, pp. 27-28; Scott et al. 1986, pp. 360-361; Tomich 1986, pp. 120-
126; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 64-65; Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; Loope 
et al. 1991, pp. 1-21; Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 52).
    Goats native to the Middle East and India were also successfully 
introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1700s. Actions to 
control goat populations began in the 1920s (Tomich 1986, pp. 152-153). 
Feral goats now occupy a wide variety of habitats on Oahu, where they 
consume native vegetation, trample roots and seedlings, accelerate 
erosion, and promote the invasion of alien plants that have greater 
competitive abilities (van Riper and van Riper 1982, pp. 34-35; Stone 
1985, p. 261). Goats are able to access, and forage in, extremely 
rugged terrain, and they have a high reproductive capacity (Clarke and 
Cuddihy 1980, pp. C-19, C-20; Culliney 1988, p. 336; Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 64). Because of these factors, goats are believed to have 
completely eliminated some plant species from islands (Atkinson and 
Atkinson 2000, p. 21). Goats can be highly destructive to natural 
vegetation and contribute to erosion by: (1) Eating young trees and 
young shoots of plants before they can become established; (2) creating 
trails that can damage native vegetative cover, destabilize substrate 
and create gullies that convey water; and (3) dislodging stones from 
ledges that can cause rockfalls and landslides that damage vegetation 
below (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 63-64).
    The species proposed for listing dependent on the lowland dry, 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff 
ecosystems are exposed to direct and indirect negative impacts of feral 
ungulates (pigs and goats), which result in the destruction and 
degradation of habitat for these native Oahu species. The effects of 
these nonnative animals include: (1) The destruction of vegetative 
cover; (2) trampling of plants and seedlings; (3) direct consumption of 
native vegetation; (4) soil disturbance; (5) dispersal of alien plant 
seeds on hooves, coats, and through the spread of seeds in feces; and 
(6) the creation of open, disturbed areas conducive to further invasion 
by nonnative pest plant species. All of these impacts lead to the 
subsequent conversion of a plant community dominated by native species 
to one dominated by nonnative species (See ``Habitat Destruction and 
Modification by Nonnative Plants,'' below). In addition, because these 
mammals

[[Page 46377]]

inhabit terrain that is often steep and remote (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 59), foraging and trampling contributes to severe erosion of 
watersheds and degradation of streams. As early as 1900, there was 
increasing concern expressed about the integrity of island watersheds, 
due to effects of ungulates and other factors, leading to establishment 
of a professional forestry program emphasizing soil and water 
conservation (Nelson 1989, p. 3).

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative Plants

    Native vegetation on all of the main Hawaiian Islands has undergone 
extreme alteration because of past and present land management 
practices, including ranching, the deliberate introduction of nonnative 
plants and animals, and agricultural development (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, pp. 27, 58). The original native flora of Hawaii (species that 
were present before humans arrived) consisted of about 1,000 taxa, 89 
percent of which were endemic. Over 800 plant taxa have been introduced 
from outside Hawaii, and nearly 100 of these have become pests (e.g., 
injurious plants) (Smith 1985, p. 180; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 73; 
Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45). Of these 100 nonnative plant species, 
over 50 species have altered the habitat of 20 of the 23 species 
proposed for listing on Oahu. Some of these plants were brought to 
Hawaii by various groups of people, for food or cultural reasons, to 
reforest native forests destroyed by grazing feral and domestic 
animals, for pasture for domestic animals, and for other agricultural 
purposes. Other plants were brought to Hawaii for their potential 
horticultural value (Scott et al. 1986, pp. 361-363; Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 73).
    Nonnative plants adversely impact native habitat in Hawaii, 
including the seven Oahu ecosystems and the 20 plant species identified 
in this proposed rule, by: (1) Modifying the availability of light; (2) 
altering soil-water regimes; (3) modifying nutrient cycling; (4) 
altering fire characteristics of native plant communities (e.g., 
successive fires that burn farther and farther into native habitat, 
destroying native plants and removing habitat for native species by 
altering microclimatic conditions to favor alien species); and (5) 
ultimately, converting native-dominated plant communities to nonnative 
plant communities (Smith 1985, pp. 180-181; Cuddihy and Stone, 1990, p. 
74; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73; Vitousek et al. 1997, p. 6). 
Nonnative plants (and animals) have contributed to the extinction of 
native species in the lowlands of Hawaii and have been a primary cause 
of extinction in upland habitats (Vitousek et al. 1987, in Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 74). The most-often cited effects of nonnative plants on 
native plant species are displacement through competition. Competition 
may be for water or nutrients, or it may involve allelopathy (chemical 
inhibition of other plants) (Smith 1985, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
74). Nonnative plants may also displace native species by preventing 
their reproduction, usually by shading and taking up available sites 
for seedling establishment (Vitousek et al. 1987, in Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 74).
    Alteration of fire regimes clearly represents an ecosystem-level 
change caused by the invasion of nonnative grasses (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 73). The grass life form supports standing dead 
material that burns readily, and grass tissues have large surface/
volume ratios and can dry out quickly (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 
73). The flammability of biological materials is determined primarily 
by their surface/volume ratio and moisture content, and secondarily by 
mineral content and tissue chemistry (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 
73). The finest size classes of material (mainly grasses) ignite and 
spread fires under a broader range of conditions than do woody fuels or 
even surface litter (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73). The grass 
life form allows rapid recovery following fire; there is little above-
ground structural tissue, so almost all new tissue fixes carbon and 
contributes to growth (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73). Grass 
canopies also support a microclimate in which surface temperatures are 
hotter, vapor pressure deficits are larger, and the drying of tissues 
more rapid than in forests or woodlands (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, 
p. 73). Thus, conditions that favor fire are much more frequent in 
grasslands (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73). In summary, nonnative 
plants directly and indirectly affect the plant species proposed for 
listing by modifying or destroying their terrestrial habitat. Below, we 
have organized a list of nonnative plants by their ecosystems, followed 
by a discussion of the specific negative effects of those nonnative 
plants on the proposed species.

Nonnative Plants in the Coastal Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to Bidens amplectens, the only species 
proposed for listing in this proposed rule that inhabits the coastal 
ecosystem on Oahu, include the understory and subcanopy species 
Asystasia gangetica (Chinese violet), Atriplex semibaccata (Australian 
saltbush), Leucaena leucocephala (koa haole), Pluchea indica (Indian 
fleabane), P. carolinensis (sourbush), and Verbesina encelioides 
(golden crown-beard) (DOFAW 2007, pp. 20-22, 54-58; HBMP 2008). 
Nonnative canopy species includes Prosopis pallida (kiawe) (DOFAW 2007, 
pp. 20-22, 54-58; HBMP 2008). In addition, Bidens amplectens is 
threatened by several nonnative grasses such as Cenchrus ciliaris 
(buffelgrass), Chloris barbata (swollen fingergrass), Digitaria 
insularis (sourgrass), and Panicum maximum (guinea grass) in this 
ecosystem (DOFAW 2007, pp. 20-22, 54-58; HBMP 2008). These nonnative 
plant species pose a serious threat (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant 
Species Impacts,'' below) to Bidens amplectens in this ecosystem.

Nonnative Plants in the Lowland Dry Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to Bidens amplectens, Doryopteris 
takeuchii, and Pleomele forbesii, the three species proposed for 
listing in this proposed rule that inhabit the lowland dry ecosystem 
include the understory and subcanopy species Leonotis nepetifolia 
(lion's ear), Passiflora foetida (love-in-a-mist), P. suberosa (huehue 
haole), and Stapelia gigantea (giant toad plant) (HBMP 2006; Perlman 
2007a, p. 3; HBMP 2008). Canopy species include Aleurites moluccana 
(kukui), Grevillea robusta (silk oak), Leucaena leucocephala, Psidium 
cattleianum, P. guajava (common guava), Schinus terebinthifolius 
(Christmas berry), and Syzygium cumini (Java plum) (Perlman 2007a, p. 
7; HBMP 2006; HBMP 2008). In addition, Bidens amplectens, Doryopteris 
takeuchii, and Pleomele forbesii are threatened by several nonnative 
grasses such as Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge), Cenchrus ciliaris, 
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass), Panicum maximum, and Pennisetum 
setaceum (fountain grass) in this ecosystem (HBMP 2006; Perlman 2007a, 
p. 3; HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose a serious threat 
(see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' below) to the three 
species proposed for listing that depend on this ecosystem.

Nonnative Plants in the Lowland Mesic Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to the eight plant species (Cyanea 
calycina, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyrtandra waiolani, Melicope makahae, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, and

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Tetraplasandra lydgatei) proposed for listing in this proposed rule 
that inhabit the lowland mesic ecosystem include the understory and 
subcanopy species Ageratina riparia (Hamakua pamakani), Ardisia 
elliptica (shoebutton ardisia), Blechnum appendiculatum (no common name 
(NCN)), Buddleia asiatica (dog tail), Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse), 
Erigeron karvinskianus (daisy fleabane), Kalanchoe pinnata (air plant), 
Lantana camara (lantana), Passiflora suberosa, Rubus argutus (prickly 
Florida blackberry), and R. rosifolius (thimbleberry) (TNC 1997, pp. 
10, 15; HBMP 2008). Canopy species include Aleurites moluccana, Ficus 
microcarpa (Chinese banyan), Grevillea robusta, Heliocarpus 
popayanensis (moho), Morella faya (firetree), Psidium cattleianum, P. 
guajava, Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree), Schinus 
terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, S. jambos (rose apple), Tecoma stans 
(yellow elder), and Toona ciliata (Australian red cedar). An additional 
threat is the nonnative grass Melinus minutiflora (TNC 1997, p. 15; 
Motley 2005, p. 109; HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose a 
serious threat (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below) to all eight of the species proposed for listing that are 
dependent on this ecosystem.

Nonnative Plants in the Lowland Wet Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to the 14 plant species (Cyanea calycina, 
C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, C. waiolani, Melicope hiiakae, M. makahae, Platydesma cornuta 
var. cornuta, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum oahuense) proposed for listing 
in this proposed rule that inhabit the lowland wet ecosystem include 
the understory and subcanopy species Ageratina riparia, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Buddleia asiatica, Clidemia hirta, Erechtites 
valerianifolia (fireweed), Kalanchoe pinnata, Passiflora suberosa, 
Pterolepis glomerata (NCN), Rubus argutus, R. rosifolius, and 
Sphaeropteris cooperi (Australian tree fern), and the canopy species 
Aleurites moluccana, Ardisia elliptica, Chrysophyllum oliviforme 
(satinleaf), Heliocarpus popayanensis, Leptospermum scoparium (tea 
tree), Morella faya, Pimenta dioica (allspice), Psidium cattleianum, P. 
guajava, and Schinus terebinthifolius (TNC 1997, p. 10; U.S. Army 2006; 
HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses that are threats to the 14 plant species 
proposed for listing in this ecosystem are Andropogon virginicus, 
Axonopus fissifolius (narrow-leaved carpetgrass), Melinus minutiflora, 
Oplismenus hirtellus (basketgrass), Sacciolepis indica (glenwood 
grass), and Urochloa mutica (California grass) (TNC 1997, p. 10; 
Erickson and Puttock 2006, p. 270; U.S. Army 2006). These nonnative 
plant species pose a serious threat (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant 
Species Impacts,'' below) to the 14 plants proposed for listing that 
inhabit this ecosystem.

Nonnative Plants in the Montane Wet Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to Cyanea calycina and Melicope 
christophersenii, proposed for listing in this proposed rule that 
inhabit the montane wet ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy 
species Clidemia hirta and Rubus argutus, and the canopy species 
Psidium cattleianum (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose a 
serious threat (See ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below) to the two proposed species dependent on this ecosystem.

Nonnative Plants in the Dry Cliff Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to the five plant species (Korthasella 
degeneri, Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa) which are proposed for listing in 
this proposed rule and that inhabit the dry cliff ecosystem include the 
understory and subcanopy species Ageratina riparia, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Erigeron karvinskianus, Kalanchoe 
pinnata, Lantana camara, Passiflora suberosa, and Sphaeropteris 
cooperi, and the canopy species Acacia confusa (Formosa koa), Aleurites 
moluccana, Grevillea robusta, Leucaena leucocephala, Melia azederach 
(Chinaberry), Psidium cattleianum, P. guajava, Schinus 
terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, Tecoma stans, and Toona ciliata 
(HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses that are a threat to this ecosystem 
include Digitaria insularis (sourgrass), Ehrharta stipoides (meadow 
ricegrass), Melinus minutiflora, Panicum maximum, and Paspalum 
conjugatum (Hilo grass) (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant species pose 
a serious threat (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts,'' 
below) to the five species proposed for listing that are dependent on 
this ecosystem.

Nonnative Plants in the Wet Cliff Ecosystem

    Nonnative plant threats to the seven plant species (Cyanea 
calycina, C. purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, 
Melicope christophersenii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa) proposed for listing in this proposed rule that 
inhabit the wet cliff ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy 
species Blechnum appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Erechtites 
valerianifolia, Erigeron karvinskianus, Passiflora suberosa, Pterolepis 
glomerata, Rubus argutus, R. rosifolius, and the canopy species Ardisia 
elliptica, Buddleia asiatica, Heliocarpus popayanensis, Psidium 
cattleianum, P. guajava, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Toona ciliata 
(HBMP 2008). Nonnative grasses that are a threat to this ecosystem 
include Axonopus fissifolius, Melinus minutiflora, Oplismenus 
hirtellus, and Paspalum conjugatum (HBMP 2008). These nonnative plant 
species pose a serious threat (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant Species 
Impacts,'' below) to all seven of the proposed plant species dependent 
on this ecosystem.

Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts

    To reiterate, nonnative plants represent a serious and ongoing 
threat to each of the 20 plant species proposed for listing in this 
proposed rule throughout their ranges by destroying and modifying 
habitat. Nonnative plants can adversely impact microhabitat by 
modifying the availability of light and nutrient cycling processes, and 
by altering soil-water regimes. They can also alter fire 
characteristics of native plant habitat, leading to incursions of fire-
tolerant, nonnative plant species in native habitat. Nonnative plants 
outcompete native plants by growing faster, and some may release 
chemicals that inhibit the growth of other plants. By outcompeting 
native plants, nonnative plants convert native-dominated plant 
communities to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
74; Vitousek 1992, pp. 33-35). The following list provides a brief 
description of specific nonnative plants that present a threat to the 
species proposed for listing in this proposed rule because they 
threaten the ecosystems in which the plant species occur.
     Acacia confusa is a tree introduced to Hawaii from Taiwan 
and the Philippine Islands about 1915 by the Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry and the Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Association for use as a 
windbreak (Geesink et al. 1999, p. 641). This species forms monotypic 
stands at lower elevations that prevent establishment of native plants. 
Seeds present in the ground germinate profusely after fire, 
outcompeting native plants (Pacific

[[Page 46379]]

Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) 2008a). This species occurs in dry to 
mesic disturbed habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 640).
     Ageratina riparia is a subshrub that spreads from a 
creeping rootstock (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 255). This species forms 
dense mats, preventing regeneration of native plants (Davis et al. 
1992, p. 427), and occurs in dry, disturbed habitats and mesic and wet 
forests (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 255).
     Aleurites moluccana is a spreading, tall tree native to 
Malesia, and considered a Polynesian introduction to Hawaii. It is now 
a significant component of the mesic valley vegetation from sea level 
to 2,300 ft (700 m) on all the main islands (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
598). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for A. moluccana, 
this species has a high risk of invasiveness or a high risk of becoming 
a serious pest (PIER 2008b). The species tolerates a wide range of soil 
conditions and forms dense thickets, which increases its competitive 
abilities over native plants. This species occurs in mesic valley 
habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 599).
     Andropogon virginicus is a fire-adapted bunch grass with 
seeds that are easily distributed by wind, clothing, vehicles, and 
feral animals (Smith 1989, p. 63). It can outcompete and displace 
native plants. Some research suggests that this species may also 
release allelopathic substances (chemicals that inhibit growth of other 
plants) that dramatically decrease the reestablishment of native plants 
(Rice 1972, p. 752). This species has become dominant in areas 
subjected to natural or human-induced fires (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
77). This species is on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (HAR Title 
4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68), and occurs in disturbed, dry to mesic 
forests and shrubland habitats, especially on ridges (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1497).
     Ardisia elliptica is a branched shrub native to Sri Lanka 
that is now naturalized (i.e., introduced by man from another area, and 
established and reproducing itself in the wild) in Hawaii (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 932-933). This species is shade-tolerant and can rapidly 
form dense, monotypic stands, preventing establishment of other species 
(Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2005). Its fruit are 
attractive to birds, which can then spread the seeds over the 
landscape. According to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for A. 
elliptica, this species has a high risk of invasiveness or a high risk 
of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2008c). This species occurs in mesic 
forest habitats and the lower portions of wet forests (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 933).
     Asystasia gangetica, a perennial herb native to India, 
Malay Peninsula, and Africa, is naturalized in disturbed habitats in 
Hawaii. This species can grow over shrubs and smother all vegetation in 
the herbaceous layer, covering native plants and preventing their 
establishment (Smith 1985, p. 185). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk 
Assessment for A. gangetica, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2009). 
This species occurs in low-elevation, disturbed habitats (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 168).
     Atriplex semibaccata is a drought- and saline-tolerant, 
low-growing shrub, that forms dense spreading mats that displace native 
plants. It was introduced to Hawaii around 1895, as an experimental 
forage grass plant for cattle, and is now naturalized in dry to 
seasonally wet areas (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 535). The seeds are 
attractive to fruit eaters, which may help disperse this plant 
(California Invasive Plant Council 2006). This species occurs in dry to 
seasonally wet habitat areas (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 535).
     Axonopus fissifolius is a pasture grass that forms dense 
mats with tall foliage. This species does well in soils with low 
nitrogen levels, and can outcompete other grasses in wet forests and 
bogs. The species is not subject to any major diseases or insect pests, 
and recovers quickly from fire. The seeds are readily spread by water, 
vehicles, and grazing animals (O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,500-1,502; Cook et 
al. 2005, p. 4). This species occurs in wet pastures, disturbed wet 
forests, and bogs (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,502).
     Blechnum appendiculatum is a fern with fronds to 23 in (60 
cm) long that forms large colonies in closed canopy mesic forests, 
especially on rocky substrate. It occurs in all but the most extreme 
habitats (Palmer 2003, p. 81).
     Buddleia asiatica is a shrub or small tree that can 
tolerate a wide range of habitats, forms dense thickets, and is rapidly 
spreading into wet forest and even lava and cinder substrate areas in 
Hawaii, displacing native vegetation (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 415; PIER 
2008d). This species occurs in lava, cinder fields, and wet forest 
habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 416).
     Cenchrus ciliaris is native to Africa and tropical Asia 
and is naturalized in Hawaii. It is a fire-adapted grass that provides 
fuel for fires and recovers quickly, increasing its cover with each 
succeeding fire (PIER 2007a), because it can reproduce through 
vegetative fragmentation and be dispersed by animals or other vectors, 
increasing its competitive abilities over native plants. This species 
occurs in dry areas and sandy soil, in a variety of habitat types 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,512).
     Chloris barbata, native to Central America, West Indies, 
and South America, is widely naturalized in Hawaii (O'Connor 1999, p. 
1,514). This species first evolved resistance to Group C1/5 herbicides 
in Hawaii in 1987. The species infests roadsides and sugarcane 
plantations, and encroaches on native habitat (WeedScience.com 2009; 
HBMP 2008). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for C. 
barbata, this species has a high risk of invasiveness or a high risk of 
becoming a serious pest (PIER 2008e) because of its ability to 
outcompete native species. This species occurs in dry disturbed areas, 
roadsides, vacant lots, and pastures (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,514).
     Chrysophyllum oliviforme is a small tree native to the 
United States (Florida), West Indies, and Central America, and is 
naturalized in Hawaii (Pennington 1999, p. 1,231; PIER 2006a). Birds 
easily disperse the fleshy fruit, and the species becomes a dominant 
component over native forest (Pennington 1999, p. 1,231; Maui Land and 
Pineapple Company 2002, pp. A 1-4). According to the Hawaii Weed Risk 
Assessment for C. oliviforme, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2006a). 
This species has been documented in low-elevation moist forests.
     Clidemia hirta is a noxious shrub in the Melastomataceae 
family that forms a dense understory, shades out native plants and 
prevents their regeneration, and is considered a significant nonnative 
plant threat (Wagner et al. 1985, p 41; Smith 1989, p. 64). All plants 
in the Melastomataceae family are legally designated ``noxious'' in the 
State of Hawaii (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68). This species has 
been documented in forests and pastures (http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/invweed/weedsHI.html).
     Digitaria insularis is a densely tufted, perennial grass 
that is 3.2 to 5 ft (100 to 150 cm) tall. It is native to the 
neotropics, and is widely naturalized on Hawaiian and other Pacific 
islands, and in Malesia (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,531). It forms dense mats, 
crowding out native species (Motooka et al. 2003a), and occurs in lawns 
and pastures (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,531).
     Ehrharta stipoides is a grass that creates a thick mat in 
which other species cannot regenerate; its seeds are easily dispersed 
by awns (slender, terminal bristle-like process found at the

[[Page 46380]]

spikelette in many grasses) that attach to fur or clothing (U.S. Army 
Garrison 2006, p. 2-1-20). This species has been documented in dry to 
mesic areas between elevations of 330 to 1700 ft (100 to 500 m) 
Erechtites valerianifolia is a tall (up to 8 ft (2.5 m)), widely-
distributed annual herb that produces thousands of wind-dispersed 
seeds, and outcompetes native plants (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 314). This 
species occurs in relatively wet disturbed habitats (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 314).
     Erigeron karvinskianus reproduces and spreads rapidly by 
stem layering and regrowth of broken roots to form dense mats. This 
species crowds out and displaces ground-level plants (Weeds of Blue 
Mountains Bushland 2006), and occurs in moderately wet habitats (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 315).
     Ficus microcarpa is a very large, spreading tree with 
numerous aerial roots that form columnar stems. It is epiphytic and can 
germinate on other trees, eventually strangling its host, and can shade 
out native plants with its broad canopy. Seeds are spread by birds 
(Motooka et al. 2003b). This species occurs in highly disturbed low-
elevation habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 926).
     Grevillea robusta is a large evergreen tree native to 
Australia. Over two million trees were planted in Hawaii between 1919 
and 1959 in an effort to reduce erosion and to provide timber. The 
leaves produce an allelopathic substance that inhibits the 
establishment of all species (Smith 1985, p. 191). This species has 
been documented in dry and moist forests, and open areas.
     Heliocarpus popayanensis is a tree native to Mexico and 
Argentina, planted extensively in Hawaii by foresters beginning in 
1941, and has since escaped into wet forests at low to mid elevations 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,292). The seeds are dispersed by wind, and H. 
popayanensis is becoming a dominant tree in some forest areas on Oahu 
(Smith 1998). The species grows rapidly and spreads readily in 
disturbed wetter mesic forest habitats, where it can outcompete native 
vegetation (Mootka 2003c). This species occurs in disturbed forest 
habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1292).
     Kalanchoe pinnata is a succulent perennial plant with 
hollow stems that can form dense stands that prevent reproduction of 
native species. It can also reproduce by vegetative means at indents 
along the leaf margin (Motooka et al. 2003c). This species occurs in 
low-elevation, dry to mesic, disturbed habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
568).
     Lantana camara was brought to Hawaii as an ornamental 
plant, and is an aggressive, thorny, thicket-forming shrub that is now 
found on all of the main islands (Davis et al. 1992, p. 412; Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 1,320). It forms dense impenetrable stands that negatively 
affect native plants through competition (Mootka 2003d), and occurs in 
mesic forest, dry shrubland, and dry/disturbed low elevation habitats 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1320).
     Leonotis nepetifolia is a coarse annual herb that is 
widely naturalized and forms dense thickets that displace native 
plants. According to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for L. 
nepetifolia, this species has a high risk of invasiveness or a high 
risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2006b). This species occurs in 
low-elevation, dry to occasionally wet, disturbed habitats (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 803).
     Leptospermum scoparium is a shrub or small tree native to 
New Zealand and Australia, which is now widely naturalized in Hawaii. 
It forms thickets that crowd out other plants, and is allelopathic 
(produces chemicals that inhibit growth of other plants) (Smith 1985, 
p. 193)). This species occurs in disturbed, mesic to wet, forest 
habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 963).
     Leucaena leucocephala, a shrub native to the neotropics, 
is now found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands and Midway atoll. It 
is an aggressive competitor that often forms the dominant element of 
the vegetation in low-elevation, dry, disturbed areas (Geesink et al. 
1999, pp. 679-680).
     Melia azedarach is a small, deciduous tree native to 
southwestern Asia that is invading forests, fence lines, and disturbed 
areas in Hawaii. Its fast growth and rapidly spreading thickets make it 
a significant pest plant by shading out and displacing native 
vegetation (University of Florida 2008). Feral pigs and fruit-eating 
birds further distribute the seeds (Stone 1985, pp. 194-195). According 
to the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment for M. azedarach, this species has a 
high risk of invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest 
(PIER 2008f). This species occurs in dry, disturbed habitats (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 918).
     Melinus minutiflora is a spreading, perennial grass that 
forms dense mats that can fuel more intense fires that destroy native 
plants (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 89; O'Connor 1999, p. 1,562). This 
species occurs in dry to mesic habitats, in disturbed and usually open 
areas (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1563).
     Morella faya is an evergreen shrub or small tree that 
forms monotypic stands, has the ability to fix nitrogen, and alters the 
successional ecosystems in areas it invades, displacing native 
vegetation through competition. It is also a prolific fruit producer 
(average of 400,000 fruits per individual shrub or tree per year), and 
the fruit are spread by frugivorous birds and feral pigs (Vitousek 
1990, pp. 8-9; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 931; PIER 2008g). This species is 
on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 
68). The species has been documented in forested habitats (http://www.hawaiiinvasivespecies.org/pests/firetree.html).
     Oplismenus hirtellus is a perennial grass that forms a 
dense groundcover, is sometimes climbing, and roots at the nodes, 
enabling its rapid spread. It also has sticky seeds that attach to 
visiting animals and birds that then carry them to new areas where they 
are deposited, resulting in the spread of this species (O'Connor 1999, 
p. 1,565; Johnson 2005). The species displaces native plants on forest 
floors and trailsides (Motooka 2003e), and occurs in shaded mesic 
valleys, mesic forest, and disturbed wet forest habitats (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1,565).
     Panicum maximum is cultivated as an important forage grass 
throughout the tropics and is naturalized in Hawaii (O'Connor 1999, p. 
1,569). This tall grass produces profuse seeds that are spread by wind, 
birds, and flowing water. This plant is strongly allelopathic (PIER 
2007b), and can form dense stands that exclude native species. It 
regenerates rapidly from underground rhizomes after a fire (PIER 
2007b). This species has been documented in open disturbed areas of 
forests, wastelands, and roadsides (http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/
invweed/weedsHi.html).
     Paspalum conjugatum is a perennial grass that is found in 
wet habitats, and forms a dense ground cover. Its small hairy seeds are 
easily transported on humans and animals or are carried by the wind 
through native forests, where it establishes and displaces native 
vegetation (Tomich 1986, p. 125; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 83; PIER 
2007c; Motooka et al. 2003d). This species occurs in moist to wet 
disturbed habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,576).
     Passiflora foetida is a vine with glandular hairs that 
give the plant a fetid odor. This species is naturalized in Hawaii, and 
grows over and covers low vegetation that prevents or delays 
establishment of native species. Its fruit are eaten and spread by 
birds (Escobar 1999, p. 1,011; GISD 2006). This species occurs in 
disturbed sites and rock outcrop habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,011).

[[Page 46381]]

     Passiflora suberosa has many-seeded purple fruits that are 
dispersed widely by birds. It is an aggressive vine that grows over and 
smothers shrubs, small trees, and ground layer vegetation, and 
sometimes upper canopy layer vegetation (Smith 1985, pp. 191-192). This 
species occurs in grassland, shrubland, open dry forest, mesic forest, 
and exposed ridge habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,014).
     Pennisetum setaceum is a grass that is an aggressive 
colonizer, and outcompetes most native species. This species is also 
fire-adapted and burns swiftly and hot, causing extensive damage to the 
surrounding habitat (O'Connor 1999, p. 1,581). This species occurs in 
dry open places, barren lava flows, and cinder fields (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1,578).
     Pimenta dioica is a tree with sticky grape-like seeds that 
are spread by birds. Widely cultivated, this species was introduced to 
Hawaii in 1885, and is believed to be naturalized on Kauai and perhaps 
on Oahu (Staples and Herbst 2005, p. 427). According to the Hawaii Weed 
Risk Assessment for P. dioica, this species has a high risk of 
invasiveness or a high risk of becoming a serious pest (PIER 2008h). 
The species forms dense thickets, tolerates a wide range of soil 
conditions, and has propagules that survive passage through bird 
digestive systems. These capabilities increase its competitive ability 
over native plants. This species has been documented in dry and moist 
forests up to elevation 3,000 ft.
     Pluchea indica is native to southern Asia, and P. 
carolinensis is native to Mexico, the West Indies, and South America 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 351). These 3- to 6 ft- (1- to 2-m) tall, fast-
growing shrubs form thickets in dry habitats and can tolerate saline 
conditions. They are widespread in Hawaii from coastal areas up to 
almost 3,000 ft (900 m). The seeds are wind-dispersed (Francis 2006). 
The species is adapted to a wide variety of soils and sites, tolerates 
excessively well to poorly drained soil conditions, the full range of 
soil textures, acid and alkaline reactions, salt and salt spray, and 
compaction. It quickly invades burned areas, but being early 
successional, it is soon replaced by other species. These adaptive 
capabilities increase the species' competitive abilities over native 
plants. This species occurs in low-elevation, dry, coastal habitats 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 351).
     Pluchea carolinensis is native to Mexico, the West Indies, 
and northern South America. The species has naturalized in Hawaii, 
usually in relatively dry, coastal areas, but ranging up to 3,000 ft 
(900 m) in mesic to wet forest. The species was first collected on Oahu 
in 1931 (Wagner et al., 1999. p. 351). This fast-growing shrub forms 
thickets in dry habitats. The seeds are wind-dispersed. Its resistance 
to fire depends on the intensity of the fire. It generally regenerates 
from basal shoots. Some biological control agents have been introduced 
but they have not been effective (http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/plu_sym.htm).
     Prosopis pallida was introduced to Hawaii in 1828, and its 
seeds were used as fodder for ranch animals. This species became a 
dominant component of the vegetation in low-elevation, dry, disturbed 
sites, as it is well adapted to dry habitats. It overshadows other 
vegetation and the deep tap roots use all available water. This plant 
fixes nitrogen and can outcompete native species (Geesink et al. 1999, 
pp. 692-693; PIER 2006c). This species occurs in low-elevation, dry, 
disturbed habitats; behind beaches; on raised limestone reefs; on dry 
slopes and bulches; and in degraded dry forest habitats (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 693).
     Psidium cattleianum is a tall shrub or tree that forms 
dense stands in which few other plants can grow, displacing native 
vegetation through competition. The fruit is eaten by pigs and birds 
that disperse the seeds throughout the forest (Smith 1985, p. 200; 
Wagner et al. 1985, p. 24). This species occurs in disturbed, mesic 
forest and wet forest habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 970).
     Psidium guajava is a shrub or tree that forms dense stands 
in disturbed forest. The seeds are spread by feral pigs and alien 
birds, and it can also regenerate from underground parts by suckering 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 972). Seeds are dispersed throughout the 
forest, which facilitates competition with native plants. This species 
occurs in disturbed, dry, mesic and wet, forest habitats (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 972).
     Pterolepis glomerata is a member of the Melastomataceae 
family. The basis for its classification as invasive are the plant's 
germination rates, rapid growth, early maturity, ability of fragments 
to root, possible asexual reproduction, and seed dispersal by birds 
(University of Florida Herbarium 2006). Because of these attributes, it 
displaces native vegetation through competition. This species is on the 
Hawaii State noxious weed list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68). 
This species occurs in disturbed, mesic to wet habitats and trail 
margins (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 913).
     Rubus argutus is a prickly bramble with long, arching 
stems that reproduces both vegetatively and by seed. It readily sprouts 
from underground runners, and is quickly spread by frugivorous birds 
(Tunison 1991, p. 2; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,107; U.S. Army 2006, pp. 
2-1-21, 2-1-22). This species, which displaces native vegetation 
through competition, is on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (HAR 
Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68). This species occurs in mesic to wet 
forest and subalpine grassland habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,107).
     Rubus rosifolius is an erect to trailing shrub that forms 
dense thickets and outcompetes native plant species. It easily 
reproduces from roots left in the ground, and seeds are spread by birds 
and feral animals (GISD 2008a; PIER 2008i). This species occurs in 
disturbed, mesic to wet, forest habitat (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,110).
     Sacciolepis indica is an annual grass that invades 
disturbed and open areas in wet habitats, and outcompetes native 
plants. The seeds are dispersed by sticking to animal fur (University 
of Hawaii 1998). This species occurs in open, wet areas such as 
grasslands, ridge crests, openings in wet forest, and along trails 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1589).
     Schefflera actinophylla is a tree native to Australia and 
New Guinea, and now naturalized in Hawaii (Lowry 1999, p. 232). This 
species is shade tolerant and can spread into undisturbed forests, 
forming dense thickets. Schefflera actinophylla grows epiphytically, 
strangling host trees, and its numerous seeds are readily dispersed by 
birds (PIER 2008j). This species occurs in low-elevation, disturbed, 
mesic habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 232).
     Schinus terebinthifolius forms dense thickets in all 
habitats, and its red berries are attractive to birds (Smith 1989, p. 
63). Schinus seedlings grow very slowly and can survive in dense shade, 
exhibiting vigorous growth when the canopy is opened after a 
disturbance (Brazilian Pepper Task Force 1997). Because of these 
attributes, S. terebinthifolius is able to displace native vegetation 
through competition. This species occurs in disturbed, mesic habitats 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 195).
     Sphaeropteris cooperi is a tree fern native to Australia 
that was brought to Hawaii for use in landscaping (Medeiros et al. 
1992, p. 27). It can achieve high densities in native Hawaiian forests, 
grows up to 1 ft (0.3 m) in height per year (Jones and Clemesha 1976, p 
56), and can displace native species. Understory disturbance by pigs 
facilitates the establishment of this species (Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 
30), and

[[Page 46382]]

it has been known to spread over 7 mi (12 km) through windblown 
dispersal of spores from plant nurseries (Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 29). 
This species has been documented in rain forest, moist forest, and 
openings in wet and moist areas.
     Stapelia gigantea is a succulent, cactus-like plant native 
to tropical Africa and Mozambique (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 241). It can 
compete with native species for space and water in exposed areas. This 
species has been documented in dry forests and open areas.
     Syzygium cumini is a tree that forms dense cover, 
excluding all other species, and prevents the reestablishment of native 
lowland forest plants. The large, black fruit is dispersed by 
frugivorous birds and feral pigs (PIER 2008k). This species occurs in 
mesic valleys and disturbed mesic forest habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 168).
     Syzygium jambos has fruit that are dispersed by birds as 
well as by humans, and possibly by pigs. This tree is detrimental to 
native ecosystems because it does not need disturbance to become 
established, and can germinate and thrive in shade, eventually 
overtopping and replacing native canopy trees (U.S. Army 2006, p. 2-1-
23). This species occurs in low-elevation, mesic to wet sites, 
primarily valleys and occasionally in disturbed, mesic forest habitats 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 975).
     Tecoma stans is a shrub or small tree that can form dense 
stands that inhibit regeneration of native species. Its seeds are wind-
dispersed (PIER 2008l). This species occurs in dry to mesic habitats 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 389).
     Toona ciliata is a fast-growing tree with wind-dispersed 
seeds and an open, spreading crown that overtops and displaces native 
forest (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 920; Koala Native Plants 2005). This 
species occurs in disturbed mesic to wet habitats (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 168).
     Urochloa mutica is a fast growing, perennial grass native 
to Africa. It is considered an aggressive invasive weed of marshes and 
wetlands, forming dense monotypic stands that eliminate any open water 
by layering of its trailing stems (Smith 1985, p. 186; Erickson and 
Puttock 2006, p. 270). The species also forms monotypic stands in 
forest openings, displacing native plants. This species has been 
documented in riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, swamps, and 
disturbed sites (http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/uromut/all.html).
     Verbesina encelioides, a tap-rooted, annual herb native to 
Mexico and the southwestern United States, is naturalized in Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 372). This plant has a number of aggressive 
characteristics that allow it to outcompete native plants, including 
tolerance of a wide range of growing conditions, rapid growth, 
allelopathic effects on other plants, high seed production, and 
dispersal with high germination rates. In addition, it is poisonous to 
livestock (Shluker 2002, pp. 3-4, 7-8). Verbesina has become a 
widespread and aggressive weed on both Midway Atoll and Kure Atoll, 
where it interferes with seabird nesting and inhibits native plant 
growth (Shluker 2002, pp. 3-4, 8). This species has been documented at 
several localities on Oahu, and occurs in dry and disturbed habitats 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 168).

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Fire

    Fire is a relatively new, human-exacerbated threat to native 
species and natural vegetation in Hawaii. The historical fire regime in 
Hawaii was characterized by infrequent, low-severity fires, as few 
natural ignition sources existed (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91; Smith 
and Tunison 1992, pp. 395-397). Natural fuel beds were often 
discontinuous, and rainfall in many areas on most islands was, and is 
moderate to high. Fires inadvertently or intentionally ignited by the 
original Polynesians in Hawaii probably contributed to the initial 
decline of native vegetation in the drier plains and foothills. These 
early settlers practiced slash-and-burn agriculture that created open 
lowland areas suitable for the later colonization of nonnative, fire-
adapted grasses (Kirch 1982, pp. 5-6, 8; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 
30-31). Beginning in the late 18th century, Europeans and Americans 
introduced plants and animals that further degraded native Hawaiian 
ecosystems. Pasturage and ranching, in particular, created highly fire-
prone areas of nonnative grasses and shrubs (D'Antonio and Vitousek 
1992, p. 67). Although fires are infrequent in mountainous regions 
today, extensive fires have occurred in lowland mesic areas, leading to 
grass/fire cycles that convert woodland to grassland (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, p. 77).
    Although Vogl (1969) (in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91) proposed 
that naturally occurring fires, primarily from lightning strikes, have 
been important in the development of the original Hawaiian flora, and 
that many Hawaiian plants might be fire adapted, Mueller-Dombois 
(1981), in Cuddihy and Stone (1990, p. 91), points out that most 
natural vegetation types of Hawaii would not carry fire before the 
introduction of alien grasses. Smith and Tunison (in Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 91) state that native plant fuels typically have low 
flammability. Because of the greater frequency, intensity, and duration 
of fires that have resulted from the introduction of nonnative plants 
(especially grasses), fires are now destructive to native Hawaiian 
ecosystems (Brown and Smith 2000, p. 172), and a single grass-fueled 
fire can kill most native trees and shrubs in the burned area 
(D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 74).
    Fire represents a threat to six of the plant species proposed for 
listing in this proposed rule, Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, 
Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, Pleomele forbesii, and 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa (see Table 2). These six plant species are found 
in the coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, or dry cliff ecosystems. 
Fire can destroy dormant seeds of the six species as well as the plants 
themselves, even in steep or inaccessible areas. Successive fires that 
burn farther and farther into native habitat destroy native plants and 
remove habitat for native species by altering microclimate conditions 
favorable to alien plants. Alien plant species most likely to be spread 
as a consequence of fire are those that produce a high fuel load, are 
adapted to survive and regenerate after fire, and establish rapidly in 
newly burned areas. Grasses (particularly those that produce mats of 
dry material or retain a mass of standing dead leaves) that invade 
native forests and shrublands provide fuels that allow fire to burn 
areas that would not otherwise easily burn (Fujioka and Fujii 1980, in 
Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 93; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-
74; Tunison et al. 2002, p. 122). Native woody plants may recover from 
fire to some degree, but fire tips the competitive balance toward alien 
species (National Park Service 1989, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 93).
    On a post-burn survey at Puuwaawaa on the island of Hawaii, within 
an area of native Diospyros forest with undergrowth of the nonnative 
grass Pennisetum setaceum, Takeuchi noted that ``no regeneration of 
native canopy is occurring within the Puuwaawaa burn area'' (Takeuchi 
1991, p. 2). Takeuchi also stated that ``burn events served to 
accelerate a decline process already in place, compressing into days a 
sequence which would ordinarily have taken decades'' (Takeuchi 1991, p. 
4), and concluded that in addition to increasing the number of fires, 
the nonnative Pennisetum acted to suppress establishment of native 
plants after a

[[Page 46383]]

fire (Takeuchi 1991, p. 6). There have been several recent fires on 
Oahu that have impacted rare or endangered species, including areas 
being proposed as critical habitat in this proposed rule. Between 2004 
and 2005, wildfires burned more than 360 ac (146 ha) in Honouliuli 
Preserve, home to more than 90 rare and endangered plants and animals, 
which is located along the windward side of the Waianae Mountains (The 
Nature Conservancy, in litt. 2005). In 2006, a fire at Kaena Point 
State Park burned 60 ac (24 ha), including portions of two proposed 
critical habitat units, and encroached on endangered plants in Makua 
Military Training Area. In 2007, there was a significant fire at 
Kaukonahua that crossed 12 gulches, eventually encompassing 5,655 ac 
(2,289 ha), and negatively impacted seven endangered plant species. 
Occurrences of three of the species were extirpated as a result of the 
fire. The Kaukonahua fire also provided pathways for nonnative 
ungulates (cattle, goats, and pigs) into previously undisturbed areas, 
and opened up previously densely vegetated areas for growth of the 
invasive grass Panicum maximum (guinea grass), which is also used as a 
food source by cattle and goats. An area infested by guinea grass 
burned, and the grass was observed to generate blades over 2 feet in 
length only 2 weeks after the fire (U.S. Army Garrison 2007, Appendices 
pp. 1-5). In 2009, there were two smaller fires that burned 200 ac (81 
ha) at Manini Pali (Kaena Point State Park) and 3.8 ac (1.5 ha) at 
Makua Cave (at the mouth of Makua Valley). Both of these fires burned 
in currently designated critical habitat, although no individual plants 
were directly affected (U.S. Army Natural Resource Program 2009, 
Appendix 2, 17 pp.). These examples of recent fires illustrate that 
nonnative grass invasion leads to grass/fire cycles that convert native 
vegetation to grassland (D'Antonia and Vitousek 1992, p. 77).

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Hurricanes

    Hurricanes adversely impact native Hawaiian terrestrial habitat, 
including each of the seven Oahu ecosystems and their associated 
species identified in this proposed rule. They do this by destroying 
native vegetation, opening the canopy and thus modifying the 
availability of light, and creating disturbed areas conducive to 
invasion by nonnative pest species (see ``Specific Nonnative Plant 
Species Impacts,'' above) (Asner and Goldstein 1997, p. 148; Harrington 
et al. 1997, pp. 539-540). Canopy gaps allow for the establishment of 
nonnative plant species, which may be present as plants, or as seeds 
incapable of growing under shaded conditions. In addition, hurricanes 
adversely impact native Hawaiian stream habitat by defoliating and 
toppling vegetation, thus loosening the soil around the toppled 
vegetation. Loosened soil, loose vegetation, and other debris can be 
washed into streambeds (by hurricane-induced rain or subsequent rain 
storms), resulting in the scouring of the stream bottoms and channels, 
and catastrophic flooding (Polhemus 1993, 88 pp.). Because many 
Hawaiian plant and animal species, including the 23 species proposed 
for listing as endangered in this proposed rule, persist in low numbers 
and in restricted ranges, natural disasters, such as hurricanes, can be 
particularly devastating (Mitchell et al. 2005, p. 4-3).
    Hurricanes affecting Hawaii were only rarely reported from ships in 
the area from the 1800s until 1949. Between 1950 and 1997, 22 
hurricanes passed near or over the Hawaiian Islands, 5 of which caused 
serious damage (Businger 1998, pp. 1-2). In November 1982, Hurricane 
Iwa struck the Hawaiian Islands, with wind gusts exceeding 100 miles 
per hour (mph) (161 kilometers per hour (kph)), causing extensive 
damage, especially on the islands of Niihau, Kauai, and Oahu (Businger 
1998, pp. 2, 6). Many forest trees were destroyed (Perlman 1992, pp. 1-
9), which opened the canopy and facilitated the invasion of nonnative 
plants (Kitayama and Mueller-Dombois 1995, p. 671). Competition with 
nonnative plants is a threat to each of the 7 ecosystems and the 20 
plant species addressed in this proposed rule, as described in the 
``Specific Nonnative Plant Species Impacts'' section above. In 
September 1992, Hurricane Iniki, a category 4 hurricane with maximum 
sustained wind speeds recorded at 140 mph (225 kph), passed directly 
over the island of Kauai and close to the island of Oahu, causing 
significant damage to areas along Oahu's southwestern coast (Barber's 
Point or Kalaeloa, through Kaena Point) (Blake et al. 2007, p. 20), 
where Bidens amplectens occurs. Biologists have documented hurricane 
damage (e.g., denuded foliage, toppled and uprooted trees and shrubs, 
landslides) to the habitat of six other plant species (Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, 
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, and Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis). Polhemus (1993, pp. 86-87) documented the extirpation of 
the scarlet Kauai damselfly (Megalagrion vagabundum), a species related 
to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies included in 
this listing proposal, from the entire Hanakapiai Stream system on the 
island of Kauai as a result of the impacts of Hurricane Iniki in 1992. 
Damage by future hurricanes could further decrease the remaining 
native-plant dominated habitat areas that support rare plants and 
animals in Oahu ecosystems (Bellingham et al. 2005, p. 681).

Habitat Destruction and Modification Due to Landslides, Rockfalls, 
Flooding, and Drought

    Landslides, rockfalls, and flooding destabilize substrates, damage 
and destroy individual plants, and alter hydrological patterns, which 
result in changes to native plant and animal communities. In the open 
sea near Hawaii, rainfall averages 25 to 30 in (630 to 760 mm) per 
year, yet the islands may receive up to 15 times this amount in some 
places, caused by orographic features (Wagner et al. 1999; adapted from 
Price (1983) and Carlquist (1980), pp. 38-39). During storms, rain may 
fall at 3 in (76 mm) per hour or more, and sometimes may reach nearly 
40 in (1,016 mm) in 24 hours, causing destructive flash-flooding in 
streams and narrow gulches (Wagner et al. 1999; adapted from Price 
(1983) and Carlquist (1980)), pp. 38-39). Due to the steep topography 
of much of the area on Oahu where the species remain, erosion and 
disturbance caused by introduced ungulates exacerbate the potential for 
landslides, rockfalls, or flooding, which in turn threaten native 
plants and some of the damselfly species (see Table 2). For those 
species that occur in small numbers in highly restricted geographic 
areas, such events have the potential to eradicate all individuals of a 
population, or even all populations of a species, resulting in 
extinction.
    Landslides and rockfalls likely adversely impact nine of the 
species addressed in this proposed rule, including Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Melicope 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, and the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, as 
documented in observations by field botanists and surveyors (HBMP 
2008). Monitoring data from the PEP program and the Hawaii Biodiversity 
and Mapping Program (HBMP) suggest that these nine species are 
threatened by landslides or falling rocks, as they are found in 
landscape settings susceptible to these events (e.g., steep slopes and 
cliffs). Since C. kaulantha is known from only

[[Page 46384]]

a few individuals in steep-walled stream valleys, one landslide could 
lead to near extirpation of the species by direct destruction of the 
individual plants, mechanical damage to individual plants that could 
lead to their death, destabilization of the cliff habitat leading to 
additional landslides, and alteration of hydrological patterns (e.g., 
affecting the availability of soil moisture). Landslides can modify and 
destroy riparian and stream habitat by direct physical damage (e.g., 
rocks and debris falling in a stream, mechanical damage to riparian 
vegetation), and create disturbed areas leading to invasion by 
nonnative plants that outcompete the native plants, as well as damage 
or destroy plants used by the crimson and oceanic damselflies for 
perching. Field survey data presented by Bakutis (in litt. 2006c) and 
the PEP Program (2006, p. 51) suggest that flooding is a likely threat 
to two plant species included in this proposed listing, one population 
of Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, located in a narrow gulch, and 
one population of Cyrtandra sessilis, growing near a stream in a narrow 
valley. Intermittent flooding events likely occurred in the stream 
habitats of the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies in 
the past, due to stochastic events such as storms and hurricanes. 
However, the current low numbers of individuals and populations, 
combined with their breeding, life history requirements in stream 
habitats, and reduced ranges of these three Hawaiian damselflies 
increase their vulunerability to the threat of flooding. The impact of 
flooding events may be increased by channelization of stream reaches, 
or degradation of riparian vegetation by feral ungulates. Naiads may be 
washed out of streams into the surrounding terrestrial habitat or 
washed downstream into portions of streams that are occupied by 
nonnative predatory fish. Adults perching on surrounding vegetation may 
be washed into flooded streams and drown.
    The blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies may also 
be affected by temporary habitat loss associated with droughts, which 
are not uncommon in the Hawaiian Islands. Between 1860 and 2002, the 
island of Oahu was affected by 49 periods of drought (Giambelluca et 
al. 1991, pp. 3-4; Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management 2009a 
and 2009b). These drought events often desiccate streams, irrigation 
ditches, and reservoirs; deplete groundwater supplies; and lead to 
forest and brush fires (Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management 
2009a and 2009b). Desiccation of streams, ditches, and reservoirs 
directly removes damselfly hunting and breeding habitat. Drought leads 
to an increase in the number of forest and brush fires (Giambelluca et 
al. 1991, p. v), causing a reduction of native plant cover and habitat 
(D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 77-79), and of plants used by the 
three Hawaiian damselflies for perching and hunting for prey.

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Agriculture and Urban 
Development

    Although we are unaware of any comprehensive, site-by-site 
assessment of wetland loss in Hawaii (Erikson and Puttock 2006, p. 40), 
Dahl (1990, p. 7) estimated that at least 12 percent of lowland to 
upper-elevation wetlands in Hawaii had been converted to non-wetland 
habitat by the 1980s. If only coastal plain (below 1,000 ft (305 m)) 
marshlands and wetlands are considered, it is estimated that 30 percent 
have been converted to agricultural and urban development (E. Kosaka, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in litt. 1990). Historical records show 
these marshlands and wetlands provided habitat for many damselfly 
species, including the blackline, oceanic, and crimson Hawaiian 
damselflies (Polhemus 2007, pp. 233, 237-239; HBMP 2008).
    Although filling of wetlands is regulated by permitting today, the 
loss of riparian or wetland habitats utilized by the blackline and 
crimson Hawaiian damselflies may still occur due to Oahu's population 
growth and development, with concurrent demands on limited developable 
land and water resources (Lester 2007). The State's Commission on Water 
Resource Management recognized the need for a water resource protection 
plan, which is currently under development (Commission on Water 
Resource Management 2010). In addition, marshes have been slowly filled 
and converted to meadow habitat as a result of sedimentation from 
increased storm water runoff from upslope development, the accumulation 
of uncontrolled growth of invasive vegetation, and blockage of 
downslope drainage (Wilson Okamoto & Associates, Inc. 1993, pp. 3-4, 3-
5).
    The threats posed by conversion of wetland and other aquatic 
habitat for agriculture and urban development are ongoing and are 
expected to continue into the future. Hawaii's population has increased 
almost 7 percent in the past 10 years, along with the associated 
increased demands on limited land and water resources (Hawaii 
Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism 2010). These 
modified areas lack the aquatic habitat features that the blackline and 
crimson Hawaiian damselflies require for essential life-history needs, 
such as marshes, sidepools along streams, and slow sections of 
perennial streams, and no longer support populations of these two 
species. Agriculture and urban development have thus contributed to the 
present curtailment of the habitat of these two Hawaiian damselflies, 
and we have no indication that this threat is likely to be 
significantly ameliorated in the near future.

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Stream Diversion

    Stream modifications began with the early Hawaiians who diverted 
water to irrigate taro (kalo, Colocasia esculenta). A taro planter's 
share of water was determined by the amount of labor contributed to the 
construction and maintenance of the ditch, and was not proportional to 
their acreage of flooded terraces. Water rights of others taking water 
from the main stream below the dam had to be respected, and no ditch 
was permitted to divert more than half the flow from a stream. Water 
was withdrawn according to a time schedule, from a few hours at a time 
day or night up to two or three days, and in times of drought, the 
``water boss'' had the right to adjust the sharing of available water 
to meet exigencies (Handy and Handy 1972, pp. 58-59).
    The advent of plantation sugarcane cultivation led to far more 
extensive stream diversions, with the first diversion built in 1856 on 
Kauai (Wilcox 1996, p. 54). The first diversion on Oahu, Oahu Ditch, 
was built in 1902 (Wilcox 1996, p. 65). These systems were designed to 
tap water at upper elevations (above 984 ft (300 m)) by means of a 
concrete weir in the stream (Wilcox 1996, p. 54). All, or most, of the 
low or average flow of the stream was, and often still is, diverted 
into fields or reservoirs, leaving many stream channels completely dry 
(Takasaki et al. 1969, pp. 27-28; Harris et al. 1993, p. 12; Wilcox 
1996, p. 56).
    By the 1930s, water diversions had been developed on all of the 
main Hawaiian Islands, and by 1978, the stream flow in more than half 
the 366 perennial streams in Hawaii had been altered in some manner 
(Brasher 2003, p. 1,055). Some stream diversion systems are extensive, 
such as the Waiahole Ditch on Oahu, built in the early 1900s, which 
diverts water from 37 streams within the ranges of the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic damselflies, on the windward side of

[[Page 46385]]

Oahu to the dry plains on the leeward side of the island via a tunnel 
cut through the Koolau mountain range (Stearns and Vaksvik 1935, pp. 
399-403; Tvedt and Oestigaard 2006, pp. 43-44). Historically, 
damselflies in the genus Megalagrion were a common component of 
Hawaiian streams and wetlands at elevations ranging from sea level to 
the summit of the Koolau Mountains on Oahu. This loss of stream habitat 
may have contributed to the extirpation of populations of the three 
damselflies from lower elevations in the Koolau range (Polhemus 2007, 
pp. 233-234, 238-239).

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Dewatering of Aquifers

    In addition to the diversion of stream water and the resultant 
downstream dewatering, many streams on Oahu have experienced reduced or 
zero surface flow as a result of the dewatering of their source 
aquifers. Often these aquifers, which previously fed the streams, were 
tapped by tunneling or through the injudicious placement of wells 
(Gingerich and Oki 2000, p. 6; Stearns 1985, pp. 291-305). These 
groundwater sources were diverted for both domestic and agricultural 
use, and in some areas have completely depleted nearby stream and 
spring flows. For example, both the bore tunnels and the contour tunnel 
of the Waiahole Ditch system intersect perched aquifers (aquifers above 
the primary ground water table), which subsequently are drained to the 
elevation of the tunnels (Stearns and Vaksvik 1935, pp. 399-406). This 
has reduced stream habitat available to the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic damselflies. Likewise, the boring of the Haiku tunnel on Oahu 
in 1940 caused a 25 percent reduction in the base flow of Kahaluu 
Stream, over 2.5 mi (4 km) away (Takasaki et al. 1969, pp. 31-32), and 
has impacted available habitat for the blackline and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies (HBMP 2008). Many of these aquifers were also the sources 
of springs that contributed flow to Oahu's windward streams; draining 
of these aquifers caused many of the springs to dry up, including some 
over 0.3 mi (0.5 km) away from the bore tunnels (Stearns and Vaksvik 
1935, pp. 379-380).

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Vertical Wells

    Surface flow of streams has also been affected by vertical wells 
drilled in pre-modern times, because the basal aquifer (lowest 
groundwater layer) and alluvial caprock (sediment-deposited harder rock 
layer) through which the lower sections of streams flow can be 
penetrated and hydraulically connected by wells (Gingerich and Oki 
2000, p. 6; Stearns 1940, p. 88). This allows water in aquifers 
normally feeding the stream to be diverted elsewhere underground. 
Dewatering of the streams by tunneling and well placement near or in 
streams was a significant cause of habitat loss, and these effects 
continue today. Historically, for example, there was sufficient surface 
flow in Makaha and Nanakuli Streams on Oahu to support taro loi 
(artificial ponds for taro cultivation) in their lower reaches, but 
this flow disappeared subsequent to construction of vertical wells 
upstream (B. Devick, State of Hawaii, pers. comm. 1995). The 
inadvertent dewatering of streams through the penetration of their 
aquifers (which are normally separated from adjacent waterbearing 
layers by an impermeable layer) by tunneling or through placement of 
vertical wells, caused the loss of blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies habitat, as these species were historically known 
from these areas.

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Stream Channelization

    Stream degradation has been particularly severe on the island of 
Oahu where, by 1978, 58 percent of the perennial streams and banks had 
been channelized (e.g., concrete lined, partially lined, or altered) to 
control flooding (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 24; Brasher 2003, p. 
1,055). These alterations have resulted in an overall 89 percent loss 
of the total stream length island-wide (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 
24; Parrish et al. 1984, p. 83). The channelization of streams creates 
artificial, wide-bottomed stream beds and often results in removal of 
riparian vegetation, which reduces shading, increases substrate 
homogeneity, increases temporal water velocity (increased water flow 
speed during times of higher precipitation including minor and major 
flooding), and causes higher water temperatures (Parrish et al. 1984, 
p. 83; Brasher 2003, p. 1,052). Tests conducted on native aquatic 
species showed that the higher water temperatures in channelized 
streams caused stress, and sometimes death (Parrish et al. 1984, p. 
83). Natural streams meander and are lined with rocks, trees, and 
natural debris, and during times of flooding, jump their banks. 
Channelized streams are straightened and often lack natural 
obstructions, and during times of higher precipitation or flooding, 
facilitate a higher water flow velocity. Hawaiian damselflies are 
largely absent from channelized portions of streams (Polhemus and 
Asquith 1996, p. 24), which has likely contributed to a reduction in 
the historic range of Hawaiian damselfly species. In contrast, 
undisturbed Hawaiian stream systems exhibit a greater amount of riffle 
and pool habitat canopy closure, higher consistent flow velocity, and 
lower water temperatures that are characteristic of streams to which 
the Hawaiian damselflies, in general, are adapted (Brasher 2003, pp. 
1,054-1,057).
    Channelization of streams has not been restricted to lower stream 
reaches. For example, there is extensive channelization of Oahu's 
Kalihi Stream above 1,000 ft (300 m) elevation. Extensive stream 
channelization on Oahu has also contributed to the loss of habitat for 
the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (Englund 1999, 
p. 236; D. Polhemus, in litt. 2008).
    Stream diversion, channelization, dewatering, and vertical wells 
represent serious and ongoing threats to the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies for the following reasons: (1) They reduce 
the amount and distribution of stream habitat available to these 
species; (2) they reduce stream flow, leaving lower elevation stream 
segments completely dry except during storms, or leaving many streams 
completely dry year round, thus reducing or eliminating stream habitat; 
and (3) they indirectly lead to an increase in water temperature that 
results in physiological stress and to the loss of blackline, crimson, 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly naiads. The blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are particularly vulnerable to extinction 
due to such changes (i.e., stream diversion, channelization, and 
dewatering), which is exacerbated by their range and habitat 
constrictions and declines in their population numbers.

Habitat Destruction and Modification by Climate Change

    Climate change will be a particular challenge for biodiversity 
because the introduction and interaction of additional stressors may 
push species beyond their ability to survive (Lovejoy et al. 2005, pp. 
325-326). The synergistic implications of climate change and habitat 
fragmentation are the most threatening facet of climate change for 
biodiversity (Lovejoy et al. 2005, p. 4). The magnitude and intensity 
of the impacts of global climate change and increasing temperatures on 
native Hawaiian ecosystems are unknown. We are not aware of climate 
change studies specifically related to the seven Oahu ecosystems 
described in this proposed rule, or the 23 species proposed for

[[Page 46386]]

listing that are associated with those ecosystems. Based on the best 
available information, climate change impacts could lead to the loss of 
native species that comprise the communities in which the 23 species 
occur (Pounds et al. 1999, p. 611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610; 
Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14,246 and 14,248). In addition, weather 
regime changes (e.g., droughts, floods) will likely result from 
increased annual average temperatures related to more frequent El 
Ni[ntilde]o episodes in Hawaii. These changes may decrease water 
availability and increase the consumptive demand on Oahu's natural 
streams and reservoirs by Oahu's residents (Giambelluca et al. 1991, p. 
v). The effects of increasing temperatures on the aquatic habitat of 
the three damselfly species are not specifically known, but likely 
include the loss of aquatic habitat from reduced stream flow, 
evaporation of standing water, and increased water temperature (Pounds 
et al. 1999, pp. 611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610; Benning et al. 
2002, pp. 14,246 and 14,248).
    Oki (2004, p. 4) has noted long-term evidence of decreased 
precipitation and stream flow on the Hawaiian Islands, based upon 
evidence collected by stream gauging stations. This long-term drying 
trend, coupled with existing ditch diversions and periodic El 
Ni[ntilde]o-caused drying events, has created a pattern of severe and 
persistent stream dewatering events (D. Polhemus, in litt 2008, p. 26). 
Future changes in precipitation and the forecast of those changes are 
highly uncertain because they depend, in part, on how the El 
Ni[ntilde]o-La Ni[ntilde]a weather cycle (a disruption of the ocean 
atmospheric system in the tropical Pacific having important global 
consequences for weather and climate) might change (Hawaii Climate 
Change Action Plan 1998, pp. 2-10).
    The 23 species proposed for listing may be especially vulnerable to 
extinction due to anticipated environmental changes that may result 
from global climate change. Environmental changes that may affect these 
species are expected to include habitat loss or alteration and changes 
in disturbance regimes (e.g., storms and hurricanes), in addition to 
direct physiological stress caused by increased streamwater 
temperatures to which the native Hawaiian damselfly fauna are not 
adapted. The probability of a species going extinct as a result of 
these factors increases when its range is restricted, habitat 
decreases, and population numbers decline (Intergovernmental Panel on 
Climate Change 2007, p. 8). The 23 species have limited environmental 
tolerances, limited ranges, restricted habitat requirements, small 
population sizes, and low numbers of individuals. Therefore, we would 
expect these species to be particularly vulnerable to projected 
environmental impacts that may result from changes in climate, and 
subsequent impacts to their habitats (e.g., Pounds et al. 1999, pp. 
611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610; Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14,246 and 
14,248). We believe changes in environmental conditions that may result 
from climate change may impact these 23 species, and we do not 
anticipate a reduction in this potential threat in the near future.

Summary of Habitat Destruction and Modification

    The threats to the habitats of each of the 23 Oahu species 
addressed in this proposed rule are occurring throughout the entire 
range of each of the species. These threats include introduced 
ungulates, nonnative plants, fire, natural disasters, and climate 
change. In addition, the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies are also threatened by agricultural and urban development, 
stream diversion, stream channelization, and stream dewatering.
    The effects from ungulates are ongoing because ungulates currently 
occur in six of the seven ecosystems on which these species depend. The 
threat posed by introduced ungulates to the species proposed for 
listing that occur in these six ecosystems (see Table 2) is serious 
because they cause: (1) Trampling and grazing that directly impact the 
plant communities, which include the plant species proposed for 
listing, and impact plants in riparian areas used by the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic damselflies for perching, reproduction, and 
hunting for prey; (2) increased soil disturbance, leading to mechanical 
damage to individuals of the plant species proposed for listing, and 
plants in riparian areas used by the damselflies for perching, 
reproduction, and hunting for prey; (3) creation of open, disturbed 
areas conducive to weedy plant invasion and establishment of alien 
plants from dispersed fruits and seeds, which results over time in the 
conversion of a community dominated by native vegetation to one 
dominated by nonnative vegetation (leading to all of the negative 
impacts associated with nonnative plants, listed below); and (4) 
increased watershed erosion and sedimentation, which affects aquatic 
habitats used by the three Hawaiian damselflies. Although plants used 
for perching by damselflies are not necessarily native plants, ungulate 
activity damages or removes all plants near the stream. Damselflies 
depend on plants near the stream for their daily activities, territory 
establishment, reproduction, and hunting prey. These threats are 
expected to continue or increase without ungulate control or 
eradication.
    Nonnative plants represent a serious and ongoing threat to all 20 
plant species being addressed in this proposed rule through habitat 
destruction and modification because they: (1) Adversely impact 
microhabitat by modifying the availability of light; (2) alter soil-
water regimes; (3) modify nutrient cycling processes; (4) alter fire 
characteristics of native plant habitat, leading to incursions of fire-
tolerant nonnative plant species into native habitat; and (5) 
outcompete and possibly directly inhibit the growth of, native plant 
species. Each of these threats can convert native-dominated plant 
communities to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
74; Vitousek 1992, pp. 33-35). This conversion has negative impacts on, 
and threatens, the 20 plant species addressed here.
    The threat from fire to six species in this proposed rule (Bidens 
amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa; see Table 2) is 
a serious and ongoing threat because fire damages and destroys native 
vegetation, including dormant seeds, seedlings, and juvenile and adult 
plants. Many nonnative invasive plants, particularly fire-tolerant 
grasses, can outcompete native plants and inhibit their regeneration 
(D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-74; Tunison et al. 2002, p. 
122). Successive fires that burn farther and farther into native 
habitat destroy native plants and remove habitat for native species by 
altering microclimatic conditions and creating conditions favorable to 
alien plants. The threat from fire is unpredictable but omnipresent in 
ecosystems that have been invaded by nonnative, fire-prone grasses.
    Natural disasters such as hurricanes represent a serious threat to 
7 of the 20 plant species addressed in this proposed rule (Bidens 
amplectens, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. sessilis, Melicope 
christophersenii, M. hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, and 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis), because they open the forest 
canopy, modify available light, and create disturbed areas that are 
conducive to invasion by nonnative pest plants (Asner and Goldstein 
1997, p. 148; Harrington et al. 1997, pp. 346-347). The discussion 
under ``Habitat Destruction and Modification by

[[Page 46387]]

Nonnative Plants'' above provides additional information related to 
canopy gaps, light availability, and the establishment of nonnative 
plant species. In addition, hurricanes threaten the three Hawaiian 
damselfly species in this proposed rule because they alter and cause 
direct damage to streams (Polhemus 1993, pp. 86-87). These impacts can 
be particularly devastating to the seven plant species and three 
Hawaiian damselfly species addressed in this proposed rule because due 
to other threats, they now persist in low numbers or occur in 
restricted ranges, and are therefore less resilient to such 
disturbances. Furthermore, a particularly destructive hurricane holds 
the potential of driving a localized endemic species to extinction in a 
single event. Hurricanes pose an ongoing and ever-present threat, 
because they can occur at any time, although their occurrence is not 
predictable.
    Landslides, rockfalls, and flooding adversely impact ten of the 
species being proposed for listing (Cyanea lanceolata, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Melicope makahae, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
and the blackline, crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) (see Table 
2), by destabilizing substrates, damaging and destroying individual 
plants and damselflies, and altering hydrological patterns. These 
threats result in habitat destruction or modification, and changes to 
native plant and animal communities. Drought threatens all three 
damselfly species being proposed for listing by dessication of streams, 
ditches, and reservoirs, which eliminates damselfly hunting and 
breeding habitat. These threats are significant and have the potential 
to occur at any time, although their incidence is not predictable.
    The threats caused by conversion of wetland and other aquatic 
habitat to agriculture and urban development are ongoing, expected to 
continue into the future, and affect each of the damselflies proposed 
for listing in this proposed rule. Twelve percent of the freshwater 
habitat in Hawaii has already been lost, and 30 percent of all coastal 
plain wetlands in Hawaii have been lost to agriculture and urban 
development (E. Kosaka, in litt. 1990). These modified areas no longer 
support populations of these Hawaiian damselflies. These threats are 
expected to continue in the future.
    Stream diversion, channelization, and dewatering represent serious 
and ongoing threats to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies because they: (1) Reduce the amount and distribution of 
stream habitat; (2) reduce stream flow, which leaves lower elevation 
stream segments either completely dry year round or completely dry 
except during storms, which reduces or eliminates stream habitat; and 
(3) indirectly lead to an increase in water temperature by altering the 
normal hydrograph patterns, which leads to the loss of damselfly naiads 
due to direct physiological stress. The probability of species 
extinction increases when ranges are restricted, the quality and 
quantity of habitat decreases, and population numbers decline. 
Accordingly, the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
are vulnerable to extinction due to such changes in their stream 
habitat.
    The projected effects of global climate change and increasing 
temperatures on the 23 species addressed in this proposed rule are 
related to changes in microclimatic conditions in their habitats. These 
changes may lead to the loss of native species due to direct 
physiological stress, the loss or alteration of habitat, increased 
competition from nonnative species, and changes in disturbance regimes 
(e.g., fire, storms and hurricanes). Because the specific and 
cumulative effects of climate change on these 23 species are presently 
unknown, we are not able to determine the magnitude of this possible 
threat with confidence.

B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

    We are not aware of any threats to the 23 species addressed in this 
proposed rule that would be attributable to overutilization for 
commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes.

C. Disease or Predation

Disease
    We are not aware of any threats to the 23 species addressed in this 
proposed rule that would be attributable to disease.
Predation
    Hawaii's plants and animals evolved in nearly complete isolation 
from continental influences. Successful colonization of these remote 
volcanic islands was infrequent, and many organisms never established 
populations. For example, Hawaii lacks any native ants or conifers, has 
very few bird families, and has only a single native land mammal (Loope 
1998, p. 748). Defenses against mammalian herbivory, such as thorns, 
prickles, and production of toxins, were not needed, and the 
evolutionary pressure for plants to produce or maintain them was 
lacking. Therefore, Hawaiian plants either lost or never developed 
these defenses (Carlquist 1980, p. 173). The native flora and fauna of 
the islands are thus particularly vulnerable to the impacts of 
introduced nonnative species, as discussed below.
Introduced Ungulates
    In addition to the habitat impacts discussed above, ungulates 
threaten the following 18 of the 20 plant species in this proposal by 
trampling and eating individual plants (this information is also 
presented in Table 2): Bidens amplectens (feral pigs and goats), Cyanea 
calycina (feral pigs and goats), C. lanceolata (feral pigs), C. 
purpurellifolia (feral pigs), Cyrtandra gracilis (feral pigs), C. 
kaulantha (feral pigs), C. sessilis (feral pigs), C. waiolani (feral 
pigs), Melicope christophersenii (feral pigs), M. hiiakae (feral pigs), 
M. makahae (feral pigs and goats), Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta 
(feral pigs), P. cornuta var. decurrens (feral pigs and goats), 
Pleomele forbesii (feral pigs and goats), Psychotria hexandra spp. 
oahuensis (feral pigs), Pteralyxia macrocarpa (feral pigs and goats), 
Tetraplasandra lydgatei (feral pigs), and Zanthoxylum oahuense (feral 
pigs). Predation by feral pigs and goats is also a threat to the host 
plants (Nestegis sandwicensis and Sapindus oahuensis) of Korthalsella 
degeneri.
    We have direct evidence of ungulate damage to some of these 
species, but for many, ungulate damage is presumed based on several 
studies conducted in Hawaii and elsewhere. In a study conducted by 
Diong (1982, p. 160) on Maui, feral pigs were observed browsing on 
young shoots, leaves, and fronds of a wide variety of plants, of which 
over 75 percent were endemic species (Diong 1982, p. 160). A stomach 
content analysis in this study showed that 60 percent of the pigs' food 
source consisted of the endemic Cibotium (hapuu, tree fern). Pigs were 
observed to fell plants and remove the bark of the native plant species 
Clermontia, Cibotium, Coprosma, Psychotria, Scaevola, and Hedyotis, 
resulting in larger trees being killed over a few months of repeated 
feeding (Diong 1982, p. 144). A study in Texas conducted by Beach 
(1997, pp. 3-4) revealed that feral pigs spread disease and parasites, 
and that their rooting and wallowing behavior led to spoilage of 
watering holes and loss of soil through leaching and erosion. Rooting 
activities also decreased the survivability of some plant species 
through disruption at root

[[Page 46388]]

level of mature plants and seedlings (Beach 1997, pp. 3-4).
    Feral goats thrive on a variety of food plants, and are 
instrumental in the decline of native vegetation in many areas (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, p. 64). Feral goats trample roots and seedlings, cause 
erosion, and promote the invasion of alien plants. They are able to 
forage in extremely rugged terrain and have a high reproductive 
capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 1980, p. C-20; van Riper and van Riper 
1982, pp. 34-35; Tomich 1986, pp. 153-156; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
64). A study of goat predation on a native Acacia koa forest on the 
island of Hawaii has shown that grazing pressure by goats can cause the 
eventual extinction of Acacia koa because it is unable to reproduce 
(Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 876). If goats are maintained at 
constantly high numbers, mature trees will eventually die, including 
the root systems that support suckers and vegetative reproduction 
(Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 876). Another study at Puuwaawaa on 
the island of Hawaii demonstrated that prior to management actions in 
1985, regeneration of endemic shrubs and trees in goat-grazed areas was 
almost totally lacking, contributing to the invasion of the forest 
understory by exotic grasses and weeds. After the removal of grazing 
animals in 1985, A. koa and Metrosideros spp. seedlings were observed 
germinating by the thousands (HDLNR 2002, p. 52). Based on a comparison 
of fenced and unfenced areas, it is clear that goats can devastate 
native ecosystems (Loope et al. 1988, p. 277). Because goats occur in 6 
of the 7 described ecosystems on Oahu, the results of the studies 
described above suggest that goats can also alter these ecosystems and 
directly damage or destroy native plants.
Rats
    There are three species of introduced rats on the Hawaiian Islands. 
The Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) 
are primarily found in the wild, in dry to wet habitats, while the 
Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is typically found in manmade habitats 
such as urban areas or agricultural fields (Tomich 1986, p. 41). 
Studies of Polynesian rat DNA suggest that they first appeared in the 
Hawaiian Islands along with emigrants from the Marquesas about 400 
A.D., with a second cultural interaction around 1100 A.D. (Ziegler 
2002, p. 315). The black rat and the Norway rat most likely arrived in 
the Hawaiian Islands more recently, as stowaways on ships, sometime in 
the 19th century (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 25).
    Rats occur in all 7 of the Oahu ecosystems, and rat predation 
threatens 5 of the 20 plant species addressed in this proposed rule 
(Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Melicope hiiakae, 
and Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis; see Table 2). Rats impact 
native plants by eating fleshy fruits, seeds, flowers, stems, leaves, 
roots, and other plant parts (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 23), and 
can seriously affect regeneration. They are known to have caused 
declines or even the total elimination of island plant species 
(Campbell and Atkinson 1999, as cited in Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 
24). On the Hawaiian Islands, rats may consume as much as 90 percent of 
the seeds produced by some trees, or, in some cases, prevent the 
regeneration of forest species completely (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 
68-69). Plants with fleshy fruits are particularly susceptible to rat 
predation, including several of the plant genera proposed for listing 
here, for example, the fruits of plants in the bellflower (e.g., Cyanea 
spp.) and African violet (e.g., Cyrtandra spp.) families (Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, pp. 67-69). Research on rats in forests in New Zealand has 
demonstrated that, over time, rats may alter the species composition of 
forested areas (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 68-69).
Nonnative Fish
    Predation by nonnative fish is a serious and ongoing threat to the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. Crimson and 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly naiads occur in standing or seep-fed pools 
and slow-flowing sections of streams, and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly 
naiads occur under stones or mats of moss and algae in streams, where 
they are each vulnerable to predation by nonnative fish. Information 
suggests that Hawaiian damselflies experience limited natural predation 
pressure from the five species of freshwater fish native to Hawaii--
gobies (Gobiidae) and sleepers (Eleotridae) (Ego 1956, p. 24; Kido et 
al. 1993, pp. 43-44; Englund 1999, pp. 236-237). Hawaii's native fishes 
are benthic (bottom) feeders, and stream-dwelling Hawaiian damselfly 
species, including the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies, avoid these areas in preference for shallow side channels, 
sidepools, and higher velocity riffles and seeps (Englund 1999, pp. 
236-237). While fish predation has been an important factor in the 
evolution of behavior in damselfly naiads in continental systems 
(Johnson 1991, p. 8), it can only be speculated that Hawaii's stream-
dwelling damselflies adapted behaviors to avoid the benthic feeding 
habits of native fish species. Additionally, some species of 
damselflies, including some native Hawaiian species, are found only in 
bodies of water without fish, and may have evolved in the absence of 
some fish species (Henrickson 1988, p. 179; McPeek 1990, p. 83).
    Over 70 species of nonnative fish have been introduced into 
Hawaiian freshwater habitats (Devick 1991, p. 190; Englund 1999, p. 
226; Englund and Eldredge 2001, p. 32; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054; Englund 
2004, p. 27; Englund et al. 2007, p. 232), with at least 51 species now 
established (Freshwater Fishes of Hawaii 2008). The initial 
introduction of nonnative fish to Hawaii began with the release of food 
stock species by Asian immigrants at the turn of the 20th century; 
however, the impact of these first introductions on Hawaiian 
damselflies cannot be assessed because they predated the initial 
collection of damselflies in Hawaii (Perkins 1899, pp. 64-76). Between 
1905 and 1922, fish were introduced for biological control of 
mosquitoes, including the mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), sailfin 
molly (Poecilia latipinna), green swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri), 
moonfish (Xiphophorus maculatus), and guppy (Poecilia reticulata) (Van 
Dine 1907, p. 9; Englund 1999, p. 225; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054). By 
1935, some Oahu damselflies were becoming less common, and these 
introduced fish were the suspected cause of their decline (Williams 
1936, p. 313; Zimmerman 1948a, p. 341). From 1946 through 1961, several 
additional nonnative fish were introduced for the purpose of 
controlling nonnative aquatic plants and for recreational fishing 
(Brasher 2003, p. 1,054). During the 1980s, additional nonnative fish 
species were established in Oahu waters, including aggressive predators 
and habitat-altering species such as the channel catfish (Ictalurus 
punctatus), cichlids (e.g., Tilapia spp.), sailfin catfish (Liposarcus 
multiradiatus), top minnows (Limia vittata), and piranha (Serrasalmus 
sp.) (Devick 1991, pp. 189, 191-192; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054; Freshwater 
Fishes of Hawaii 2008). Englund (1999, p. 233) found several of these 
species to be abundant in nearly all lowland Oahu streams and water 
systems, although not all were as capable of colonizing higher 
elevation stream reaches as the introduced poeciliid species.
    Geologic or manmade barriers (e.g., waterfalls, steep gradients, 
dry stream midreaches, or constructed diversions) appear to prevent 
access by nonnative fish species to stream areas above these barriers; 
however, there is still a chance

[[Page 46389]]

of facilitated fish movement. For example, in 2000, a maintenance 
worker introduced Tilapia spp. into ponds located on the grounds of 
Tripler Medical Army Hospital that were upslope from the remaining Oahu 
population of the orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion 
xanthomelas) (R. Englund, Bishop Museum, in litt. 2000). The ponds were 
drained and the Tilapia spp. removed. The importance of their removal 
was underscored by the fact that a large storm caused the ponds to fill 
and overflow downslope into the stream supporting the damselflies soon 
after the Tilapia spp. were removed (Preston et al. 2007, p. 263).
    Current literature indicates that the extirpation of Hawaiian 
damselflies from nearly all of their historical lowland habitat sites 
on Oahu is the result of predation by introduced nonnative fish (Moore 
and Gagne 1982, p. 4; Liebherr and Polhemus 1997, p. 502; Englund 1999, 
pp. 235-237; Brasher 2003, p. 1,055; Englund et al. 2007, p. 215; 
Polhemus 2007, pp. 238-239). The threats posed by continued 
introduction and establishment of nonnative fish in Hawaiian waters, 
and the possible movement of those nonnative species to new streams and 
other aquatic habitat, are ongoing and expected to continue into the 
future. This represents a serious threat to the survival of the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies.
Bullfrogs and Toads
    Currently there are three species of introduced aquatic amphibians 
on the Hawaiian Islands: the North American bullfrog (Rana 
catesbeiana), the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and the Japanese wrinkled 
frog (Rana rugosa). Native to the eastern United States and the Great 
Plains region (Moyle 1973, pp. 18-19; Bury and Whelan 1984, p. 1; Lever 
2003, p. 203), the bullfrog was first introduced to Hawaii in 1899 
(Bryan 1931, pp. 62-63) to help control insects, specifically the 
nonnative Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), a significant pest of 
ornamental plants (Bryan 1931, p. 62). First released on the island of 
Hawaii, bullfrogs have demonstrated great success in establishing new 
populations on all the main islands (Bryan 1931, p. 63; Moyle 1973, p. 
19; USGS 2008, p. 8). This species is flexible in both habitat and food 
requirements (McKeown 1996, pp. 24-27; Bury and Whelan 1984, pp. 3-7; 
Lever 2003, pp. 203-204), and can utilize any water source within its 
temperature range, 60 [deg]F to 75 [deg]F (16 [deg]C to 24 [deg]C) 
(DesertUSA 2008). In other areas outside its native range, the 
bullfrog's primary impact is the elimination of native frog species 
(Moyle 1973, p. 21). Englund et al. (2007, pp. 215, 219) found a strong 
correlation between the presence of bullfrogs and the absence of 
Hawaiian damselflies in their study of streams on all the main Hawaiian 
Islands. Bullfrogs are a threat to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies because they are omnivorous feeders that occur in 
the same habitat as the damselflies on Oahu (McKeown 1996, pp. 24-27; 
Bury and Whelan 1984, pp. 3-7; Lever 2003, pp. 203-204).
    The effects of possible predation by the cane toad and the Japanese 
wrinkled frog on the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies are unknown at this time, and we are not able to determine 
the magnitude or the significance of this potential threat.
Invertebrates
    Predation by nonnative invertebrate pests adversely impacts 13 of 
the plant species (see Table 2) through mechanical damage, destruction 
of plant parts, parasitism, and mortality. Those introduced 
invertebrate pests with the greatest effect on these native plant 
species include at least 14 different species of slugs (Joe 2006, p. 
10), the black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) (Davis 1970, pp. 38-
39), and the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia) (Fukada 1996, 
pp. 1-12; Hawaii Department of Agriculture 2006). The blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are threatened by predation 
by ants (Borror et al. 1989, pp. 737-741).
Slugs
    Predation by nonnative slugs is most likely a threat to individuals 
of the three species of Cyanea (Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, and C. 
purpurellifolia) and the four species of Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra gracilis, 
C. kaulantha, C. sessilis, and C. waiolani) (Joe 2006, p. 10) in this 
proposed rule. On Oahu, slugs have been reported to destroy Cyanea 
calycina and Cyrtandra kaulantha in the wild, and have been observed 
eating leaves and fruit of cultivated individuals of Cyanea (L. 
Mehrhoff, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in litt. 1995; U.S. Army 
Garrison 2005a, pp. 3-34, 3-51). In addition, slugs have damaged 
individuals of Cyrtandra and individuals of other species of Cyanea in 
the wild (Wood et. al. 2001, p. 3; Sailer and Kier 2002, p. 3; PEP 
2007, p. 38; PEP 2008, pp. 23, 49, 52, 53, 57). Little is known about 
predation of certain rare plants by slugs; however, information in the 
U.S. Army's 2005 ``Status Report for the Makua Implementation Plan'' 
indicates that slugs can be a threat to all species of Cyanea (U.S. 
Army Garrison 2005, p. 3-51). Research investigating slug herbivory and 
control methods shows that slug impacts on Cyanea sp. seedlings results 
in up to 80 percent seedling mortality (U.S. Army Garrison 2005a, p. 3-
51). Although we do not have direct evidence of slug predation on the 
three species of Cyanea and four species of Cyrtandra addressed in this 
proposed rule, slugs are found in the ecosystems on Oahu in which these 
plants occur. It is therefore reasonable to assume these plant species 
would be exposed to similar impacts from slug predation.

Black Twig Borer

    The black twig borer is known to infest a wide variety of common 
plant taxa, including native species of Melicope (Davis 1970, p. 39; 
Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program 
2006, p. 1). This insect pest burrows into branches, introduces a 
pathogenic fungus as food for its larvae, and lays its eggs (Davis 
1970, p. 39). Twigs, branches, and entire plants can be damaged or 
killed from an infestation (Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR 
Integrated Pest Management Program 2006, p. 2). On the Hawaiian 
Islands, the black twig borer has many hosts, disperses easily, and is 
probably present at most elevations up to 2,500 ft (762 m) (Howarth 
1985, pp. 152-153). The black twig borer is a likely threat to Melicope 
christophersenii, M. hiiakae, and M. makahae.
Two-Spotted Leafhopper
    The effects of predation by the two-spotted leafhopper have been 
observed on three plant species included in this proposed rule, 
Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum oahuense 
(HBMP 2008). This nonnative insect damages the leaves it feeds on, 
typically causing chlorosis (yellowing due to disrupted chlorophyll 
production) to browning and death of foliage (Hawaii Department of 
Agriculture 2006). The damage to plants can result in the death of 
affected leaves or the whole plant, owing to the combined action of its 
feeding and oviposition behavior (Alyokhin et al. 2004, p. 1). In 
addition to the mechanical damage caused by the feeding process, the 
insect may introduce plant pathogens that lead to eventual plant death 
(Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program 
2006, p. 2). The two-spotted leafhopper is a highly polyphagous insect 
(it feeds on many different types of food). Sixty-eight

[[Page 46390]]

percent of its recorded host plant species in Hawaii are fruit, 
vegetable and ornamental crops, and 22 percent are endemic plants, over 
half of which are rare and endangered (Alyokhin et al. 2004, p. 6). Its 
range is limited to below 4,000 ft (1,219 m) in elevation, unless there 
is a favorable microclimate. While there has been a dramatic reduction 
in the number of two-spotted leafhopper populations in the past few 
years, (possibly due to egg parasitism), this nonnative insect has not 
been eradicated and predation by this nonnative insect remains a threat 
(M. Fukada, Hawaii Department of Agriculture, pers. comm. 2007).
Ants
    Ants are not a natural component of Hawaii's arthropod fauna, and 
native species evolved in the absence of predation pressure from ants. 
Ants can be particularly destructive predators because of their high 
densities, recruitment behavior, aggressiveness, and broad range of 
diet (Reimer 1993, pp. 14, 17-18). The threat of ant predation on the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies is amplified by 
the fact that most ant species have winged reproductive adults (Borror 
et al. 1989, p. 738) and can quickly establish new colonies in 
additional suitable habitats (Staples and Cowie 2001, pp. 53-55). These 
attributes allow some ants to destroy otherwise geographically isolated 
populations of native arthropods (Nafus 1993, pp. 19, 22-23).
    At least 47 species of ants are known to be established on the 
Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii Ants 2008, pp. 1-11), and at least four 
particularly aggressive species, the big-headed ant (Pheidole 
megacephala), the long-legged ant (also known as the yellow crazy ant, 
Anoplolepis gracilipes), Solenopsis papuana (NCN), and Solenopsis 
geminata (NCN) have severely impacted the native insect fauna, likely 
including native damselflies (Zimmerman 1948b, p. 173; Reimer 1993, pp. 
11-13; Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) database 2007). Numerous other 
species of ants are recognized as threats to Hawaii's native 
invertebrates, and an unknown number of new species are established 
every few years (Staples and Cowie 2001, p. 53). Due to their 
preference for drier habitat sites, ants are less likely to occur in 
high densities in the aquatic habitat currently occupied by the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. However, some 
species of ants (e.g., the long-legged ant and Solenopsis pauana) have 
increased their range into this aquatic habitat. Furthermore, the 
presence of ants in nearly all of the lower elevation, historical 
habitat sites may preclude the future recolonization of these areas by 
damselflies, including the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies. Damselfly naiads may be particularly susceptible to ant 
predation while perching on vegetation or rocks when they crawl out of 
the water or seek a terrestrial location for their metamorphosis into 
the adult stage (D. Polhemus, in litt. 2008). Newly emerged adult 
damselflies are also susceptible to predation until their wings have 
sufficiently hardened to permit flight (Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 
4).
    The long-legged ant appeared in Hawaii in 1952, and now occurs on 
Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii (Reimer et al. 1990, p. 42). It inhabits 
low- to mid-elevation (less than 2,000 ft (600 m)) rocky areas of 
moderate rainfall (less than 100 in (250 cm) annually) (Reimer et al. 
1990, p. 42). Direct observations indicate that Hawaiian arthropods are 
susceptible to predation by this species (Hardy 1979, p. 34; Gillespie 
and Reimer 1993, p. 21). Solenopsis papuana is the only abundant, 
aggressive ant that has invaded intact mesic and wet forest from sea 
level to 3,600 ft (1,100 m) on all the main Hawaiian Islands. Colonies 
reach dense populations, and ranges of this species are expanding on 
all islands (Reimer 1993, p. 14). The blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies' historical ranges were from sea level to over 
2,400 ft (732 m) (Williams 1936, p. 318; Englund 1999, pp. 229-230), 
and they are currently found between 80 and 2,500 ft (24 and 762 m) in 
elevation (D. Polhemus, in litt. 2008; Polhemus and Asquith 1996, p. 
77; HBMP 2008). It is likely, based on our knowledge of the expanding 
range of Solenopsis papuana, that it threatens all populations of these 
three Hawaiian damselflies. The rarity or disappearance of the native 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic damselfly species from historical 
observation sites is due to a variety of factors. While there is no 
documentation that conclusively ties the decrease in the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly observations to the 
establishment of nonnative ants in the lowland mesic and lowland wet 
habitats, the presence of ants in these habitats, the knowledge that 
they prey on native invertebrates, and the decline of damselfly 
observations in some areas in these habitats suggest that nonnative 
ants play a role in the decline of some populations of these 
damselflies.

Summary of Disease or Predation

    We are unaware of any information that indicates that disease is a 
threat to the 23 species. We consider predation and parasitism by 
nonnative animal species (pigs, goats, rats, fish, bullfrogs, and 
invertebrates) to pose an ongoing threat to 22 of the 23 species in 
this proposed rule throughout their ranges, and will continue to be so 
in the foreseeable future, for the following reasons:
    (1) Observations and reports have documented that pigs and goats 
browse on and trample 18 of the 20 plant species, and browse on and 
trample the host plants of the other species (see Table 2); other 
studies demonstrate the negative impacts of ungulate browsing and 
trampling on native plant species of the Hawaiian islands (Spatz and 
Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 874; Diong 1982, p. 160; Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 67).
    (2) Nonnative invertebrates and rats cause mechanical damage to 
plants and destruction of plant parts (branches, fruits, seeds), 
affecting 14 of the 20 plant species in this proposed rule (see Table 
2).
    (3) The absence of Hawaiian damselflies (including the blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies), in streams and other 
aquatic habitat on the main Hawaiian Islands is strongly correlated 
with the presence of predatory nonnative fish as documented in numerous 
observations and reports (Englund 1999, p. 237; Englund 2004, p. 27; 
Englund et al. 2007, p. 215), which suggests nonnative predatory fishes 
eliminate native Hawaiian damselflies from these aquatic habitats. 
There are 70 introduced species of nonnative fishes, with over 51 
species established in freshwater habitats on the Hawaiian Islands from 
sea level to over 3,800 ft (1,152 m) in elevation (Devick 1991, p. 190; 
Englund and Eldredge 2001, p. 32; Brasher 2003, p. 1,054; Englund 1999, 
p. 226; Englund 2004, p. 27; Englund et al. 2007, p. 232). Accordingly, 
predation by nonnative fishes is a serious and ongoing threat to the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (See Table 2).
    (4) Damselfly naiads are vulnerable to predation by ants, and the 
ranges of the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
overlap that of particularly aggressive, nonnative, predatory ant 
species that currently occur from sea level to 2,000 ft (610 m) in 
elevation on all of the main Hawaiian Islands. We therefore consider 
the three Hawaiian damselflies in this proposed rule to be threatened 
by predation by these nonnative ants.
    (5) Englund et al. (2007, pp. 215, 219) found a strong correlation 
between the presence of nonnative bullfrogs and the absence of Hawaiian 
damselflies.

[[Page 46391]]

Bullfrogs are reported from riparian habitat on all the main Hawaiian 
Islands, except Kahoolawe and Niihau. Bullfrogs prey on almost anything 
that moves, including a wide variety of insects, invertebrates, and 
vertebrates (McKeown 1996, p. 24). The blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies also use riparian habitat, and are likely 
threatened by predation by bullfrogs.

D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

Inadequate Habitat Protection in Terrestrial Habitat
    Currently, there are no existing Federal, State, or local laws, 
treaties, or regulations that specifically conserve or protect the 23 
species proposed for listing, or adequately address the threats 
described in this proposed rule. Although Hawaii's Plant Extinction 
Prevention Program supports conservation of the plant species by 
securing seeds or cuttings from the rarest and most critically 
endangered native species for propagation, the program is non-
regulatory. Nonnative ungulates pose a major ongoing threat to 19 of 
the 20 plant species and the 3 damselflies through destruction and 
degradation of terrestrial habitat, and through direct predation of 19 
of the 20 plant species. The State of Hawaii provides game mammal 
(feral pigs and goats) hunting opportunities on 12 State-designated 
public hunting areas on the island of Oahu (H.A.R. sec. 13-123; DLNR 
2009, pp. 25-30). The State's management objectives for game animals 
range from maximizing public hunting opportunities (e.g., sustained 
yield) in some areas to removal by State staff, or their designees, in 
other areas (H.A.R. sec. 13-123). Fifteen of the 20 plant species and 
all three damselfly species have populations in areas where terrestrial 
habitat may be managed for game enhancement, and where game populations 
are maintained at certain levels through public hunting (HBMP 2008; 
H.A.R. sec. 13-123). Public hunting areas are not fenced, and game 
mammals have unrestricted access to most areas across the landscape, 
regardless of underlying land use designation. While fences are 
sometimes built to provide protection from game mammals, the current 
number and locations of fences are not adequate to prevent habitat 
destruction and degradation of the terrestrial habitat of 22 of the 23 
species, and direct predation of 19 of the 20 plant species on Oahu.
Inadequate Habitat Protection in Aquatic Habitat
    Existing regulations are inadequate to maintain stream flow year 
round for the different life stages of the three damselflies. In 
Hawaii, instream flow is regulated by establishing standards on a 
stream-by-stream basis. The standards currently in effect represent 
flow conditions in 1988, the year the administrative rules were adopted 
(State Water Code, Haw. Rev. Stat. 174C-71, and Administrative Rules of 
the State Water Code, Title 13, Chapter 169-44-49). The State of Hawaii 
considers all natural flowing surface water (streams, springs, and 
seeps) as State property (Haw. Rev. Stat. 174C), and the HDLNR has 
management responsibility for the aquatic organisms in these waters 
(Haw. Rev. Stat. Annotated, 1988, Title 12; 1992 Cumulative 
Supplement). Accordingly, damselfly populations in all natural flowing 
surface waters are under jurisdiction of the State of Hawaii, 
regardless of property ownership. This includes the blackline, crimson, 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly populations.
    The State of Hawaii manages the use of surface and ground water 
resources through the Commission on Water Resource Management (Water 
Commission), as mandated by the 1987 State Water Code (State Water 
Code, Haw. Rev. Stat. 174, and Administrative Rules of the State Water 
Code, Title 13, Chapters 168 and 169). Because of the complexity of 
establishing Instream Flow Standards (IFS) for approximately 376 
perennial streams, the Water Commission established interim IFS at 
status quo levels in 1987 (Commission on Water Resource Management 
2009). In the Waiahole Ditch Combined Contested Hearing on Oahu (1997-
2006), the Hawaii Supreme Court determined that status quo interim IFS 
were not adequate, and required the Water Commission to reassess the 
IFS for Waiahole Ditch and other streams Statewide (Case No. CCH-OA95-
1). The Water Commission has been gathering information to fulfill this 
requirement since 2006, but no IFS recommendations have been made to 
date (Commission on Water Resource Management 2009).
    In the Hawaii Stream Assessment Report (1990), prepared in 
coordination with the National Park Service, the State Water Commission 
identified high-quality rivers or streams, or portions of rivers or 
streams, that may be placed within a Wild and Scenic River system. This 
report recommended that streams meeting certain criteria be protected 
from further development. However, there is no mechanism within the 
State's Water Code to designate and set aside these streams, or to 
identify and protect stream habitat for Hawaiian damselflies.
    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has regulatory jurisdiction 
under section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) for 
activities that would result in a discharge of dredged or fill material 
into waters of the United States. However, in issuing these permits, 
the COE does not typically establish instream flow standards as a 
matter of policy (U.S. Army 1985, RGL 85-6).
    Because there are currently no Federal, State, or local laws, 
treaties, or regulations that specifically or effectively conserve or 
protect the 23 species, or adequately address the threats from 
nonnative ungulates to the terrestrial habitat of 22 of the 23 species 
and from inadequate maintenance of instream flow for blackline, 
crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly habitat, these threats are 
ongoing and are expected to continue into the future.
Inadequate Protection From Introduction of Nonnative Species
    The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) is the lead State 
agency in protecting Hawaii's agricultural and horticultural 
industries, animal and public health, natural resources and environment 
from the introduction of nonnative, invasive species (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-
10). While there are several State agencies (HDOA, HDLNR, Hawaii 
Department of Health) authorized to prevent the entry of pest species 
into the State, the existing regulations are inadequate for the reasons 
discussed in the sections below.
    In 1995, a partnership, Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species 
(CGAPS), comprised primarily of managers from every major Federal, 
State, county, and private agency and organization involved in invasive 
species work in Hawaii, was formed in an effort to influence policy and 
funding decisions, improve communication, increase collaboration, and 
promote public awareness (CGAPS 2009). This group facilitated the 
formation of the Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC), which was 
created by gubernatorial executive order in 2002, to coordinate local 
initiatives for the prevention and control of invasive species by 
providing policy level direction and planning for the State departments 
responsible for invasive species issues. In 2003, the governor signed 
into law Act 85, which conveys statutory authority to the HISC to 
continue to coordinate approaches among the various State and Federal

[[Page 46392]]

agencies, and international and local initiatives, for the prevention 
and control of invasive species (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-15; HISC 2009a; Haw. 
Rev. Stat. sec. 194-2(a)). Some of the recent priorities for the HISC 
include interagency efforts to control nonnative species such as the 
plants Miconia calvescens (miconia) and Cortaderia sp. (pampas grass), 
coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui), and ants (HISC 2009). In early 
2009, HISC projected that, due to a tighter economy in Hawaii and 
anticipated budget cuts in State funding support of up to 50 percent, 
there will be a serious setback in conservation achievements, and the 
loss of experienced, highly trained staff (HISC 2009b).
Nonnative Aquatic Species
    Existing State and Federal regulatory mechanisms are not adequately 
preventing the introduction of nonnative species to Hawaii via inter-
State and international mechanisms, or intra-State movement of 
nonnative species between islands and watersheds in Hawaii. The 
importation of non-domestic animals, including aquatic species, is 
regulated by a permit system (H.A.R. sec. 4-71) managed through the 
Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA). The HDOA's Board of 
Agriculture maintains lists of non-domestic animals that are prohibited 
from entry, animals with entry restrictions, or those that require a 
permit for import and possession. The HDOA requires a permit to import 
animals, and conditionally approves entry for individual possession, 
businesses (e.g., pet/resale trade, retail sales, food consumption), or 
institutions.
    The Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), within the State's HDLNR, 
manages the aquatic resources of the State (Hawaii DAR 2009), and is 
responsible for conserving, protecting, and enhancing the State's 
renewable resources of aquatic life and habitat (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-13). 
The release of live nonnative fish or other live nonnative aquatic life 
into any waters of the State is prohibited (Haw. Rev. Stat. sec. 187A-
6.5). The DAR has the authority to seize, confiscate, or destroy as a 
public nuisance, any fish or other aquatic life found in any waters of 
the State and whose importation is prohibited or restricted pursuant to 
rules of the HDOA (Section 187A-2 (4 Haw. Rev. Stat. sec. 187A-6.5)). 
State and Federal regulations are in place to prevent the unauthorized 
entry of nonnative aquatic animals such as fish and amphibians into the 
State of Hawaii; however, their intentional or inadvertent introduction 
and movement between islands and between watersheds continues, although 
prohibited (HDOA 2003, pp. 2-12-2-14). However, there is insufficient 
regulatory capacity to adequately enforce such regulations or to 
provide for sufficient inspection services and monitoring, although 
this priority need is recognized (D. Cravalho, Hawaii Department of 
Agriculture, in litt. 2009).
Nonnative Invertebrate Species
    Predation by nonnative invertebrate pests (e.g., slugs, black twig 
borer, two-spotted leafhopper) adversely impacts 13 of the plant 
species (see Table 2). In addition, naiads of the blackline, crimson, 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are vulnerable to predation by ants. 
The decline of damselfly observations and the establishment of ants in 
lowland mesic and lowland wet habitats on Oahu suggest that the 
presence of nonnative ants in these habitats may preclude their 
occupancy by native damselflies (see Factor C. Disease or Predation). 
The prevention and control of introduction of pest species in Hawaii is 
the responsibility of Hawaii State government and Federal agencies, 
along with a few private organizations. Even though these agencies have 
regulations and some controls in place, the introduction and movement 
of nonnative invertebrate pest species between islands and from one 
watershed to the next continues. For example, an average of 20 new 
alien invertebrate species were introduced to Hawaii per year since 
1970, an increase of 25 percent over the previous totals between 1930 
to 1970 (The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii 1992, p. 8).
Nonnative Plant Species
    Nonnative plants destroy and modify habitat throughout the ranges 
of each of the 20 plant species being addressed in this proposed rule. 
As such, they represent a serious and ongoing threat to each of these 
plant species. In addition, nonnative plants have been shown to 
outcompete native plants and convert native-dominated plant communities 
to nonnative plant communities (see ``Habitat Destruction and 
Modification by Nonnative Plants,'' under Factor A, above). The HDOA 
regulates the import of plants into the State from domestic origins 
under Hawaii State law Haw. Rev. Stat. Ch. 150A. While all plants 
require inspection upon entry into the State and must be ``apparently 
free'' of insects and diseases, not all plants require import permits. 
Parcels brought into the State by mail or cargo must be clearly labeled 
as ``plant materials'' or ``agricultural commodities,'' but it is 
unlikely that all of these parcels are inspected or monitored prior to 
delivery in Hawaii. Shipments of plant material into Hawaii must be 
accompanied by an invoice or packing manifest listing the contents and 
quantities of the items imported, but, again, it is unclear if all of 
these shipments are inspected or monitored prior to delivery (HDOA 
2009).
    There are only 12 plant crops that are regulated (H.A.R. 4-70) to 
some degree, including sugarcane and grasses, pineapple and other 
bromeliads, coffee, cruciferous vegetables, orchids, banana, passion 
fruit, pine, coconut, hosts of European corn borer, palms, and hosts of 
Caribbean fruit fly (HDLNR 2003, p. 3-11). The HDOA also maintains the 
State list of noxious weeds, and these plants are restricted from entry 
into the State except by permit from the HDOA's Plant Quarantine 
Branch. Although the State has general guidelines for the importation 
of plants, and regulations are in place regarding the plant crops 
mentioned above, the intentional or inadvertent introduction of 
nonnative plants outside the regulatory process and movement of species 
between islands and from one watershed to the next continues, which 
represents a threat to native flora for the reasons described above. In 
addition, government funding is inadequate to provide for sufficient 
inspection services and monitoring. One study concluded that the plant 
importation laws virtually ensure new invasive plants will be 
introduced via the nursery and ornamental trade, and that outreach 
efforts cannot keep up with the multitude of new invasive plants being 
distributed. The author states the only thing that wide-scale public 
outreach can do in this regard is to let the public know new invasive 
plants are still being sold, and they should ask for noninvasive or 
native plants instead (C. Martin, in litt. 2007, p. 9).
    On the basis of the above information, existing regulatory 
mechanisms do not adequately protect the 23 species being addressed in 
this proposed rule from the threat of new introductions of nonnative 
species, and the continued expansion of nonnative species populations 
on and between islands and watersheds. Nonnative species may prey upon, 
modify or destroy habitat of, or directly compete with one or more of 
the 23 species for food, space, and other necessary resources. Because 
current Federal, State, and local laws, treaties, and regulations are 
inadequate to prevent the introduction of nonnative species from 
outside the State of Hawaii, as well as the spread of nonnative species 
between islands and

[[Page 46393]]

watersheds, the impacts from these introduced threats are ongoing and 
are expected to continue in the foreseeable future.
Summary of Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms
    We consider the threat from inadequate regulatory mechanisms to be 
ongoing, and we expect them to continue into the future, for the 
following reasons:
    (1) The State's current management of nonnative game mammals is 
inadequate to prevent the degradation and destruction of habitat of 22 
of the 23 species (Factor A), and predation of 19 of the 20 plant 
species (Factor C).
    (2) The State Water Code does not provide for permanent or minimum 
IFS for the protection of aquatic ecosystems upon which the damselfly 
species proposed for listing depend, and does not contain a regulatory 
mechanism for identifying and protecting damselfly habitat (Factor A).
    (3) Regulatory requirements under section 404 of the Clean Water 
Act are triggered only for activities that involve a discharge of 
dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. Section 404 
of the Clean Water Act does not protect damselfly habitat or require 
implementation of instream flow requirements (Factor A).
    (4) Existing State and Federal regulatory mechanisms are not 
preventing the introduction into Hawaii or the spread of nonnative 
species between islands and watersheds. Habitat-altering nonnative 
plant species (Factor A) and predation by nonnative animal species 
(Factor C) pose a major ongoing threat to the 23 species being 
addressed in this proposed rule.
    Because existing regulatory mechanisms are inadequate to maintain 
habitat for the 23 species, and to prevent the spread of nonnative 
species, the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms is considered 
to be a serious threat, both now and in the foreseeable future. Each of 
the 20 proposed plant species are threatened by habitat degradation and 
loss by nonnative plants (Factor A), and 19 of the 20 plants are 
threatened by nonnative animals (Factor A and Factor C). The three 
damselflies are threatened by habitat degradation and loss by stream 
channeling, conversion, and similar activities (Factor A), and by 
predation by nonnative fish and ants (Factor C). Therefore, all 23 
species are threatened by the inadequacy of the regulatory mechanisms 
to address habitat degradation and loss, and nonnative species.

E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued Existence

    Other factors threatening some or all of the 23 species include 
small number of populations and small population sizes, human trampling 
as a result of hiking and other activities, loss of host plants, and 
lack of regeneration. Each threat is discussed in detail below, along 
with identification of which species are affected by these threats.
Small Number of Populations and Individuals
    Species that are endemic to single islands are inherently more 
vulnerable to extinction than are widespread species, because of the 
increased risk of genetic bottlenecks; random demographic fluctuations; 
climate change effects; and localized catastrophes such as hurricanes, 
landslides, rockfalls, drought, and disease outbreaks (Pimm et al. 
1988, p. 757; Mangel and Tier 1994, p. 607). These problems are further 
magnified when populations are few and restricted to a very small 
geographic area, and when the number of individuals of each population 
is very small. Populations with these characteristics face an increased 
likelihood of stochastic extinction, due to changes in demography, the 
environment, genetics, or other factors (Gilpin and Soul[eacute] 1986, 
pp. 24-34). Small, isolated populations often exhibit reduced levels of 
genetic variability, which diminishes the species' capacity to adapt 
and respond to environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability 
of long-term persistence (e.g., Barrett and Kohn 1991, p. 4; Newman and 
Pilson 1997, p. 361). The problems associated with small population 
size and vulnerability to random demographic fluctuations or natural 
catastrophes are further magnified by synergistic interactions with 
other threats, such as those discussed above (see discussions under 
Factors A and C).
    Very small plant populations may experience reduced reproductive 
vigor due to ineffective pollination or inbreeding depression. This is 
particularly true for the functionally unisexual plants in this 
proposal like Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, in which staminate 
(male) and pistillate (female) flowers occur on separate individuals. 
Isolated individuals have difficulty achieving natural pollen exchange, 
which decreases the production of viable seed. Populations are also 
impacted by demographic stochasticity, through which populations are 
skewed toward either male or female individuals by chance.
    The following nine plant species in this proposal are threatened by 
limited numbers (e.g., they total fewer than 50 individuals): Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. waiolani, 
Melicope hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense. We 
consider these species threatened by small population size for the 
following reasons:
     Cyanea purpurellifolia is susceptible to reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the low number (18) of individuals remaining 
(DLNR 2005, p. 2). Although highly threatened by feral pigs, none of 
the individuals of this species are protected from ungulate predation 
(PEP 2007, p. 13).
     Cyrtandra gracilis is known only from a single occurrence, 
with six to eight individuals (NTBG Provenance Reports 2002, p. 1 and 
2004, p. 1; PEP 2007a, p. 16).
     The only known wild populations of Cyrtandra kaulantha and 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis are imminently threatened by 
flooding, landslides, and rock falls because of their locations in 
steep gulches (PEP 2006, p. 46, 51; PEP 2007a, p. 25).
     The last confirmed observation of Cyrtandra waiolani in 
the wild was approximately 40 years ago. The tentative identification 
of an individual in the wild as C. waiolani in 2005 cannot be confirmed 
without flowers or fruit. In addition, there are no tissues, 
propagules, or seeds in storage or propagation that have positively 
been identified (PEP 2007a, p. 19; A. Bakutis, in litt. 2008).
     Melicope hiiakae is susceptible to reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the lack of pollination and seed predation (NTBG Report 
2007, p. 4; S. Perlman, in litt. 2007b).
     Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta individuals are widely 
scattered in the Koolau Mountains, and are susceptible to reduced 
reproductive vigor (HBMP 2008).
     The range of known occurrences of Tetraplasandra lydgatei 
has been reduced from 10 mi (16 km) to 2 mi (3 km) since 2005, and 
consists of 2 occurrences totaling 8 individuals (HBMP 2008). These 
individuals are showing a decline in health (A. Bakutis, in litt. 
2008).
     Botanists have observed a steady decline in the numbers of 
individuals of Zanthoxylum oahuense over the last 9 years. This species 
is also susceptible to infestation by the two-spotted leafhopper (B. 
Garnett and J. Obata, in litt. 1999).

[[Page 46394]]

    The blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are 
threatened by limited numbers. Jordan et al. (2007, p. 247) conducted a 
genetic and comparative phylogeography analysis (study of historical 
processes responsible for genetic divergence within a species) of four 
Hawaiian Megalagrion species, including Pacific Hawaiian damselfly, an 
endangered species (June 24, 2010; 75 FR 35990), and the orangeblack 
Hawaiian damselfy, a candidate species (November 9, 2009; 74 FR 57804). 
This analysis demonstrated Megalagrion populations with low genetic 
diversity are at greater risk of decline and extinction than those with 
high genetic diversity. The authors found that low genetic diversity 
was observed in populations known to be bottlenecked or relictual 
(groups of animals or plants that exist as a remnant of a formerly 
widely distributed group), including Oahu and Maui populations of 
orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly and Pacific Hawaiian damselfly. Although 
this study did not include an analysis of the blackline, crimson, or 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, given that these five species have 
similar habitat, breeding, and life-history requirements, are related 
phylogenetically (same genus), and have low numbers of populations and 
individuals, it is reasonable to assume that populations of the 
blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies (each known from 
fewer than 20 populations) are also at great risk of decline and 
extinction.
Human Trampling and Hiking
    Visitors on foot, horseback, and motorbikes may threaten Cyanea 
calycina directly due to trampling and other direct damage, and 
indirectly due to being a source of fire ignition in areas in the 
southern Waianae Mountains (TNC 1997, p. 10). Human impacts, such as 
trampling by hikers, has been documented as a threat to C. calycina in 
the northern Waianae Mountains, between Kaala and Puu Kalena summits 
(Wood, in litt. 2001). The largest known population of Cyrtandra 
sessilis is located along a popular hiking trail in the Koolau 
Mountains, and individuals climbing and hiking off the established 
trail to visit this occurrence could trample individual plants and 
contribute to soil compaction and erosion, preventing growth and 
establishment of seedlings (Bakutis 2008a). This type of activity has 
been observed with other native species (Wood, in litt. 2001; Hawaii 
Rare Plant Restoration Group 2007, p. 2). Doryopteris takeuchii occurs 
on the slopes of Diamond Head crater, a popular location for visitation 
by tour groups and hikers (HBMP 2008). Individuals leaving established 
trails will inadvertently trample plants and contribute to erosion of 
the steep hillsides where the plants are found. Field biologists have 
also observed trampling of vegetation near populations of Melicope 
hiiakae in the Koolau Mountains, suggesting that hikers could also be a 
threat to this species (Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group 2007, p. 
2).
Loss of Host Plants and Loss of Regeneration
    One species in this proposal, Korthalsella degeneri, is an obligate 
parasite on two native host plants, Sapindus oahuensis and Nestegis 
sandwicensis, which occur in the dry cliff ecosystem of the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu. Introduced ungulates are a threat to the host 
plants, because of trampling and topsoil disruption, leading to erosion 
and the establishment and spread of nonnative plants (Factor A). 
Nonnative plants are a threat to K. degeneri, because they: (1) Degrade 
habitat and outcompete native plants; (2) can increase the intensity, 
extent, and frequency of fire, converting native shrubland and forest 
to land dominated by alien grasses; and (3) may cause the loss of the 
native host plants upon which K. degeneri depends (Factor A). In 
addition, the host plants are at risk of predation by feral ungulates, 
although ungulates are unlikely to be a direct threat to K. degeneri 
(Factor C), because of its parasitic characteristics.
    Lack of regeneration or low levels of regeneration (i.e., 
reproduction) in the wild has been documented, and represents a threat 
to, Melicope makahae and Pleomele forbesii (HBMP 2008; J. Lau, in litt. 
2001). There are four scattered populations of Melicope makahae in the 
Waianae Mountains. Two of these populations are at risk of extirpation 
because only one adult plant has been observed at one location and one 
adult plant and a single juvenile plant have been observed at the 
second location. There are 19 populations of P. forbesii in the Waianae 
Mountains, and only one population in the Koolau Mountains. The Koolau 
population is at risk of extirpation because of very few (if any) 
seedlings or juvenile plants have been observed, which indicates a lack 
of reproduction.
Summary of Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued 
Existence
    We consider the limited numbers of populations and few (less than 
50) individuals to be serious and ongoing threat to at least nine plant 
species in this proposed rule because: (1) These species may experience 
reduced reproductive vigor due to ineffective pollination or inbreeding 
depression; (2) they may experience reduced levels of genetic 
variability leading to diminished capacity to adapt and respond to 
environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of long-term 
persistence; and (3) a single catastrophic event may result in 
extirpation of remaining populations and extinction of the species. 
This threat applies to the entire range of each species.
    The threat to the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies from limited numbers of populations and individuals is 
ongoing and is expected to continue into the future because: (1) These 
species may experience reduced reproductive vigor due to inbreeding 
depression; (2) they may experience reduced levels of genetic 
variability leading to diminished capacity to adapt and respond to 
environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of long-term 
persistence; (3) a single catastrophic event (e.g., hurricane, 
landslide) may result in extirpation of remaining populations and 
extinction of these species; and (4) species with few known locations, 
such as the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, are 
less resilient to threats that might otherwise have a relatively minor 
impact on widely distributed species. For example, the reduced 
availability of breeding habitat or an increase in predation of naiads 
that might be absorbed in widely distributed species could result in a 
significant decrease in survivorship or reproduction of a species with 
limited distribution. The limited distribution of these three species 
thus magnifies the severity of the impact of the other threats 
discussed in this proposed rule.
    In addition, the threat to Cyanea calycina, Cyrtandra sessilis, 
Doryopteris takeuchii, and Melicope hiiakae from human activities 
(e.g., trampling and hiking) is ongoing and expected to continue into 
the future because populations of all of these species are located near 
hiking trails or in areas used for recreational activities and the 
effect of these activities could lead to injury and death of individual 
plants.
    The threat to Korthalsella degeneri from loss of its host plants is 
ongoing and expected to continue into the future because threats to its 
host plants from nonnative plants and feral ungulates are uncontrolled. 
Finally, we consider the threat to Melicope makahae and Pleomele 
forbesii from lack of regeneration to be ongoing and expected to 
continue into the future because, with their small numbers in the wild, 
any

[[Page 46395]]

competition from nonnative plants or habitat modification or predation 
by ungulates could lead to the extirpation of these species.

Proposed Listing Determination for 23 Species

    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding threats to each of the 23 Oahu species. 
We find that all of these species face threats, which are ongoing and 
expected to continue into the future throughout their ranges, from the 
present destruction and modification of their habitats, primarily from 
feral ungulates and nonnative plants. Six of these species (Bidens 
amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Doryopteris takeuchii, Korthalsella 
degeneri, Pleomele forbesii, and Pteralyxia macrocarpa) are threatened 
by habitat destruction and modification from fire, and 14 species 
(Bidens amplectens, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, 
M. makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, P. cornuta var. decurrens, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, and the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) are threatened by the destruction and 
modification of their habitats from hurricanes, landslides, rockfalls, 
and flooding. In addition, we are concerned about the effects of 
projected climate change, particularly rising temperatures, but 
recognize there is limited information on the exact nature of impacts 
from climate change (Factor A). There is a serious threat of widespread 
impacts of predation and herbivory on 19 of the 20 plant species (all 
plant species except Doryopteris takeuchii) by nonnative pigs, goats, 
rats, and invertebrates; and likely by predation on the three 
damselflies (blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies) by 
nonnative fish, bullfrogs and ants (Factor C). The inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms (e.g., inadequate protection of habitat 
and inadequate protection from the introduction of nonnative species) 
poses a current and ongoing threat to all 23 species (Factor D). There 
are current and ongoing threats to nine plant species (Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. waiolani, 
Melicope hiiakae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense) and 
the three damselflies due to factors associated with small numbers of 
populations and individuals (Factor E); to Melicope makahae and 
Pleomele forbesii from the lack of regeneration (Factor E); to Cyanea 
calycina, Cyrtandra sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, and Melicope 
hiiakae from trampling (Factor E); and to Korthalsella degeneri from 
the loss of native host plants (Factor E) (see Table 2). In addition, 
the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are threatened 
by habitat degradation and loss due to agriculture and urban 
development, by stream diversion and channelization, and by dewatering 
of aquifers (Factor A). These threats are exacerbated by these species' 
inherent vulnerability to extinction from stochastic events at any time 
because of their endemism, small numbers of individuals and 
populations, and restricted habitats.
    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range'' and a threatened species as any species that is ``likely to 
become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout 
all or a significant portion of its range.'' We find that each of these 
endemic species is presently in danger of extinction throughout its 
entire range, based on the immediacy, severity, and scope of the 
threats described above. Therefore, on the basis of the best available 
scientific and commercial information, we propose listing the following 
23 species as endangered in accordance with section 3(6) of the Act: 
the plants Bidens amplectens, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, Doryopteris takeuchii, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma cornuta 
var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, Zanthoxylum oahuense, 
and the damselflies Megalagrion leptodemas, Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum, and Megalagrion oceanicum.
    Under the Act and our implementing regulations, a species may 
warrant listing if it is endangered or threatened throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range. Each of the 23 endemic Oahu species 
proposed for listing in this proposed rule is highly restricted in its 
range, and the threats occur throughout its range. Therefore, we 
assessed the status of each species throughout its entire range. In 
each case, the threats to the survival of these species occur 
throughout the species' range and are not restricted to any particular 
portion of that range. Accordingly, our assessment and proposed 
determination applies to each species throughout its entire range.
Available Conservation Measures
    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
activities. Recognition through listing results in public awareness and 
conservation by Federal, State, and local agencies; private 
organizations; and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection measures required of Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities involving listed animals and 
plants are discussed, in part, below.
    The primary purpose of the Act is the conservation of endangered 
and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The 
ultimate goal of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these 
listed species, so that they no longer need the protective measures of 
the Act. Subsection 4(f) of the Act requires the Service to develop and 
implement recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species unless it would not promote the conservation of the 
species. The recovery planning process involves the identification of 
actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the species' decline by 
addressing the threats to its survival and recovery. The goal of this 
process is to restore listed species to a point where they are secure, 
self-sustaining, and functioning components of their ecosystems.
    Recovery planning includes the development of a recovery outline 
shortly after a species is listed, preparation of a draft and final 
recovery plan, and revisions to the plan as significant new information 
becomes available. The recovery outline guides the immediate 
implementation of urgent recovery actions and describes the process to 
be used to develop a recovery plan. The recovery plan identifies site-
specific management actions that will achieve recovery of the species, 
measurable criteria that determine when a species may be downlisted or 
delisted, and methods for monitoring recovery progress. Recovery plans 
also establish a framework for agencies to coordinate their recovery 
efforts and provide estimates of the cost of implementing recovery 
tasks. Recovery teams are often established to develop recovery plans. 
When completed, the recovery outlines, draft recovery plans, and the 
final

[[Page 46396]]

recovery plans will be available from our Web site (http://www.fws.gov/endangered), or from our Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).
    Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the 
participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal 
agencies, States, non-governmental organizations, businesses, and 
private landowners. Examples of recovery actions include habitat 
restoration (e.g., restoration of native vegetation), research, captive 
propagation and reintroduction, and outreach and education. The 
recovery of many listed species cannot be accomplished solely on 
Federal lands because their range may occur primarily or solely on non-
Federal lands. To achieve recovery of these species requires 
cooperative conservation efforts on private and State lands.
    If these species are listed, funding for recovery actions will be 
available from a variety of sources, including Federal budgets, State 
programs, and cost share grants for non-Federal landowners, the 
academic community, and non-governmental organizations. In addition, 
pursuant to section 6 of the Act, the State of Hawaii would be eligible 
for Federal funds to implement management actions that promote the 
protection and recovery of the 23 species proposed for listing. 
Information on our grant programs that are available to aid species 
recovery can be found at: http://www.fws.gov/grants.
    Although the 23 species are only proposed for listing under the Act 
at this time, please let us know if you are interested in participating 
in recovery efforts for these species in the event they are listed. 
Additionally, we invite you to submit any new information on these 
species whenever it becomes available and any information you may have 
for recovery planning purposes (see ADDRESSES).
    Section 7(a) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies to 
evaluate their actions with respect to any species that is proposed or 
listed as endangered or threatened with respect to its critical 
habitat, if any is designated. Regulations implementing this 
interagency cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR 
part 402. Section 7(a)(1) of the Act mandates that all Federal agencies 
shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the 
Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species listed pursuant to section 4 of the Act. Section 
7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities 
they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of a listed species or result in destruction or 
adverse modification of critical habitat. If a Federal action may 
affect the continued existence of a listed species or its critical 
habitat, the responsible Federal agency must enter into consultation 
with the Service.
    For the 23 plants and animals proposed for listing as endangered 
species in this proposed rule, Federal agency actions that may require 
consultation as described in the preceding paragraph include, but are 
not limited to, actions within the jurisdiction of the Natural 
Resources Conservation Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and branches of the Department of 
Defense (DOD). Examples of these types of actions include activities 
funded or authorized under the Farm Bill Program, Environmental Quality 
Incentives Program, Ground and Surface Water Conservation Program, 
Clean Water Act, Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, and DOD 
construction activities related to training or other military missions.
    The Act and its implementing regulations set forth a series of 
general prohibitions and exceptions that apply to all endangered 
wildlife and plants. The prohibitions, codified at 50 CFR 17.21 for 
wildlife and 17.61 for plants, apply. These prohibitions, in part, make 
it illegal for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United 
States to take (includes harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, 
kill, trap, capture, or collect; or to attempt any of these), import, 
export, ship in interstate commerce in the course of commercial 
activity, or sell or offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce 
any listed wildlife species. It is also illegal to possess, sell, 
deliver, carry, transport, or ship any such wildlife that has been 
taken illegally. In addition, for plants listed as endangered, the 
prohibitions include import or export, malicious damage or destruction 
on areas under Federal jurisdiction, and the removal, cutting, digging 
up, or damaging or destroying of such plants in knowing violation of 
any State law or regulation, including State criminal trespass law. 
Certain exceptions to the prohibitions apply to agents of the Service 
and State conservation agencies.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving threatened or endangered wildlife and plant species under 
certain circumstances. Regulations governing permits are codified at 50 
CFR 17.22 and 17.62 for endangered wildlife and plants, respectively. 
With regard to endangered wildlife, a permit must be issued for the 
following purposes: for scientific purposes, to enhance the propagation 
or survival of the species, and for incidental take in connection with 
otherwise lawful activities. With regard to endangered plants, a permit 
must be issued for the following purposes: for scientific purposes or 
for the enhancement of propagation or survival. Requests for copies of 
the regulations regarding listed species and inquiries about 
prohibitions and permits may be addressed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Ecological Services, Eastside Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th 
Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181 (telephone 503-231-6158; facsimile 503-
231-6243).
    It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 
1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at 
the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not 
constitute a violation of section 9 of the Act. The intent of this 
policy is to increase public awareness of the effect of a proposed 
listing on proposed and ongoing activities within the range of species 
proposed for listing. The following activities could potentially result 
in a violation of section 9 of the Act; this list is not comprehensive:
    (1) Unauthorized collecting, handling, possessing, selling, 
delivering, carrying, or transporting of the species, including import 
or export across State lines and international boundaries, except for 
properly documented antique specimens of these taxa at least 100 years 
old, as defined by section 10(h)(1) of the Act.
    (2) Introduction of nonnative species that compete with or prey 
upon the 23 species, such as the introduction of competing, nonnative 
plants or animals to the State of Hawaii.
    (3) The unauthorized release of biological control agents that 
attack any life stage of these 23 species.
    (4) Unauthorized modification of the channel or water flow of any 
stream or removal or destruction of emergent aquatic vegetation in any 
body of water in which the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies are known to occur.
    (5) Unauthorized discharge of chemicals or fill material into any 
waters in which the blackline, crimson, and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies are known to occur.
    Questions regarding whether specific activities would constitute a 
violation of section 9 of the Act should be directed to the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). 
Requests for copies of the regulations concerning listed animals

[[Page 46397]]

and general inquiries regarding prohibitions and permits may be 
addressed to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species 
Permits, Ecological Services, Eastside Federal Complex, 911 NE. 11th 
Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181 (telephone 503-231-6158; facsimile 503-
231-6243).
    If the 23 species are listed under the Act, the State of Hawaii's 
endangered species law (Haw. Rev. Stat. sec.195D 1-32) will be 
automatically invoked and provide supplemental protection, including 
prohibiting take of these species and encouraging conservation by State 
government agencies. Further, the State may enter into agreements with 
Federal agencies to administer and manage any area required for the 
conservation, management, enhancement, or protection of endangered 
species (Haw. Rev. Stat. sec. 195D-5). Funds for these activities could 
be made available under section 6 of the Act (Cooperation with the 
States). Thus, the Federal protection afforded to these species by 
listing them as endangered species will be reinforced and supplemented 
by protection under State law.
Proposed Taxonomic Name Changes for 10 Plant Species Since Listing
    In 1982 we listed Euphorbia skottsbergii var. kalaeloana (47 FR 
36846; August 24, 1982) as endangered following the taxonomy of Sherff 
(1936), although in 1959 Degener and Degener had moved this species to 
Chamaesyce (Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana). In both 
publications the range for this species included only the ``Ewa Plains 
of Oahu, Hawaii, in the vicinity of Barbers Point'' (also known as 
Kalaeloa). In 1990, Koutnik (p. 615) placed Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. kalaeloana in synonymy with C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. 
According to Koutnik, the range for C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii 
included southwestern Oahu (the Ewa Plains) and northwestern Molokai. 
However, in 2005, based on genetic analysis, Morden and Gregoritza 
(2005, p. 969) found that the Oahu and Molokai populations of C. 
skottsbergii var. skottsbergii are genetically distinct and they 
supported the recognition of these two populations as distinct 
varieties. The authors suggested that the variety on Molokai should be 
recognized by the previously used variety name, C. skottsbergii var. 
audens. The scientific community and the Service currently accept 
Morden and Gregoritza's taxonomic clarification of C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, the range of which includes only southwestern Oahu.
    At the time we listed Alsinidendron obovatum (56 FR 55770; October 
29, 1991), A. trinerve (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991), Hedyotis 
coriacea (57 FR 20772; May 15, 1992), H. degeneri (56 FR 55770; October 
29, 1991), H. parvula (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991), and Lipochaeta 
tenuifolia (56 FR 55770; October 29, 1991) as endangered, we followed 
the taxonomic treatment of Wagner et al. (1990, pp. 343, 501, 1,141-
1,142, 1,148-1,150). Subsequently, Wagner et al. (2005, pp. 57-63) 
recognized and published new combinations (new genus and species names) 
for Alsinidendron obovatum (now Schiedea obovata) and A. trinerve (now 
Schiedea trinervis) based on phylogenetic analyses. These new 
combinations are currently accepted by the scientific community and by 
the Service. Terrell et al. (2005, pp. 832, 833) published new 
combinations for Hedyotis coriacea (now Kadua coriacea), H. degeneri 
(now Kadua degeneri, and includes K. degeneri var. coprosmifolia and K. 
degeneri var. degeneri), and placed Hedyotis parvula in synonymy with 
Kadua parvula, an earlier and validly published name. Wagner and 
Robinson (2001, p. 554) recognized and published new combinations for 
several Hawaiian species of Lipochaeta, including Lipochaeta tenuifolia 
(now Melanthera tenuifolia). At the time we listed Phlegmariurus nutans 
(59 FR 14482; March 28, 1994), we followed Ollgaard's Index of the 
Lycopodiaceae (1989, 135 pp.). Most recently, Palmer placed 
Phlegmariurus nutans in synonymy with Huperzia nutans (Palmer 2003, p. 
257). We listed Mariscus pennatiformis (which included M. pennatiformis 
ssp. bryanii and M. pennatiformis ssp. pennatiformis) as endangered in 
1994 (59 FR 56333) following the taxonomic treatment of Koyama (in 
Wagner et al. 1990, pp. 1,421-1,422). Since then, Strong and Wagner 
(1997, p. 39) and more recently, Wagner et al. (2003, pp. 52-53) moved 
all Hawaiian species of Mariscus to Cyperus. The accepted epithet for 
this species is Cyperus pennatiformis and includes C. pennatiformis 
var. bryanii and C. pennatiformis var. pennatiformis. The range of the 
species at the time of listing and now has not changed.
    All of the aforementioned name changes are currently accepted by 
the scientific community, and we are proposing to accept them for 
purposes of the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants at 50 CFR 
17.12 (see Table 3). These changes would also require us to make 
editorial revisions to a limited number of units and species 
descriptions in 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1) and (b) (Kauai), and 50 CFR 
17.99(e)(1) and (f) (Maui), to adopt the taxonomic revisions.

 Table 3--Proposed Name Changes for 9 Listed Endangered Hawaiian Plants
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Currently listed    Proposed name or
             Listing                     name            family change
------------------------------------------------------------------------
56 FR 55770.....................  Alsinidendron       Schiedea obovata.
                                   obovatum.
56 FR 55770.....................  Alsinidendron       Schiedea
                                   trinerve.           trinervis.
47 FR 36846.....................  Chamaesyce          Chamaesyce
                                   skottsbergii var.   skottsbergii var.
                                   kalaeloana.         skottsbergii.
57 FR 20772.....................  Hedyotis coriacea.  Kadua coriacea.
56 FR 55770.....................  Hedyotis degeneri.  Kadua degeneri.
56 FR 55770.....................  Hedyotis parvula..  Kadua parvula.
56 FR 55770.....................  Lipochaeta          Melanthera
                                   tenuifolia.         tenuifolia.
59 FR 14482.....................  Phlegmariurus       Huperzia nutans.
                                   nutans.
59 FR 56333.....................  Mariscus            Cyperus
                                   pennatiformis.      pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Critical Habitat

Background

    Critical habitat is defined in section 3 of the Act as:
    (i) The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by a 
species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the Act, on which 
are found those physical or biological features
    (I) Essential to the conservation of the species and
    (II) Which may require special management considerations or 
protection; and

[[Page 46398]]

    (ii) Specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by a 
species at the time it is listed, upon a determination that such areas 
are essential for the conservation of the species.
    Conservation, as defined under section 3 of the Act, means the use 
of all methods and procedures that are necessary to bring an endangered 
or threatened species to the point at which the measures provided under 
the Act are no longer necessary. Such methods and procedures include, 
but are not limited to, all activities associated with scientific 
resources management, such as research, census, law enforcement, 
habitat acquisition and maintenance, propagation, live trapping, 
transplantation, and, in the extraordinary case where population 
pressures within a given ecosystem cannot otherwise be relieved, may 
include regulated taking.
    Critical habitat receives protection under section 7 of the Act 
through the prohibition against Federal agencies carrying out, funding, 
or authorizing the destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat. Section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires consultation on Federal 
actions that may affect critical habitat. The designation of critical 
habitat does not affect land ownership or establish a refuge, 
wilderness, reserve, preserve, or other conservation area. Such 
designation does not allow the government or public access to private 
lands. Such designation does not require implementation of restoration, 
recovery, or enhancement measures by the landowner. Where a landowner 
seeks or requests Federal agency funding or authorization that may 
affect a listed species or critical habitat, the consultation 
requirements of section 7(a)(2) of the Act would apply, but even in the 
event of a destruction or adverse modification finding, the Federal 
action agency's and the applicant's obligation is not to restore or 
recover the species, but to implement reasonable and prudent 
alternatives to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat.
    For inclusion in a critical habitat designation, the habitat within 
the geographical area occupied by the species at the time of listing 
must contain the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species, and be included only if those features may 
require special management considerations or protection. Critical 
habitat designations identify, to the extent known using the best 
scientific and commercial data available, habitat areas that provide 
essential life cycle needs of the species (areas on which are found the 
physical or biological features (PBFs) essential for the conservation 
of the species). Under the Act and regulations at 50 CFR 424.12(e), we 
can designate critical habitat in areas outside the geographical area 
occupied by the species at the time it is listed only when we determine 
that those areas are essential for the conservation of the species and 
that designation limited to those areas occupied at the time of listing 
would be inadequate to ensure the conservation of the species.
    Section 4 of the Act requires that we designate critical habitat on 
the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available. 
Further, our Policy on Information Standards Under the Endangered 
Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 
34271)), the Information Quality Act (section 515 of the Treasury and 
General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Pub. L. 
106-554; H.R. 5658)), and our associated Information Quality 
Guidelines, provide criteria, establish procedures, and provide 
guidance to ensure that our decisions are based on the best scientific 
data available. They require our biologists, to the extent consistent 
with the Act and with the use of the best scientific data available, to 
use primary and original sources of information as the basis for 
recommendations to designate critical habitat.
    When we are determining which areas we should designate as critical 
habitat, our primary source of information is generally the information 
developed during the listing process for the species. Additional 
information sources may include the recovery plan for the species, 
articles in peer-reviewed journals, conservation plans developed by 
States and counties, scientific status surveys and studies, biological 
assessments, or other unpublished materials and expert opinion or 
personal knowledge.
    Habitat is often dynamic, and species may move from one area to 
another over time. Furthermore, we recognize that critical habitat 
designated at a particular point in time may not include all of the 
habitat areas that we may later determine to be necessary for the 
recovery of the species, as additional scientific information may 
become available in the future. For these reasons, a critical habitat 
designation does not signal that habitat outside the designated area is 
unimportant or may not be required for recovery of the species.
    The information currently available on the effects of global 
climate change and increasing temperatures does not make sufficiently 
precise estimates of the location and magnitude of the effects. Nor are 
we currently aware of any climate change information specific to the 
habitat of any of the species being addressed in this proposed rule 
that would indicate what areas may become important to the species in 
the future. Therefore, we are unable to determine what additional 
areas, if any, may be appropriate to include in the proposed critical 
habitat designation for these species; however, we are specifically 
requesting information from the public on the currently predicted 
effects of climate change on the species addressed in this proposed 
rule and their habitat. Furthermore, we recognize that designation of 
critical habitat may not include all of the habitat areas we may 
eventually determine, based on scientific data not now available to the 
Service, that are necessary for the recovery of the species. For these 
reasons, a critical habitat designation does not signal that habitat 
outside the designated area is unimportant or may not be required for 
recovery of the species.
    Areas that are important to the conservation of the species, but 
are outside the critical habitat designation, will continue to be 
subject to conservation actions we implement under section 7(a)(1) of 
the Act. These areas are also subject to the regulatory protections 
afforded by the section 7(a)(2) jeopardy standard, as determined on the 
basis of the best available scientific information at the time of the 
agency action. Federally funded or permitted projects affecting listed 
species outside their designated critical habitat areas may still 
result in jeopardy findings in some cases. Similarly, critical habitat 
designations made on the basis of the best available information at the 
time of designation will not control the direction and substance of 
future recovery plans, habitat conservation plans (HCPs), section 7 
consultations, or other species conservation planning efforts if new 
information available to these planning efforts calls for a different 
outcome.

Prudency Determination for 24 Oahu Species

    Section 4(a)(3) of the Act, as amended, and implementing 
regulations (50 CFR 424.12) require that, to the maximum extent prudent 
and determinable, the Secretary designate critical habitat at the time 
a species is determined to be endangered or threatened. Our regulations 
at 50 CFR 424.12(a)(1) state that designation of critical habitat is 
not prudent when one or both of the following situations exist:

[[Page 46399]]

(1) The species is threatened by taking or other activity, and the 
identification of critical habitat can be expected to increase the 
degree of threat to the species; or (2) the designation of critical 
habitat would not be beneficial to the species.
    As we have discussed under the Factor B analysis, there is 
currently no documentation that the 23 species proposed for listing are 
threatened by taking or other human activity. At the time we listed the 
plant Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata as endangered, we found that 
designation of critical habitat was not prudent because this plant was 
threatened by taking for lei-making, and the publication of critical 
habitat descriptions would make this plant more vulnerable (51 FR 
10518; March 26, 1986). However, we have examined the best available 
information and found no information to indicate that this plant is 
currently threatened by overcollection for lei-making, or is otherwise 
used for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes. 
Moreover, we have no information to indicate that identification of 
critical habitat is expected to initiate such a threat to any of the 
species addressed in this proposed rule. Accordingly, this designation 
will provide information to individuals, local and State governments, 
and other entities engaged in activities or long-range planning in 
areas essential to the conservation of these species. Conservation of 
these species and their essential habitat will require habitat 
management, protection, and restoration, which will be facilitated by 
knowledge of habitat locations and the physical or biological features 
of the habitat. Other potential benefits include: (1) Triggering 
consultation under section 7 of the Act in new areas for actions with a 
Federal nexus where it would not otherwise occur; (2) focusing 
conservation activities on the most essential features and areas; and 
(3) preventing individuals from causing inadvertent harm to the 
species. Based on this information, we believe critical habitat would 
be beneficial, and have determined the designation of critical habitat 
is prudent for each of the species addressed in this proposed rule.
    The primary regulatory effect of critical habitat is the section 
7(a)(2) requirement that Federal agencies refrain from taking any 
action that destroys or adversely modifies critical habitat. We find 
that the designation of critical habitat for each of the 23 species 
proposed for listing in this proposed rule and the endangered plants 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata and Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii will benefit them by serving to focus conservation efforts 
on the restoration and maintenance of ecosystem functions that are 
essential for attaining their recovery and long-term viability. In 
addition, the designation of critical habitat serves to inform 
management and conservation decisions by identifying any additional 
physical or biological features of the ecosystem that may be essential 
for the conservation of certain species, such as the availability of 
sufficient instream flow for the blackline, crimson, and oceanic 
Hawaiian damselflies or specific host plants such as Nestegis 
sandwicensis and Sapindus oahuensis for Korthalsella degeneri. 
Therefore, because we have determined that the designation of critical 
habitat will not likely increase the degree of threat to the species 
and may provide some measure of benefit, we find that designation of 
critical habitat is prudent for the following 25 species, as critical 
habitat would be beneficial and there is no evidence that the 
designation of critical habitat would result in an increased threat 
from taking or other human activity for these species:
    (1) Plants--Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (listed as 
Euphorbia skottsbergii var. kaleloana), Cyanea calycina, Cyanea 
lanceolata, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, Doryopteris 
takeuchii, Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, Melicope 
hiiakae, Melicope makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma 
cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and 
Zanthoxylum oahuense;
    (2) Animals--Megalagrion leptodemas, Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum, and Megalagrion oceanicum.

Critical Habitat Determinability

    As stated above, section 4(a)(3) of the Act requires the 
designation of critical habitat concurrently with the species' listing 
``to the maximum extent prudent and determinable.'' Our regulations at 
50 CFR 424.12(a)(2) state that critical habitat is not determinable 
when one or both of the following situations exist:
    (i) Information sufficient to perform required analyses of the 
impacts of the designation is lacking, or
    (ii) The biological needs of the species are not sufficiently well 
known to permit identification of an area as critical habitat.
    When critical habitat is not determinable, the Act provides for an 
additional year to publish a critical habitat designation (16 U.S.C. 
1533(b)(6)(C)(ii)).
    At the time we listed the plant Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii (see ``Proposed Taxonomic Name Changes for 11 Plant 
Species Since Listing,'' above) as endangered, we were unable to 
identify the biological needs of this species, and therefore were 
unable to identify areas essential for its conservation (critical 
habitat) (47 FR 36846, August 24, 1982). We reviewed the information 
available (since it was listed in 1982) pertaining to the biological 
needs of Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii and available 
information pertaining to the biological needs of the 23 species 
proposed for listing in this proposed rule and habitat characteristics 
where these species are located. This and other information represent 
the best scientific data available and led us to conclude that the 
designation of critical habitat is both prudent and determinable for 
these 25 species.

Proposed Critical Habitat Designation for 25 Oahu Species and Proposed 
Revision of Critical Habitat for 99 Oahu Plants

    In this section, we discuss the proposed designation of critical 
habitat for 25 species. This includes 23 species identified in the 
above listing proposal and the 2 additional plant species (Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata and Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii) 
that were previously listed without designating critical habitat. This 
section also discusses the proposed revision of currently designated 
critical habitat for 99 Oahu plant species, based on new information. 
This information represents the best scientific and commercial 
information available.

Revision of Critical Habitat for 99 Oahu Plants

    Under section 4(a)(3)(B)(ii) of the Act we may, as appropriate, 
revise a critical habitat designation. In 2003, we designated critical 
habitat for 99 Oahu plants on 55,040 ac (22,274 ha) in 303 units based 
on their known locations (68 FR 35950). Based on new information and 
scientific data available since 2003, we are proposing to revise 
critical habitat for these 99 plant species. Approximately 93 percent 
of the area being proposed as revised critical habitat in this proposed 
rule overlaps with the area designated in the 2003 final critical 
habitat rule. In some

[[Page 46400]]

areas, the footprint of the proposed revision is larger than the 2003 
designation, to accommodate the expansion of species' ranges within the 
particular ecosystem in which they occur (e.g., expansion into 
unoccupied habitat). In other areas, we are proposing to reduce 
critical habitat, based on updated information on the historic ranges 
of certain species. The proposed revision correlates each species' 
physical or biological requirements with the characteristics of the 
ecosystems within which they occur (e.g., elevation, rainfall, species 
associations, etc.), and also includes areas unoccupied by the species 
but essential for their conservation. The proposed revision will enable 
managers to focus conservation management efforts on common threats 
that occur across shared ecosystems and facilitate the restoration of 
the ecosystem function and species-specific habitat needs for the 
recovery of each of the 99 species. An added benefit includes the 
publication of more comprehensive critical habitat unit maps that 
should be more useful to the public and conservation managers.

Background for 99 Listed Oahu Plants

    It is our intent to discuss only those topics directly relevant to 
the proposed designation of critical habitat. For additional 
information on these 99 Oahu plants, refer to the final critical 
habitat rule for Oahu plants published in the Federal Register on June 
17, 2003 (68 FR 35950).

Current Status of Plant Species in this Proposed Rule

    Abutilon sandwicense (no common name (NCN)), a member of the mallow 
family (Malvaceae), is a perennial shrub endemic to the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu (Bates 1999, pp. 873-875). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, the 30 known occurrences contained an 
estimated 253 to 263 individuals (68 FR 35951). This species currently 
occurs in the Waianae Mountains in the dry cliff and lowland mesic 
ecosystems in 17 to 19 occurrences totaling between 296 and 515 
individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata (round-leaved chaff flower), a 
shrub in the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), occurred historically on 
Oahu, Lanai, and Molokai. In 1986, at the time of listing, four 
occurrences containing approximately 400 individuals were known from 
southwestern and western Oahu in the coastal ecosystem at Barbers Point 
and Kaena Point, respectively (51 FR 10518, March 26, 1986; HBMP 2008). 
Subsequently, three additional occurrences were documented in Keawaula, 
Makaha, and Waianae Kai (HBMP 2008). Currently, this species is found 
in 8 occurrences in the coastal, lowland dry, and dry cliff ecosystems 
totaling approximately 700 individuals (Kane 2004, in litt.; Phillipson 
2007, in litt.; HBMP 2008; Silbernagle 2010, in litt.).
    Adenophorus periens (pendent kihi fern), a fern in the grammitis 
family (Grammitidaceae), occurs on the islands of Hawaii, Molokai, and 
Kauai, and was known historically from the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Palmer 2003, p. 39). This species is an epiphyte found in the lowland 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The last recorded 
observances of this fern on Oahu were in the early 1900s (HBMP 2008).
    Alectryon macrococcus (mahoe), a member of the soapberry family 
(Sapindaceae), is a tree found on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, 
and Maui (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,225). This species is known from two 
varieties, A. macrococcus var. auwahiensis (Maui) and A. macrococcus 
var. macrococcus (Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, A. macrococcus var. macrococcus 
was known from 82 occurrences on Oahu containing approximately 300 
individuals. Currently, A. macrococcus var. macrococcus is found in the 
Waianae Mountains in the dry cliff, lowland mesic, and montane wet 
ecosystems, in 15 occurrences totaling between 366 and 371 individuals 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). This variety was historically 
known from the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains.
    Bonamia menziesii (NCN), a perennial vine in the morning glory 
family (Convolvulaceae), is found on Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and 
Hawaii (Austin 1999, p. 550). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 18 occurrences on Oahu 
totaling fewer than 100 individuals. Currently, this species is 
declining on Oahu, with approximately 12 to 13 occurrences totaling 
fewer than 60 individuals, located in both the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains, in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cenchrus agrimonioides (kamanomano), a perennial in the grass 
family (Poaceae), occurred historically on Oahu, Lanai, and Maui 
(O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,511-1,512). This species is known from two 
varieties, C. agrimonioides var. agrimonioides (Oahu, Lanai, and Maui) 
and C. agrimonioides var. laysanensis (Kure Atoll, Midway Atoll, and 
Laysan). Cenchrus agrimonioides var. laysanensis may be extinct. At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, C. agrimonioides var. 
agrimonioides was known from 7 occurrences in the Waianae Mountains on 
Oahu, containing between 113 and 118 individuals. This variety is 
currently found on Oahu and Maui, and has been outplanted on Kahoolawe 
(USFWS 2007a; 2007b). On Oahu, 3 to 6 occurrences totaling 
approximately 300 wild individuals are found in the lowland mesic and 
dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; USFWS 2007a; 2007b).
    Centaurium sebaeoides (awiwi), an annual herb in the gentian family 
(Gentianaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and west 
Maui (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 725). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 2 occurrences in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains, totaling between 60 and 80 individuals. 
Currently, C. sebaeoides occurs on Oahu in the coastal ecosystem at 
Kaena Point and Halona (Waianae and Koolau Mountains), in 2 occurrences 
totaling between 40 and 50 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana (akoko), a shrub in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to Oahu (Koutnik 1999, pp. 605-606). 
At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was 
known from 15 occurrences containing 569 individuals. Historically 
known from both the Waianae and Koolau Mountains, C. celastroides var. 
kaenana is currently found in the coastal, lowland dry, and lowland 
mesic ecosystems only in the Waianae Mountains, in 8 occurrences 
totaling more than 900 individuals (Makua Implementation Team 2003, pp. 
16-32--16-38; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce deppeana (akoko), a perennial subshrub in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Koutnik 1999, p. 607). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from one occurrence of approximately 50 
individuals. Currently, the same occurrence in the wet cliff ecosystem 
in the Koolau Mountains is estimated to contain as many as 100 
individuals (J. Lau, HBMP, pers. comm. 2006; S. Perlman, NTBG, pers. 
comm. 2006; TNC 2007).
    Chamaesyce herbstii (akoko), a small tree in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Koutnik

[[Page 46401]]

1999, p. 609). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 4 occurrences totaling between 162 and 164 
individuals. Chamaesyce herbstii is declining in numbers, and is 
currently found in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains, in 2 occurrences totaling fewer than 60 individuals 
(Makua Implementation Team 2003, pp. 16-39--16-44; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce kuwaleana (akoko), a shrub in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to Oahu. At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 5 occurrences containing 
approximately 2,000 individuals in the Waianae Mountains, with one 
individual known from Mokumanu, an islet off the windward coast of the 
Koolau Mountains (Koutnik 1999, p. 611). Chamaesyce kuwaleana was found 
historically in the coastal and dry cliff ecosystems, but is currently 
found only in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains in 2 
occurrences of approximately 1,200 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce rockii (akoko), a shrub or small tree in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Koutnik 1999, p. 614). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 20 occurrences containing between 641 
and 733 individuals. Currently, this species is found in 6 occurrences 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains, 
totaling between 576 and 710 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (formerly Chamaesyce 
skottsbergii var. kalaeloana) (Ewa Plains akoko), a small shrub in the 
spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), is endemic to Oahu. Historically, this 
species was only known from the Ewa Plains on southwestern Oahu in the 
vicinity of Barbers Point (also known as Kalaeloa). The precise natural 
range of this taxon was unknown, but probably did not go beyond the 
coralline plains of southwestern Oahu (47 FR 36846, August 24, 1982). 
In 1982, at the time of listing, this species was known from 4 
occurrences containing approximately 1,000 to 1,500 individuals (Char 
and Balakrishnan 1979, p. 67; HBMP 2008). Currently, this species is 
found in 2 occurrences in coral outcrops in the lowland dry ecosystem 
on the Ewa Plain in southwestern Oahu, totaling approximately 1,524 
individuals (Guinther and Withrow 2008, pp. 6, 9-10, Whistler 2008, pp. 
7-9).
    Colubrina oppositifolia (kauila), a tree in the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and the island of Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,094). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was found in 5 occurrences in the Waianae 
Mountains containing 61 individuals. Currently, on Oahu, Colubrina 
oppositifolia is found in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains, in 4 occurrences totaling approximately 50 individuals (U.S. 
Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Ctenitis squamigera (pauoa), a medium to large-sized fern in the 
spleenwort family (Aspleniaceae), is found on all the major islands 
except Hawaii. It is possibly now extinct on Kauai (Palmer 2003, pp. 
100-102). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 8 known occurrences with more than 80 individuals in the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently there are 4 occurrences 
totaling approximately 100 individuals, in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea acuminata (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 444). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were fewer than 200 individuals in 20 occurrences. Currently, 
there are 15 occurrences totaling between 149 and 175 individuals in 
the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems 
in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea crispa (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 481-482; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 11 occurrences 
containing a total of 56 individuals. Currently, this species is found 
in 7 occurrences, totaling 56 individuals, in the lowland mesic, 
lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. 
Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (haha), a shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is found on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, pp. 451-452). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were seven occurrences totaling nine individuals in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains. Currently, there are five to six 
individuals in four occurrences in the lowland mesic and lowland wet 
ecosystems in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae (haha), a shrub in the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, pp. 451-452). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 8 occurrences containing 16 individuals. Currently, 
there are 8 occurrences totaling 41 individuals in the dry cliff, 
lowland mesic, and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea humboldtiana (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 483; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 9 occurrences totaling 
between 133 and 239 individuals. Currently, this species occurs in 9 
occurrences totaling between 160 to 260 individuals in the lowland wet 
and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea koolauensis (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 481; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 42 occurrences with 
fewer than 80 individuals. Currently, this species is found in 15 
occurrences with approximately 100 individuals in the lowland wet 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyanea longiflora (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), occurs in the Waianae Mountains, and was historically 
known from the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 1999, p. 484; Wagner 
and Herbst 1999, p. 1,870). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 4 occurrences of fewer than 220 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 4 occurrences totaling fewer 
than 170 individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyanea pinnatifida (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 459). The last known wild individual died in 2001, although 
the species remains in cultivation, and 70 individuals have been 
outplanted within historical range in the lowland mesic ecosystem in 
the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2006h, p. 6).

[[Page 46402]]

    Cyanea st.-johnii (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 484; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,871). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 7 occurrences 
containing 57 individuals. Currently, 6 occurrences are found in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems, with approximately 70 
individuals, in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyanea superba (NCN), a palm-like tree in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the lowland mesic ecosystem of the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 1999, p. 465). This species is known 
from two subspecies, Cyanea superba ssp. regina (southern Koolau 
Mountains) and Cyanea superba ssp. superba (northern Waianae 
Mountains). The last known wild individual of Cyanea superba ssp. 
superba died in 2002; however, propagules are in cultivation and more 
than 400 individuals have been outplanted over the past 10 years in the 
Waianae Mountains. Currently a total of at least 200 mature outplanted 
individuals of Cyanea superba ssp. superba survive (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008). Cyanea superba ssp. regina has not been observed since the 
1930's (Lammers 1999, p. 465).
    Cyanea truncata (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, in the 
lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems (Lammers 1999, p. 
466). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
only two known individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Koolau 
Mountains. Currently, these individuals survive along with outplanted 
occurrences totaling 14 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Cyperus pennatiformis (formerly Mariscus pennatiformis) (NCN), a 
perennial in the sedge family (Cyperaceae), was found on Kauai, Oahu, 
east Maui, the island of Hawaii, and Laysan Island in the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands. This species is known from two varieties, C. 
pennatiformis var. bryanii (Laysan Island) and C. pennatiformis var. 
pennatiformis (Kauai, Oahu, east Maui, and Hawaii Island) (Koyama 1999, 
pp. 1,421-1,422; Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 1,900). The last known 
individual of C. pennatiformis var. pennatiformis on Oahu was observed 
in the 1930s, in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyperus trachysanthos (puukaa), a perennial in the sedge family 
(Cyperaceae), was known from Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Lanai; 
and is currently extant on Niihau, Kauai, and Oahu (Koyama 1999, p. 
1,399). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
6 occurrences totaling 40 individuals on Oahu. Currently, there are 3 
occurrences totaling approximately 400 individuals in seasonal wetlands 
in the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems in both the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra dentata (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae), is endemic to Oahu, and is known from both the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 753). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 11 known occurrences 
totaling 136 individuals. Currently, due to an increase in survey 
efforts over the last 6 years in potentially suitable habitat for this 
species, there are 6 occurrences totaling approximately 1,640 
individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems of both 
mountain ranges, and in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra polyantha (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 774-775). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, there was one known occurrence of three individuals. Currently, 
there are two occurrences of seven to nine individuals in the lowland 
mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra subumbellata (haiwale), a shrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 779). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences totaling 12 individuals. 
Currently, there are 3 occurrences totaling a little more than 100 
individuals in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Cyrtandra viridiflora (haiwale), a small shrub in the African 
violet family (Gesneriaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 780). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 23 occurrences totaling 52 individuals. 
Currently, there are 5 occurrences totaling 75 individuals in the 
lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 
2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Delissea subcordata (oha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is found in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, p. 471). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 21 occurrences containing fewer than 
70 individuals, in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 9 
occurrences totaling between 28 and 40 individuals in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Diellia erecta (asplenium-leaved diellia), a fern in the spleenwort 
family (Aspleniaceae), occurs on Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii 
(Palmer 2003, p. 117). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, but 
there was only 1 known occurrence of 20 individuals on Oahu. This 
occurrence on Oahu persists, with approximately 20 to 30 individuals, 
in the lowland mesic ecosystem of the Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Diellia falcata (NCN), a fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Palmer 2003, p. 119). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was found in 30 occurrences totaling fewer than 
6,000 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, D. falcata is 
found in 13 occurrences (totaling between 4,000 and 7,000 individuals) 
in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Diellia unisora (NCN), a fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Palmer 
2003, p. 122). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 4 occurrences containing fewer than 800 
individuals. Currently, D. unisora is known from 4 occurrences totaling 
approximately 700 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Diplazium molokaiense (NCN), a fern in the spleenwort family 
(Aspleniaceae), was known from all the major islands except Hawaii 
(Wagner and Wagner 1992, p. 33; Palmer 2003, p. 125). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species had not been 
documented on Oahu since 1945, and was present only at one site on east 
Maui. On Oahu, this species was known from the lowland mesic and 
lowland

[[Page 46403]]

wet ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (Wood 2006, p. 32; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Dubautia herbstobatae (naenae), a shrub in the sunflower family 
(Asteraceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Carr 1999, 
pp. 297-298). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 12 occurrences totaling fewer than 100 
individuals. Currently, D. herbstobatae is found in 2 occurrences 
totaling over 2,000 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008). The increase in the number of individuals is possibly due to the 
recent removal of feral goats from surrounding areas through fencing 
and eradication efforts (Makua Implementation Team 2003, pp. 2-98--2-
104).
    Eragrostis fosbergii (Fosberg's lovegrass), a perennial in the 
grass family (Poaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(O'Connor 1999, pp. 1,541-1,542). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were only four occurrences known, each of a 
single individual. Currently, these individuals remain, with no reports 
of regeneration, in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Eugenia koolauensis (nioi), a small tree or shrub in the myrtle 
family (Myrtaceae), is known from Oahu and Molokai (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 960). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
12 occurrences totaling fewer than 70 individuals in the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, this species is found in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (2 occurrences) and in 
the Koolau Mountains (11 occurrences), totaling approximately 500 
mature individuals (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). These 
individuals are currently threatened by Puccinia psidii, a rust fungus 
that infests plants in the Myrtaceae family (Loope and LaRosa 2007, p. 
1).
    Euphorbia haeleeleana (akoko), a small tree in the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae), is known from Kauai and Oahu (Koutnik and Huft 1999, 
p. 619). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 8 occurrences of approximately 134 individuals, 
in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 6 occurrences 
totaling 65 individuals in the lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Flueggea neowawraea (mehamehame), a tree in the spurge family, 
(Euphorbiaceae) is known from Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and the island of 
Hawaii, and was possibly historically found on Molokai (Wagner et al. 
1999, pp. 620-621). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was found in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu, in 23 
occurrences with a total of 31 individuals. Currently, there are 18 
occurrences totaling 36 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Gardenia mannii (nanu), a tree in the coffee family (Rubiaceae), is 
endemic to Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,133). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 49 occurrences in both 
the Waianae and Koolau Mountains, totaling between 69 and 80 
individuals. Currently, 18 occurrences are known (totaling 108 to 110 
individuals) in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in both 
mountain ranges (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Gouania meyenii (NCN), a shrub in the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu and Kauai (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 
1,095-1,096; NTBG Provenance Report, in litt. 1994, 2 pp.). On Oahu, 
this species was historically found in the lowland dry and lowland 
mesic ecosystems of the Waianae Mountains, and the lowland dry 
ecosystem at Diamond Head (HBMP 2008). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, the 4 known occurrences in the Waianae 
Mountains contained 63 individuals. Currently, this species is found in 
3 occurrences totaling fewer than 70 individuals in the dry cliff 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Gouania vitifolia (NCN), a climbing shrub in the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is known from Oahu, west Maui, and the island of Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,097). This species is endemic to the Waianae 
Mountains (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,097), and was thought to be 
extirpated from Oahu in the 1990s. However, at the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, G. vitifolia was found in 2 occurrences 
totaling 44 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 
2 occurrences totaling 58 to 64 individuals, within the lowland dry, 
lowland wet, and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 
2008). This species was also historically known from the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008).
    Hesperomannia arborescens (NCN), a small tree in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is found on Maui, Molokai, and the Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu, and was historically found on Lanai (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 325). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 36 occurrences containing between 86 and 93 individuals on 
Oahu. Currently, there are 19 occurrences totaling approximately 130 
individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the 
Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Hesperomannia arbuscula (NCN), a small tree or shrub in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is found on Oahu and Maui (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 325). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 6 occurrences containing between 90 and 92 individuals in 
the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 5 occurrences 
totaling 14 individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Hibiscus brackenridgei (mao hau hele), a shrub in the mallow family 
(Malvaceae), includes 3 subspecies and is known from Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii (Bates 1999, p. 883-
884). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, H. 
brackenridgei ssp. brackenridgei was known from Molokai, Lanai, Maui, 
and Hawaii. Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus was known from Oahu 
and Kauai. On Oahu, there were fewer than 206 individuals in 5 
occurrences in the Waianae Mountains. Also at that time, H. 
brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana was known from one occurrence of five 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, H. brackenridgei ssp. 
mokuleianus is known from 7 occurrences totaling between 47 and 50 
individuals in the lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007; U.S. Army 2006). Hibiscus 
brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana is known from 1 occurrence of 32 
individuals in the lowland dry and lowland mesic ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Huperzia nutans (formerly Phlegmariurus nutans) (wawaeiole), a fern 
ally in the hanging fir-moss family (Lycopodiaceae), is known from 
Kauai and Oahu (Palmer 2003, p. 257). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, there were 3 occurrences containing 7 
individuals in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 2 
occurrences totaling between 10 to 15 individuals in the lowland wet 
and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau

[[Page 46404]]

Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Isodendrion laurifolium (aupaka), a shrub in the violet family 
(Violaceae), is known from Kauai and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,329). This species was historically known from both the Koolau and 
Waianae Mountains in the lowland mesic ecosystem (HBMP 2008). At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences 
totaling between 22 and 23 individuals in the Waianae Mountains of 
Oahu. Currently, there are 5 known occurrences totaling between 24 and 
64 individuals in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Isodendrion longifolium (aupaka), a shrub in the violet family 
(Violaceae), is known from Kauai and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 
1,329-1,331). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 7 occurrences totaling 30 individuals in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 4 
occurrences of I. longifolium totaling between 32 and 36 individuals in 
the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Isodendrion pyrifolium (wahine noho kula), a shrub in the violet 
family (Violaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Niihau, Molokai, 
and Lanai (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,331). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was no longer extant on Oahu. 
Currently, there are no known occurrences on Oahu; however, I. 
pyrifolium was documented in the lowland dry and dry cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Kadua coriacea (formerly Hedyotis coriacea) (kioele), a shrub in 
the coffee family (Rubiaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and the island 
of Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,141). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was known only from historical 
occurrences on Oahu. Currently, there are no known occurrences on Oahu; 
however, K. coriacea is historic to the lowland mesic ecosystem in the 
Waianae and Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Kadua degeneri (formerly Hedyotis degeneri) (NCN), a shrub in the 
coffee family (Rubiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,141-1,142). Two varieties have been 
recognized. Kadua degeneri var. coprosmifolia occurred in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem until the late 1980s; however, this occurrence may no 
longer be extant (T. Motley, pers. comm. 2006; HBMP 2008). Kadua 
degeneri var. degeneri was known from 4 occurrences, totaling 60 
individuals at the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, and 
currently there are 4 to 5 occurrences totaling between 280 and 370 
individuals, in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Kadua parvula (formerly Hedyotis parvula) (NCN), a small shrub in 
the coffee family (Rubiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1,149-1,150). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 7 occurrences 
totaling between 116 and 131 individuals. Currently, K. parvula is 
found in 2 occurrences totaling approximately 240 individuals, in the 
lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. 
Army 2003, pp. 16-91--16-95; U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; U.S. 
Army 2008, p. 2-45).
    Labordia cyrtandrae (kamakahala), a shrub in the logania family 
(Loganiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 854-855). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, L. cyrtandrae was known from the Waianae Mountains, in 
10 occurrences containing 20 individuals. Currently, due to an increase 
in survey efforts over the last 6 years in potentially suitable habitat 
for this species, there are 3 occurrences totaling 44 individuals in 
the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains; and one individual in the lowland wet 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains, with historical occurrences in the 
lowland mesic and wet cliff ecosystems of the Koolau Mountains (U.S. 
Army 2006a; U.S. Army 2006b, pp. 3-2-13--3-2-17; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lepidium arbuscula (anaunau), a shrub in the mustard family 
(Brassicaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 406). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 10 occurrences totaling approximately 1,000 individuals. 
Currently, there are 9 occurrences totaling fewer than 900 individuals 
in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; 
TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla (nehe), a perennial herb in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 337-338). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 4 occurrences 
totaling 147 individuals. Currently, there are 4 occurrences of 
approximately 150 individuals in the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (NCN), a shrub in the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains 
of Oahu (Lammers 1999, p. 476). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences totaling fewer than 270 
individuals. Currently, this species is known from 2 occurrences 
totaling approximately 280 individuals in bogs in the lowland wet 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Lobelia monostachya (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 478). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, L. 
monostachya was known from one occurrence of three individuals. 
Currently, there are two occurrences (eight individuals) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; Oahu PEP 
Program 2007, p. 33; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Lobelia niihauensis (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is known from Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau (Lammers 1999, 
pp. 478-479). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 40 occurrences containing between 362 and 397 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 14 occurrences totaling 
approximately 400 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Lobelia oahuensis (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Lammers 1999, p. 479). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 12 occurrences totaling 42 
individuals. Currently, L. oahuensis is found in 7 occurrences totaling 
41 individuals in the lowland wet, montane wet, and wet cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains; and in the lowland wet and wet 
cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Lysimachia filifolia (NCN), a small shrub in the primrose family 
(Primulaceae; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 67), is found on Kauai and 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,080). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 1 occurrence containing 50 
individuals in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu.

[[Page 46405]]

Currently, L. filifolia is found in 2 to 3 occurrences totaling between 
50 and 160 individuals in the wet cliff ecosystem in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Marsilea villosa (ihi ihi), a fern in the water clover fern family 
(Marsiliaceae), is known from Niihau, Molokai, and Oahu (Palmer 2003, 
pp. 180-182). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from five occurrences of an unknown number of 
individuals on Oahu. Currently, M. villosa is found in five to six 
occurrences of an unknown number of individuals in seasonal wetlands of 
the coastal and lowland dry ecosystems in the Waianae and Koolau 
Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008; M. Chau, University of Hawaii, pers. 
comm. 2009).
    Melanthera tenuifolia (formerly Lipochaeta tenuifolia) (nehe), a 
perennial herb in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 343). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 41 
occurrences containing between 759 and 1,174 individuals. Currently, M. 
tenuifolia is found in 11 occurrences totaling as many as 4,000 
individuals in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope lydgatei (alani), a small shrub in the rue family 
(Rutaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Stone et al. 
1999, p. 1,193). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was known from 18 occurrences containing an unknown number 
of individuals. Currently, M. lydgatei is found in 5 occurrences 
totaling 26 individuals in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems 
in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope pallida (alani), a tree in the rue family (Rutaceae), is 
known from Kauai and Oahu (Stone et al. 1999, pp. 1,198-1,199). At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known 
from one individual in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, one 
individual is found in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae 
Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Melicope saint-johnii (alani), a tree in the rue family (Rutaceae), 
is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Stone et al. 
1999, pp. 1,203-1,204). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, there were no individuals in the Koolau Mountains, and 6 
occurrences totaling fewer than 170 individuals in the Waianae 
Mountains. Currently, M. saint-johnii is found in the lowland mesic and 
dry cliff ecosystems of the Waianae Mountains, in 2 occurrences 
totaling as many as 162 individuals (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). 
Historically, this species also occurred in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
in the Koolau Mountains.
    Myrsine juddii (kolea), a shrub in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 940-941). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 3 occurrences with an estimated 5,000 
individuals. Currently, there is a single wide-ranging occurrence, 
estimated to contain 3,000 individuals, in the lowland wet ecosystem in 
the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2005, p. 16-123; HBMP 2008).
    Neraudia angulata (NCN), a shrub in the nettle family (Urticaceae), 
is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 
1,302-1,303). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, the 
two recognized varieties, N. angulata var. angulata and N. angulata 
var. dentata, were found in 27 occurrences totaling 51 individuals. 
Currently, there are 4 occurrences (106 individuals) considered to be 
N. angulata var. angulata, and 2 occurrences (3 individuals) considered 
to be N. angulata var. dentata. Intermediate forms of the two varieties 
are found in 2 occurrences totaling over 100 individuals. The six 
occurrences are found in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains. The numbers of individuals in each 
occurrence vary widely from year to year (U.S. Army 2003, pp. 16-116--
16-119; U.S. Army 2006, pp. 3-1-129--3-1-139; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Nototrichium humile (kului), a shrub in the amaranth family 
(Amaranthaceae), is known from Oahu and east Maui (Wagner et al. 1999, 
pp. 193-194). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there 
were 25 occurrences containing between 775 and 995 individuals in the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 12 occurrences totaling 
over 1,000 individuals in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006a; U.S. Army 2006b, 
pp. 3-1-140--3-1-146; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Peucedanum sandwicense (makou), a perennial herb in the parsley 
family (Apiaceae), is known from Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Oahu 
(Constance and Affolter 1999, p. 208; HBMP 2008). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was found in 4 
occurrences containing 51 individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. 
Currently, there are 2 occurrences totaling 61 individuals in the dry 
cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia hirsuta (NCN), a subshrub or vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 817). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 26 occurrences totaling 
between 214 and 227 individuals in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains. 
Currently, there are 9 occurrences totaling approximately 160 
individuals in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems 
in both the Waianae and Koolau Mountains; and in the montane wet 
ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006a; U.S. Army 2006b, 
pp. 3-2-24--3-2-28; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia kaalaensis (NCN), an herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner 1999, 
p. 270). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 7 occurrences containing fewer than 45 
individuals. All of those occurrences (in the lowland mesic and dry 
cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains) have since then been 
extirpated. However, there are 14 individuals outplanted in 4 locations 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006, pp. 3-1-147--3-1-152).
    Phyllostegia mollis (NCN), a perennial herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is known from Molokai, Maui, and Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 821). This species was historically known from both the Koolau and 
Waianae Mountains. At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
this species was found in 5 occurrences totaling between 85 and 105 
individuals only in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, P. mollis 
is known from 6 occurrences totaling between 42 and 92 individuals in 
the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains 
(U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Phyllostegia parviflora (NCN), a perennial herb in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), is known from Oahu, Maui, and the island of Hawaii (Wagner 
et al. 1999, pp. 821-822; Wagner 1999, p. 273). There are three 
recognized varieties: Phyllostegia parviflora var. glabriuscula is 
known only from the island of Hawaii; P. parviflora var. parviflora is 
found on Maui and the Koolau Mountains of Oahu; P.

[[Page 46406]]

parviflora var. lydgatei is known from Oahu's Waianae Mountains. At the 
time we designated critical habitat in 2003, P. parviflora var. 
parviflora was known from 30 individuals in 1 occurrence in the Koolau 
Mountains, and P. parviflora var. lydgatei was known from 4 individuals 
in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, all 
four wild individuals of P. parviflora var. lydgatei in the Waianae 
Mountains are extirpated; however, 100 individuals have been outplanted 
(TNC 1997, p. A-10; D. Sailer, TNC, in litt. 2006). Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora is known from approximately 100 individuals 
in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains, 
and from historic occurrences in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the 
Koolau Mountains (NTBG 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi), a small shrub or perennial 
herb in the plantain family (Plantaginaceae), is known from Kauai, 
Oahu, Maui, and Molokai, and occurred historically on the island of 
Hawaii. Plantago princeps is subdivided into four varieties: P. 
princeps var. anomala (Kauai), P. princeps var. laxifolia (Molokai, 
Maui, Hawaii), P. princeps var. longibracteata (Kauai and Oahu), and P. 
princeps var. princeps (Oahu). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, P. princeps var. longibracteata, known from the 
lowland wet ecosystem, was no longer extant on Oahu (TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008). Plantago princeps var. princeps was known from 11 occurrences 
containing between 130 and 180 individuals. Currently, only P. princeps 
var. princeps is extant on Oahu, in 7 occurrences totaling between 159 
and 232 individuals, in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains, and in the lowland wet and wet 
cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains. This taxon historically also 
occurred in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Platanthera holochila (NCN), an herb in the orchid family 
(Orchidaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Wagner et 
al. 1999, p. 1,474). This species was last collected on Oahu in 1938, 
in bog hummocks in the lowland wet ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains 
(TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Pteris lidgatei (NCN), a terrestrial fern in the maidenhair fern 
family (Adiantaceae), is known from Maui, Molokai, and Oahu (Wagner 
1949, p. 445; Palmer 2003, pp. 227-229). At the time we designated 
critical habitat in 2003, this species was found in 9 occurrences 
totaling 13 individuals in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, 
there are 5 occurrences totaling between 17 and 24 individuals in the 
lowland wet ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Sanicula mariversa (NCN), a perennial herb in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Constance and 
Affolter, pp. 209-210). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 4 occurrences containing 
approximately 170 individuals. Currently, S. mariversa is found in 2 
occurrences totaling as many as 188 individuals in the lowland mesic 
and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006a; 
U.S. Army 2006b, pp. 3-1-169--3-1-174; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Sanicula purpurea (NCN), a stout perennial herb in the parsley 
family (Apiaceae), is known from Maui and Oahu (Constance and Affolter 
1999, p. 210). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 5 occurrences totaling 21 individuals in the Koolau 
Mountains. Currently, S. purpurea is found in 5 occurrences totaling 24 
individuals in bogs in the lowland wet ecosystem and in the wet cliff 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 
2008).
    Schiedea hookeri (NCN), a perennial herb in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Oahu and from a fragmentary collection 
from Maui that may represent a different species (Wagner et al. 1999, 
p. 514). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from 17 occurrences containing between 328 and 378 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, S. hookeri is 
found in 17 occurrences totaling approximately the same number of 
individuals, in the lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, dry cliff, 
and wet cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea kaalae (NCN), a nearly stemless plant in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 515). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, this species was known from 7 occurrences totaling 49 
individuals in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains. Currently, S. kaalae 
is found in 9 occurrences totaling 40 individuals, in the lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains, 
and in the lowland mesic and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea kealiae (maolioli), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 515). At the time we designated critical habitat in 
2003, this species was known from 4 occurrences totaling between 265 
and 315 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. Currently, S. kealiae is 
found in 1 occurrence totaling between 50 and 100 individuals, in the 
lowland dry ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008). Historic occurrences were known from the coastal 
ecosystem (HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea nuttallii (NCN), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui (Wagner 
et al. 1999, pp. 517-519). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, this species was found in 7 occurrences with 49 individuals in 
the Waianae Mountains. Currently, there are 2 occurrences totaling 
between 41 and 54 individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006a; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). Historical 
occurrences of this species were also known from the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Koolau Mountains (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea obovata (formerly Alsinidendron obovatum) (NCN), a 
subshrub in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 501). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, S. obovata was known from 6 
occurrences containing 8 to 10 individuals in the Waianae Mountains. 
Currently, this species is found in 2 to 3 occurrences, totaling 
between 14 and 44 individuals, in the lowland mesic and dry cliff 
ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006a; U.S. Army 2006b, 
pp. 3-1-190--3-1-197; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Schiedea trinervis (formerly Alsinidendron trinerve) (NCN), a 
subshrub in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the 
Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 501). At the time we 
designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was known from 13 
occurrences totaling between 18 and 34 individuals. Currently, S. 
trinervis is found in 2 occurrences, totaling 192 individuals, in the 
montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff ecosystems in the Waianae 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006a; U.S. Army 2005, pp. 16-151--16-153; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).

[[Page 46407]]

    Sesbania tomentosa (ohai), a shrub in the pea family (Fabaceae), is 
known from all of the main Hawaiian Islands, and from the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands of Necker and Nihoa (Geesink et al. 1999, pp. 704-
705). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species 
was known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Maui, Hawaii, Nihoa, 
and Necker. On Oahu, S. tomentosa was found in 3 occurrences totaling 
55 individuals. Currently on Oahu, there are 2 outplanted occurrences 
totaling approximately 30 individuals in the coastal ecosystem at Kaena 
Point and Kaohikaipu islet (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Silene lanceolata (NCN), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is known from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, and 
Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 523). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 4 occurrences with a total of 62 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, S. lanceolata 
is found in 3 occurrences totaling between 100 and 130 individuals, in 
the dry cliff ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Silene perlmanii (NCN), a subshrub in the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner 
et al. 1999, pp. 523-524). Historical occurrences of this species were 
known from the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems (HBMP 2008). At 
the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this species was 
presumed extirpated. Currently, S. perlmanii is in propagation, and 15 
individuals were outplanted in the Honouliuli Preserve between 2003 and 
2006. However, as of 2007, only three plants were extant (D. Sailer, 
TNC, pers. comm. 2007).
    Solanum sandwicense (popolo aiakeakua), a shrub in the nightshade 
family (Solanaceae), is known from Kauai and the lowland mesic 
ecosystem in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Symon 1999, p. 
1,275). This species was last observed on Oahu in 2000, in the Waianae 
Mountains. Currently, there are at least six outplantings of this 
species totaling an unknown number of individuals in the Waianae 
Mountains (PEP Program 2007, p. 27; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Spermolepis hawaiiensis (NCN), an annual herb in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is known from Oahu and Maui (Constance and Affolter 1999, 
p. 212). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
6 occurrences totaling between 110 and 910 individuals in the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains (Diamond Head), in the lowland dry and dry cliff 
ecosystems (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008). Currently, S. hawaiiensis is 
found in 4 occurrences totaling several hundred to thousands of 
individuals, depending on annual weather conditions (U.S. Army 2006; 
TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Stenogyne kanehoana (NCN), a vine in the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Weller and Sakai 1999, pp. 
838-839). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, this 
species was known from a recently extirpated occurrence of two 
individuals, and a newly discovered occurrence (in 2000) of one to six 
individuals in the lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains. 
Currently, the occurrence discovered in 2000 is no longer extant; 
however, another individual was discovered in 2004, and may persist at 
this time (U.S. Army 2005, pp. 16-155--16-157; U.S. Army 2006a; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Tetramolopium filiforme (NCN), a dwarf shrub in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 366). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 21 occurrences containing 253 individuals. 
Currently, this species is found in the dry cliff ecosystem in the 
Waianae Mountains, in 6 occurrences totaling almost 3,000 individuals 
(U.S. Army 2006b, pp. 3-1-198--3-1-204; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008). The large 
increase in the number of individuals is likely due to an increase in 
survey efforts over the past 6 years in potentially suitable habitat 
for this species (U.S. Army 2006b, p. 3-1-202).
    Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (NCN), a shrub in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), is known from Lanai, Maui, and Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 367). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 5 occurrences of approximately 15 
individuals in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, this species 
is found in 3 occurrences totaling 65 individuals, in the lowland mesic 
and dry cliff ecosystems in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa (ohe ohe), a tree in the ginseng family 
(Araliaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, and was 
historically known from one location in the Waianae Mountains (Lowry 
1999, p. 234). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 30 occurrences totaling fewer than 100 individuals in the 
Koolau Mountains. Currently, there are 13 occurrences totaling 
approximately 140 individuals in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, and 
wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; 
HBMP 2008).
    Trematolobelia singularis (NCN), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Lammers 
1999, p. 488). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, 
there were 3 occurrences totaling 165 individuals. Currently, T. 
singularis is found in 4 occurrences totaling approximately 360 
individuals in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems in the Koolau 
Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Urera kaalae (opuhe), a small tree or shrub in the nettle family 
(Urticaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et 
al. 1999, pp. 1,313-1,314). At the time we designated critical habitat 
in 2003, there were 12 occurrences containing 41 individuals. 
Currently, U. kaalae is found in 4 occurrences totaling between 49 and 
60 individuals, in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems in the 
Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Vigna o-wahuensis (NCN), a twining annual or perennial herb in the 
pea family (Fabaceae), is known from Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, 
Kahoolawe, Maui, and Hawaii (Geesink et al. 1999, p. 720). The last 
collection from Oahu was made on the Mokulua Islets and North Islet, 
off Oahu's northeastern coast, in 1938, in the coastal ecosystem (HBMP 
2008). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
no known occurrences, and currently, there are still no known 
occurrences on Oahu's offshore islets (TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).
    Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana (pamakani), a shrub in the 
violet family (Violaceae), is endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,333). At the time we designated critical 
habitat in 2003, there were 15 occurrences containing 59 individuals. 
Currently, this species is found in 8 occurrences totaling slightly 
more than 600 individuals in the lowland mesic and dry cliff ecosystems 
in the Waianae Mountains (U.S. Army 2006b, pp. 3-1-205--3-1-210; TNC 
2007; HBMP 2008).
    Viola oahuensis (NCN), a subshrub in the violet family (Violaceae), 
is endemic to the Koolau Mountains of Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1,336). At the time we designated critical habitat in 2003, there were 
18 occurrences totaling fewer than 200 individuals. Currently, there 
are 8 occurrences totaling approximately 170 individuals in the lowland 
wet and wet cliff ecosystems in

[[Page 46408]]

the Koolau Mountains (U.S. Army 2006; TNC 2007; HBMP 2008).

Methods

    As required by section 4(b) of the Act, we used the best scientific 
data available in determining those areas that contain the physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the 124 species, 
and for which designation of critical habitat is considered prudent, by 
identifying the occurrence data for each species and determining the 
ecosystems upon which they depend. This information was developed by 
using:
     The known locations of the 124 species, including site-
specific species information from the HBMP database (HBMP 2008), the 
Army Environmental Division database (U.S. Army 2006), and our own rare 
plant database;
     Species information from the plant database housed at 
NTBG;
     Oahu map of important habitat for the recovery of plants 
protected under the Act (Service 1999, p. F-7);
     The Nature Conservancy's Ecoregional Assessment of the 
Hawaiian High Islands (2006) and ecosystem maps (2007);
     Color mosaic 1:19,000 scale digital aerial photographs for 
the Hawaiian Islands (April to May 2005);
     Island-wide Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage 
(e.g., Gap Analysis Program (GAP) vegetation data of 2005;
     1:24,000 scale digital raster graphics of U.S. Geological 
Survey (USGS) topographic quadrangles;
     Geospatial data sets associated with parcel data from 
Honolulu County (2008);
     Final critical habitat designation for listed plant 
species on the island of Oahu (June 17, 2003, 68 FR 35950);
     Recent biological surveys and reports; and
     Discussions with qualified individuals familiar with these 
species and ecosystems (HBMP 2008; TNC 2007; NTBG 2007; PEP 2007; D. 
Polhemus, pers. comm. 2008; A. Bakutis, in litt. 2006).

Physical or Biological Features

    In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) and 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act and 
the regulations at 50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas within the 
geographical area occupied at the time of listing to propose as 
critical habitat, we consider the physical or biological features 
essential to the conservation of the species and which may require 
special management considerations or protection. These physical or 
biological features provide the essential life-history requirements of 
the species, and include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Space for individual and population growth and for normal 
behavior;
    (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or 
physiological requirements;
    (3) Cover or shelter;
    (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing (or development) of 
offspring, germination, or seed dispersal; and
    (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or are 
representative of the historical geographical and ecological 
distributions of a species.
    (6) For plant species, ecosystems that provide appropriate seasonal 
wetland and dry land habitats, host species, pollinators, soil types, 
and associated plant communities are taken into consideration when 
determining the physical or biological features essential for a 
species.
    Under section 4(a)(3)(A)(ii) of the Act we may, as appropriate, 
revise a critical habitat designation. For the reasons described above, 
we are proposing to revise critical habitat for 99 Oahu plants based on 
new information received since 2003 and the need to designate 
unoccupied habitat to conserve the species. In addition, the Recovery 
Plan for the Oahu Plants (Service 1998, p. vii) identifies several 
actions needed to recover these species, including: (1) Protection of 
habitat and controlling threats; (2) expanding existing wild 
populations; (3) conducting essential research; (4) developing and 
maintaining monitoring plans; (5) reestablishing wild populations 
within the historic range; and (6) validating and revising recovery 
criteria. We have derived the specific physical or biological features 
required for each of the 99 Oahu plants based on studies of their 
habitat, ecology, and life history; information in the 2003 critical 
habitat designations; and new scientific information that has become 
available since that time.
    In 2003, the physical or biological features for each plant species 
were defined on the basis of the habitat features of the areas actually 
occupied by the plants, which included plant community, associated 
native plant species, locale information (e.g., steep rocky cliffs, 
talus slopes, gulches, stream banks), and elevation (68 FR 35950; June 
17, 2003). No unoccupied habitat was designated as critical habitat in 
the 2003 final rule. In this proposed rule, we are proposing critical 
habitat in areas occupied by the species as well as areas currently 
unoccupied by the species but determined to be essential for their 
conservation (i.e., areas necessary to bring the species to the point 
at which the measures provided under the Act are no longer necessary). 
The physical or biological features have also been more precisely 
identified, and now include elevation, precipitation, substrate, 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory characteristics. Since 2003, we have 
found that many areas where these species are currently or recently 
reported are marginal habitat; the species occurs in these areas due to 
remoteness or inaccessibility to feral ungulates.
    Since the 2003 critical habitat designations were limited to 
occupied areas only, the designation did not include all of the 
geographic areas essential for the conservation of the species. For 
occupied areas, the essential physical or biological features are the 
focus for necessary special management considerations or protections, 
whereas for unoccupied habitat, the area itself is the focus for 
conservation actions. We have determined that the physical or 
biological features described in 2003 can be improved to better 
identify special management considerations that may be necessary, based 
on new information that has become available. The currently proposed 
physical or biological features for occupied areas, in conjunction with 
the unoccupied areas needed to expand and reestablish wild populations 
within the historic range, provide a more comprehensive view of the 
recovery needs and relevant geographic areas for each species. We 
believe this information will be helpful to federal agencies and our 
other partners, as we collectively work to recover these imperiled 
species.
    Under the Act and its implementing regulations, we are required to 
identify the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the 124 species for which we are proposing critical 
habitat. We identify these features in areas occupied by the species at 
the time of listing, focusing on the features' primary constituent 
elements. We consider the primary constituent elements (PCEs) to be the 
elements of physical and biological features that, when laid out in the 
appropriate quantity and spatial arrangement to provide for a species' 
life-history processes, are essential to the conservation of the 
species. The appropriate quantity and spatial arrangement defined for 
this proposed rule takes into consideration the ecosystems in which 
each species occurs and reflects a distribution that we believe 
achieves the species' recovery needs within those ecosystems. In this 
proposal, PCEs for each of the

[[Page 46409]]

124 species are defined based on those physical or biological features 
essential to support the successful functioning of the ecosystem upon 
which each species depends, and which may require special management 
considerations or protection. As the conservation of each species is 
dependent upon a functioning ecosystem to provide its fundamental life 
requirements, such as a certain soil type, minimum level of rainfall, 
or suitable water quantity (damselflies), we consider the physical or 
biological features present in the ecosystems described in this 
proposed rule to provide the necessary PCEs for each species in this 
proposal. The ecosystems' features collectively provide the suite of 
environmental conditions within each ecosystem essential to meeting the 
requirements of each species, including the appropriate microclimatic 
conditions for germination and growth of the plants (e.g., light 
availability, soil nutrients, hydrologic regime, temperature); adequate 
instream flows and upland habitat for cover and foraging for the 
damselfly species; maintenance of upland habitat so that it provides 
for the proper ecological functioning of streams for the damselflies 
(e.g., water quality, water temperature); and in all cases, space 
within the appropriate habitats for population growth and expansion, as 
well as to maintain the historical, geographical, and ecological 
distribution of each species. In many cases, due to our limited 
knowledge of the specific life-history requirements for these species, 
which are little-studied and occur in remote and inaccessible areas, 
the more general description of the physical or biological features 
that provide for the successful function of the ecosystem that is 
essential to the conservation of the species represents the best 
scientific information available. Accordingly, for purposes of this 
proposed rule, the physical or biological features of a properly 
functioning ecosystem are the physical or biological features essential 
to the conservation of the 124 species at issue here that occur in 
those ecosystems.
    Table 4 identifies the physical or biological features of a 
functioning ecosystem for each of the ecosystem types identified in 
this proposed rule, and each species identified in this proposed rule 
requires the physical or biological features for each ecosystem in 
which that species occurs, as noted in Table 5. These physical or 
biological features provide the PCEs for the individual species in each 
ecosystem. The physical or biological features are defined here by 
elevation, annual levels of precipitation, substrate type and slope, 
and the characteristic native plant genera that are found in the 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory levels of the vegetative community 
where applicable. If further information is available indicating 
additional, specific life-history requirements for some species, PCEs 
relating to these requirements are described separately, and are termed 
``unique PCEs for species,'' and are identified in Table 5. The PCEs 
for each species are therefore composed of the physical or biological 
features found in its functioning ecosystem(s) in combination with 
additional unique requirements, if any, as shown in Table 5. Note that 
the PCEs identified in Table 5 for each species are directly related to 
the physical or biological features presented in detail in Table 4; 
thus, both Tables 4 and 5 must be read together to fully describe all 
of the PCEs for each species.
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    Some of the species addressed in this proposed rule occur in more 
than one ecosystem. The PCEs for these species are described separately 
for each ecosystem in which they occur. The reasoning behind this 
approach is that each species requires a different suite of 
environmental conditions depending upon the ecosystem in which it 
occurs. For example, Cyanea calycina will occur in association with 
different native plant species, and other attributes, depending on 
whether it is found within the lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, 
or wet cliff ecosystems. Each of the physical or biological features 
described in each ecosystem in which the species occurs are essential 
to the conservation of the species, to retain its geographical and 
ecological distribution across the different ecosystem types in which 
it may occur. Each physical or biological feature is also essential to 
retaining the genetic representation that allows this species to 
successfully adapt to different environmental conditions in various 
native ecosystems. Although some of these species occur in multiple 
native ecosystems, their declining abundance in the face of ongoing 
threats, such as increasing numbers of nonnative plant competitors, 
indicates that they are not such broad habitat generalists as to be 
able to persist in highly altered habitats. Based on an analysis of the 
best available scientific information, functioning native ecosystems 
provide the fundamental biological requirements for the narrow-range 
endemics addressed in this proposed rule.
    Some examples may help to clarify our approach to describing the 
PCEs for each individual species. If we want to determine the PCEs for 
the plant Zanthoxylum oahuense, we look at Table 5 to see that the PCEs 
for Z. oahuense are provided by the physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem. Table 4 indicates that the physical or 
biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem include elevations of 
less than 3,281 ft (1,000 m); annual precipitation of more than 75 in 
(190 cm); clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, and lowland bogs; 
and one or more genera of the subcanopy and understory plants Alyxia, 
Cibotium, Claoxylon, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Kadua, 
Machaerina, Melicope, Microlepia; and one or more of the genera of the 
canopy species Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, and 
Psychotria. As we do not specifically know the unique PCEs for Z. 
oahuense, and this plant is found only in the lowland wet ecosystem, we 
believe that the physical or biological features for the lowland wet 
ecosystem best approximate the PCEs for Z. oahuense. Thus, the physical 
or biological features provided in the ecosystem in which Z. oahuense 
is found are the PCEs for Z. oahuense.
    As another example, Table 5 indicates the physical or biological 
features for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly include the physical or 
biological features for the lowland wet or wet cliff ecosystems, 
depending on the location, and also that this species has a species-
specific PCE, which is a perennial stream with slow reaches. The PCEs 
for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are thus composed of the physical or 
biological features for each of the two ecosystems it occupies, as 
described in Table 4 for the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems, as 
well as perennial streams with slow reaches (i.e., stream areas with no 
riffles or rapids). Table 5 is read in a similar fashion in conjunction 
with Table 4 to describe the PCEs for each of the 124 species for which 
we are proposing to designate critical habitat in this proposed rule.

Criteria Used To Identify Critical Habitat Boundaries

    We considered several factors in the selection and proposal of 
specific boundaries for critical habitat for these 124 species. We 
propose to designate critical habitat on lands that contain the 
physical or biological features essential to conserving multiple 
species, based on their shared dependence on the functioning ecosystems 
they have in common. Because each of the seven ecosystems addressed in 
this proposed rule does not form a single contiguous area, the 
ecosystems are divided into geographic units. The 7 ecosystem areas are 
divided into 66 critical habitat units.
    The proposed critical habitat is a combination of areas currently 
occupied by the species in that ecosystem, as well as areas that may be 
currently unoccupied. Due to the extremely remote and inaccessible 
nature of some of the areas, surveys are relatively infrequent and may 
be limited in scope; therefore, it is difficult to say with certainty 
whether individual representatives of a rare species may or may not be 
present. However, the best available scientific information suggests 
that these species are or have occupied these habitats. A properly 
functioning ecosystem provides the life-history requirements of the 
species that make up that ecosystem, and the physical and biological 
features found in such an ecosystem are the PCEs essential for the 
conservation of the species that occur there. In other words, the 
occupied areas provide the physical or biological features essential to 
the conservation of the species occurring in the ecosystems we 
analyzed, by providing for the successful functioning of the ecosystem 
on which the species depend. However, due to the small population 
sizes, few numbers of individuals, and reduced geographic range of each 
of the 124 species for which critical habitat is here proposed, we have 
determined that a designation limited to known present range of each 
species would be inadequate to achieve the conservation of those 
species. The areas believed to be unoccupied have been determined to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of the species and will 
promote conservation actions to restore their historical, geographical, 
and ecological representation on Oahu. For seven of the plant species 
reported from Oahu and other Hawaiian Islands, Adenophorus periens 
(extant on Kauai, Molokai, Hawaii), Cyperus pennatiformis var. 
pennatiformis ((Mariscus pennatiformis), extant on Maui and Kauai), 
Diplazium molokaiense (extant on Maui), Isodendrion pyrifolium (extant 
on Hawaii), Kadua coriacea ((Hedyotis coriacea), extant on Maui, 
Kauai), Platanthera holochila (extant on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui), and 
Vigna o-wahuensis (extant on Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, Maui), 
we are proposing to designate unoccupied areas only, as these species 
are not believed to be extant on Oahu. For Cyrtandra waiolani, a plant 
known only from Oahu, we are proposing to designate potentially 
unoccupied areas only, because the identity of a plant observed in 
2005, and believed to possibly be this species, cannot be confirmed 
until flowers or fruit are available. Critical habitat boundaries for 
all species were delineated to clearly depict and promote the recovery 
and conservation of these species by incorporating the functioning 
ecosystems on which they depend.
    With the exception of the seven above plant species believed to no 
longer be extant on Oahu, and Cyrtandra waiolani, which may no longer 
be extant in the wild, each of the critical habitat units in these 
ecosystems contain both occupied areas and areas that are currently 
unoccupied but essential for the conservation of the species. Because 
of their small numbers or low population sizes, each of the 124 species 
requires suitable habitat and space for the expansion of existing 
populations to achieve a level that could approach recovery. For 
example, although Cyanea calycina is found in multiple critical habitat 
units across

[[Page 46434]]

four ecosystem types, its entire distribution is comprised of only 325 
to 339 individuals (U.S. Army 2006; HBMP 2008). The unoccupied areas 
within each unit where the species occurs are essential for the 
expansion of this species to achieve viable population numbers and 
maintain its historical geographical and ecological distribution.
    Current and historical species location information was used to 
develop initial critical habitat boundaries (polygons) in each of the 7 
ecosystems that would provide for the conservation of the 124 species 
addressed in this proposed rule. While all 3 damselfly species are 
historically known from both the Koolau and Waianae Mountains, 85 of 
the 121 plant species for which we propose critical habitat are 
historically known from only one mountain range on Oahu. Forty-nine 
plant species (Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Cenchrus agrimonioides var. 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, 
Colubrina oppositifolia, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, C. pinnatifida, 
Cyanea superba, Cyperus pennatiformis var. pennatiformis, C. 
trachysanthos, Diellia unisora, Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niiahuensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
christophersenii, M. makahae, M. pallida, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kealiae, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. 
perlmanii, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana) are known only from the Waianae Mountains. Thirty-six 
plant species (Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, C. rockii, 
Cyanea crispa, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. 
kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, 
C. waiolani, Diellia erecta, Doryopteris takeuchii, Huperzia nutans, 
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. monostachya, Lysimachia 
filifolia, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, T. lydgatei, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
and Zanthoxylum oahuense) are known only from the Koolau Mountains. For 
these species, we are proposing to designate critical habitat only in 
ecosystems within the mountain range of their historical occurrence. 
The initial polygons were superimposed over digital topographic maps of 
the island of Oahu and further evaluated. In general, land areas that 
were identified as highly degraded were removed from the proposed 
critical habitat units, and natural or manmade features (e.g., ridge 
lines, valleys, streams, coastlines, roads, obvious land features, 
etc.) were used to delineate the proposed critical habitat boundaries.
    The critical habitat areas described below constitute our best 
assessment of the habitat containing the physical or biological 
features essential for the recovery and conservation of the 124 
species, including that needed for expansion of reduced populations. 
The approximate size of each of the 66 plant critical habitat units and 
the 40 damselfly critical habitat units, and the status of their land 
ownership, are identified in Tables 5A and 5B, respectively. The 
species that currently occupy each of the 66 plant and 40 damselfly 
units are identified in Table 7A, along with areas determined to be 
exempt from critical habitat designation under section 4(a)(3) of the 
Act (for summary of exemptions, see Table 7B; see also Exemptions, 
below, for further information). Table 7A also identifies the areas 
designated for Cyrtandra waiolani (a species that may no longer be 
extant in the wild) that may be currently unoccupied by this species. 
All 40 damselfly critical habitat units overlap areas that are also 
proposed for designation as plant critical habitat.
    When determining critical habitat boundaries within this proposed 
rule, we made every effort to avoid including developed areas such as 
buildings, paved areas, and other structures that lack the physical or 
biological features essential for the conservation of the 124 species. 
The scale of the maps we prepared under the parameters for publication 
within the Code of Federal Regulations may not reflect the exclusion of 
such developed areas. Any such structures and the land under them 
inadvertently left inside critical habitat boundaries shown on the maps 
of this proposed rule have been excluded by text in the proposed rule 
and are not proposed for designation as critical habitat. Therefore, 
Federal actions involving these areas would not trigger section 7 
consultation with respect to critical habitat unless the specific 
action would affect the adjacent critical habitat or its primary 
constituent elements.

                         Table 6A--Critical Habitat Proposed for 121 OAHU Plant Species
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Land ownership (acres)
                                      Size of      Size of   ---------------------------------------------------
  Proposed critical habitat area      unit in      unit in                                City and
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       county      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Coastal
--Unit 1..........................          958          388          957            0            0            2
--Unit 2..........................           12            5           12            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           15            6           15            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................            3            1            3            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           12            5           12            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................            9            4            9            0            0            0
--Unit 7..........................           67           27           67            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................           10            4           10            0            0            0
--Unit 9..........................           84           34           84            0            0            0
--Unit 10.........................           74           30            0            0           74            0
--Unit 11.........................           20            8            0            0           20            0
--Unit 12.........................           11            5            0            0           11            0

[[Page 46435]]

 
--Unit 13.........................           24           10            0            0           19            4
--Unit 14.........................            4            2            0            2            0            2
--Unit 15.........................           34           14            0           31            0            2
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Coastal.................        1,339          542        1,169           33          124           10
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Lowland Dry
--Unit 1..........................          102           41           49            0            0           54
--Unit 2..........................           29           12           29            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           25           10            0           25            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           18            7            0           18            0            0
--Unit 5..........................            8            3            0            8            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          287          116          287            0            0            0
--Unit 7..........................           15            6           15            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................          292          118          207            0            0           84
--Unit 9..........................           40           16            1           17           20            3
--Unit 10.........................           43           17           43            0            0            0
--Unit 11.........................          166           67            0          166            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Lowland Dry.............        1,025          413          631          234           20          141
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Lowland Mesic
--Unit 1..........................        4,450        1,801        3,564            0          583          303
--Unit 2..........................        1,063          430        1,063            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................          353          143          353            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           20            8           20            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           29           12           29            0            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          247          100           12            0            0          235
--Unit 7..........................        1,669          676          683            0          130          857
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Lowland Mesic...........        7,831        3,170        5,724            0          713        1,395
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Lowland Wet
--Unit 1..........................          541          219          428            0          112            0
--Unit 2..........................           20            8           20            0            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           29           12           29            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           27           11           27            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           76           31           74            2            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 7..........................        1,790          724        1,501            0            0          289
--Unit 8..........................        3,041        1,231        1,385            0            0        1,656
--Unit 9..........................       15,728        6,365        2,921        4,510          148        8,148
--Unit 10.........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 11.........................          124           50            0            0          124            0
--Unit 12.........................           53           21            0            0           27           26
--Unit 13.........................          161           65           13           52           96            0
--Unit 14.........................          478          193          282            0          196            0
--Unit 15.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 16.........................        2,507        1,014        1,534            0          365          607
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Lowland Wet.............       25,896       10,479        8,621        4,564        1,068       11,640
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Montane Wet
--Unit 1..........................          370          150          353            0           17            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Montane Wet.............          370          150          353            0           17            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Dry Cliff
--Unit 1..........................           49           20           49            0            0            0
--Unit 2..........................          412          167          321            0           91            0
--Unit 3..........................          450          182          101            0          349            0
--Unit 4..........................          108           44           26           82            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           26           10            0           26            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          255          103          150          105            0            0
--Unit 7..........................          208           84           96          113            0            0
--Unit 8..........................          259          105          259            0            0            0
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 46436]]

 
    TOTAL Dry Cliff...............        1,767          715        1,002          326          440            0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Wet Cliff
--Unit 1..........................          235           95          167            0           68            0
--Unit 2..........................            7            3            5            2            0            0
--Unit 3..........................           16            6           16            0            0            0
--Unit 4..........................           23            9           23            0            0            0
--Unit 5..........................           43           17           23           20            0            0
--Unit 6..........................          151           61          151            0            0            0
--Unit 7..........................          144           58          144            0            0            0
--Unit 8..........................        4,649        1,881        1,666            5        1,280        1,698
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Wet Cliff...............        5,268        2,130        2,195           27        1,348        1,698
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL ALL UNITS...............       43,491       17,603       19,695        5,184        3,730       14,884
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                        Table 6B--Critical Habitat Proposed for 3 Oahu Damselfly Species
                                      [Totals may not sum due to rounding]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Landownership (acres)
                                      Size of      Size of   ---------------------------------------------------
  Proposed critical habitat unit      unit in      unit in                                City and
                                       acres       hectares      State       Federal       county      Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Wet
--Unit 1..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 2..........................        1,790          724        1,501            0            0          289
--Unit 3..........................        3,041        1,231        1,385            0            0        1,656
--Unit 4..........................       15,728        6,365        2,921        4,510          148        8,148
--Unit 5..........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 6..........................          124           50            0            0          124            0
--Unit 7..........................           53           21            0            0           27           26
--Unit 8..........................          161           65           13           52           96            0
--Unit 9..........................          478          193          282            0          196            0
--Unit 10.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 11.........................        2,507        1,014        1,534            0          365          607
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Crimson Hawaiian               25,203       10,198        8,043        4,562          956       11,640
     Damselfly--Lowland Wet.......
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Wet
 Cliff
--Unit 12.........................          151           61          151            0            0            0
--Unit 13.........................          144           58          144            0            0            0
--Unit 14.........................        4,649        1,881        1,666            5        1,280        1,698
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Crimson Hawaiian                4,944        2,000        1,961            5        1,280        1,698
     Damselfly--Wet Cliff.........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Wet
--Unit 1..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 2..........................        1,790          724        1,501            0            0          289
--Unit 3..........................        3,041        1,231        1,385            0            0        1,656
--Unit 4..........................       15,728        6,365        2,921        4,510          148        8,148
--Unit 5..........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 6..........................          124           50            0            0          124            0
--Unit 7..........................           53           21            0            0           27           26
--Unit 8..........................          161           65           13           52           96            0
--Unit 9..........................          478          193          282            0          196            0
--Unit 10.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 11.........................        2,507        1,014        1,534            0          365          607
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Blackline Hawaiian             25,203       10,198        8,043        4,562          956       11,640
     Damselfly--Lowland Wet.......
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Mesic
--Unit 1..........................          247          100           12            0            0          235
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 46437]]

 
    TOTAL Oceanic Hawaiian                  247          100           12            0            0          235
     Damselfly--Lowland Mesic.....
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--
 Lowland Wet
--Unit 2..........................          790          320            0            0            0          790
--Unit 3..........................        1,790          724        1,501            0            0          289
--Unit 4..........................        3,041        1,231        1,385            0            0        1,656
--Unit 5..........................       15,728        6,365        2,921        4,510          148        8,148
--Unit 6..........................          124           50            0            0            0          124
--Unit 7..........................          124           50            0            0          124            0
--Unit 8..........................           53           21            0            0           27           26
--Unit 9..........................          161           65           13           52           96            0
--Unit 10.........................          478          193          282            0          196            0
--Unit 11.........................          407          165          407            0            0            0
--Unit 12.........................        2,507        1,014        1,534            0          365          607
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Oceanic Hawaiian               25,203       10,198        8,043        4,562          956       11,640
     Damselfly--Lowland Wet.......
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Wet
 Cliff
--Unit 13.........................          151           61          151            0            0            0
--Unit 14.........................          144           58          144            0            0            0
--Unit 15.........................        4,649        1,881        1,666            5        1,280        1,698
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TOTAL Oceanic Hawaiian                4,944        2,000        1,961            5        1,280        1,698
     Damselfly--Wet Cliff.........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                  Table 7A--Species for Which Critical Habitat Is Proposed for Designation in Each Ecosystem, and Section 4(a)(3) Exempt Areas
                                                                                     [See discussion below]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                 Exempt from
                                                                                                                                            Critical habitat  critical habitat   Total critical
             Species                   Coastal       Lowland dry    Lowland mesic    Lowland wet   Montane wet    Dry cliff     Wet cliff        ac (ha)        ac (ha) under     habitat plus
                                                                                                                                                                   4(a)(3)       exempt ac (ha)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Plants
Abutilon sandwicense.............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)          169 (68)     7,802 (3,157)
Achyranthes splendens var.         X\W\             X\W\           ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............     3,510 (1,423)             0 (0)     3,510 (1,423)
 rotundata.
Adenophorus periens..............  ...............  .............  ...............  XK-H          ............  ............  XK-H           30,147 (12,198)             0 (0)   30,147 (12,198)
Alectryon macrococcus............  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  X\W\          X\W\          ............     9,968 (4,035)          169 (68)    10,137 (4,103)
Bidens amplectens................  X\W\             X\W\           ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............       1,140 (461)            16 (7)       1,156 (468)
Bonamia menziesii................  ...............  X\W\           X\W, K\          ............  ............  X\W\          ............     9,780 (3,958)         583 (236)    10,363 (4,194)
Cenchrus agrimonioides...........  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)          169 (68)     7,802 (3,157)
Centaurium sebaeoides............  X\W, K\          .............  ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............       1,275 (517)             0 (0)       1,275 (517)
Chamaesyce celastroides var.       X\W\             X\W\           XW, K-H          ............  ............  ............  ............     8,971 (3,631)           53 (21)     9,024 (3,652)
 kaenana.
Chamaesyce deppeana..............  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  ............  X\K\             4,944 (2,000)             0 (0)     4,944 (2,000)
Chamaesyce herbstii..............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)          169 (68)     7,802 (3,157)
Chamaesyce kuwaleana.............  XK-H             .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       2,084 (844)             0 (0)       2,084 (844)
Chamaesyce rockii................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,254 (2,126)   35,401 (14,324)
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.       ...............  X\W\           ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............         548 (221)             0 (0)         548 (221)
 skottsbergii.
Colubrina oppositifolia..........  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)             0 (0)     5,866 (2,374)
Ctenitis squamigera..............  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)         811 (328)     8,642 (3,498)
Cyanea acuminata.................  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       X\W\          ............  X\W, K\        39,365 (15,929)     7,183 (2,906)   46,548 (18,835)
Cyanea calycina..................  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       X\W\          ............  X\W, K\        39,365 (15,929)     6,588 (2,665)   45,953 (18,594)
Cyanea crispa....................  ...............  .............  X\K\             X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           32,112 (12,994)     5,306 (2,147)   37,418 (15,141)
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       ............  ............  ............   33,727 (13,649)             0 (0)   33,727 (13,649)
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae....  ...............  .............  X\W\             X\W\          ............  X\W\          ............     8,326 (3,370)       1,567 (634)     9,893 (4,004)
Cyanea humboldtiana..............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,306 (2,147)   35,453 (14,345)
Cyanea koolauensis...............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,893 (2,385)   31,096 (12,583)
Cyanea lanceolata................  ...............  .............  X\K\             X\K\          ............  ............  ............   27,168 (10,994)     5,298 (2,144)   32,466 (13,138)
Cyanea longiflora................  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)          125 (51)     7,956 (3,221)
Cyanea pinnatifida...............  ...............  .............  XW-H             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)             0 (0)     5,866 (2,374)
Cyanea purpurellifolia...........  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,298 (2,144)   35,445 (14,342)
Cyanea st.-johnii................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,298 (2,144)   35,445 (14,342)
Cyanea superba...................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)         693 (280)     6,559 (2,654)
Cyanea truncata..................  ...............  .............  X\K\             XK-H          ............  ............  XK-H           32,112 (12,994)             0 (0)   32,112 (12,994)
Cyperus pennatiformis............  ...............  .............  XW-H             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)             0 (0)     5,866 (2,374)
Cyperus trachysanthos............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\        ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............          181 (74)             0 (0)          181 (74)

[[Page 46438]]

 
Cyrtandra dentata................  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       ............  X\W\          ............   38,995 (15,779)     5,468 (2,213)   44,463 (17,992)
Cyrtandra gracilis...............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)             0 (0)   25,203 (10,198)
Cyrtandra kaulantha..............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)             0 (0)   30,147 (12,198)
Cyrtandra polyantha..............  ...............  .............  X\K\             X\K\          ............  ............  ............   27,168 (10,994)             0 (0)   27,168 (10,994)
Cyrtandra sessilis...............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)             0 (0)   30,147 (12,198)
Cyrtandra subumbellata...........  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)         595 (241)   30,742 (12,439)
Cyrtandra viridiflora............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,306 (2,147)   35,453 (14,345)
Cyrtandra waiolani*..............  ...............  .............  XK-H             XK-H          ............  ............  ............   27,168 (10,994)             0 (0)   27,168 (10,994)
Delissea subcordata..............  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)         693 (280)     8,524 (3,450)
Diellia erecta...................  ...............  .............  X\K\             ............  ............  ............  ............       1,965 (796)             0 (0)       1,965 (796)
Diellia falcata..................  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  X\W\          ............     9,598 (3,885)       1,406 (569)    11,004 (4,454)
Diellia unisora..................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)             0 (0)     7,633 (3,089)
Diplazium molokaiense............  ...............  .............  XW-H             XW-H          ............  ............  ............     6,559 (2,655)             0 (0)     6,559 (2,655)
Doryopteris takeuchii............  ...............  X\K\           ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............         302 (122)             0 (0)         302 (122)
Dubautia herbstobatae............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)         583 (236)     8,216 (3,325)
Eragrostis fosbergii.............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)             0 (0)     7,633 (3,089)
Eugenia koolauensis..............  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)          125 (51)     7,956 (3,221)
Euphorbia haeleeleana............  ...............  X\W\           X\W\             ............  ............  ............  ............     6,048 (2,447)           53 (21)     6,101 (2,468)
Flueggea neowawraea..............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)       1,406 (569)     9,039 (3,658)
Gardenia mannii..................  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       ............  ............  ............   33,727 (13,649)     5,298 (2,144)   39,025 (15,793)
Gouania meyenii..................  ...............  XW, K-H        X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     8,117 (3,284)             0 (0)     8,117 (3,284)
Gouania vitifolia................  ...............  X\W\           XW-H             X\W\          ............  X\W\          ............     8,508 (3,443)             0 (0)     8,508 (3,443)
Hesperomannia arborescens........  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\K\          ............  ............  ............   33,034 (13,368)     5,298 (2,144)   38,332 (15,512)
Hesperomannia arbuscula..........  ...............  .............  X\W\             X\W\          ............  ............  ............     6,559 (2,655)             0 (0)     6,559 (2,655)
Hibiscus brackenridgei...........  ...............  X\W\           X\W\             ............  ............  ............  ............     6,048 (2,447)            18 (7)     6,066 (2,454)
Huperzia nutans..................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,901 (2,388)   36,048 (14,586)
Isodendrion laurifolium..........  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  X\W\          ............     9,598 (3,885)             0 (0)     9,598 (3,885)
Isodendrion longifolium..........  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       ............  ............  ............   33,727 (13,649)         595 (241)   34,322 (13,890)
Isodendrion pyrifolium...........  ...............  XW-H           ...............  ............  ............  XW-H          ............       1,949 (788)             0 (0)       1,949 (788)
Kadua coriacea...................  ...............  .............  XW-H, K-H        ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)             0 (0)     7,831 (3,170)
Kadua degeneri...................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)          170 (69)     7,803 (3,158)
Kadua parvula....................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)         583 (236)     8,216 (3,325)
Korthalsella degeneri............  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       1,767 (715)         412 (167)       2,179 (882)
Labordia cyrtandrae..............  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       X\W\          ............  X\W, K\        39,365 (15,929)     7,183 (2,906)   46,548 (18,835)
Lepidium arbuscula...............  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       1,767 (715)         690 (280)       2,457 (995)
Lipochaeta lobata var.             ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       1,767 (715)             0 (0)       1,767 (715)
 leptophylla.
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp.          ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)         595 (241)   25,798 (10,439)
 koolauensis.
Lobelia monostachya..............  ...............  .............  X\K\             ............  ............  ............  ............       1,965 (796)             0 (0)       1,965 (796)
Lobelia niihauensis..............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)         583 (236)     8,216 (3,325)
Lobelia oahuensis................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\W, K\       X\W\          ............  X\W, K\        31,210 (12,629)         642 (259)   31,852 (12,888)
Lysimachia filifolia.............  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  ............  X\K\             4,944 (2,000)             0 (0)     4,944 (2,000)
Marsilea villosa.................  X\W, K\          X\W, K\        ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............          181 (74)             0 (0)          181 (74)
Melanthera tenuifolia............  ...............  X\W\           X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,815 (3,162)         753 (305)     8,568 (3,467)
Melicope christophersenii........  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  X\W\          ............  X\W\                 694 (280)         481 (194)       1,175 (474)
Melicope hiiakae.................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,298 (2,144)   30,501 (12,342)
Melicope lydgatei................  ...............  .............  X\K\             X\K\          ............  ............  ............   27,168 (10,994)     5,298 (2,144)   32,466 (13,138)
Melicope makahae.................  ...............  .............  X\W\             X\W\          ............  X\W\          ............     8,326 (3,370)         583 (236)     8,909 (3,606)
Melicope pallida.................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)             0 (0)     5,866 (2,374)
Melicope saint-johnii............  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  X\W\          ............     9,598 (3,885)             0 (0)     9,598 (3,885)
Myrsine juddii...................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,298 (2,144)   30,501 (12,342)
Neraudia angulata................  ...............  X\W\           X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,815 (3,162)       1,406 (569)     9,221 (3,731)
Nototrichium humile..............  ...............  X\W\           X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,815 (3,162)          193 (78)     8,008 (3,240)
Peucedanum sandwicense...........  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       1,767 (715)             0 (0)       1,767 (715)
Phyllostegia hirsuta.............  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       X\W\          ............  X\W, K\        39,365 (15,929)     7,183 (2,906)   46,548 (18,835)
Phyllostegia kaalaensis..........  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)             0 (0)     7,633 (3,089)
Phyllostegia mollis..............  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          X\W\          ............  ............  ............     8,524 (3,451)         801 (324)     9,325 (3,775)
Phyllostegia parviflora var.       ...............  .............  XW-H             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)             0 (0)     5,866 (2,374)
 lydgatei.
Phyllostegia parviflora var.       ...............  .............  XK-H             X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           32,112 (12,994)             0 (0)   32,112 (12,994)
 parviflora.
Plantago princeps var.             ...............  .............  ...............  XK-H          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)             0 (0)   25,203 (10,198)
 longibracteata.
Plantago princeps var. princeps..  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          X\W, K\       ............  X\W\          X\K\           40,438 (16,364)         896 (352)   41,334 (16,716)
Platanthera holochila............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)             0 (0)   25,203 (10,198)
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta..  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,893 (2,385)   31,096 (12,583)
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)       1,406 (569)     9,039 (3,658)
Pleomele forbesii................  ...............  X\W\           X\W, K\          X\W\          ............  X\W\          ............    10,473 (4,239)         753 (305)    11,226 (4,544)
Psychotria hexandra ssp.           ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,306 (2,147)   35,453 (14,345)
 oahuensis.
Pteralyxia macrocarpa............  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W, K\       ............  X\W\          X\W, K\        40,762 (16,494)       1,174 (718)   42,536 (17,212)
Pteris lidgatei..................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,893 (2,385)   31,096 (12,583)

[[Page 46439]]

 
Sanicula mariversa...............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)         583 (236)     8,216 (3,325)
Sanicula purpurea................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,901 (2,388)   36,048 (14,586)
Schiedea hookeri.................  ...............  X\W\           X\W\             X\W\          ............  X\W\          X\W\             8,832 (3,573)       1,066 (431)     9,898 (4,004)
Schiedea kaalae..................  ...............  .............  X\W, K\          X\W\          ............  ............  X\W, K\         13,792 (5,581)         883 (357)    14,675 (5,938)
Schiedea kealiae.................  X\W\             X\W\           ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............       1,140 (461)             0 (0)       1,140 (461)
Schiedea nuttallii...............  ...............  .............  XW, K-H          ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)         864 (349)     8,695 (3,519)
Schiedea obovata.................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)          169 (68)     7,802 (3,157)
Schiedea trinervis...............  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  X\W\          X\W\          X\W\               2,461 (995)         494 (199)     2,955 (1,194)
Sesbania tomentosa...............  X\W, K\          .............  ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............       1,275 (517)             0 (0)       1,140 (461)
Silene lanceolata................  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       1,767 (715)         412 (167)       2,179 (882)
Silene perlmanii.................  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)             0 (0)     7,633 (3,089)
Solanum sandwicense..............  ...............  .............  XW-H, K-H        ............  ............  ............  ............     7,831 (3,170)         640 (259)     8,471 (3,429)
Spermolepis hawaiiensis..........  ...............  X\W, K\        ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       2,251 (910)             0 (0)       2,251 (910)
Stenogyne kanehoana..............  ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  ............  ............     5,866 (2,374)         640 (259)     6,506 (2,633)
Tetramolopium filiforme..........  ...............  .............  ...............  ............  ............  X\W\          ............       1,767 (715)         412 (167)       2,179 (882)
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.       ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)             0 (0)     7,633 (3,089)
 lepidotum.
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa........  ...............  .............  X\K\             X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           32,112 (12,994)          125 (51)   32,237 (13,045)
Tetraplasandra lydgatei..........  ...............  .............  X\K\             ............  ............  ............  ............       1,965 (796)             0 (0)       1,965 (796)
Trematolobelia singularis........  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)             0 (0)   30,147 (12,198)
Urera kaalae.....................  ...............  .............  X\W\             X\W\          ............  ............  ............     6,559 (2,655)             0 (0)     6,559 (2,655)
Vigna o-wahuensis................  XW-H, K-H        .............  ...............  ............  ............  ............  ............     6,219 (2,517)             0 (0)     6,219 (2,517)
Viola chamissoniana ssp.           ...............  .............  X\W\             ............  ............  X\W\          ............     7,633 (3,089)         583 (236)     8,216 (3,325)
 chamissoniana.
Viola oahuensis..................  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  X\K\           25,203 (10,198)         595 (241)   25,798 (10,439)
Zanthoxylum oahuense.............  ...............  .............  ...............  X\K\          ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,893 (2,385)   31,096 (12,583)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Animals
blackline Hawaiian damselfly.....  ...............  .............  ...............  XW-H, K       ............  ............  ............   25,203 (10,198)     5,893 (2,385)   31,096 (12,583)
crimson Hawaiian damselfly.......  ...............  .............  ...............  XW-H, K       ............  ............  X\K\           30,147 (12,198)     5,901 (2,388)   36,048 (14,586)
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly.......  ...............  .............  X\K\             XW-H, K       ............  ............  X\K\           30,394 (12,298)     5,306 (2,147)   35,700 (14,445)
Proposed CH ac (ha)..............  1,339            1,025          7,831            25,896        370           1,767         5,268
                                   (542)            (413)          (3,170)          (10,479)      (150)         (715)         (2,130)
Exempt Area ac (ha)..............  0                18             989              6,054         399           547           90
                                   (0)              (7)            (400)            (2,450)       (161)         (222)         (36)
                                  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Area Considered Proposed CH  1,339            1,041          8,819            31,948        769           2,314         5,358
 (including Exempt Area) ac (ha).  (542)            (421)          (3,569)          (12,929)      (311)         (937)         (2,168)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W = occurs within indicated ecosystem in the Waianae Mountain caldera complex.
K = occurs within indicated ecosystem in the Koolau Mountain caldera complex.
W-H = known historically (last observed > 20 yrs ago) from indicated ecosystem in the Waianae Mountain caldera complex.
K-H = known historically (last observed > 20 yrs ago) from indicated ecosystem in the Koolau Mountain caldera complex.
The area known to be occupied by species for which the unit is designated also provides area essential to the conservation of all of the species that occur in that particular ecosystem.
  Unoccupied habitat provides space and appropriate environmental conditions for activities such as seed dispersal and reproduction that will serve to expand the existing populations.
* This species may no longer occur in the wild.
 
Note: Total number of species in table is greater than 124 because we identify the applicable ecosystems and section 4(A)(3) exempt areas for the Oahu varieties of Phyllostegia parviflora and
  Plantago princeps.


     Table 7B--Areas by Ecosystem Determined To Be Exempt From Designation Under Section 4(a)(3) of the Act
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Proposed critical      Acres (hectares) exempt    Total area considered
                                             habitat            from critical habitat  -------------------------
             Ecosystem             ----------------------------------------------------
                                         ac           ha           ac           ha           ac           ha
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coastal...........................        1,339          542            0            0        1,339          542
Lowland Dry.......................        1,025          413           18            7        1,041          421
Lowland Mesic.....................        7,831        3,170          989          400        8,820        3,570
Lowland Wet.......................       25,896       10,479        6,054        2,450       31,950       12,929
Montane Wet.......................          370          150          399          161          769          311
Dry Cliff.........................        1,767          715          547          222        2,314          937
Wet Cliff.........................        5,268        2,130           90           36        4,739        1,917
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Special Management Considerations or Protections

    The term critical habitat is defined in section 3(5)(A) of the Act, 
in part, as geographic areas on which are found the physical or 
biological features essential to the conservation of the species and 
``which may require special management considerations or protection.''
    In identifying critical habitat in occupied areas, we determine 
whether

[[Page 46440]]

those areas that contain the features essential to the conservation of 
the species require any special management actions. Although the 
determination that special management may be required is not a 
prerequisite to designating critical habitat in unoccupied areas, 
special management is needed throughout all of the proposed critical 
habitat units. The following discussion of special management needs is 
therefore applicable to each of the 124 Oahu species for which we are 
herein proposing to designate critical habitat.
    The 124 Oahu species for which we are proposing to designate 
critical habitat include 116 species that are currently found in the 
wild on Oahu; 7 plant species found currently only on other Hawaiian 
Islands, but which were historically found on Oahu; and 1 plant 
species, Cyrtandra waiolani, which may not be extant in the wild. For 
each of the 123 species currently found in the wild, we have determined 
the features essential to their conservation are those required for the 
successful functioning of the ecosystem(s) in which they occur (see 
Tables 4 and 5). As described earlier, in some cases, additional 
species-specific primary constituent elements were also identified (see 
Table 5). Special management considerations or protections are 
necessary throughout the critical habitat areas proposed here to avoid 
further degradation or destruction of those features essential to their 
conservation. The primary threats to the physical or biological 
features essential to the conservation of all of these species include 
habitat destruction and modification by feral ungulates, competition 
with nonnative species, hurricanes, landslides, rockfalls, flooding, 
fire, drought, and climate change. The Hawaiian damselflies are 
additionally threatened by destruction and modification of their 
aquatic habitat due to conversion and fill for agriculture and 
development, and stream alterations (diversions, channelization, and 
dewatering). The reduction of these threats will require the 
implementation of special management actions within each of the 
critical habitat areas identified in this proposed rule.
    All proposed critical habitat, except that in the coastal ecosystem 
on Oahu, requires active management to address the ongoing degradation 
and loss of native habitat caused by feral ungulates (pigs and goats). 
Feral ungulates also impact the habitat through predation and 
trampling. Without this special management, habitat containing the 
features that are essential for the conservation of these species will 
continue to be degraded and destroyed.
    All proposed critical habitat requires active management to address 
the ongoing degradation and loss of native habitat caused by nonnative 
plants. Special management is also required to prevent the introduction 
of new alien plant species into native habitats. Particular attention 
is required during nonnative plant control efforts to avoid creating 
additional disturbances that may facilitate the further introduction 
and establishment of invasive plant seeds. Precautions are also 
required to avoid the inadvertent trampling of listed plant species in 
the course of management activities.
    The active control of nonnative plant species will help to address 
the threat posed by fire to 29 of the proposed ecosystem critical 
habitat units in particular: Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
12, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8. This threat is largely a result of the presence of 
nonnative plant species such as the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris and 
Melinus minutiflora that increase the fuel load and quickly regenerate 
after a fire. These nonnative grass species can outcompete native 
plants that are not adapted to fire, creating a grass-fire cycle that 
alters ecosystem functions (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 64-66; 
Brooks et al. 2004, p. 680).
    Thirty-five of the proposed ecosystem critical habitat units 
(Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8) may require special management to 
reduce the threat of landslides, rockfalls, and flooding. These 
threaten to further degrade habitat conditions in these units and have 
the potential to eliminate some populations of 24 plants (e.g., Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, Doryopteris takeuchii, Huperzia nutans, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Melicope makahae, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora var. lydgatei, Plantago 
princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, P. cornuta 
var. decurrens, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Sanicula mariversa, 
Schiedea kealiae, S. obovata, Solanum sandwicense, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana) 
and 3 damselfly species found on steep slopes and cliffs, or in narrow 
gulches. In addition, perennial streams in 40 of the overlapping 
ecosystem units (blackline Hawaiian damselfly Lowland Wet units 1-11; 
crimson Hawaiian damselfly Lowland Wet units 1-11 and Wet Cliff units 
12-14; and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly critical habitat units 1-Lowland 
Mesic, Lowland Wet units 2-12, and Wet Cliff units 13-15) may require 
special management to reduce the threats to the blackline, crimson, and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies from diversions, dewatering, vertical 
wells, and stream channelization.
    In summary, we find that each of the areas we are proposing as 
critical habitat contains features essential for the conservation of 
the species that may require special management considerations or 
protection to ensure the conservation of the 124 Oahu species. These 
special management considerations and protections are required to 
preserve and maintain the essential features provided to these species 
by the ecosystems upon which they depend. The specific areas proposed 
for critical habitat that are outside the geographical area occupied

[[Page 46441]]

by these species have been determined to be essential for their 
conservation.

Proposed Critical Habitat Designation

    We are proposing 43,491 ac (17,600 ha) as critical habitat in 7 
ecosystem types for 124 species. The proposed critical habitat is 
comprised of 66 critical habitat units for the plants, and 40 critical 
habitat units for the damselflies (see Tables 5A and 5B, above, for 
details). The proposed critical habitat includes land under State, City 
and County of Honolulu, Federal (Department of Defense--Navy; 
Department of Homeland Security--Coast Guard; Department of Interior--
Fish and Wildlife Service), and private ownership. The critical habitat 
units we describe below constitute our current best assessment of those 
areas that meet the definition of critical habitat for the 124 species 
of plants and animals.

Descriptions of Proposed Critical Habitat Units

    The unit descriptions presented here represent the 7 essential 
ecosystem areas that we have identified for all 124 species. Critical 
habitat for the 121 Oahu plant species and critical habitat for the 3 
Oahu damselflies are published in separate sections of the Code of 
Federal Regulations (CFR); critical habitat is published in 50 CFR 
17.99(i) for Oahu plants and in 50 CFR 17.95(i) for the three damselfly 
species. However, the same geographic area represents proposed critical 
habitat for both plants and damselflies in some portions of Oahu. For 
example, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (represented by map 26 in our 
proposed revision to 50 CFR 17.99(i)) and oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--
Unit 1--Lowland Mesic (represented by map 2 for this species in 50 CFR 
17.95(i)) correspond to the same geographic area. Therefore, because 
the unit boundaries are the same, we are describing them only once to 
avoid redundancy and reduce publication costs for this proposed rule, 
as indicated by ``(and)'' following the unit name.
    As provided under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, all or portions of 
each of these areas may be considered for exclusion from critical 
habitat when this rule is finalized. Exclusions are considered based on 
the relative costs and benefits of designating critical habitat, 
including information provided during the public comment period on 
potential economic impacts of this proposed critical habitat 
designation, and are made at the discretion of the Secretary. The 
consideration of potential economic impacts applies solely to the 
designation of critical habitat, and is not a factor in our assessment 
of whether a species warrants listing as endangered or threatened under 
the Act.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 consists of 958 ac (388 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem along the northwestern coast of Oahu from Kaena Point east to 
Kauhao Pali and southeast to Keawaula. This unit is State-owned, and 
partially within Kaena Point State Park. It is occupied by the plants 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, and Sesbania tomentosa, and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied 
by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Schiedea kealiae, or Vigna 
o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range. Due to their small numbers of individuals or 
low population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space 
for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 consists of 12 ac (5 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem on Mokuaula, an islet east of Kalanai Point on the 
northeastern coast of Oahu. This unit is State-owned and is classified 
as a State Seabird Sanctuary. It includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although this unit is not currently 
occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania 
tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 consists of 15 ac (6 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the larger of two islets (Moku Manu) off the windward 
coast of Oahu near Mokapu Peninsula. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as PCEs in the coastal 
ecosystem (see Table 4). Although this unit is not currently occupied 
by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 consists of 3 ac (1 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, the smaller of two islets (Moku Manu) off the windward coast 
Oahu near Mokapu Peninsula. This unit is State-owned, classified as a 
State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem 
(see Table 4). Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 is not currently occupied 
by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 consists of 12 ac (5 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, the larger of two islands (Mokulua Islands) off the windward 
coast of Oahu near Wailea Point. This unit is State-owned, classified 
as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed herbland and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although this unit is not currently 
occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the

[[Page 46442]]

conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6 consists of 9 ac (4 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the smaller of two islands (Mokulua Islands) off the 
windward coast of Oahu near Wailea Point. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 6 is not currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7 consists of 67 ac (27 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the larger of two islands (Manana Island) off the 
windward coast of Oahu near Makapuu Point. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 7 is not currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8 consists of 10 ac (4 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on the smaller of two islands (Kaohikaipu Island) off the 
windward coast of Oahu near Makapuu Point. This unit is State-owned, 
classified as a State Seabird Sanctuary, and includes the mixed 
herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is occupied 
by the plant Sesbania tomentosa and contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of this species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8 is not currently occupied by Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, and Vigna o-wahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9 consists of 84 ac (34 ha) of State land and 
0.02 ac (0.01 ha) of privately owned land in the coastal ecosystem on 
the leeward side of Makapuu Point (Puuokipahulu). This unit is occupied 
by the plants Cyperus trachysanthos and Marsilea villosa, and includes 
the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the coastal ecosystem, as well as the unique 
species PCEs for the plants C. trachysanthos and M. villosa (see Table 
4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--
Unit 9 is not currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
coastal species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 consists of 74 ac (30 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, owned by the City and County of Honolulu at Halona Point on 
the leeward side of Koko Crater, extending from Sandy Beach to 
Kahauloa. It is occupied by the plant Centaurium sebaeiodes and 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 is not 
known to be occupied by Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and 
Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these coastal species because it provides 
the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 consists of 20 ac (8 ha) of City and County 
of Honolulu land in the coastal ecosystem, at Ihiihilauakea on Koko 
Head (Kaihuokapuaa). This unit is occupied by the plant Marsilea 
villosa, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem, as well as 
the unique species PCEs for this species (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 is not 
currently occupied by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these coastal species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve

[[Page 46443]]

population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 consists of 11 ac (5 ha) of City and County 
land in the coastal ecosystem, at Nonoula on Koko Head (Kaihuokapuaa). 
This unit is occupied by the plant Marsilea villosa, and includes the 
mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the coastal ecosystem, as well as the unique species PCEs 
for this species (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 is not currently occupied 
by Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyperus trachysanthos, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13 consists of 24 ac (10 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on City, County and private land at Kalaeloa. This unit is 
occupied by the plant Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, and 
includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13 is not 
known to be occupied by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania 
tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14 consists of 4 ac (2 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on private and federal (U.S. Coast Guard) land at Kalaeloa. 
This unit is occupied by the plant Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--
Unit 14 is not known to be occupied by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 consists of 34 ac (14 ha) in the coastal 
ecosystem, on State, private, and federal (Pearl Harbor NWR) land at 
Kalaeloa. This unit is occupied by the plant Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, and includes the mixed herbland and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the coastal ecosystem (see Table 4). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Coastal--
Unit 15 is not known to be occupied by Bidens amplectens, Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, 
Sesbania tomentosa, or Vigna o-wahuensis, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these coastal 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 consists of 102 ac (41 ha) in the lowland 
dry ecosystem, on State and privately owned land in the Waianae 
Mountains, extending from Haili Gulch to Kawaipahai. This unit is 
occupied by the plants Bidens amplectens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Nototrichium humile, and Schiedea kealiae, and includes the dry forest 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Pleomele 
forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 consists of 29 ac (12 ha) in the lowland 
dry ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, on State-owned land within 
Kaena Point State Park. This unit is occupied by the plants Bonamia 
menziesii, Melanthera tenuifolia, Nototrichium humile, and Pleomele 
forbesii, and includes the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland dry 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
Neraudia, Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we 
have

[[Page 46444]]

determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3 consists of 25 ac (10 ha) in the lowland 
dry ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, on Federal land (U.S. Navy) in 
Lualualei Valley, south of Mailiili Stream. This unit is occupied by 
the plant Marsilea villosa, and includes the dry forest and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
dry ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this species (see Table 4). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by the plants Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Cyperus trachysanthos, Euphorbia 
haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neruadia angulata var. 
angulata, N. angulata var. dentata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele 
forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4 consists of 18 ac (7 ha) in the lowland 
dry ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, on Federal land (U.S. Navy) in 
Lualualei Valley, along Paakea Road. This unit is occupied by the plant 
Marsilea villosa, and includes the dry forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
dry ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this plant (see Table 4). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Cyperus trachysanthos, Euphorbia 
haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, 
Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, 
or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 consists of 8 ac (3 ha) in the lowland 
dry ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, on Federal land (U.S. Navy) in 
Lualualei Valley, northeast of Paakea Road. This unit is occupied by 
the plant Cyperus trachysanthos and includes the dry forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland dry ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this plant (see 
Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for 
the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5 is not known to be occupied by the plants Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
Marsilea villosa, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, 
or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 consists of 287 ac (116 ha) of State land 
in the lowland dry ecosystem, on the outer rim of Leahi (Diamond Head) 
Crater within Diamond Head State Monument. This unit is occupied by the 
plants Doryopteris takeuchii and Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and includes 
the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 6 is not known to be occupied by the plant Gouania meyenii, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of this lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to its small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, this species requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7 consists of 15 ac (6 ha) of State land in 
the lowland dry ecosystem, in Leahi (Diamond Head) Crater within 
Diamond Head State Monument. This unit is occupied by the plant Cyperus 
trachysanthos and includes the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland dry 
ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this plant (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 7 is not known to be occupied by the plants Doryopteris 
takeuchii, Gouania meyenii, Marsilea villosa, or Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland dry species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the

[[Page 46445]]

species, and the unique PCEs for the species M. villosa. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 consists of 292 ac (118 ha) of State and 
private land in the lowland dry ecosystem, at Barbers Point Harbor. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia 
menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species, and the unique PCEs for the species C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 consists of 40 ac (16 ha) of City and 
County, State, private, and federal (Pearl Harbor NWR) land in the 
lowland dry ecosystem at Kalaeloa. This unit is occupied by the plant 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, and includes the dry forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland dry ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of this 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Bidens amplectens, Bonamia 
menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species, and the unique PCEs for the species C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 consists of 43 ac (17 ha) of State land 
(Department of Hawaiian Homelands (DHHL)) in the lowland dry ecosystem 
at Kalaeloa. This unit is occupied by the plant Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii and includes the dry forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
dry ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this plant (see Table 4). 
This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although DHHL Lowland Dry--
Unit 10 is not known to be occupied by the plants Achyranthes splendens 
var. rotundata, Bidens amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, 
Schiedea hookeri, S. kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland dry species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species, and the unique PCEs for the species C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 consists of 166 ac (67 ha) of federal 
land (U.S. Navy) in the lowland dry ecosystem, at Kalaeloa. This unit 
is occupied by the plant Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii and 
includes the dry forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland dry ecosystem, as well as unique 
PCEs for this plant (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of this species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, S. 
kealiae, or Spermolepis hawaiiensis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland dry 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species, and 
the unique PCEs for the species C. skottsbergii var. skottsbergii. Due 
to their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 consists of 4,450 ac (1,801 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem in the Waianae Mountains, encompassing a large 
area including the north slopes of Mt. Kaala, from the Pahole Natural 
Area Reserve (NAR) to the Kaala NAR, and south to the Waianae Kai 
Forest Reserve (FR), on State, City and County of Honolulu, and 
privately owned land. This unit is occupied by the plants Abutilon 
sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, C. longiflora, C. superba, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua degeneri, 
Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. 
pallida, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia 
kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, S. nuttallii, S. 
obovata, and

[[Page 46446]]

Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and includes the mesic forest 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyperus pennatiformis, Diellia unisora, 
Diplazium molokaiense, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia,, Kadua coriacea, K. parvula, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. 
parviflora var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Sanicula 
mariversa, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Urera kaalae, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 consists of 1,063 ac (430 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
from Puuhapapa south to Puukaua. This area was part of the Honouliuli 
Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently 
acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plants Abutilon 
sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, Cyanea calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Gardenia mannii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
kaalaensis, P. mollis, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, Solanum 
sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, and Urera kaalae, and includes the 
mesic forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the plants Bonamia 
menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. longiflora, C. pinnatifida, C. superba, Cyperus 
pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, K. degeneri, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
niihauense, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. pallida, M. 
saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea nuttallii, S. obovata, Silene perlmanii, 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 consists of 353 ac (143 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains, 
from Pohakea Pass to Kaiakuakai Gulch. This area was part of the 
Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and 
was recently acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plants 
Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Hesperomannia 
arbuscula, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia mollis, P. parviflora 
var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Silene perlmanii, and Urera 
kaalae, and includes the mesic forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides 
var. kaenana, C. herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, C. longiflora, C. pinnatifida, 
C. superba, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua 
coriacea, K. degeneri, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
niihauense, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. pallida, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, 
Schiedea hookeri, S. nuttallii, S. obovata, Solanum sandwicense, 
Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4 consists of 20 ac (8 ha) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, between 
the Waipilopilo and Hanaimoa gulches, on State-owned land within the 
Hauula Forest Reserve. This unit includes the lowland mesic forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants

[[Page 46447]]

Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, 
C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, C. longiflora, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. polyantha, C. waiolani, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, D. falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. 
longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia monostachya, 
Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, S. nuttallii, Solanum 
sandwicense, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, or T. lydgatei, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5 consists of 29 ac (12 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, 
in Maakua Gulch and ridge; is State-owned; and is within the Hauula FR. 
This unit includes the mesic forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland mesic ecosystem (see 
Table 4). Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus s, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
lanceolata, C. longiflora, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
polyantha, C. waiolani, Delissea subcordata, Diellia erecta, D. 
falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua coriacea, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-
johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, S. nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, or T. lydgatei, we have determined this area 
to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (and) Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 1--
Lowland Mesic
    This area consists of 247 ac (100 ha) in the lowland mesic 
ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, inland of 
Kaaawa Point, on State and privately owned land, and is partially 
within Ahupuaa O Kahana State Park. This area is occupied by the plants 
Cyanea acuminata, C. crispa, C. truncata, Gardenia mannii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, and Schiedea kaalae; and the invertebrate, the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly. This area includes the lowland mesic forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the damselfly 
(see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and cover areas 
required by the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem, the lowland mesic ecosystem physical or biological 
features are essential to the damselfly because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, C. longiflora, 
Cyrtandra dentata, C. polyantha, C. waiolani, Delissea subcordata, 
Diellia erecta, D. falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. longifolium, Kadua coriacea, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, M. saint-
johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea nuttallii, 
Solanum sandwicense, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, or T. lydgatei, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 consists of 1,669 ac (676 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem on the leeward side of the Koolau Mountains, on 
State and privately owned land, on Waialae Nui ridge. This unit is 
occupied by the plants Bonamia menziesii, Cyanea acuminata, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Diellia 
erecta, Lobelia monostachya, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
and Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and includes the mesic forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland mesic ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of this 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea calycina, C. 
crispa, C. longiflora, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. waiolani, 
Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. 
longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Melicope lydgatei, M. 
saint-johnii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, P. parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Schiedea kaalae, S. 
nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, or Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland mesic species because it provides the PCEs necessary 
for the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical 
ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 consists of 541 ac (219 ha) owned by the 
State of Hawaii and City and County of Honolulu, in the lowland wet 
ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae

[[Page 46448]]

Mountains, and partially within the Mokuleia and Waianae Kai Forest 
Reserves. This unit is occupied by the plants Gouania vitifolia, 
Melicope makahae, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, and Urera 
kaalae, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 
4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Pterlyxia macrocarpa, or Schiedea kaalae, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 consists of 20 ac (8 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains at 
Puuhapapa. This area was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by 
The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the 
State. This unit is occupied by the plants Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
mollis, and Urera kaalae, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 is not known to be occupied by the 
plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, 
Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Melicope makahae, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, or S. kaalae, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 consists of 29 ac (12 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains at 
Puukanehoa. This area was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by 
The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the 
State. This unit is occupied by the plants Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. 
mollis, and Schiedea hookeri, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, or Urera 
kaalae, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 consists of 27 ac (11 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem on the windward side of the Waianae Mountains on State 
land at Puukaua. A portion of this area was part of the Honouliuli 
Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently 
acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plant Phyllostegia 
mollis and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 
4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 4 is not known to be occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, or Urera kaalae, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 consists of 74 ac (29 ha) owned by the 
State of Hawaii and 2 ac (1 ha) of Federal land owned by the U.S. Navy 
(Lualualei) in the lowland wet ecosystem, on the windward side of the 
Waianae Mountains at Palikea. A portion of this area was part of the 
Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and 
was recently acquired by the State. This unit is occupied by the plants 
Cyanea calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
and Schiedea kaalae, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory native plant 
species identified as physical or biological features in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of this species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 is not known to be

[[Page 46449]]

occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, Plantago 
princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Schiedea hookeri, or Urera kaalae, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 1--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 1--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 2--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 790 ac (320 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem, 
on privately owned land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, 
and includes Kahawainui, Ihiihi, Wailele, and Koloa gulches. This area 
is occupied by the plant Hesperomannia arborescens and by the blackline 
and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
are dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary 
for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area 
is not currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, 
Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. 
viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 2--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 2--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 3--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 1,790 ac (724 ha) in the lowland wet 
ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, on State and 
privately owned land within the Kaipapau and Haula Forest Reserves and 
Sacred Falls State Park, from Puukainapuaa to Kaluanui (Sacred Falls). 
This unit is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense, and by the blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies. This 
unit includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique 
PCEs for the Hawaiian damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams 
and upland foraging and cover areas required by the blackline and 
oceanic Hawaiian damselflies are dispersed in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or biological features 
are essential to the damselfly species because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. The streams, foraging 
areas, and cover areas that are occupied contain the essential PCEs, 
and the streams and upland areas that are not occupied are essential to 
the conservation of the species because they support the proper 
ecological functioning of the occupied areas within the ecosystem. This 
area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Cyanea crispa, C. grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. st.-johnii, 
Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. 
sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. waiolani, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. 
oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Sanicula purpurea, Trematolobelia singularis, or the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 3--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 3--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 3,041 ac (1,231 ha) in the lowland wet 
ecosystem on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, on State and 
private land partially within the Ahupuaa O Kahana State Park, 
including Waihoi Springs, and Punaluu, Kahana, Waikane, Waikeekee, and 
Uwao streams. This area is occupied by the plant Cyrtandra kaulantha 
and by the invertebrates, the blackline and crimson Hawaiian 
damselflies. This area includes the wet forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the

[[Page 46450]]

lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline and crimson Hawaiian damselflies 
are dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary 
for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area 
is not currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
gracilis, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, 
C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia 
nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the oceanic 
Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 4--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 4--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 5--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 15,728 ac (6,365 ha) in the lowland wet 
ecosystem on the leeward side of the Koolau Mountains, on Federal (U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service), State, City and County of Honolulu, and 
privately owned land, partially within the Ewa FR Waimano Section and 
the Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge. This area extends along the 
Koolau summit from Waipio to Manaiki Stream, and is occupied by the 
plants Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. 
koolauensis, C. st.-johnii, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Gardenia mannii, 
Hesperomannia arborescens, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. 
cornuta, Pteris lidgatei, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Viola oahuensis, 
and Zanthoxylum oahuense, and by the blackline and crimson Hawaiian 
damselflies. This area includes the wet forest and shrubland, the 
moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian damselflies (see 
Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and cover areas 
required by the blackline and crimson Hawaiian damselflies are 
dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary 
for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area 
is not currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Cyanea acuminata, C. 
crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. 
kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. waiolani, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, Myrsine juddii, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Platanthera holochila, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Trematolobelia singularis, or the 
oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 5--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 5--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 6--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 124 ac (50 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem 
on private land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, along 
Kaalaea Stream. This area is occupied by the blackline Hawaiian 
damselfly, and includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem, as well 
as unique PCEs for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly (see Table 4). 
Because the streams and upland foraging and cover areas required by the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or biological features 
are essential to this damselfly species because they provide for the 
proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This area also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently occupied 
by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. 
calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. 
koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low

[[Page 46451]]

population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 6--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 6--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 7--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 124 ac (50 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem, 
owned by the City and County of Honolulu on the windward side of the 
Koolau Mountains, along Waihee Stream. This area is occupied by the 
blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, and includes the wet forest 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
are dispersed in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem 
physical or biological features are essential to these damselfly 
species because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of 
this ecosystem. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
this area is not currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. 
gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. 
viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. 
parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. 
princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, 
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, Viola oahuensis, Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson 
Hawaiian damselfly, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 7--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 7--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 8--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 53 ac (21 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem on 
privately owned land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains, 
along Kahaluu Stream and tributary. This area is occupied by the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this Hawaiian 
damselfly (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed 
in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or 
biological features are essential to this damselfly species because 
they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. 
This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, 
C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. 
waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 8--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 8--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 9--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 161 ac (65 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem 
in Federal and City and County of Honolulu land on the windward side of 
the Koolau Mountains, along Heeia Stream and tributaries. This area is 
occupied by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet 
forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as physical or biological features in 
the lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for this Hawaiian 
damselfly (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed 
in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or 
biological features are essential to this damselfly species because 
they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. 
This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of this species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. 
st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, 
C. polyantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. 
waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp.

[[Page 46452]]

oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 9--
Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 9--Lowland Wet (and) 
Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 10--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 478 ac (193 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem 
on State and City and County of Honolulu land on the leeward side of 
the Koolau Mountains, extending from the Wilson Tunnel area southeast 
to Moole Stream. This area is occupied by the plant Cyanea koolauensis, 
and by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet forest 
and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselfly (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed 
in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or 
biological features are essential to the damselfly species because they 
provide for the proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. This 
area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. 
humboldtiana, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 
10--Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 10--Lowland Wet 
(and) Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 11--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 407 ac (165 ha) in the lowland wet ecosystem 
on State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Land 
Division land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains in Maunawili 
Valley, including Omao and Maunawili streams and Kapakahi and Pikoakea 
Springs. This area is occupied by the plant Cyanea crispa, and the 
blackline Hawaiian damselfly, and includes the wet forest and 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the 
lowland wet ecosystem, as well as unique PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselfly (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the blackline Hawaiian damselfly are dispersed 
in the lowland wet ecosystem, the lowland wet ecosystem physical or 
biological features are essential to this damselfly species because 
they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this ecosystem. 
This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area is not 
currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, 
C. koolauensis, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. 
truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. gracilis, C. kaulantha, C. polyantha, 
C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. 
oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16 (and) Blackline Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 
11--Lowland Wet (and) Crimson Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 11--Lowland Wet 
(and) Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly--Unit 12--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 2,507 ac (1,014 ha) in the lowland wet 
ecosystem on State, City and County of Honolulu, and private land on 
the leeward side of the Koolau Mountains, partly within the Honolulu 
Watershed Forest Reserve, extending from the eastern side of Nuuanu 
Valley southeast along the Koolau summit to Kulepeamoa Ridge. This area 
is occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. crispa, C. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, C. humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. 
lanceolata, C. st.-johnii, Cyrtandra gracilis, C. polyantha, C. 
sessilis, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia aborescens, Platydesma cornuta 
var. cornuta, Sanicula purpurea, and Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa. This 
area includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the lowland wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs (including the

[[Page 46453]]

unique PCEs for the Hawaiian damselfly) necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently 
occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, C. truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, C. kaulantha, C. 
subumbellata, C. viridiflora, C. waiolani, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, L. oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, M. lydgatei, Myrsine 
juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata, P. princeps var. princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Pteris lidgatei, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, 
Zanthoxylum oahuense, or the blackline, crimson or oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 consists of 370 ac (150 ha) in the 
montane wet ecosystem at the summit of the Waianae Mountains at Kaala, 
on City and County of Honolulu and State land, and partially within the 
Mokuleia Forest Reserve and the Kaala Natural Area Reserve. This unit 
is occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Melicope christophersenii, and Schiedea trinervis, and 
includes the wet forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, canopy, 
subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as physical 
or biological features in the montane wet ecosystem (see Table 4). This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Montane 
Wet--Unit 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants Alectryon 
macrococcus var. macrococcus, Lobelia oahuensis, or Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane wet species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 consists of 49 ac (20 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem, on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along the rim 
of Makua Valley. This unit is on State land within the Pahole Natural 
Area Reserve, and includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit 
is occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Kadua degeneri, Plantago princeps var. princeps, and 
Schiedea obovata. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 is not currently occupied by Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia 
herbtsobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua 
parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata 
var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta 
var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. 
perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, T. 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these dry cliff species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 consists of 412 ac (167 ha) in the dry 
cliff ecosystem, on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along 
the ridge from Keaau to Ohikilolo. This unit is on State and City and 
County of Honolulu land almost entirely within the Makua Keaau Forest 
Reserve, and includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy 
and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Dry 
Cliff--Unit 2 is occupied by the plants Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon 
macrococcus, Dubautia herbstobatae, Gouania vitifolia, Kadua parvula, 
Lepidium arbuscula, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, 
Melicope makahae, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Tetramolopium filiforme, and Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana. This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2 is not currently occupied 
by Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Eragrostis 
fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Korthalsella degeneri, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia 
angulata, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea obovata, S. trinervis, Silene 
lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, or Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 consists of 450 ac (182 ha) in the dry 
cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along the 
eastern rim of Makaha Valley along Kamaileunu Ridge. This unit is on 
State and City and County of Honolulu land partially within the Waianae 
Kai Forest Reserve, and includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and subcanopy and understory native plant species

[[Page 46454]]

identified as physical or biological features in the dry cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is occupied by the plants Abutilon 
sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Diellia falcata, 
Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Gouania meyenii, Isodendrion laurifolium, Korthalsella degeneri, 
Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
kaalaensis, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, 
Silene lanceolata, Tetramolopium filiforme, and Viola chamissoniana 
ssp. chamissoniana. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, 
C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia 
unisora, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. 
parvula, Melicope saint-johnii, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
obovata, S. trinervis, Silene perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, or 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, we have determined this area to 
be essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff 
species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment 
of wild populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to 
their small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these 
species require suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 consists of 108 ac (44 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, along Kauaopuu 
ridge, which divides Waianae Kai and Lualualei valleys. This unit is on 
State and Federal land partially within the Waianae Kai Forest Reserve, 
and includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is 
occupied by the plants Alectryon macrococcus, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these species by providing the 
PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. 
Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 is not currently occupied by Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bonamia menziesii, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania 
meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua 
degeneri, K. parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, 
Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. perlmanii, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5 consists of 26 ac (10 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem, on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains in Federal land 
(U.S. Navy) between Kolekole Pass and Puuhapapa, and includes the 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the dry 
cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). This unit is occupied by the plants 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Nototrichium 
humile, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, and 
Schiedea hookeri. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5 is not currently occupied by Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, 
Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Melanthera tenuifolia, 
Melicope makahae, M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea obovata, S. 
trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 consists of 255 ac (103 ha) in the dry 
cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, on State 
and Federal (U.S. Navy) land along the rim of Lualualei Valley from 
Puukanehoa to Puukaua. A portion of this area was part of the 
Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and 
was recently acquired by the State. This unit includes the shrubland, 
the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species 
identified as physical or biological features in the dry cliff 
ecosystem (see Table 4), and is occupied by the plants Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Diellia unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lobelia niihauensis, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia 
angulata, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, and Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum. This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6 is not currently occupied by Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii,

[[Page 46455]]

Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis 
fosbergii, Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. 
pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
kaalaensis, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Sanicula mariversa, 
Schiedea hookeri, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. 
perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7 consists of 208 ac (84 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, on State and 
Federal (U.S. Navy) land along the rim of Lualualei Valley from Pohakea 
to Palikea. A small portion of this area was part of the Honouliuli 
Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently 
acquired by the State. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture 
regime, and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). It is occupied by the plants Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes 
splendens var. rotundata, Diellia unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, Kadua 
parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, 
Pleomele forbesii, Silene perlmanii, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana. This unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7 is not currently occupied by Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Gouania meyenii, G. vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, 
Kadua degeneri, Korthalsella degeneri, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
kaalaensis, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. obovata, S. trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, or T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these dry cliff species because it provides the PCEs 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 consists of 259 ac (105 ha) in the dry 
cliff ecosystem on the leeward side of the Waianae Mountains, on State 
land along the rim of Nanakuli Valley from Palehua to Puumanawanua, and 
partially within the Nanakuli Forest Reserve. A small portion of this 
area was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature 
Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the State. This 
unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the dry cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). It is occupied by 
the plants Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Lobelia niihauensis, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, and Pleomele forbesii. This unit also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these species by 
providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8 is not currently occupied 
by Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, 
Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Gouania meyenii, G. 
vitifolia, Isodendrion laurifolium, I. pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, K. 
parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata 
var. leptophylla, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, M. saint-
johnii, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago 
princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. obovata, S. 
trinervis, Silene lanceolata, S. perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, T. lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, or Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 consists of 235 ac (95 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State and City and County of Honolulu land in the Waianae 
Mountains, near the summit of Kaala, and partially within the Mokuleai 
and Waianae Kai FRs and the Kaala Natural Area Reserve. This unit 
includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory native plant species identified as physical or biological 
features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 1 is occupied by the plants Cyanea calycina, Melicope 
christophersenii, and Schiedea trinervis. This unit also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 
species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 is not 
currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, or S. kaalae, we have determined this area to be essential for 
the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 consists of 7 ac (3 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State and Federal land (U.S. Navy) in the Waianae 
Mountains at Puuhapapa, partially within a small area that was part of 
the Honouliuli Preserve, managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, 
and was recently acquired by the State. This unit includes the

[[Page 46456]]

shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 is occupied by 
the plants Cyanea calycina and Melicope christophersenii. This unit 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 is not 
currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
oahuensis, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species 
because it provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their 
small numbers of individuals or low population sizes, these species 
require suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve population levels that could achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 consists of 16 ac (6 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State land in the Waianae Mountains at Puukanehoa, 
partially within an area that was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, 
managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired 
by the State. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 
4). Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 is not currently occupied by 
Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, 
Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, 
Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet 
cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of the 
species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could achieve 
recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 consists of 23 ac (9 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State land in the Waianae Mountains at Puukaua, partially 
overlapping an area that was part of the Honouliuli Preserve, managed 
by The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, and was recently acquired by the 
State. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as physical or 
biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). It is 
occupied by the plants Phyllostegia hirsuta and Schiedea hookeri. This 
unit also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 4 is not currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, or S. trinervis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 consists of 43 ac (17 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State and Federal (U.S. Navy) land in the Waianae 
Mountains, at Palikea and north of Palikea. This unit includes the 
shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem (see Table 4). Although Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 is not 
currently occupied by Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, or S. 
trinervis, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 12--
Lowland Wet (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 13--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 151 ac (61 ha) in the wet cliff ecosystem on 
State land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains in Kaipapau 
Gulch, entirely within the Kaipapau Forest Reserve. This area includes 
the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem, as well as the unique species PCEs for the Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
are dispersed in the wet cliff ecosystem, the wet cliff ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area is occupied by Cyanea crispa, Huperzia nutans, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, and the oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential 
to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs necessary 
for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although this area 
is not currently occupied by the plants Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
deppeana, C. rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora 
var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, 
Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, or the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the PCEs necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historical ranges of the species. Due to their small numbers 
of individuals or low population sizes, these species require suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve population 
levels that could achieve recovery.
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7 (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 13--
Lowland Wet (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 14--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 144 ac (58 ha) in the wet cliff ecosystem on 
State land on the windward side of the Koolau Mountains in Hauula 
Gulch, entirely within the Hauula Forest Reserve. This unit includes 
the shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory native 
plant species identified as physical or biological features in the wet 
cliff ecosystem, as

[[Page 46457]]

well as the unique species PCEs for the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
are dispersed in the wet cliff ecosystem, the wet cliff ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area is occupied by Cyanea crispa, Psychotria hexandra 
ssp. oahuensis, Schiedea kaalae, and the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies. This area also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these species by providing the PCEs 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
this area is not currently occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce 
deppeana, C. rockii, Cyanea acuminata, C. calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. 
purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, C. truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, C. 
sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Huperzia nutans, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, or Viola oahuensis, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 (and) Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 14--
Lowland Wet (and) Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly--Unit 15--Lowland Wet
    This area consists of 4,649 ac (1,881 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem on State, City and County of Honolulu, State of Hawaii 
Department of Land and Natural Resources Land Division, and private 
land, along the summit of the Koolau Mountains, overlapping portions of 
Sacred Falls State Park, the Waiahole FR (Waiahole and Iolekaa 
sections), the Kaneohe and Honolulu Watershed FRs, and the Nuuana Pali 
State Wayside. This unit includes the shrubland, the moisture regime, 
and subcanopy and understory native plant species identified as 
physical or biological features in the wet cliff ecosystem, as well as 
the unique species PCEs for the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian 
damselflies (see Table 4). Because the streams and upland foraging and 
cover areas required by the crimson and oceanic Hawaiian damselflies 
are dispersed in the wet cliff ecosystem, the wet cliff ecosystem's 
physical or biological features are essential to the damselfly species 
because they provide for the proper ecological functioning of this 
ecosystem. This area is occupied by the plants Cyanea acuminata, C. 
calycina, C. humboldtiana, C. purpurellifolia, C. st.-johnii, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, C. sessilis, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Huperzia 
nutans, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis. This unit 
also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation 
of these species by providing the PCEs necessary for the expansion of 
the existing wild populations. Although this area is not currently 
occupied by Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, C. rockii, Cyanea 
crispa, C. truncata, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Schiedea 
kaalae, or the crimson or oceanic Hawaiian damselflies, we have 
determined this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery 
of these wet cliff species because it provides the PCEs necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within the historical ranges of 
the species. Due to their small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes, these species require suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve population levels that could 
achieve recovery.

Effects of Critical Habitat Designation

Section 7 Consultation

    Section 7(a)(2) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies, 
including the Service, to ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or 
carry out are not likely to destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat. Decisions by the Fifth and Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals have 
invalidated our definition of ``destruction or adverse modification'' 
(50 CFR 402.02) (see Gifford Pinchot Task Force v. U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 378 F. 3d 1059 (9th Cir. 2004) and Sierra Club v. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service et al., 245 F.3d 434, 442F (5th Cir. 
2001)), and we do not rely on this regulatory definition when analyzing 
whether an action is likely to destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat. Under the statutory provisions of the Act, we determine 
destruction or adverse modification on the basis of whether, with 
implementation of the proposed Federal action, the affected critical 
habitat would remain functional (or retain those physical or biological 
features that relate to the current ability of the area to support the 
species) to serve its intended conservation role for the species.
    If a species is listed or critical habitat is designated, section 
7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities 
they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of the species or to destroy or adversely modify 
its critical habitat. If a Federal action may affect a listed species 
or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency (action agency) 
must enter into consultation with us. As a result of this consultation, 
we document compliance with the requirements of section 7(a)(2) through 
our issuance of:
    (1) A concurrence letter for Federal actions that may affect, but 
are not likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat; 
or
    (2) A biological opinion for Federal actions that may affect, and 
are likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat.
    If we issue a biological opinion concluding that a project is 
likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat, we also provide 
reasonable and prudent alternatives to the project, if any are 
identifiable. We define ``reasonable and prudent alternatives'' at 50 
CFR 402.02 as alternative actions identified during consultation that:
     Can be implemented in a manner consistent with the 
intended purpose of the action;
     Can be implemented consistent with the scope of the 
Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction;
     Are economically and technologically feasible; and
     Would, in the Director's opinion, avoid jeopardizing the 
continued existence of the listed species or destroying or adversely 
modifying critical habitat.

Reasonable and prudent alternatives can vary from slight project 
modifications to extensive redesign or relocation of the project. Costs 
associated with implementing a reasonable and prudent alternative are 
similarly variable.
    Regulations at 50 CFR 402.16 require Federal agencies to reinitiate 
formal consultation on previously reviewed actions in instances where 
we have

[[Page 46458]]

listed a new species or subsequently designated critical habitat that 
may be affected and the Federal agency has retained discretionary 
involvement or control over the action (or the agency's discretionary 
involvement or control is authorized by law). Consequently, Federal 
agencies may sometimes need to request reinitiation of consultation 
with us on actions for which formal consultation has been completed, if 
those actions with discretionary involvement or control may affect 
subsequently listed species or designated critical habitat.
    Federal activities that may adversely affect the species included 
in this proposed rule or their designated critical habitat require 
section 7 consultation under the Act. This includes activities on 
State, tribal, local, or private lands requiring a Federal permit (such 
as a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under section 404 of 
the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), a permit from us under 
section 10 of the Act), or activities involving some other Federal 
action (such as funding from the Federal Highway Administration, 
Federal Aviation Administration, or the Federal Emergency Management 
Agency). These types of activities are subject to the section 7 
consultation process. Federal actions not affecting listed species or 
critical habitat, and actions on State, tribal, local, or private lands 
that are not federally funded, authorized, or permitted, do not require 
section 7 consultations.

Application of the Jeopardy and Adverse Modification Standards

Application of the Jeopardy Standard
    The jeopardy analysis usually expresses the survival and recovery 
needs of a listed species in a qualitative fashion without making 
distinctions between what is necessary for survival and what is 
necessary for recovery. Generally, the jeopardy analysis focuses on the 
status of a species, the factors responsible for that condition, and 
what is necessary for the species to survive and recover. An emphasis 
is also placed on characterizing the condition of the species in the 
area affected by the proposed Federal action. That context is then used 
to determine the significance of adverse and beneficial effects of the 
proposed Federal action and any cumulative effects for purposes of 
making the jeopardy determination. The jeopardy analysis also considers 
any conservation measures that may be proposed by a Federal action 
agency to minimize or compensate for adverse project effects to the 
species or to promote its recovery.
Application of the Adverse Modification Standard
    The analytical framework described in the Director's December 9, 
2004, memorandum is used to complete section 7(a)(2) analysis for 
Federal actions affecting critical habitat. The key factor related to 
the adverse modification determination is whether, with implementation 
of the proposed Federal action, the affected critical habitat would 
continue to serve its intended conservation role for the species, or 
would retain its current ability for the essential features to be 
functionally established. Activities that may destroy or adversely 
modify critical habitat are those that alter the essential features to 
an extent that appreciably reduces the conservation value of critical 
habitat for the 124 species identified in this proposed rule.
    Section 4(b)(8) of the Act requires us to briefly evaluate and 
describe, in any proposed or final regulation that designates critical 
habitat, activities involving a Federal action that may destroy or 
adversely modify such habitat, or that may be affected by such 
designation. Activities that, when carried out, funded, or authorized 
by a Federal agency, may destroy or adversely modify critical habitat 
for the 124 species, and therefore may be affected by this proposed 
designation, include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Activities that might appreciably degrade or destroy the 
physical or biological features for the species including, but not 
limited to, the following: Overgrazing; maintaining or increasing feral 
ungulate levels; clearing or cutting native live trees and shrubs 
(e.g., woodcutting, bulldozing, construction, road building, mining, 
herbicide application); and taking actions that pose a risk of fire.
    (2) Activities that may alter watershed characteristics in ways 
that would appreciably reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, 
wetland, aquatic, or vegetative communities. Such activities include 
new water diversion or impoundment, excess groundwater pumping, and 
manipulation of vegetation through activities such as the ones 
mentioned in (1) above
    (3) Recreational activities that may appreciably degrade 
vegetation.
    (4) Mining sand or other minerals.
    (5) Introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative plant 
species.
    (6) Importing nonnative species for research, agriculture, and 
aquaculture, and releasing biological control agents.

Application of Section 4(a)(3) of the Act

    The Sikes Act Improvement Act of 1997 (Sikes Act) (16 U.S.C. 670a) 
required each military installation that includes land and water 
suitable for the conservation and management of natural resources to 
complete an integrated natural resources management plan (INRMP) by 
November 17, 2001. An INRMP integrates implementation of the military 
mission of the installation with stewardship of the natural resources 
found on the base. Each INRMP includes:
     An assessment of the ecological needs on the installation, 
including the need to provide for the conservation of listed species;
     A statement of goals and priorities;
     A detailed description of management actions to be 
implemented to provide for these ecological needs; and
     A monitoring and adaptive management plan.

Among other things, each INRMP must, to the extent appropriate and 
applicable, provide for fish and wildlife management; fish and wildlife 
habitat enhancement or modification; wetland protection, enhancement, 
and restoration where necessary to support fish and wildlife; and 
enforcement of applicable natural resource laws.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (Pub. 
L. 108-136) amended the Act to limit areas eligible for designation as 
critical habitat. Specifically, section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act (16 
U.S.C. 1533(a)(3)(B)(i)) provides: ``The Secretary shall not designate 
as critical habitat any lands or other geographical areas owned or 
controlled by the Department of Defense, or designated for its use, 
that are subject to an integrated natural resources management plan 
prepared under section 101 of the Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. 670a), if the 
Secretary determines in writing that such plan provides a benefit to 
the species for which critical habitat is proposed for designation.''
    We consult with the military on the development and implementation 
of INRMPs for installations with listed species. We analyzed INRMPs 
developed by military installations located within the areas that were 
being considered for critical habitat designation during the 
development of this proposed rule to determine if these installations 
may warrant consideration for exemption under section 4(a)(3) of the 
Act. Each of the Department of Defense (DOD) installations identified 
below owns or manages such lands, which have been analyzed for

[[Page 46459]]

exemption under the authority of section 4(a)(3) of the Act.

Approved INRMPs

    The U.S. Army has six training installations under its jurisdiction 
on the island of Oahu: Dillingham Military Reservation (DMR), Kawailoa 
Training Area (KLOA), Kahuku Training Area (KTA), Makua Military 
Reservation (MMR), Schofield Barracks Military Reservation (SBMR), and 
Schofield Barracks Military Reservation--East Range (SBER). These lands 
are administered by the Army Garrison Hawaii for various types of 
military training. In our 2003 final rule to designate critical habitat 
for 99 plant species on Oahu (68 FR 35950), we did not designate 
critical habitat on areas managed by the Army that met the following 
criteria: (1) The area was subject to a current and final INRMP that 
provides a conservation benefit to the species; (2) there were 
assurances the conservation management strategies will be implemented; 
and (3) there were assurances the conservation management strategies 
will be effective. These determinations were based primarily on section 
4(b)(2) of the Act.
    Our previous analysis determined the ongoing and proposed 
management activities described in the 2002 INRMP provide a 
conservation benefit to the plant species, and that the INRMP provided 
assurances the conservation plan would be implemented and effective (68 
FR 35950, June 17, 2003). After applying the above three critera, we 
determined in the 2003 final rule that 26,946 ac (10,905 ha) of Army 
lands were exempt from critical habitat designation. Our exclusion 
analysis of Army lands determined that the benefits of excluding these 
lands based on impacts to national security and other relevant factors 
outweighed the benefits of designating these lands as critical habitat. 
The exclusion of Army lands in the 2003 final rule was based on our 
review and analysis of the Army's INRMP (Army 2002), Ecosystem 
Management Plan (Army 1998), and Endangered Species Management Plan 
(Research Corporation of Hawaii 1998). We also evaluated the monthly 
and annual summary reports describing natural resources management 
projects performed under the Ecosystems Management Programs for each of 
the six Oahu installations, and we reviewed the Army's Wildland Fire 
Management Plan for Makua Military Installation (Army 2000) and the 
Draft Wildland Fire Management Plan for the other five Oahu 
installations (Army 2003).
    Subsequent to publication of the 2003 final rule, the National 
Defense Authorization Act of 2004 (Pub. L. 108-136) was enacted, which 
amended the Act. The Army's 2001 INRMP was updated in 2010 (see below), 
and we have reevaluted the conservation and management activities for 
the species that occur on Army lands within this statutory framework 
for purposes of this proposed rule.
    The Army recently updated their 2001 INRMP, which was finalized in 
August, 2010 (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii, 2010). The INRMP identifies 
management actions during 2010-2014 for threatened, endangered, and 
candidate species, and critical habitat, for the Oahu elepaio (an 
endangered flycatcher) on all of their Oahu training installations 
(U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, p. 4-1). The INRMP incorporates 
management actions developed as Implementation Plans by a team of 
biologists and field experts from State, Federal, and private agencies 
and organizations, who are familiar with the species and their habitats 
(U.S. Army Garrision Hawaii 2003; 2008, Addendum; U.S. Army Garrison 
Hawaii, 2005). The Implementation Plans and Addendum were prepared 
under the terms of biological opinions issued by the Service (USFWS 
1999; USFWS 2003, 356 pp; USFWS 2007, 776 pp.).
    Species conservation/management activities conducted under the Army 
INRMP include (1) Propagation and outplanting of plants to augment 
existing populations and reintroduce species and populations to areas 
where they no longer occur; (2) construction of fences to protect 
plants from feral ungulates; (3) nonnative rodent, slug, and snail 
control to protect plants from fruit and seed predation and reduce 
predation of elepaio nests (by rats); (4) habitat restoration (e.g., 
restoration of fire-altered native habitats to native vegetation, 
erosion control); (5) control of nonnative plants, nonnative 
invertebrates (e.g., black-twig borer), and feral ungulate populations; 
(6) surveys and monitoring of rare plants and animals; (7) monitoring 
for weeds; and (8) monitoring fenced areas for ungulate activity (U.S. 
Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, pp. 4-3--4-29). In addition, the Army 
contracts with field experts to monitor rare plants and conduct 
predator control on their lands, and supports several important 
research projects (e.g., developing methods to control nonnative slugs 
and snails; developing methods to restore nonnative, highly flammable 
grasslands to native forest vegetation; and determining home range and 
density of rats (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, p. 4-28)).
    The Army provides monthly and annual summary reports to the Service 
regarding the natural resources management projects implemented under 
to the Implementation Plans and the Addendum, which are integrated in 
the INRMP for the six installations. These summary reports provide 
information on management actions implemented and whether they have 
proven beneficial to listed species and species proposed for listing. 
Examples of ecosystem management activities that protect rare species 
habitat and provide conservation benefits include fence construction; 
removal of feral ungulates from within fenced areas; and minimizing the 
threat of fire through the control and eradication of fire-tolerant 
nonnative plant species, construction of fuel breaks, maintenance of 
existing roads, roadside weed clearing, and investing in firefighting 
equipment and training fire crews (U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, p. 
4-14 and pp. 4-65--4-66).
    In 2003, the Army completed an integrated wildland fire management 
plan (WFMP) for all of its Oahu training installations, which is 
integrated in the 2010 INRMP (U.S. Army 2010, p. 4-65). The goal of the 
WFMP is to reduce the threat of wildfire, which represents a threat to 
listed and other rare species, including 6 of the 23 species proposed 
for listing and 34 previously listed plant species that occur on one or 
more of Oahu's six Army training installations. Specific conservation/
management activities for individual plant species are detailed in the 
Implementation Plans and the Addendum, and integrated in the INRMP 
(U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 2010, pp. 4-20--4-22 and Appendix 4). Each 
of these documents is available online at ``U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii 
Natural Resource Program Reports,'' http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/dpw.htm. We reviewed the management activities described in these plans 
and have determined that they provide conservation benefits to the 14 
plant species proposed for listing and 63 previously listed plant 
species that have been reported on one or more of Oahu's six Army 
training installations. Accordingly, we have determined that 8,098 ac 
(3,277 ha) of land on Oahu's six Army training installations (see 
Figures 1-4) are exempt from critical habitat designation in accordance 
with section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act. The conservation actions 
identified in the 2010-2014 INRMP for the Army's Oahu installations, 
which incorporates the 2003 and 2008 Implementation Plans, the 2005 
Addendum (USFWS 2003, 356

[[Page 46460]]

pp; U.S. Army Garrison 2005; USFWS 2007, 776 pp.), and the 2003 WFMP, 
provide conservation benefits to 14 plant species proposed for listing 
that occur within the six Oahu training areas, which include Bidens 
amplectens, Cyanea calycina, C. lanceolata, C. purpurellifolia, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Melicope christophersenii, M. hiiakae, M. 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, P. cornuta var. decurrens, 
Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, and Zanthoxylum oahuense. The 2010-2014 INRMP also provide 
conservation benefits to 63 previously listed plant species that occur 
within the six Oahu training areas, which include Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, C. herbstii, C. rockii, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, C. crispa, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, C. 
humboldtiana, C. koolauensis, C. longiflora, C. st.-johnii, C. superba, 
Cyrtandra dentata, C. subumbellata, C. viridiflora, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, H. arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion laurifolium, Kadua 
degeneri, K. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium arbuscula, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, L. niihauensis, L. oahuensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, P. mollis, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Pritchardia kaalae, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula mariversa, 
S. purpurea, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, S. nuttallii, S. obovata, S. 
trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Solanum sandwicense, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and 
V. oahuensis (see Table 7A and B, above) (U.S. Army Garrison 2003, 
2005, 2008, 2010; USFWS 2003, 356 pp.; USFWS 2007, 776 pp.). Figures 1-
4 identify the above areas on Army-managed lands that were evaluated 
under section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act.
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BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
Lands Under U.S. Navy Jurisdiction
    The U.S. Navy (Navy) owns or leases much of Lualualei Valley, on 
Oahu's leeward coast, which is operated as a naval magazine and 
transmitting facility. The Navy lands at Lualualei are composed of two 
contiguous facilities, Naval Station Pearl Harbor (NAVMAG PH) Lualualei 
Branch and Naval Radar Transmittal Facility at Lualualei (NRTF 
Lualualei). Twenty-one listed plants, which include Abutilon menziesii, 
Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus, Bonamia 
menziesii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Diellia unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Kadua parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Lobelia niihauensis, Marsilea villosa, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Schiedea hookeri, Silene perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana, and four species proposed for listing in this proposed 
rule, which include Cyanea calycina, Melicope christophersenii, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, and Pleomele forbesii, occur on 
NAVMAG PH Lualualei Branch. Three listed plants, which include Abutilon 
menziesii, Cyperus trachysanthos, and Marsilea villosa occur on NRTF 
Lualualei.
    In our 2003 final rule (68 FR 35950) to designate critical habitat 
for 99 plant species on Oahu, we designated approximately 972 ac 
(approximately 393 ha) of Navy lands as critical habitat for 21 species 
(Abutilon sandwicense, C. kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Gouania meyenii, Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
Kadua parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Marsilea villosa, Melicope pallida, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia 
angulata, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Schiedea hookeri, Silene perlmanii, 
Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Urera 
kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana). We determined that 
the benefits of designating Navy lands as critical habitat outweighed 
the benefits of excluding these lands under section 4(b)(2) of the Act.
    Subsequent to publication of our 2003 final rule, the Navy 
developed a draft revision (December 2009) to their 2001 INRMPs, which 
has not been finalized. Accordingly, we conducted an analysis of the 
Navy's 2001 INRMPs to determine whether they provide a conservation 
benefit to the 44 plant species that occur on Navy lands or for which 
these lands are essential for their conservation, for purposes of 
section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act, which include Abutilon sandwicense, 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus,

[[Page 46464]]

Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. 
kuwaleana, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, Cyanea acuminata, 
C. calycina, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyperus trachysanthos, Diellia 
falcata, D. unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Kadua parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, L. 
oahuensis, Marsilea villosa, Melicope christophersenii, M. pallida, M. 
saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, S. kaalae, S. trinervis, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana.
    The proposed management, protection, and conservation measures for 
rare plants at NAVMAG PH Lualualei Branch include protecting native 
communities, monitoring threatened and endangered plants and plants 
with special conservation status, and controlling the spread of 
invasive plant species through the use of cooperative agreements and 
partnerships. The 2001 INRMP states that to protect native plants, the 
Navy will control feral goats in partnership with other Federal, State, 
and private organizations, with the goal of eradication in Lualualei 
Valley. A proposed funding schedule for goat control efforts is 
included in the INRMP, although the specific goals and objectives for 
each funding year are not identified. A fenced exclosure was 
constructed in the Halona Management Area to protect a small population 
of Abutilon sandwicense from feral ungulates (U.S. Navy 2001a, p. 4-
44), and another fenced exclosure was constructed at Puu Hapapa 
Management Area to protect ``about five'' listed species (U.S. Navy 
2001a, p. 4-44), which include Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, and 
Nototrichium humile (68 FR 35950). Only 1.5 ac (0.61 ha) of these two 
management areas, which total 310 ac (125.5 ha), have been fenced and 
are weeded. In addition, the 2001 INRMP does not address other 
nonnative animals that may predate native plants, such as rats, slugs, 
snails, and insects (e.g., black-twig borer). The 2001 INRMP states 
that existing exclosures should be maintained as needed, but does not 
require the construction of new fenced exclosures to protect native 
vegetation or native plant communities.
    The leeward coast of the Waianae Mountains (which includes 
Lualualei Valley) is dangerously prone to forest and range fires during 
the dry season, however there have been few fires on the installation's 
valley floor because of effective firebreaks, the presence of a fire 
station on site and a fire management plan. However, wildfire is a 
major threat to the forested, less accessible areas in the higher 
elevations where most of the critical habitat is proposed on Navy 
lands. The 2001 INRMP refers to the 1997 Management Plan (U.S. Navy 
2001a, p. 3-14) for information regarding where fire incidents are 
likely to negatively impact sensitive natural resources on the 
installation, and states the onsite Federal fire station would respond 
to fires on the installation. However, the plan does not include 
actions to reduce the threat of wildfire, which adversely affects 
listed and other rare species and their habitat on the higher elevation 
Navy lands.
    To address plant monitoring needs, the 2001 INRMP states that 
regular monitoring of listed plant species is necessary to ensure their 
protection and recovery and that ``endangered plants and animals should 
be monitored as part of the implementation of the monitoring program.'' 
However, the 2001 INRMP does not describe how monitoring will be 
implemented, nor does it identify the species to be monitored over the 
5-year implementation timeframe (U.S. Navy 2001a, pp. 1-2, 6-7). The 
plan acknowledges that nonnative, invasive plants threaten native plant 
communities and should be ``occasionally controlled,'' ``especially in 
fenced areas where alien plants are competing with endangered plants'' 
(U.S. Navy 2001a, p. 4-45). The plan does not include a schedule or 
identify where nonnative plant control will be implemented, other than 
``within fenced-in areas as needed'' over the plan's 5-year 
implementation timeframe (U.S. Navy 2001a, pp. 1-2 and 6-7). The 
endangered aquatic fern, Marsilea villosa, occurs in the northwest 
corner of the installation in a cattle grazing outlease area, and on 
NRTF Lualualei lands. The 2001 INRMP does not identify beneficial 
management actions for this species, although the Navy considers it to 
be adequately protected on NAVMAG PH lands and not adversely affected 
under the terms of the grazing lease (M. Kaku, Department of the Navy, 
in litt. 2001).
    The proposed management, protection, and conservation measures for 
rare plants at NRTF Lualualei, includes mowing nonnative grasses and 
other vegetation during the dry season to prevent their incursion into 
the areas where Marsilea villosa occurs, monitoring known populations 
of rare plants, conducting flora surveys, and monitoring feral ungulate 
populations (U.S. Navy 2001b, pp. 6-7-6-11). In addition, the 2001 
INRMP recommends that managers evaluate the benefits of controlling 
nonnative grasses and other plants with ``controlled'' grazing rather 
than mowing in the areas where Marsilea villosa occurs (U.S. Navy 
2001b, p. 6-5). Mowing nonnative grasses and other nonnative vegetation 
to prevent their incursion into the Marsilea areas contributes to the 
maintenance of these individuals in these areas.
    Since the 2001 INRMPs were finalized, five subpopulations of 
Marsilea villosa have been reported on Navy lands at Lualualei (NAVMAG 
PH Lualualei and NRTF Lualualei) (U.S. Navy 2009, in litt. p. 4-49). 
Three of the subpopulations on NRTF Lualualei are in areas that are 
regularly mowed, and one is in an area that is not managed for this 
species. The Navy has posted signs near four of the five subpopulations 
to avoid inadvertent negative impacts from activities such as mowing 
when areas are flooded and Marsilea is likely to be growing, and to 
avoid construction and other vehicle traffic (U.S. Navy 2009, in litt. 
p. 4-49). However, no additional management measures have been 
developed to protect the species in the cattle grazing outlease area 
(U.S. Navy 2009, in litt. p. 4-27).
    While the Navy's 2001 INRMPs describe management actions such as 
protective fencing for some individuals of listed plants, which include 
Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, and Nototrichium humile, and mowing 
restrictions for Marsilea villosa, these actions contribute only to 
maintenance of these individuals, that is, avoiding extirpation rather 
than improving the potential for their recovery on Navy lands. In 
addition, the 2001 INRMPs do not address the conservation needs of the 
other 39 of the 44 species for which we are proposing critical habitat 
on Navy lands. Therefore, based on our analysis discussed above, we 
have determined the Navy's 2001 INRMPs do not provide an adequate 
conservation benefit for 39 previously listed species for which 
critical habitat is being revised. These species include Abutilon 
sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens

[[Page 46465]]

var. rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, C. kuwaleana, C. skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, Cyanea acuminata, C. grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyperus 
trachysanthos, Diellia falcata, D. unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Gouania meyenii, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Kadua parvula, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Lobelia niihauensis, L. oahuensis, Marsilea villosa, Melicope pallida, 
M. saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, S. kaalae, S. trinervis, Silene perlmanii, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana. 
The INRMP also does not provide an adequate conservation benefit for 
the 5 plant species proposed for listing as endangered with critical 
habitat in this proposed rule: Cyanea calycina, Melicope 
christophersenii, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
and Pteralyxia macrocarpa. Therefore, we are proposing to designate a 
total of 567 ac (228 ha) of habitat on Navy lands at NAVMAG PH 
Lualualei Branch, NRTF Lualualei, and Barber's Point as critical 
habitat for 45 species. Of the 567 ac (228 ha) of proposed critical 
habitat, approximately 393 ac (159.2 ha) or 69 percent of the proposed 
critical habitat on Navy lands is already designated critical habitat 
(for plants and a bird, the Oahu elepaio).
    We will encourage the Navy to work collaboratively with the Service 
to develop appropriate special management considerations or protections 
for the 44 species, in light of section 7(a)(1) of the Act and our 
shared conservation opportunities under section 4(a)(3) of the Act. 
Examples of activities that would likely satisfy the requirements under 
section 4(a)(3) of the Act include (but are not limited to) 
substantially increasing efforts to reduce fragmentation of habitat; 
establishing, maintaining, or increasing rare plant populations; 
eradicating ungulates; installing fencing around sensitive areas; 
controlling the spread of nonnative species; enhancing and restoring 
habitats; monitoring and reporting habitat conditions and rare plant 
population status; and similar types of conservation actions. We are 
available and prepared to work closely with, and provide technical 
assistance, to the Navy in this regard. We will fully consider all 
special management considerations or protective measures included in 
the Navy's revised INRMP in our final critical habitat rule, provided 
the revised INRMP is finalized within a timeframe consistent with the 
rulemaking schedule for this regulatory action.

Exclusions

Application of Section 4(b)(2) of the Act

    Section 4(b)(2) of the Act states that the Secretary must designate 
and revise critical habitat on the basis of the best available 
scientific data after taking into consideration the economic impact, 
national security impact, and any other relevant impact of specifying 
any particular area as critical habitat. The Secretary may exclude an 
area from critical habitat if he determines that the benefits of such 
exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such area as part of the 
critical habitat, unless he determines, based on the best scientific 
data available, that the failure to designate such area as critical 
habitat will result in the extinction of the species. The Secretary may 
exclude an area from designated critical habitat based on economic 
impacts, impacts on national security, or any other relevant impacts.
    In considering whether to exclude a particular area from the 
designation, we must identify the benefits of including the area in the 
designation, identify the benefits of excluding the area from the 
designation, and evaluate whether the benefits of exclusion outweigh 
the benefits of inclusion. If based on this analysis, the Secretary 
makes this determination, then he can exercise his discretion to 
exclude the area only if such exclusion would not result in the 
extinction of the species.
    When considering the benefits of inclusion for an area, we consider 
the additional regulatory benefits under section 7 of the Act the area 
would receive from the protection from adverse modification or 
destruction as a result of actions with a Federal nexus, the 
educational benefits of mapping essential habitat for recovery of the 
listed species, and any benefits that may result from a designation due 
to State or Federal laws that may apply to critical habitat. Benefits 
could include public awareness of the presence of listed species and 
the importance of habitat protection, and in cases where a Federal 
nexus exists, increased habitat protection due to the protection from 
adverse modification or destruction of critical habitat.
    When considering the benefits of excluding an area from critical 
habitat, we consider whether exclusion is likely to result in 
conservation; the continuation, strengthening, or encouragement of 
partnerships; or implementation of a management plan that provides 
equal to or more conservation than a critical habitat designation would 
provide.
    In evaluating the existence of a conservation plan when considering 
the benefits of exclusion, we consider a variety of factors, including, 
but not limited to, whether the plan is finalized; how it provides for 
the conservation of essential physical or biological features; whether 
there is a reasonable expectation that the conservation management 
strategies and actions contained in the plan are likely to be 
implemented into the future; whether the conservation strategies in the 
plan are likely to be effective; and whether the plan contains a 
monitoring program or adaptive management to ensure that the 
conservation measures are effective and can be adapted in the future in 
response to new information.
    After evaluating the benefits of inclusion and the benefits of 
exclusion, the two sides are carefully weighed to determine whether the 
benefits of exclusion outweigh those of inclusion. If they do, we then 
determine whether exclusion of the particular area would result in the 
extinction of the species. If exclusion of an area from critical 
habitat will result in extinction, it will not be excluded from the 
designation.

Exclusions Based on Economic Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider the economic impacts 
of specifying any particular area as critical habitat. In order to 
consider economic impacts, we are preparing an analysis of the probable 
economic impacts of the proposed critical habitat designation and 
related factors.
    We will announce the availability of the draft economic analysis as 
soon as it is completed, at which time we will seek public review and 
comment. At that time, copies of the draft economic analysis will be 
available for downloading from the Internet at the Federal eRulemaking 
Portal: http://www.regulations.gov, or by contacting the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office directly (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT section). During the development of a final designation, we 
will consider economic impacts, public comments, and other new 
information, and as an outcome of our analysis of this information, we 
may exclude areas from the final critical habitat designation under 
section 4(b)(2) of the Act and our implementing regulations at 50 CFR 
424.19.

[[Page 46466]]

Exclusions Based on National Security Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider whether there are 
lands owned or managed by the Department of Defense (DOD) where a 
national security impact might exist. In preparing this proposal, we 
have exempted from the designation of critical habitat those Department 
of Defense lands with completed INRMPs determined to provide a benefit 
to the 124 species. We have determined that certain lands within the 
proposed designation of critical habitat are owned or managed by the 
DOD (Department of the Navy), at NAVMAG PH Lualualei Branch and NRFT 
Lualualei. There are also lands owned or managed at six Department of 
the Army training installations (see discussion under ``Approved 
INRMPs''); however, those lands are not being proposed as critical 
habitat pursuant to section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act. At this time, we 
are unaware of any potential impacts to national security on any DOD 
lands; therefore, we do not propose to exclude any areas from the final 
designation based on impacts to national security, but will fully 
consider all comments in this regard in the final critical habitat 
designation.

Exclusions Based on Other Relevant Impacts

    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we consider any other relevant 
impacts, in addition to economic impacts and impacts on national 
security. We consider a number of factors including whether the 
landowners have developed any conservation plans or other management 
plans for the area, or whether there are conservation partnerships that 
would be encouraged by designation of, or exclusion from, critical 
habitat. We also consider any social impacts that might occur because 
of the designation.
    In preparing this proposed rule, we have determined that the 
landowners have not developed conservation plans or other management 
plans for the 99 previously listed plant species, the two previously 
listed plant species without designated critical habitat, or the 23 
species proposed for listing as endangered. In addition, we have 
determined there are no conservation partnerships that would be 
encouraged by the exclusion from critical habitat. We anticipate no 
impact to partnerships, or habitat conservation plans (HCPs) or other 
management plans from this proposed critical habitat designation. 
Accordingly, we do not propose to exert our discretion to exclude any 
areas from the final designation based on other relevant impacts.
    However, as stated under the Public Comments section above, we 
request specific comments on whether any specific areas proposed for 
designation for the 124 species should be excluded under section 
4(b)(2) of the Act from the final designation. Based on public comments 
on the draft economic analysis or the proposed designation itself, the 
Secretary may exclude any area proposed as critical habitat in this 
rule under section 4(b)(2) of the Act.

Peer Review

    In accordance with our joint policy published in the Federal 
Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we will seek the expert 
opinions of at least three appropriate and independent specialists 
regarding this proposed rule. The purpose of such review is to ensure 
that our critical habitat designation is based on scientifically sound 
data, assumptions, and analyses. We have posted our peer review plan on 
our Web site at http://www.fws.gov/informationquality. We will invite 
these peer reviewers to comment, during the public comment period, on 
the specific assumptions and conclusions regarding the proposed 
designation of critical habitat.
    We will consider all comments and information we receive during the 
comment period on this proposed rule during our preparation of a final 
rulemaking. Accordingly, our final decision may differ from this 
proposal.

Public Hearings

    The Act provides for one or more public hearings on this proposal, 
if requested. Requests for public hearings must be made in writing 
within 45 days of the publication of this proposal (see DATES section). 
We will schedule public hearings on this proposal, if any are 
requested, and announce the dates, times, and place of those hearings, 
in the Federal Register and local newspapers at least 15 days before 
the first hearing.
    Persons needing reasonable accommodations to attend and participate 
in a public hearing should contact the Pacific Islands Fish and 
Wildlife Office at 808-792-9400 as soon as possible. To allow 
sufficient time to process requests, please call no later than one week 
before the hearing date. Information regarding this proposal is 
available in alternative formats upon request.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review--Executive Order 12866

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has determined that this 
rule is not significant under Executive Order 12866 (E.O. 12866). OMB 
bases its determination upon the following four criteria:
    (1) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or 
more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, 
productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government.
    (2) Whether the rule will create inconsistencies with other Federal 
agencies' actions.
    (3) Whether the rule will materially affect entitlements, grants, 
user fees, loan programs, or the rights and obligations of their 
recipients.
    (4) Whether the rule raises novel legal or policy issues.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA; 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996), whenever an agency must publish a notice of 
rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make 
available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that 
describes the effects of the rule on small entities (small businesses, 
small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no 
regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of the agency 
certifies the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. SBREFA amended RFA to require 
Federal agencies to provide a statement of the factual basis for 
certifying that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on 
a substantial number of small entities.
    At this time, we lack all of the available economic information 
necessary to provide an adequate factual basis for the required RFA 
finding. Therefore, we defer the RFA finding until completion of the 
draft economic analysis prepared under section 4(b)(2) of the Act and 
E.O. 12866. The draft economic analysis will provide the required 
factual basis for the RFA finding. Upon completion of the draft 
economic analysis, we will announce availability of the draft economic 
analysis in the Federal Register and reopen the public comment period 
for the proposed designation. We will include with this announcement, 
as appropriate, an initial regulatory

[[Page 46467]]

flexibility analysis or a certification that the rule will not have a 
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities 
accompanied by the factual basis for that determination.
    Small entities include small organizations, such as independent 
nonprofit organizations; small governmental jurisdictions, including 
school boards and city and town governments that serve fewer than 
50,000 residents; as well as small businesses. Small businesses include 
manufacturing and mining concerns with fewer than 500 employees, 
wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, retail and 
service businesses with less than $5 million in annual sales, general 
and heavy construction businesses with less than $27.5 million in 
annual business, special trade contractors doing less than $11.5 
million in annual business, and agricultural businesses with annual 
sales less than $750,000. To determine if potential economic impacts to 
these small entities are significant, the draft economic analysis will 
consider the types of activities that might trigger regulatory impacts 
under this rule, as well as the types of project modifications that may 
result. In general, the term ``significant economic impact'' is meant 
to apply to a typical small business firm's business operations.
    To determine if a designation of critical habitat could 
significantly affect a substantial number of small entities, we 
consider the number of small entities affected within particular types 
of economic activities (e.g., housing development, grazing, oil and gas 
production, timber harvesting). We apply the ``substantial number'' 
test individually to each industry to determine if certification is 
appropriate. However, the SBREFA does not explicitly define 
``substantial number'' or ``significant economic impact.'' 
Consequently, to assess whether a ``substantial number'' of small 
entities is affected by this designation, this analysis considers the 
relative number of small entities likely to be impacted in an area. In 
some circumstances, especially with critical habitat designations of 
limited extent, we may aggregate across all industries and consider 
whether the total number of small entities affected is substantial. In 
estimating the number of small entities potentially affected, we also 
consider whether their activities have any Federal involvement.
    Under the Act, designation of critical habitat only affects 
activities carried out, funded, or permitted by Federal agencies. Some 
kinds of activities are unlikely to have any Federal involvement and so 
will not be affected by critical habitat designation. However, in some 
states there are state laws that limit activities in designated 
critical habitat even where there is no federal nexus. If there is a 
Federal nexus, Federal agencies will be required to consult with us 
under section 7 of the Act on activities they fund, permit, or carry 
out that may affect critical habitat. If we conclude, in a biological 
opinion, that a proposed action is likely to destroy or adversely 
modify critical habitat, we can offer ``reasonable and prudent 
alternatives.'' Reasonable and prudent alternatives are alternative 
actions that can be implemented in a manner consistent with the scope 
of the Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction, that are 
economically and technologically feasible, and that would avoid 
destroying or adversely modifying critical habitat.
    A Federal agency and an applicant may elect to implement a 
reasonable and prudent alternative associated with a biological opinion 
that has found adverse modification of critical habitat. An agency or 
applicant could alternatively choose to seek an exemption from the 
requirements of the Act or proceed without implementing the reasonable 
and prudent alternative. However, unless an exemption were obtained, 
the Federal agency or applicant would be at risk of violating section 
7(a)(2) of the Act if it chose to proceed without implementing the 
reasonable and prudent alternatives. We may also identify discretionary 
conservation recommendations designed to minimize or avoid the adverse 
effects of a proposed action on critical habitat, help implement 
recovery plans, or to develop information that could contribute to the 
recovery of the species.
    Within the proposed critical habitat designation, the types of 
actions or authorized activities that we have identified to date as 
potential concerns and that may be subject to consultation under 
section 7 if there is a Federal nexus are: (1) Activities that might 
degrade or destroy the primary constituent elements for the species, 
including, but not limited to (a) grazing, (b) maintaining or 
increasing feral ungulate levels, (c) clearing or cutting native live 
trees and shrubs, (d) bulldozing, (e) construction, (f) road building, 
(g) mining, (h) herbicide application, and (i) taking actions that pose 
a risk of fire; (2) activities that may alter watershed characteristics 
in ways that would reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, 
wetland, aquatic, or vegetative communities (e.g., new water diversion 
or impoundment activities, groundwater pumping, and manipulation of 
vegetation through activities such as the ones mentioned above); (3) 
recreational activities that may degrade vegetation; (4) mining sand or 
other minerals; (5) introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative 
plant species; (6) importing nonnative species for research, 
agriculture, and aquaculture; and (7) releasing biological control 
agents.
    We are specifically aware of some potential development actitities 
in the Barber's Point area, which could potentially affect the 
following proposed critical habitat units: Oahu--Coastal 13, Oahu--
Coastal 14, Oahu--Coastal 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry 11. These potential 
development activities will be evaluated in the draft economic analysis 
we will prepare for this proposed rule. None of the other proposed 
critical habitat units contains significant residential, commercial, 
industrial, or golf-course projects; crop farming; or intensive 
livestock operations, and few projects are planned for locations in the 
other proposed critical habitat areas. This situation reflects the fact 
that:
    (1) Most of the land is unsuitable for development, farming, or 
other economic activities due to the rugged mountain terrain, lack of 
access, and remote locations; and
    (2) Existing land-use controls severely limit development and most 
other economic activities in the mountainous interior of Oahu.
    Existing and planned projects, land uses, and activities that could 
affect the proposed critical habitat but have no Federal involvement 
would not require section 7 consultation with the Service, so they are 
not restricted by the requirements of the Act. Further, although some 
existing and continuing activities involve the operation and 
maintenance of existing manmade features and structures in certain 
areas, these areas do not contain the PCEs for the species, and would 
not be impacted by the designation. Finally, for the anticipated 
projects and activities that will have Federal involvement, many are 
conservation efforts that will not negatively impact the species or 
their habitats, so they will not be subject to a minimal level of 
informal section 7 consultation. We anticipate that a developer or 
other project proponent could modify a project or take measures to 
protect the 124 Oahu species. The kinds of actions that may be included 
if future reasonable and prudent

[[Page 46468]]

alternatives become necessary include conservation set-asides, 
management of competing nonnative species, restoration of degraded 
habitat, and regular monitoring. These measures are not likely to 
result in a significant economic impact to project proponents, because 
nearly all of the lands proposed for critical habitat designation are 
unsuitable for development, as well as for most commercial projects, 
land uses, and activities. This is due to their remote location, lack 
of access, and rugged terrain.
    In addition, Federal agencies may also need to reinitiate a 
previous consultation if discretionary involvement or control over the 
Federal action has been retained or is authorized by law and the 
activities may affect critical habitat. Since critical habitat was 
designated on Oahu in June 2003 (for 99 Oahu plants), and, most 
recently in December 2008 (for 12 picture-wing flies, 73 FR 73795), we 
have conducted 28 formal consultations and 137 informal consultations 
on this island, in addition to consultations on Federal grants to State 
wildlife programs that do not affect small entities. Of these, 13 
formal consultations and 34 informal consultations were primarily 
consultations regarding Federal permits to Service employees to 
implement conservation actions for listed species. The remainder, 15 
formal consultations and 103 informal consultations, involved the U.S. 
Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Marine 
Corps Base of Hawaii, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, Department of 
Commerce, Department of Homeland Security, Environmental Protection 
Agency, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Highways 
Administration, Department of Agriculture (USDA-Natural Resources 
Conservation Service (NRCS); USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service), General Services Administration, Housing and Urban 
Development, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. 
Geological Survey, Hawaii Department of Transportation, State of 
Hawaii, Housing and Community Development Corporation of Hawaii, and 
the University of Hawaii. The majority of formal consultations were 
related to project effects on seabird flyways, nesting by endangered 
waterbirds, human disturbance such as fire from military training 
exercises, and research permits. The majority of informal consultations 
were related to project effects on seabird flyways and nesting by 
endangered waterbirds. About a quarter of the informal consultations 
were conducted with the USDA-NRCS for proposed funding for habitat 
restoration projects under the auspices of the Wildlife Habitat 
Incentives Program.
    Seven of the formal consultations concerned designated critical 
habitat, and we concurred with each agency's determination that the 
project, as proposed, was not likely to adversely affect critical 
habitat. Of these seven formal consultations, one was conducted on 
behalf of the Navy in upper Halawa Valley, one was conducted on behalf 
of the Army regarding routine military training and transformation of 
the 2nd Brigade 25th Infantry (Light) at six Army installations, and 
five were conducted on behalf of the Army regarding reinitiation for 
routine military training at Makua Military Reservation. The Navy 
consultation involved a retrieval of remains from a remote area crash 
site in designated plant critical habitat, and although it was carried 
out in an area that is also proposed for critical habitat in this rule, 
it was a single, one-time action that is not ongoing. The project 
regarding training at six Army installations on Oahu is being 
implemented on lands that we are not exempting from critical habitat in 
this rule. Five of the Army consultations, those that involve routine 
military training at Makua Military Reservation, involve actions that 
are still ongoing. Because these five Federal actions were subject to 
previous section 7 consultations, there may be a requirement to 
reinitiate consultation for ongoing Federal projects on these lands.
    Sixteen of the 103 informal consultations concerned designated 
critical habitat, and in all cases we concurred with each agency's 
determination that the project, as proposed, was not likely to 
adversely affect critical habitat. These projects were evenly divided 
between conservation actions that would benefit listed species, changes 
in labeling on pesticides for use throughout the State to manage 
conservation areas, and effects on listed species by routine training 
actions on the Army's Makua Military Reservation. For the 87 informal 
consultations that did not concern designated critical habitat, we 
concurred with each agency's determination that the project, as 
proposed, was not likely to adversely affect listed species.
    In this rule, we are proposing to designate critical habitat on a 
total of 43,491 ac (17,600 ha) of land. Ninety-three percent (40,447 ac 
(16,369 ha)) of this proposed critical habitat designation is already 
designated critical habitat for one or more species, and seven percent 
(3,044 ac (1,231 ha)) of the proposed designation is on land newly 
proposed as critical habitat. Some of the Federal actions that were 
subject to previous section 7 consultation are on the lands we are 
proposing as critical habitat in this rule. Therefore, there may be a 
requirement to reinitiate consultation for some ongoing Federal 
projects.
    In the 2001, 2002, and 2008 economic analyses of the designation of 
critical habitat for the Oahu elepaio, 99 species of Oahu plants, and 
12 picture-wing flies, we evaluated the potential economic effects on 
small business entities resulting from the protection of these species 
and their habitats related to the proposed designation of critical 
habitat and determined that it would not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. The RFA defines 
``small governmental jurisdiction'' as the government of a city, 
county, town, school district, or special district with a population of 
less than 50,000. By this definition, Honolulu County is not a small 
governmental jurisdiction because its population was 876,156 residents 
in 2000. Certain State agencies, such as the Department of Land and 
Natural Resources and the State Department of Transportation, may be 
affected by the proposed critical habitat designation. However, for the 
purposes of the RFA, State governments are considered independent 
sovereigns, not small governments. The significant overlap between the 
critical habitat designations for the Oahu elepaio, 99 plant species, 
and the 12 picture-wing flies and this proposed critical habitat 
designation may be an indication that this proposal will not have a 
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. 
This potential issue will be fully examined in our draft economic 
analysis.
    We have concluded that deferring the RFA finding until completion 
of the draft economic analysis is necessary to meet the purposes and 
requirements of the RFA. Deferring the RFA finding in this manner will 
ensure that we make a sufficiently informed determination based on 
adequate economic information and provide the necessary opportunity for 
public comment.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.)

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we make the following findings:
    (a) This rule will not produce a Federal mandate. In general, a 
Federal

[[Page 46469]]

mandate is a provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that 
would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal 
governments, or the private sector, and includes both ``Federal 
intergovernmental mandates'' and ``Federal private sector mandates.'' 
These terms are defined in 2 U.S.C. 658(5)-(7). ``Federal 
intergovernmental mandate'' includes a regulation that ``would impose 
an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal governments'' with two 
exceptions. It excludes ``a condition of Federal assistance.'' It also 
excludes ``a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal 
program,'' unless the regulation ``relates to a then-existing Federal 
program under which $500,000,000 or more is provided annually to State, 
local, and tribal governments under entitlement authority,'' if the 
provision would ``increase the stringency of conditions of assistance'' 
or ``place caps upon, or otherwise decrease, the Federal Government's 
responsibility to provide funding,'' and the State, local, or tribal 
governments ``lack authority'' to adjust accordingly. At the time of 
enactment, these entitlement programs were: Medicaid; Aid to Families 
with Dependent Children work programs; Child Nutrition; Food Stamps; 
Social Services Block Grants; Vocational Rehabilitation State Grants; 
Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Independent Living; Family 
Support Welfare Services; and Child Support Enforcement. ``Federal 
private sector mandate'' includes a regulation that ``would impose an 
enforceable duty upon the private sector, except (i) a condition of 
Federal assistance or (ii) a duty arising from participation in a 
voluntary Federal program.''
    The designation of critical habitat does not impose a legally 
binding duty on non-Federal Government entities or private parties. 
Under the Act, the only regulatory effect is that Federal agencies must 
ensure that their actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of 
the species, or destroy or adversely modify critical habitat under 
section 7. While non-Federal entities that receive Federal funding, 
assistance, or permits, or that otherwise require approval or 
authorization from a Federal agency for an action, may be indirectly 
impacted by the designation of critical habitat, the legally binding 
duty to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat 
rests squarely on the Federal agency. Furthermore, to the extent that 
non-Federal entities are indirectly impacted because they receive 
Federal assistance or participate in a voluntary Federal aid program, 
the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act would not apply, nor would critical 
habitat shift the costs of the large entitlement programs listed above 
onto State governments.
    (b) We do not believe that this rule would significantly or 
uniquely affect small governments. The lands we are proposing for 
critical habitat designation are owned by the City and County of 
Honolulu, the State of Hawaii, private citizens, and the Federal 
government. None of these entities fit the definition of ``small 
governmental jurisdiction.'' Therefore, a Small Government Agency Plan 
is not required. However, we will further evaluate this issue as we 
conduct our economic analysis, and review and revise this assessment as 
warranted.

Takings--Executive Order 12630

    In accordance with E.O. 12630 (Government Actions and Interference 
with Constitutionally Protected Private Property Rights), we have 
analyzed the potential takings implications of designating critical 
habitat for each of the 124 species in a takings implications 
assessment. The takings implications assessment concludes that this 
designation of critical habitat for each of these species does not pose 
significant takings implications for lands within or affected by the 
proposed designation.

Federalism--Executive Order 13132

    In accordance with E.O. 13132 (Federalism), this rule does not have 
significant Federalism effects. A Federalism assessment is not 
required. In keeping with Department of the Interior and Department of 
Commerce policy, we requested information from, and coordinated 
development of, this proposed critical habitat designation with 
appropriate State resource agencies in Hawaii. The critical habitat 
designation may have some benefit to these governments because the 
areas that contain the features essential to the conservation of the 
species are more clearly defined, and the essential features themselves 
are specifically identified. While making this definition and 
identification does not alter where and what federally sponsored 
activities may occur, it may assist local governments in long-range 
planning (rather than having them wait for case-by-case section 7 
consultations to occur).
    Where State and local governments require approval or authorization 
from a Federal agency for actions that may affect critical habitat, 
consultation under section 7(a)(2) would be required. While non-Federal 
entities that receive Federal funding, assistance, or permits, or that 
otherwise require approval or authorization from a Federal agency for 
an action, may be indirectly impacted by the designation of critical 
habitat, the legally binding duty to avoid destruction or adverse 
modification of critical habitat rests squarely on the Federal agency.

Civil Justice Reform--Executive Order 12988

    In accordance with E.O. 12988 (Civil Justice Reform), the Office of 
the Solicitor has determined that the rule does not unduly burden the 
judicial system and that it meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 
3(b)(2) of the Order. We have proposed designating critical habitat in 
accordance with the provisions of the Act. This proposed rule uses 
standard property descriptions and identifies the physical and 
biological features within the designated areas to assist the public in 
understanding the habitat needs of each of the species being considered 
in this proposed rule.

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)

    This proposed rule does not contain any new collections of 
information that require approval by OMB under the Paperwork Reduction 
Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). This rule will not impose 
recordkeeping or reporting requirements on State or local governments, 
individuals, businesses, or organizations. An agency may not conduct or 
sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of 
information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    It is our position that, outside the jurisdiction of the U.S. Court 
of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, we do not need to prepare 
environmental analyses as defined by NEPA (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) in 
connection with designating critical habitat under the Act. We 
published a notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the 
Federal Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244). This position was 
upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Douglas 
County v. Babbitt, 48 F.3d 1495 (9th Cir. 1995), cert. denied 516 U.S. 
1042 (1996)).

Clarity of the Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the 
Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain 
language. This means that each rule we publish must:

[[Page 46470]]

    (a) Be logically organized;
    (b) Use the active voice to address readers directly;
    (c) Use clear language rather than jargon;
    (d) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and
    (e) Use lists and tables wherever possible.
    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us 
comments by one of the methods listed in the ADDRESSES section. To 
better help us revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as 
possible. For example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections 
or paragraphs that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences 
are too long, the sections where you feel lists or tables would be 
useful, etc.

Government-to-Government Relationship with Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal 
Governments (59 FR 22951), E.O. 13175, and the Department of the 
Interior's manual at 512 DM 2, we readily acknowledge our 
responsibility to communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal 
Tribes on a government-to-government basis. In accordance with 
Secretarial Order 3206 of June 5, 1997, ``American Indian Tribal 
Rights, Federal-Tribal Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered 
Species Act,'' we readily acknowledge our responsibilities to work 
directly with Tribes in developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to 
acknowledge that tribal lands are not subject to the same controls as 
Federal public lands, to remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to 
make information available to Tribes.
    We have determined that there are no tribal lands occupied at the 
time of listing that contain the features essential for the 
conservation, and no tribal lands that are essential for the 
conservation, of the 124 Oahu species. Therefore, we have not proposed 
designation of critical habitat for any of the 124 species on tribal 
lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued an Executive Order (E.O. 
13211; Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use) on regulations that significantly affect 
energy supply, distribution, and use. E.O. 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
This proposed rule to designate critical habitat for 124 species is not 
a significant regulatory action under E.O. 12866 and we do not expect 
it to significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use 
because these areas are not presently used for energy production, and 
we are unaware of any future plans in this regard. Therefore, this 
action is not a significant energy action, and no Statement of Energy 
Effects is required. However, we will further evaluate this issue as we 
conduct our economic analysis, and review and revise this assessment as 
warranted.

References Cited

    A complete list of references cited in this proposed rule is 
available on the internet at http://www.regulations.gov and upon 
request from the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT, above).

Authors

    The primary authors of this document are the staff members of the 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Proposed Regulation Promulgation

    Accordingly, we propose to amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter 
I, title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as set forth below:

PART 17--[AMENDED]

    1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 
4201-4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500; unless otherwise noted.

    2. Amend Sec.  17.11(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife by adding entries for ``Damselfly, blackline Hawaiian'', 
``Damselfly, crimson Hawaiian'', and ``Damselfly, oceanic Hawaiian'', 
in alphabetical order under INSECTS, to read as follows:


Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Species                                                    Vertebrate
--------------------------------------------------------                        population where                                  Critical     Special
                                                            Historic range       endangered or         Status      When listed    habitat       rules
           Common name                Scientific name                              threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
             Insects
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Damselfly, blackline Hawaiian....  Megalagrion           U.S.A. (HI)........  NA.................  E               ...........     17.95(i)           NA
                                    nigrohamatum
                                    nigrolineatum.
 
Damselfly, crimson Hawaiian......  Megalagrion           U.S.A. (HI)........  NA.................  E               ...........     17.95(i)           NA
                                    leptodemas.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Damselfly, oceanic Hawaiian......  Megalagrion           U.S.A. (HI)........  NA.................  E               ...........     17.95(i)           NA
                                    oceanicum.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. Amend Sec.  17.12(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Plants, as follows:
    a. By removing the entries for Alsinidendron obovatum, 
Alsinidendron trinerve, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana, 
Hedyotis coriacea, Hedyotis degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Lipochaeta 
tenuifolia, and Mariscus pennatiformis under FLOWERING PLANTS;

[[Page 46471]]

    b. By revising the entry for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata 
under FLOWERING PLANTS to read as set forth below;
    c. By adding entries for Bidens amplectens, Chamaesyce skottsbergii 
var. skottsbergii, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea 
purpurellifolia, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra 
kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra waiolani, Kadua coriacea, 
Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope christophersenii, Melicope hiiakae, Melicope 
makahae, Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea obovata, Schiedea trinervis, 
Tetraplasandra lydgatei, and Zanthoxylum oahuense in alphabetical order 
under FLOWERING PLANTS to read as set forth below;
    d. By removing the entry for Phlegmariurus nutans under FERNS AND 
ALLIES; and
    e. By adding entries for Doryopteris takeuchii and Huperzia nutans 
in alphabetical order under FERNS AND ALLIES to read as set forth 
below.


Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Species
----------------------------------------------------   Historic range          Family            Status     When listed   Critical  habitat    Special
        Scientific name              Common name                                                                                                rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Flowering Plants
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Achyranthes splendens var.       Round-leaved chaff  U.S.A. (HI).......  Amaranthaceae.....  E                      220  17.99(i)..........           NA
 rotundata.                       flower.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bidens amplectens..............  Kookoolau.........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.     Ewa Plains akoko..  U.S.A. (HI).......  Euphorbiaceae.....  E                      120  17.99(i)..........           NA
 skottsbergii.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea calycina................  Haha..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea lanceolata..............  Haha..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyanea purpurellifolia.........  Haha..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyperus pennatiformis..........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Cyperaceae........  E                      559  17.99(a)(1),                 NA
                                                                                                                          (e)(1), (g), and
                                                                                                                          (i).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra gracilis.............  Haiwale...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Gesneriaceae......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
Cyrtandra kaulantha............  Haiwale...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Gesneriaceae......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra sessilis.............  Haiwale...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Gesneriaceae......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Cyrtandra waiolani.............  Haiwale...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Gesneriaceae......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua coriacea.................  Kioele............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rubiaceae.........  E                      467  17.99(e)(1) and              NA
                                                                                                                          (i).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua degeneri.................  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rubiaceae.........  E                      448  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Kadua parvula..................  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rubiaceae.........  E                      448  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Korthalsella degeneri..........  Hulumoa...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Viscaceae.........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melanthera tenuifolia..........  Nehe..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........  E                      448  17.99(i)..........           NA

[[Page 46472]]

 
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope christophersenii......  Alani.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope hiiakae...............  Alani.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Melicope makahae...............  Alani.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
Platydesma cornuta var.          None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 decurrens.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pleomele forbesii..............  Hala pepe.........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asparagaceae......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Psychotria hexandra ssp.         Kopiko............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rubiaceae.........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 oahuensis.
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pteralyxia macrocarpa..........  Kaulu.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Apocynaceae.......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea obovata...............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Caryophyllaceae...  E                      448  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Schiedea trinervis.............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Caryophyllaceae...  E                      448  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Tetraplasandra lydgatei........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Araliaceae........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Zanthoxylum oahuense...........  Ae................  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
        Ferns and Allies
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Doryopteris takeuchii..........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Pteridaceae.......  E              ...........  17.99(i)..........           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Huperzia nutans................  Wawaeiole.........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Lycopodiaceae.....  E                      467  17.99(e)(1).......           NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. Amend Sec.  17.95 paragraph (i), by adding critical habitat for 
``Blackline Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum)'', ``Crimson Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion 
leptodemas)'', and ``Oceanic Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion 
oceanicum)'', in the same alphabetical order as these species occur in 
the table at Sec.  17.11(h), to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.95  Critical habitat--fish and wildlife.

* * * * *
    (i) Insects.
* * * * *
    Blackline Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Honolulu County, 
Hawaii, on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements. The primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum) are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    ----(v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    ----(vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (vii) Perennial streams.
    (viii) Slow reaches of streams.

[[Page 46473]]

    (ix) Pools.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical and biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or in adjacent critical 
habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the blackline Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.031


[[Page 46474]]


    (6) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (790 ac; 320 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (1,790 ac; 
724 ha); and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 3--Lowland 
Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (3,041 ac; 1,231 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (iv) Note: Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 1--
Lowland Wet, Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 2--Lowland 
Wet, and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 3--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.032


[[Page 46475]]


    (7) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (ii) Note: Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 4--
Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.033


[[Page 46476]]


    (8) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum-Unit 5--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (124 ac; 50 
ha); and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (53 ac; 21 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (iv) Note: Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 5--
Lowland Wet, Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 6--Lowland 
Wet, and Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.034


[[Page 46477]]


    (9) Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (161 ac; 65 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (478 ac; 
193 ha); Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (407 ac; 165 ha); and Megalagrion nigrohamatum 
nigrolineatum--Unit 11--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (2,507 ac; 
1,014 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the blackline Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
nigrohamatum nigrolineatum.
    (v) Note: Map of Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 8--
Lowland Wet, Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 9--Lowland 
Wet, Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, and 
Megalagrion nigrohamatum nigrolineatum--Unit 11--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.035

Crimson Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Honolulu County, 
Hawaii, on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.

[[Page 46478]]

    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Slow reaches of streams or ponds.
    (ii) In units 12, 13, and 14, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Slow reaches of streams or ponds.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical and biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical or biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the crimson Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion leptodemas) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.036


[[Page 46479]]


    (6) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (790 ac; 320 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (1,790 ac; 724 ha); and Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (3,041 ac; 
1,231 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iv) Note: Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 1--Lowland Wet, 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 3--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.037


[[Page 46480]]


    (7) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (ii) Note: Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 4--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.038


[[Page 46481]]


    (8) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); and Megalagrion leptodemas--
Unit 7--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (53 ac; 21 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iv) Note: Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion 
leptodemas--Unit 7--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.039


[[Page 46482]]


    (9) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (161 ac; 65 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (478 ac; 193 ha); Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 
10--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (407 ac; 165 ha); and 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 11--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii 
(2,507 ac; 1,014 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (v) Note: Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 8--Lowland Wet, 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion leptodemas--
Unit 10--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 11--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.040


[[Page 46483]]


    (10) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 12--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (151 ac; 61 ha) and Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 13--Wet Cliff, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (144 ac; 58 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 12.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 13.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (iii) Note: Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 12--Wet Cliff and 
Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 13--Wet Cliff follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.041


[[Page 46484]]


    (11) Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 14--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (4,649 ac; 1,881 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the crimson Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
leptodemas.
    (ii) Note: Map of Megalagrion leptodemas--Unit 14--Wet Cliff 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.042

Oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Honolulu County, 
Hawaii, on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In unit 1, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum) are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Swift-flowing sections and riffles of streams.
    (ii) In units 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum) are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (H) Swift-flowing sections and riffles of streams.
    (iii) In units 13, 14, and 15, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion 
oceanicum) are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.

[[Page 46485]]

    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    (G) Perennial streams.
    (I) Swift-flowing sections and riffles of streams.
    (3) Existing manmade features and structures, such as buildings, 
roads, railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and 
other urban landscaped areas, do not contain one or more of the 
physical and biological features. Federal actions limited to those 
areas, therefore, would not trigger a consultation under section 7 of 
the Act unless they may affect the species or physical and biological 
features in adjacent critical habitat.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for the oceanic Hawaiian 
damselfly (Megalagrion oceanicum; Map 1) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.043


[[Page 46486]]


    (6) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (247 ac; 100 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 1--Lowland Mesic (Map 
2) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.044


[[Page 46487]]


    (7) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (790 ac; 320 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (1,790 ac; 724 ha); and Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 4--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (3,041 ac; 1,231 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iv) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 2--Lowland Wet, 
Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 3--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 4--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.045


[[Page 46488]]


    (8) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 5--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 5--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.046


[[Page 46489]]


    (9) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (124 ac; 50 ha); and Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 8--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (53 ac; 21 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iv) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 6--Lowland Wet, 
Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 7--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 8--Lowland Wet follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.047


[[Page 46490]]


    (10) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (161 ac; 65 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (478 ac; 193 ha); Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 
11--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii (407 ac; 165 ha); and 
Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 12--Lowland Wet, Honolulu County, Hawaii 
(2,507 ac; 1,014 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 12.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (v) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 9--Lowland Wet, 
Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 10--Lowland Wet, Megalagrion oceanicum--
Unit 11--Lowland Wet, and Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 12--Lowland Wet 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.048


[[Page 46491]]


    (11) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 13--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (151 ac; 61 ha) and Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 14--Wet Cliff, 
Honolulu County, Hawaii (144 ac; 58 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 13.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 14.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (iii) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 13--Wet Cliff and 
Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 14--Wet Cliff follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.049


[[Page 46492]]


    (12) Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 15--Wet Cliff, Honolulu County, 
Hawaii (4,649 ac; 1,881 ha).
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 15.] This unit is 
critical habitat for the oceanic Hawaiian damselfly, Megalagrion 
oceanicum.
    (ii) Note: Map of Megalagrion oceanicum--Unit 15--Wet Cliff 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.050

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C
* * * * *
    5. Amend Sec.  17.99 as follows:
    a. Amend paragraph (a)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

[[Page 46493]]



------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a)(1)(civ), the              Kauai 10--            Kauai 10--Huperzia
 introductory text.            Phlegmariurus         nutans--a.
                               nutans--a.
(a)(1)(ccxl), the             Kauai 11--Mariscus    Kauai 11--Cyperus
 introductory text.            pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    b. Amend paragraph (a)(1) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(a)(1)(civ)(B) and (a)(1)(ccxl)(B), and adding in their place the maps 
set forth below.
    c. In paragraph (a)(1)(cdlix), amend the Table of Protected Species 
Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for Kauai, by removing the words 
listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the 
words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Kauai 10--            Kauai 10--Huperzia
                               Phlegmariurus         nutans--a.
                               nutans--a.
Species unoccupied..........  Phlegmariurus nutans  Huperzia nutans.
Unit name...................  Kauai 11--Mariscus    Kauai 11--Cyperus
                               pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
Species unoccupied..........  Mariscus              Cyperus
                               pennatiformis.        pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    d. Amend paragraph (b)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus              Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 pennatiformis (NCN).                     pennatiformis (NCN).
Kauai 11--Mariscus pennatiformis--a....  Kauai 11--Cyperus
                                          pennatiformis--a.
Mariscus pennatiformis.................  Cyperus pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    e. Amend paragraph (b)(2) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Lycopodiaceae: Phlegmariurus      Family Lycopodiaceae: Huperzia
 nutans (wawaeiole).                      nutans (wawaeiole).
Kauai 10--Phlegmariurus nutans--a......  Kauai 10--Huperzia nutans--a.
Phlegmariurus nutans...................  Huperzia nutans.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    f. Amend paragraph (e)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(e)(1)(xii), the              Maui 6--Mariscus      Maui 6--Cyperus
 introductory text.            pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
(e)(1)(civ), the              Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
 introductory text.            coriacea--a.          coriacea--a.
(e)(1)(cv), the introductory  Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
 text.                         coriacea--b.          coriacea--b.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    g. Amend paragraph (e)(1) by removing the maps in paragraphs 
(e)(1)(xii)(B), (e)(1)(civ)(B), and (e)(1)(cv)(B), and adding in their 
place the maps set forth below.
    h. In paragraph (e)(1)(cxxxviii), amend the Table of Protected 
Species Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for Maui, by removing the 
words listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in their place 
the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit name...................  Maui 6--Mariscus      Maui 6--Cyperus
                               pennatiformis--a.     pennatiformis--a.
Species occupied............  Mariscus              Cyperus
                               pennatiformis.        pennatiformis.
Unit name...................  Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
                               coriacea--a.          coriacea--a.
Species occupied............  Hedyotis coriacea...  Kadua coriacea.
Unit name...................  Maui 17--Hedyotis     Maui 17--Kadua
                               coriacea--b.          coriacea--b.
Species unoccupied..........  Hedyotis coriacea...  Kadua coriacea.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    i. Amend paragraph (f)(1) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

[[Page 46494]]



------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus              Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 pennatiformis (NCN).                     pennatiformis (NCN).
Maui 6--Mariscus pennatiformis--a......  Maui 6--Cyperus pennatiformis--
                                          a.
Mariscus pennatiformis.................  Cyperus pennatiformis.
Family Rubiaceae: Hedyotis coriacea      Family Rubiaceae: Kadua
 (kioele).                                coriacea (kioele).
Maui 17--Hedyotis coriacea--a..........  Maui 17--Kadua coriacea--a.
Maui 17--Hedyotis coriacea--b..........  Maui 17--Kadua coriacea--b.
Hedyotis coriacea......................  Kadua coriacea.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    j. Amend paragraph (g) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below and adding in their place the words listed in 
the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Paragraph designation            Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(g)(7), the introductory      Laysan 1-Mariscus     Laysan 1-Cyperus
 text.                         pennatiformis-entir   pennatiformis-entir
                               e island.             e island.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    k. Amend paragraph (g) by removing the map in paragraph (g)(7)(ii), 
and adding in its place the map set forth below.
    l. In paragraph (g)(9), amend the Table of Protected Species Within 
Each Critical Habitat Unit for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, by 
removing the words listed in the ``Remove'' column below and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Column heading                Remove                  Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species--Occupied...........  Mariscus              Cyperus
                               pennatiformis.        pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    m. Amend paragraph (h) by removing the words listed in the 
``Remove'' column below in all places that they appear and adding in 
their place the words listed in the ``Add'' column below:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Remove                                Add
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Family Cyperaceae: Mariscus              Family Cyperaceae: Cyperus
 pennatiformis (NCN).                     pennatiformis (NCN).
Laysan 1-Mariscus pennatiformis........  Laysan 1-Cyperus pennatiformis.
Mariscus pennatiformis.................  Cyperus pennatiformis.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 46495]]

    n. Revise paragraphs (i) and (j) to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.99  Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, 
Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands.

    (a) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (civ) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 49 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.051
    

[[Page 46496]]


* * * * *
    (ccxl) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 134 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.052
    

[[Page 46497]]


* * * * *
    (e) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (xii) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 12 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.053
    
* * * * *
    (civ) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 104 follows:

[[Page 46498]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.054

    (cv) * * *
    (B) Note: Map 105 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.055
    

[[Page 46499]]


* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (7) * * *
    (ii) Note: Map 7 follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.056
    
* * * * *
    (i) Oahu. Critical habitat units are described below. Coordinates 
are in UTM Zone 4 with units in meters using North American Datum of 
1983 (NAD83). The following map shows the general locations of the 
critical habitat units designated on the island of Oahu. Existing 
manmade features and structures, such as buildings, roads, railroads, 
airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and other urban landscaped 
areas, do not contain one or more of the physical and biological 
features. Federal actions limited to those areas, therefore, would not 
trigger a consultation under section 7 of the Act unless they may 
affect the species or physical or biological features in adjacent 
critical habitat.
    (1)  Note: Map 1--Index map follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P

[[Page 46500]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.057


[[Page 46501]]


    (2) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 (958 ac; 388 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Note:
    Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1 (Map 2) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.058
    

[[Page 46502]]


    (3) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 (12 ac; 5 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2 (Map 3) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.059
    

[[Page 46503]]


    (4) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 (15 ac; 6 ha) and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 
(3 ac; 1 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3 and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4 
(Map 4) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.060


[[Page 46504]]


    (5) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 (12 ac; 5 ha) and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6 
(9 ac; 4 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5 and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6 
(Map 5) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.061


[[Page 46505]]


    (6) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7 (67 ac; 27 ha), Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8 (10 
ac; 4 ha), and Oahu-Coastal-Unit 9 (84 ac; 34 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, and 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9 (Map 6) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.062


[[Page 46506]]


    (7) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10 (74 ac; 30 ha), Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11 
(20 ac; 8 ha), and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 (11 ac; 5 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Marsilea villosa, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna 
o-wahuensis.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 12.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Marsilea villosa, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna 
o-wahuensis.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, 
and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12 (Map 7) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.063


[[Page 46507]]


    (8) Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13 (24 ac; 10 ha), Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14 
(4 ac; 2 ha), and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 (34 ac; 14 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 13.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 14.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 15.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuensis.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, 
and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15 (Map 8) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.064


[[Page 46508]]


    (9) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 (102 ac; 41 ha) and Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2 (29 ac; 12)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, 
Schiedea kealiae, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, 
Schiedea kealiae, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1 and Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2 (Map 9) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.065


[[Page 46509]]


    (10) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3 (25 ac; 10 ha), Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 4 (18 ac; 7 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 (8 ac; 3 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Marsilea 
villosa, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Marsilea 
villosa, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania meyenii, Gouania 
vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Marsilea 
villosa, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--
Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5 (Map 10) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.066


[[Page 46510]]


    (11) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 (287 ac; 116 ha) and Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 7 (15 ac; 6 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Doryopteris takeuchii, Gouania meyenii, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos, Doryopteris takeuchii, 
Gouania meyenii, Marsilea villosa, and Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6 and Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 7 (Map 11) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.067


[[Page 46511]]


    (12) Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8 (292 ac; 118 ha), Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 9 (40 ac; 16 ha), Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10 (43 ac; 17 ha), 
and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 (166 ac; 67 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 9.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata, Bidens 
amplectens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Melanthera tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Pleomele forbesii, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kealiae, and 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.
    (v) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11 (Map 12) 
follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.068


[[Page 46512]]


    (13) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (4,450 ac; 1,801 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea 
pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, 
Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Kadua degeneri, 
Kadua parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Melicope pallida, Melicope saint-johnii, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora 
var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, 
Schiedea obovata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, Stenogyne 
kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and 
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1 (Map 13) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.069
    

[[Page 46513]]


    (14) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 (1,063 ac; 430 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea 
pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, 
Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Kadua degeneri, 
Kadua. parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Melicope pallida, Melicope saint-johnii, 
Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora 
var. lydgatei, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, 
Schiedea obovata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, Stenogyne 
kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and 
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2 (Map 14) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.070
    

[[Page 46514]]


    (15) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 (353 ac; 143 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea 
pinnatifida, Cyanea superba, Cyperus pennatiformis, Cyrtandra dentata, 
Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope pallida, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Phyllostegiamollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei, Plantago 
princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele 
forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, 
Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Schiedea obovata, Silene 
perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Urera kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3 (Map 15) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.071
    

[[Page 46515]]


    (16) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4 (20 ac; 8 ha) and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5 (29 ac; 12 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea. calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea truncata, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra waiolani, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea. calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea truncata, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra waiolani, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia. falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4 and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5 (Map 16) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.072


[[Page 46516]]


    (17) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (247 ac; 100 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea truncata, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra waiolani, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6 (Map 17) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.073
    

[[Page 46517]]


    (18) Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 (1,669 ac; 676 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea lanceolata, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea truncata, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra waiolani, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Eugenia koolauensis, 
Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Kadua coriacea, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
monostachya, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-johnii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Tetraplasandra lydgatei.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7 (Map 18) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.074
    

[[Page 46518]]


    (19) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (541 ac; 219 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1 (Map 19) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.075
    

[[Page 46519]]


    (20) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2 (20 ac; 8 ha), Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 3 (29 ac; 12 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 (27 ac; 11 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea. calycina, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea. calycina, Cyanea. 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 3, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4 (Map 20) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.076


[[Page 46520]]


    (21) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 (76 ac; 31 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Diplazium molokaiense, Gardenia mannii, Gouania vitifolia, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope makahae, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
mollis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera kaalae.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5 (Map 21) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.077
    

[[Page 46521]]


    (22) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6 (790 ac; 320 ha), Oahu--Lowland Wet-
Unit 7 (1,790 ac; 724 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (3,041 ac; 
1,231 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8 (Map 22) follows:

[[Page 46522]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.078


[[Page 46523]]


    (23) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 (15,728 ac; 6,365 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9 (Map 23) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.079
    
    (24) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10 (124 ac; 50 ha), Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 11 (124 ac; 50 ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12 (53 ac; 21 
ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 10.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra

[[Page 46524]]

gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 11.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 12.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12 (Map 24) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.080


[[Page 46525]]


    (25) Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13 (161 ac; 65 ha), Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 14 (478 ac; 193 ha), Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15 (407 ac; 165 
ha), and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16 (2,507 ac; 1,014 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 13.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 14.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 15.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (iv) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 16.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea lanceolata, 
Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Cyrtandra gracilis, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Cyrtandra waiolani, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Huperzia nutans, Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope hiiakae, 
Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platanthera holochila, Platydesma 
cornuta var. cornuta, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Viola oahuensis, and Zanthoxylum 
oahuense.
    (v) Note: Map of Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16 
(Map 25) follows:

[[Page 46526]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.081


[[Page 46527]]


    (26) Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (370 ac; 150 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
calycina, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope 
christophersenii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, and Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1 (Map 26) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.082
    
    (27) Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1 (49 ac; 20 ha), Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2 (412 ac; 167 ha), and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 (450 ac; 182 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope

[[Page 46528]]

saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. princeps, 
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea obovata, 
Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3 (Map 27) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.083

    (28) Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4 (108 ac; 44 ha), Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5 (26 ac; 10 ha), and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 (255 ac; 103 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua

[[Page 46529]]

degeneri, Kadua parvula, Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera 
tenuifolia, Melicope makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Plantago princeps var. princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, 
Pleomele forbesii, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, Schiedea obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, 
Silene perlmanii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, 
and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6 (Map 28) follows:

[[Page 46530]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.084


[[Page 46531]]


    (29) Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7 (208 ac; 84 ha) and Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 8 (259 ac; 105 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyrtandra dentata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Kadua degeneri, Kadua parvula, 
Korthalsella degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melanthera tenuifolia, Melicope 
makahae, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Plantago princeps var. 
princeps, Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens, Pleomele forbesii, 
Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
obovata, Schiedea trinervis, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana.
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7 and Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 8 (Map 29) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.085


[[Page 46532]]


    (30) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (235 ac; 95 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit 1.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and 
Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1 (Map 30) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.086
    

[[Page 46533]]


    (31) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2 (7 ac; 3 ha), Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3 
(16 ac; 6 ha), and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 (23 ac; 9 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 2.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and 
Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 3.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and 
Schiedea trinervis.
    (iii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 4.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and 
Schiedea trinervis.
    (iv) Note: Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4 (Map 31) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.087


[[Page 46534]]


    (32) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 (43 ac; 17 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit 5.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope christophersenii, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Pteralyxia macrocarpa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, and 
Schiedea trinervis.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5 (Map 32) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.088
    

[[Page 46535]]


    (33) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 (151 ac; 61 ha) and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7 (144 ac; 58 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 6.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea 
truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Huperzia nutans, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea kaalae, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis.
    (ii) [Reserved for textual description of Unit 7.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea 
truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Huperzia nutans, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea kaalae, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis.
    (iii) Note: Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6 and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7 (Map 33) follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.089


[[Page 46536]]


    (34) Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 (4,649 ac; 1,881 ha)
    (i) [Reserved for textual description of unit 8.] This unit is 
critical habitat for Adenophorus periens, Chamaesyce deppeana, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea calycina, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea humboldtiana, Cyanea purpurellifolia, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea 
truncata, Cyrtandra kaulantha, Cyrtandra sessilis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Huperzia nutans, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora, Plantago princeps 
var. princeps, Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis, Pteralyxia 
macrocarpa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea kaalae, Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis.
    (ii) Note: Map of Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8 (Map 34) follows:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP02AU11.090
    

[[Page 46537]]



  (35) Table of Protected Species Within Each Critical Habitat Unit for
                                  Oahu
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Unit name             Species occupied     Species unoccupied
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                              Chamaesyce            Chamaesyce
                               celastroides var      celastroides var.
                               kaenana.              kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                              Sesbania tomentosa..  Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                              Sesbania tomentosa..  Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                              Cyperus               Cyperus
                               trachysanthos.        trachysanthos
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10
                              Centaurium            Centaurium
                               sebaeoides.           sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens

[[Page 46538]]

 
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Centaurium
                                                     sebaeoides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Sesbania tomentosa
                                                    Vigna o-wahuensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Bidens amplectens...  Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Hibiscus              Hibiscus
                               brackenridgei.        brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kealiae....  Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri

[[Page 46539]]

 
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     trachysanthos
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                              Marsilea villosa....  Marsilea villosa
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Cyperus               Cyperus
                               trachysanthos.        trachysanthos
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Marsilea villosa
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6
                              Doryopteris           Doryopteris
                               takeuchii.            takeuchii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                              Spermolepis           Spermolepis
                               hawaiiensis.          hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7
                              Cyperus               Cyperus
                               trachysanthos.        trachysanthos
                                                    Doryopteris
                                                     takeuchii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Marsilea villosa
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     skottsbergii var.
                                                     skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii

[[Page 46540]]

 
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     skottsbergii var.
                                                     skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce            Chamaesyce
                               skottsbergii var.     skottsbergii var.
                               skottsbergii.         skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Bidens amplectens
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce            Chamaesyce
                               skottsbergii var.     skottsbergii var.
                               skottsbergii.         skottsbergii
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Neraudia
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kealiae
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce herbstii.  Chamaesyce herbstii
                              Colubrina             Colubrina
                               oppositifolia.        oppositifolia
                              Ctenitis squamigera.  Ctenitis squamigera
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. grimesiana.      ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. obatae.          ssp. obatae
                              Cyanea longiflora...  Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea pinnatifida
                              Cyanea superba......  Cyanea superba
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     pennatiformis
                              Cyrtandra dentata...  Cyrtandra dentata
                              Delissea subcordata.  Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia falcata.....  Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense

[[Page 46541]]

 
                              Dubautia              Dubautia
                               herbstobatae.         herbstobatae
                              Eragrostis fosbergii  Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                              Euphorbia             Euphorbia
                               haeleeleana.          haeleeleana
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arbuscula.            arbuscula
                              Hibiscus              Hibiscus
                               brackenridgei.        brackenridgei
                              Isodendrion           Isodendrion
                               laurifolium.          laurifolium
                              Isodendrion           Isodendrion
                               longifolium.          longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                              Kadua degeneri......  Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                              Melicope pallida....  Melicope pallida
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                              Neraudia angulata...  Neraudia angulat
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               kaalaensis.           kaalaensis
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     lydgatei
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                              Schiedea nuttallii..  Schiedea nuttallii
                              Schiedea obovata....  Schiedea obovata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Stenogyne kanehoana
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Urera kaalae
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                              Chamaesyce herbstii.  Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Colubrina
                                                     oppositifolia
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. obatae.          ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea pinnatifida
                                                    Cyanea superba
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     pennatiformis
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Delissea subcordata.  Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia falcata.....  Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania meyenii

[[Page 46542]]

 
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope pallida
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               kaalaensis.           kaalaensis
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     lydgatei
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                              Solanum sandwicense.  Solanum sandwicense
                              Stenogyne kanehoana.  Stenogyne kanehoana
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Colubrina
                                                     oppositifolia
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea pinnatifida
                                                    Cyanea superba
                                                    Cyperus
                                                     pennatiformis
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Delissea subcordata.  Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia falcata.....  Diellia falcata
                              Diellia unisora.....  Diellia unisora
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Euphorbia
                                                     haeleeleana
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arbuscula.            arbuscula
                                                    Hibiscus
                                                     brackenridgei
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea

[[Page 46543]]

 
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope pallida
                              Melicope saint-       Melicope saint-
                               johnii.               johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               parviflora var.       parviflora var.
                               lydgatei.             lydgatei
                              Plantago princeps     Plantago princeps
                               var. princeps.        var. princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                              Silene perlmanii....  Silene perlmanii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Stenogyne kanehoana
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                                                    Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     lydgatei
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana

[[Page 46544]]

 
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                                                    Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     lydgatei
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                              Cyanea truncata.....  Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                                                    Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense

[[Page 46545]]

 
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     lydgatei
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Chamaesyce
                                                     celastroides var.
                                                     kaenana
                                                    Ctenitis squamigera
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. grimesiana.      ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea lanceolata...  Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea longiflora
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Cyrtandra polyantha.  Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Delissea subcordata
                              Diellia erecta......  Diellia erecta
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Eugenia koolauensis
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Kadua coriacea
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                              Lobelia monostachya.  Lobelia monostachya
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea nuttallii
                                                    Solanum sandwicense
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               lydgatei.             lydgatei
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                              Gouania vitifolia...  Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia

[[Page 46546]]

 
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope makahae
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Urera kaalae........  Urera kaalae
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope makahae
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Urera kaalae
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia mollis.  Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Urera kaalae
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. obatae.          ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diplazium
                                                     molokaiense
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arbuscula.            arbuscula
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta

[[Page 46547]]

 
                                                    Phyllostegia mollis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Urera kaalae
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                              Chamaesyce rockii...  Chamaesyce rockii
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                              Cyanea                Cyanea
                               purpurellifolia.      purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                              Cyanea truncata.....  Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               viridiflora.          viridiflora

[[Page 46548]]

 
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                              Huperzia nutans.....  Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                              Myrsine juddii......  Myrsine juddii
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. cornuta.         var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                              Pteris lidgatei.....  Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                              Viola oahuensis.....  Viola oahuensis
                              Zanthoxylum oahuense  Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                              Cyrtandra kaulantha.  Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9
                                                    Adenophorus periens

[[Page 46549]]

 
                              Chamaesyce rockii...  Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea koolauensis..  Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                              Cyanea st.-johnii...  Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               viridiflora.          viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                              Labordia cyrtandrae.  Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                              Lobelia oahuensis...  Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope hiiakae....  Melicope hiiakae
                              Melicope lydgatei...  Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               parviflora var.       parviflora var.
                               parviflora.           parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                              Plantago princeps     Plantago princeps
                               var. princeps.        var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. cornuta.         var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Pteris lidgatei.....  Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                              Viola oahuensis.....  Viola oahuensis
                              Zanthoxylum oahuense  Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae

[[Page 46550]]

 
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia

[[Page 46551]]

 
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis

[[Page 46552]]

 
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea koolauensis..  Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. grimesiana
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea koolauensis
                                                    Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra polyantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora

[[Page 46553]]

 
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                                                    Gardenia mannii
                                                    Hesperomannia
                                                     arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. grimesiana.      ssp. grimesiana
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea koolauensis..  Cyanea koolauensis
                              Cyanea lanceolata...  Cyanea lanceolata
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                              Cyanea st.-johnii...  Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Cyrtandra gracilis..  Cyrtandra gracilis
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                              Cyrtandra polyantha.  Cyrtandra polyantha
                              Cyrtandra sessilis..  Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Cyrtandra waiolani
                              Gardenia mannii.....  Gardenia mannii
                              Hesperomannia         Hesperomannia
                               arborescens.          arborescens
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     longifolium
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia gaudichaudii
                                                     ssp. koolauensis
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope hiiakae
                                                    Melicope lydgatei
                                                    Myrsine juddii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. longibracteata
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platanthera
                                                     holochila
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. cornuta.         var. cornuta
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Pteris lidgatei
                              Sanicula purpurea...  Sanicula purpurea
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
                                                    Zanthoxylum oahuense
Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus var.
                                                     macrococcus

[[Page 46554]]

 
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                              Labordia cyrtandrae.  Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope              Melicope
                               christophersenii.     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Schiedea trinervis..  Schiedea trinervis
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                              Chamaesyce herbstii.  Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                              Cyanea grimesiana     Cyanea grimesiana
                               ssp. obatae.          ssp. obatae
                              Cyrtandra dentata...  Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                              Kadua degeneri......  Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Plantago princeps     Plantago princeps
                               var. princeps.        var. princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                              Schiedea obovata....  Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                              Dubautia              Dubautia
                               herbstobatae.         herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                              Gouania vitifolia...  Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium

[[Page 46555]]

 
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                              Kadua parvula.......  Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                              Peucedanum            Peucedanum
                               sandwicense.          sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Sanicula mariversa..  Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                              Tetramolopium         Tetramolopium
                               filiforme.            filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                              Diellia falcata.....  Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                              Dubautia              Dubautia
                               herbstobatae.         herbstobatae
                              Eragrostis fosbergii  Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                              Gouania meyenii.....  Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                              Isodendrion           Isodendrion
                               laurifolium.          laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                              Korthalsella          Korthalsella
                               degeneri.             degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                              Lipochaeta lobata     Lipochaeta lobata
                               var. leptophylla.     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                              Melanthera            Melanthera
                               tenuifolia.           tenuifolia
                              Melicope makahae....  Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                              Neraudia angulata...  Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                              Peucedanum            Peucedanum
                               sandwicense.          sandwicense
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               kaalaensis.           kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                              Silene lanceolata...  Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                              Tetramolopium         Tetramolopium
                               filiforme.            filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum

[[Page 46556]]

 
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                              Chamaesyce kuwaleana  Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                                                    Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                                                    Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                              Spermolepis           Spermolepis
                               hawaiiensis.          hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                              Alectryon             Alectryon
                               macrococcus.          macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                              Lipochaeta lobata     Lipochaeta lobata
                               var. leptophylla.     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis

[[Page 46557]]

 
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                                                    Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6
                                                    Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii
                              Cenchrus              Cenchrus
                               agrimonioides.        agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                              Diellia unisora.....  Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                              Melicope saint-       Melicope saint-
                               johnii.               johnii
                              Neraudia angulata...  Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Plantago princeps     Plantago princeps
                               var. princeps.        var. princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                              Tetramolopium         Tetramolopium
                               lepidotum ssp.        lepidotum ssp.
                               lepidotum.            lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                              Achyranthes           Achyranthes
                               splendens var.        splendens var.
                               rotundata.            rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                                                    Bonamia menziesii

[[Page 46558]]

 
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                              Diellia unisora.....  Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                              Kadua parvula.......  Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                              Lepidium arbuscula..  Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                                                    Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                              Melicope saint-       Melicope saint-
                               johnii.               johnii
                              Neraudia angulata...  Neraudia angulata
                                                    Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                              Plantago princeps     Plantago princeps
                               var. princeps.        var. princeps
                              Platydesma cornuta    Platydesma cornuta
                               var. decurrens.       var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                              Silene perlmanii....  Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                              Viola chamissoniana   Viola chamissoniana
                               ssp. chamissoniana.   ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8
                              Abutilon sandwicense  Abutilon sandwicense
                                                    Achyranthes
                                                     splendens var.
                                                     rotundata
                                                    Alectryon
                                                     macrococcus
                              Bonamia menziesii...  Bonamia menziesii
                                                    Cenchrus
                                                     agrimonioides
                                                    Chamaesyce herbstii
                                                    Chamaesyce kuwaleana
                                                    Cyanea grimesiana
                                                     ssp. obatae
                                                    Cyrtandra dentata
                                                    Diellia falcata
                                                    Diellia unisora
                                                    Dubautia
                                                     herbstobatae
                                                    Eragrostis fosbergii
                              Flueggea neowawraea.  Flueggea neowawraea
                                                    Gouania meyenii
                                                    Gouania vitifolia
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     laurifolium
                                                    Isodendrion
                                                     pyrifolium
                                                    Kadua degeneri
                                                    Kadua parvula
                                                    Korthalsella
                                                     degeneri
                                                    Lepidium arbuscula
                                                    Lipochaeta lobata
                                                     var. leptophylla
                              Lobelia niihauensis.  Lobelia niihauensis
                                                    Melanthera
                                                     tenuifolia
                                                    Melicope makahae
                                                    Melicope saint-
                                                     johnii
                              Neraudia angulata...  Neraudia angulata
                              Nototrichium humile.  Nototrichium humile
                                                    Peucedanum
                                                     sandwicense

[[Page 46559]]

 
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     kaalaensis
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Platydesma cornuta
                                                     var. decurrens
                              Pleomele forbesii...  Pleomele forbesii
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula mariversa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea obovata
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
                                                    Silene lanceolata
                                                    Silene perlmanii
                                                    Spermolepis
                                                     hawaiiensis
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     filiforme
                                                    Tetramolopium
                                                     lepidotum ssp.
                                                     lepidotum
                                                    Viola chamissoniana
                                                     ssp. chamissoniana
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope              Melicope
                               christophersenii.     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Schiedea trinervis..  Schiedea trinervis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                              Melicope              Melicope
                               christophersenii.     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope
                                                     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope
                                                     christophersenii
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                              Schiedea hookeri....  Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Melicope
                                                     christophersenii
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Schiedea hookeri
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Schiedea trinervis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6
                                                    Adenophorus periens

[[Page 46560]]

 
                                                    Chamaesyce deppeana
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                              Huperzia nutans.....  Huperzia nutans
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Lysimachia filifolia
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce deppeana
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                                                    Cyanea acuminata
                                                    Cyanea calycina
                              Cyanea crispa.......  Cyanea crispa
                                                    Cyanea humboldtiana
                                                    Cyanea
                                                     purpurellifolia
                                                    Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                                                    Cyrtandra kaulantha
                                                    Cyrtandra sessilis
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     subumbellata
                                                    Cyrtandra
                                                     viridiflora
                                                    Huperzia nutans
                                                    Labordia cyrtandrae
                                                    Lobelia oahuensis
                                                    Lysimachia filifolia
                                                    Phyllostegia hirsuta
                                                    Phyllostegia
                                                     parviflora var.
                                                     parviflora
                                                    Plantago princeps
                                                     var. princeps
                              Psychotria hexandra   Psychotria hexandra
                               ssp. oahuensis.       ssp. oahuensis
                                                    Pteralyxia
                                                     macrocarpa
                                                    Sanicula purpurea
                              Schiedea kaalae.....  Schiedea kaalae
                                                    Tetraplasandra
                                                     gymnocarpa
                                                    Trematolobelia
                                                     singularis
                                                    Viola oahuensis
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8
                                                    Adenophorus periens
                                                    Chamaesyce deppeana
                                                    Chamaesyce rockii
                              Cyanea acuminata....  Cyanea acuminata
                              Cyanea calycina.....  Cyanea calycina
                                                    Cyanea crispa
                              Cyanea humboldtiana.  Cyanea humboldtiana
                              Cyanea                Cyanea
                               purpurellifolia.      purpurellifolia
                              Cyanea st.-johnii...  Cyanea st.-johnii
                                                    Cyanea truncata
                              Cyrtandra kaulantha.  Cyrtandra kaulantha
                              Cyrtandra sessilis..  Cyrtandra sessilis
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               subumbellata.         subumbellata
                              Cyrtandra             Cyrtandra
                               viridiflora.          viridiflora
                              Huperzia nutans.....  Huperzia nutans

[[Page 46561]]

 
                              Labordia cyrtandrae.  Labordia cyrtandrae
                              Lobelia oahuensis...  Lobelia oahuensis
                              Lysimachia filifolia  Lysimachia filifolia
                              Phyllostegia hirsuta  Phyllostegia hirsuta
                              Phyllostegia          Phyllostegia
                               parviflora var.       parviflora var.
                               parviflora.           parviflora
                              Plantago princeps     Plantago princeps
                               var. princeps.        var. princeps
                                                    Psychotria hexandra
                                                     ssp. oahuensis
                              Pteralyxia            Pteralyxia
                               macrocarpa.           macrocarpa
                              Sanicula purpurea...  Sanicula purpurea
                                                    Schiedea kaalae
                              Tetraplasandra        Tetraplasandra
                               gymnocarpa.           gymnocarpa
                              Trematolobelia        Trematolobelia
                               singularis.           singularis
                              Viola oahuensis.....  Viola oahuensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (j) Plants on Oahu; Constituent elements.
    (1) Flowering plants.
    FAMILY AMARANTHACEAE:
    Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata (round-leaved chaff flower)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Nototrichium humile (KULUI)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Nototrichium humile on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
11, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7,

[[Page 46562]]

and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY APIACEAE:
Peucedanum sandwicense (MAKOU)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Peucedanum sandwicense on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Sanicula mariversa (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Sanicula purpurea (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Sanicula purpurea on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical or 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.

[[Page 46563]]

    FAMILY APOCYNACEAE:
Pteralyxia macrocarpa (KAULU)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Pteralyxia macrocarpa on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY ARALIACEAE:
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa (OHE OHE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.

[[Page 46564]]

    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Tetraplasandra lydgatei (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Tetraplasandra lydgatei on Oahu. Within these 
units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY ASPARAGACEAE:
Pleomele forbesii (HALA PEPE)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Pleomele 
forbesii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina Microlepia.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY ASTERACEAE:
Bidens amplectens (KOOKOOLAU)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, and 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
11, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Bidens amplectens on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    Dubautia herbstobatae (NAENAE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2,

[[Page 46565]]

Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Dubautia herbstobatae on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Hesperomannia arborescens (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Hesperomannia arborescens on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Hesperomannia arbuscula (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Hesperomannia arbuscula on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla (NEHE)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla on 
Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Melanthera tenuifolia (NEHE)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--

[[Page 46566]]

Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Melanthera tenuifolia on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).xxx
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Tetramolopium filiforme (NCN)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
Identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Tetramolopium filiforme on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY BRASSICACEAE:
Lepidium arbuscula (ANAUNAU)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Lepidium arbuscula on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY CAMPANULACEAE:
Cyanea acuminata (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:

[[Page 46567]]

    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea calycina (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Cyanea calycina on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea crispa (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--

[[Page 46568]]

Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
crispa on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. grimesiana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep, well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.

[[Page 46569]]

    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Cyanea humboldtiana (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea humboldtiana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea koolauensis (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
koolauensis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyanea lanceolata (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea lanceolata on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyanea longiflora (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea longiflora on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea pinnatifida (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
pinnatifida

[[Page 46570]]

on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea purpurellifolia (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea purpurellifolia on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical or biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea st.-johnii (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea st.-johnii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea superba (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
superba on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyanea truncata (HAHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea truncata on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--

[[Page 46571]]

Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Delissea subcordata (OHA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Delissea subcordata on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical 
and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Lobelia monostachya (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Lobelia monostachya on Oahu. Within these units, 
the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Lobelia niihauensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lobelia 
niihauensis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Psydrax, Pleomele.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Lobelia oahuensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Lobelia oahuensis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--

[[Page 46572]]

Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Trematolobelia singularis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Trematolobelia singularis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical or biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.

    FAMILY CARYOPHYLLACEAE:
Schiedea hookeri (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
4, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea 
hookeri on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7,

[[Page 46573]]

and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (v) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Schiedea kaalae (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Schiedea kealiae (MAOLIOLI)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 
11, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea kealiae on Oahu.
    (i) In unit Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
Schiedea nuttallii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea nuttallii on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Schiedea obovata (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry

[[Page 46574]]

Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Schiedea obovata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Schiedea trinervis (NCN)
    Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Schiedea trinervis on 
Oahu.
    (i) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Silene lanceolata (NCN)
    Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Silene lanceolata on Oahu. Within these 
units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Silene perlmanii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Silene perlmanii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical or biological features 
of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY CONVOLVULACEAE:
Bonamia menziesii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Dry Cliff--

[[Page 46575]]

Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY CYPERACEAE:
Cyperus pennatiformis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyperus 
pennatiformis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Cyperus trachysanthos (PUUKAA)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
12, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, and 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, the physical 
and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little--weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE:
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
14, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 15, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.

[[Page 46576]]

    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Chamaesyce deppeana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Chamaesyce deppeana on 
Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (vi) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Chamaesyce herbstii (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Chamaesyce herbstii on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Chamaesyce kuwaleana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 3, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, Oahu--
Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (D) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (E) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (F) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Chamaesyce rockii (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce rockii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:

[[Page 46577]]

    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii (EWA PLAINS AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (iv) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (v) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
Euphorbia haeleeleana (AKOKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Euphorbia haeleeleana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Flueggea neowawraea (MEHAMEHAME)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Flueggea neowawraea on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY FABACEAE:
Sesbania tomentosa (OHAI)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (i) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (iv) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (v) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (vi) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
Vigna o-wahuensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Vigna o-wahuensis on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.

[[Page 46578]]

    (iv) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (v) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (vi) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    FAMILY GENTIANACEAE:
Centaurium sebaeoides (AWIWI)
    Oahu--Coastal--Unit 1, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 2, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
3, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 4, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 5, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 7, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 8, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 10, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 11, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Coastal--Unit 13, Oahu--Coastal--Unit 14, and Oahu--Coastal--Unit 
15, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 980 ft (300 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Less than 20 in (50 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-drained, calcareous, talus slopes; weathered 
clay soils; ephemeral pools; mudflats.
    (iv) Canopy: Hibiscus, Myoporum, Santalum, Scaevola.
    (v) Subcanopy: Gossypium, Sida, Vitex.
    (vi) Understory: Eragrostis, Jacquemontia, Lyceum, Nama, Sesuvium, 
Sporobolus, Vigna.
    FAMILY GESNERIACEAE:
Cyrtandra dentata (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Cyrtandra dentata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Cyrtandra gracilis (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Cyrtandra gracilis on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyrtandra kaulantha (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra kaulantha on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.

[[Page 46579]]

    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra polyantha (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyrtandra polyantha on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Cyrtandra sessilis (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra sessilis Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra subumbellata (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra subumbellata on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra viridiflora (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland

[[Page 46580]]

Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyrtandra viridiflora on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Cyrtandra waiolani (HAIWALE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyrtandra waiolani on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    FAMILY LAMIACEAE:
Phyllostegia hirsuta (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Phyllostegia hirsuta on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:

[[Page 46581]]

    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Phyllostegia kaalaensis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis 
on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Phyllostegia mollis (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Phyllostegia mollis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Phyllostegia parviflora (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, 
the physical and biological features of critical habitat for 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.

[[Page 46582]]

    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora 
var. parviflora are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Stenogyne kanehoana (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Stenogyne kanehoana on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY LOGANIACEAE:
Labordia cyrtandrae (KAMAKAHALA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Labordia cyrtandrae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY MALVACEAE:
Abutilon sandwicense (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2,

[[Page 46583]]

and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological features 
of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Hibiscus brackenridgei (MAO HAU HELE)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Hibiscus brackenridgei var. mokuleianus 
and Hibiscus brackenridgei var. molokaiana on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat for Hibiscus 
brackenridgei var. mokuleianus and Hibiscus brackenridgei var. 
molokaiana are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat for Hibiscus brackenridgei var. 
mokuleianus and Hibiscus brackenridgei var. molokaiana are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY MYRSINACEAE:
Myrsine juddii (KOLEA)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Myrsine 
juddii on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    FAMILY MYRTACEAE:
Eugenia koolauensis (NIOI)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Eugenia koolauensis on Oahu. 
Within these units, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY ORCHIDACEAE:
Platanthera holochila (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Platanthera holochila on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    FAMILY PLANTAGINACEAE:
Plantago princeps (LAUKAHI KUAHIWI)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4,

[[Page 46584]]

Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 
6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in 
the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Plantago princeps on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
for Plantago princeps var. princeps are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. 
longibracteata are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. 
princeps are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
for Plantago princeps var. princeps are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    (v) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. princeps are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY POACEAE:
Cenchrus agrimonioides (KAMANOMANO)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cenchrus agrimonioides on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Eragrostis fosbergii (FOSBERG'S LOVE GRASS)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Eragrostis fosbergii on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2,

[[Page 46585]]

and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological features 
of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY PRIMULACEAE
Lysimachia filifolia (NCN)
    Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Lysimachia filifolia on 
Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iv) Canopy: None.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (vi) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY RHAMNACEAE:
Colubrina oppositifolia (KAUILA)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Colubrina oppositifolia on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Gouania meyenii (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Gouania meyenii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Gouania vitifolia (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Gouania vitifolia on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Dry--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 9, 
Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 10, and Oahu--Lowland Dry--Unit 11, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 50 in (130 cm).

[[Page 46586]]

    (C) Substrate: Weathered silty loams to stony clay, rocky ledges, 
little-weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: Diospyros, Myoporum, Pleomele, Santalum, Sapindus.
    (E) Subcanopy: Chamaesyce, Dodonaea, Leptecophylla, Osteomeles, 
Psydrax, Scaevola, Wikstroemia.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Artemisia, Bidens, Chenopodium, 
Nephrolepis, Peperomia, Sicyos.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iv) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
    FAMILY RUBIACEAE:
Gardenia mannii (NANU)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 5, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Gardenia 
mannii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Kadua coriacea (KIOELE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--
Unit 7, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Kadua coriacea on Oahu. Within 
these units, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Kadua degeneri (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Kadua degeneri on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.

[[Page 46587]]

    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Kadua parvula (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Kadua parvula on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis (KOPIKO)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 7, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 7, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
    FAMILY RUTACEAE:
Melicope christophersenii (ALANI)
    Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 5, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Melicope 
christophersenii on Oahu.
    (i) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (ii) In unit Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Wet Cliff--Unit 4, and Oahu--Wet Cliff--
Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (F) Understory: Bryophytes, Ferns, Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
Melicope hiiakae (ALANI)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Melicope 
hiiakae on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Melicope lydgatei (ALANI)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--

[[Page 46588]]

Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Melicope lydgatei on 
Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 7, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 10, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 15, and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Melicope makahae (ALANI)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--
Unit 2, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Wet--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Melicope makahae on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 4, and Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 5, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Melicope pallida (ALANI)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, and 
Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Melicope 
pallida on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
Melicope saint-johnii (ALANI)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Melicope saint-johnii on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:

[[Page 46589]]

    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
and Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Platydesma cornuta var. cornuta on Oahu. Within these units, the 
physical and biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrens (NCN)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--
Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (i) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Platydesma cornuta var. 
decurrens on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, and Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 
5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, and Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 8, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Unrestricted.
    (B) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (D) Canopy: None.
    (E) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
Zanthoxylum oahuense (AE)
    Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 7, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 8, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 9, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 10, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 11, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 12, Oahu--Lowland 
Wet--Unit 13, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 14, Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 15, 
Oahu--Lowland Wet--Unit 16, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Zanthoxylum oahuense on Oahu. Within these units, the physical and 
biological features of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays; ashbeds; deep, well-drained soils; lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    FAMILY SAPINDACEAE:
Alectryon macrococcus (MAHOE)
    Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 2, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
7, Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry 
Cliff--Unit 2, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 4, Oahu--
Dry Cliff--Unit 5, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 6, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 7, 
and Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 8, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (i) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus on Oahu.
    (i) In units Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 1, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 
2, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 3, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 4, Oahu--
Lowland Mesic--Unit 5, Oahu--Lowland Mesic--Unit 6, and Oahu--Lowland 
Mesic--Unit 7, the physical and biological features of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,300 ft (1,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 in (130 to 190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In unit Oahu--Montane Wet--Unit 1, the physical and biological 
features of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 in (190 cm).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iii) In units Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 1, Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 2, 
Oahu--Dry Cliff--Unit 3, Oahu--