[Federal Register: March 1, 2010 (Volume 75, Number 39)]
[Rules and Regulations]               
[Page 9281-9314]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]

[[Page 9281]]


Part II

Department of the Interior


Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Parts 10 and 21

 General Provisions; Migratory Birds Revised List and Permits; Final 

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Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

RIN 1018-AB72

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, revise the List of 
Migratory Birds by both adding and removing numerous species. Reasons 
for the changes to the list include correcting previous mistakes 
including misspellings, adding species based on new evidence of 
occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, removing species 
no longer known to occur within the United States, and changing names 
based on new taxonomy. The net increase of 175 species (186 added and 
11 removed) brings the total number of species protected by the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) to 1007. We regulate most aspects of 
the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, 
exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-
date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for regulatory 

DATES: This rule is effective March 31, 2010.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Terry Doyle, Wildlife Biologist, 
Division of Migratory Bird Management, at 703-358-1799.


What Statutory Authority Does the Service Have for This Rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-711), the Fish and 
Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 712), and the Fish and 
Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-j). The MBTA implements 
Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries 
for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds, 
August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 
Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628;
    (2) Mexico: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States 
(Mexico), 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912;
    (3) Japan: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 
United States-Japan, 25 U.S.T. 3329, T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and
    (4) Russia: Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Birds and 
Their Environment, United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
(Russia), November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073.

What Is the Purpose of This Rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the 
MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in 
Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 10, 20, and 21. We 
regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, 
purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An 
accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is 
essential for regulatory purposes.

Why Is This Amendment of the List of Migratory Birds Necessary?

    The amendment is needed to: (1) Add two species covered by the 
Japanese and Russian Conventions that were mistakenly omitted from 
previous lists; (2) add 29 species of accidental or casual occurrence 
documented prior to April 1985, but not included in prior lists; (3) 
add 65 species based on new distributional records documenting their 
occurrence in the United States since April 1985; (4) add 24 species 
that occur naturally in the United States only in Hawaii; (5) add 28 
species that occur naturally in the United States only in the Pacific 
island territories of American Samoa, Baker and Howland Islands, Guam, 
or the Northern Mariana Islands; (6) add 38 species newly recognized as 
a result of taxonomic changes; (7) remove 10 species not known to occur 
within the boundaries of the United States or its territories; (8) 
remove one species that is now treated as a subspecies; (9) change the 
common (English) names of 48 species to conform with accepted use; (10) 
change the scientific names of 66 species to conform with accepted use; 
(11) change the common and scientific names of seven species to conform 
with accepted use; (12) change the scientific names of four species in 
the alphabetical list to conform with accepted use and to correct 
inconsistencies between the alphabetical and taxonomic lists; (13) 
correct errors in the common (English) name of two species; (14) 
correct errors in the scientific names of three species in the 
taxonomic list; and (15) change the status of one taxon from protected 
subspecies to non-protected species (due to lack of natural occurrence 
in the United States or its territories). In accordance with the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 (Pub. L. 108-447) (MBTRA), we 
also reaffirm our determination of March 15, 2005 (70 FR 12710), that 
the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), which was never formally listed in 50 CFR 
10.13 but was briefly treated as protected by the MBTA as the result of 
a court order (Hill v. Norton, 275 F.3d 98 (D.C. Cir. 2001)), is no 
longer afforded protection because it is nonnative and human-
introduced. See Fund for Animals v. Norton, 374 F. Supp. 2d 91 (D. D.C. 
2005, denying injunction because of the clear language of the MBTRA). 
The District Court's judgment was later affirmed on appeal (Fund for 
Animals v. Kempthorne, 472 F.3d 872, D.C. Cir. 2006).
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
April 5, 1985 (50 FR 13710). In a proposed rule published May 9, 1995 
(60 FR 24686), we suggested updating the List of Migratory Birds by 
adding 20 species, removing 1 species, and revising the common 
(English) or scientific names of 23 previously listed species to 
conform to the most recent nomenclature. The proposed amendments were 
necessitated by five published supplements to the 6th (1983) edition of 
the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU's) Check-list of North 
American birds. Knowing that additional amendments would be necessary 
following the anticipated publication of a 7th edition of the Check-
list, we elected to delay publication of a final rule until after the 
appearance of the revised Check-list. The 1995 proposed rule generated 
just two public comments, from the American Ornithologists' Union and 
the Association of Scientific Collections. The comments of those 
organizations, mostly editorial in nature, are reflected in this 
document, as appropriate.
    Following publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list in July 
1998, administrative workloads and staff shortages prevented work on a 
final rule until September 2000. A followup proposed rule was deemed 
necessary because of the five-year delay since publication of the 
initial proposed rule, and the many new changes necessitated by the 7th 
edition of the Check-list. In a second proposed rule published October 
12, 2001 (66 FR 52282), we suggested adding 30 species, removing one 
species, and revising the common

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(English) or scientific names of 78 previously-listed species to 
conform to accepted use.
    Of the 116 letters received on the proposed rule of October 12, 
2001, 109 dealt solely with the presumed protective status of the Mute 
Swan (Cygnus olor) under the MBTA. Of the remaining seven letters, 
three provided comments of a general nature (including recommendations 
for adding or deleting certain species); two expressed general support 
without offering specific comments; one questioned the legality of 
extending MBTA protection to species that do not cross State or 
international boundaries; and one expressed concern about the harvest 
of MBTA-protected shorebirds in the Caribbean. These comments remain 
part of the public record and were incorporated, as appropriate, into 
this final rule.
    Because of the delay since publication of the 2001 proposed rule, 
plus the many new changes necessitated by six published supplements 
(AOU 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006) to the 7th edition of the 
Check-list, we published a third proposed rule on August 24, 2006 (71 
FR 50194). This allowed the public to review and comment on all of the 
desired changes that have come to light since publication of the 1995 
and 2001 proposed rules. In addition, this final rule incorporates the 
changes in the AOU supplement published in 2007.

What Scientific Authorities Are Used To Amend the List of Migratory 

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion 
in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on 
the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds 
(AOU 1998), as amended (AOU 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 
and 2007), on matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of 
species and other higher taxonomic categories (orders, families, 
subfamilies) for species that occur in North America. For the few 
species that occur outside the geographic area covered by the Check-
list, we relied primarily on Monroe and Sibley (1993). Though we 
primarily rely on the above checklists, when informed taxonomic opinion 
is inconsistent or controversial, we evaluate available published and 
unpublished information and come to our own conclusion regarding the 
validity of taxa.

What Criteria Are Used To Identify Individual Species Protected by the 

    A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or 
more of the following four criteria:
    (1) It is a species covered by the Canadian Convention of 1916, as 
amended in 1996, by virtue of meeting the following three criteria: (a) 
It belongs to a family or group of species named in the Canadian 
Convention, as amended; (b) specimens, photographs, videotape 
recordings, or audiotape recordings provide convincing evidence of 
natural occurrence in the United States or its territories; and (c) the 
documentation of such records has been recognized by the AOU or other 
competent scientific authorities.
    (2) It is a species covered by the Mexican Convention of 1936, as 
amended in 1972, by virtue of meeting the following three criteria: It 
(a) belongs to a family or group of species named in the Mexican 
Convention, as amended; (b) specimens, photographs, videotape 
recordings, or audiotape recordings provide convincing evidence of 
natural occurrence in the United States or its territories; and (c) the 
documentation of such records has been recognized by the AOU or other 
competent scientific authorities.
    (3) It is a species listed in the annex to the Japanese Convention 
of 1972, as amended.
    (4) It is a species listed in the appendix to the Russian 
Convention of 1976.
    In accordance with the MBTRA, we have not listed species whose 
occurrences in the United States are solely the result of intentional 
or unintentional human-assisted introduction(s). We hereby adopt the 
definition of ``human-assisted introduction'' as used in the notice 
implementing the MBTRA (70 FR 12710): ``An intentional introduction is 
one that was purposeful--for example, the person(s) or institution(s) 
involved intended for it to happen. An unintentional introduction is 
one that was unforeseen or unintended, for example, the establishment 
of self-sustaining populations following repeated escapes from captive 

How Do the Scientific Names Used Here Compare to Those That Appear in 
the Japanese and Russian Conventions?

    The Japanese and Russian Conventions list individual species of 
birds that are covered. For 37 of these species, the scientific (genus 
or species) name currently recognized by scientific authorities (AOU 
1998, 1999; Monroe and Sibley 1993) differs from that which appears in 
the Conventions. The following cross-reference provides a linkage 
between the scientific names used in this list and those that appear in 
the annex to the Japanese Convention and the appendix to the Russian 
Convention. The first name is the modern equivalent proposed here, and 
the second name is that which appears in one or both of the 
Conventions. These changes modernize the regulatory list without 
revising either the Japanese or the Russian Convention (indicated by J 
and R, respectively):

Accipiter gularis (Japanese Sparrowhawk) is listed as Accipiter 
virgatus (J & R);
Actitis hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper) is listed as Tringa hypoleucos (J 
& R);
Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) is listed as Cyclorrhynchus 
psittacula (R);
Anas americana (American Wigeon) is listed as Mareca americana (J);
Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) is listed as Spatula clypeata (J);
Anas penelope (Eurasian Wigeon) is listed as Mareca penelope (J);
Anous minutus (Black Noddy) is listed as Anous tenuirostris (J);
Anthus rubescens (American Pipit) is listed as Anthus spinoletta (J & 
Branta bernicla (Brant) incorporates Branta nigricans (R);
Calidris alba (Sanderling) is listed as Crocethia alba (J);
Calidris subminuta (Long-toed Stint) is listed as part of Calidris 
minutilla (J);
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll) is listed as Acanthis flammea (J);
Carduelis hornemanni (Hoary Redpoll) is included as part of Carduelis 
flammea (J), and is listed as Acanthis hornemanni (R);
Charadrius morinellus (Eurasian Dotterel) is listed as Eudromias 
morinellus (J & R);
Chen caerulescens (Snow Goose) is listed as Anser caerulescens (J);
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose) is listed as Anser canagicus (J), and 
Philacte canagica (R);
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan) incorporates Cygnus bewickii (R);
Egretta sacra (Pacific Reef-Egret) is listed as Demigretta sacra (J);
Ficedula narcissina (Narcissus Flycatcher) is listed as Muscicapa 
narcissina (J);
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin) is listed as Lunda cirrhata (J & 
Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe) is listed as Capella gallinago (R);
Gallinago megala (Swinhoe's Snipe) is listed as Capella megala (R);
Gallinago stenura (Pin-tailed Snipe) is listed as Capella stenura (R);

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Heteroscelus brevipes (Gray-tailed Tattler) is included as part of 
Tringa incana (J);
Heteroscelus incanus (Wandering Tattler) is listed as Tringa incana 
Luscinia calliope (Siberian Rubythroat) is listed as Erithacus calliope 
Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter) incorporates Melanitta deglandi 
Mergellus albellus (Smew) is listed as Mergus albellus (J & R);
Milvus migrans (Black Kite) is listed as Milvus korschun (R);
Numenius borealis (Eskimo Curlew) is included as part of Numenius 
minutus (J);
Phalaropus lobatus (Red-necked Phalarope) is listed as Lobipes lobatus 
Phoebastria albatrus (Short-tailed Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
albatrus (J & R);
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
immutabilis (J & R);
Phoebastria nigripes (Black-footed Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
nigripes (J & R);
Pterodroma hypoleuca (Bonin Petrel) is listed as Pterodroma leucoptera 
Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) is listed as Iridoprocne bicolor 
(R); and
Turdus obscurus (Eyebrowed Thrush) is listed as Turdus pallidus (R).

How Do the Changes Affect the List of Migratory Birds?

    The amendments (186 additions, 11 removals, 121 name changes, and 9 
corrections) affect a grand total of 327 species and result in a net 
addition of 175 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the 
species total from 832 to 1007. Of the 175 species that we add to the 
list, 38 were previously covered under the MBTA as subspecies of listed 
species. These amendments can be logically arranged in the following 15 
    (1) Add two species that are included in the Appendix of the 
Russian Convention and in the Annex to the Japanese Convention, 
respectively; the omission of these species in previous lists was an 
oversight. These species also qualify for protection under the Canadian 
and Mexican Conventions as members of the families Anatidae and 
Laridae, respectively:

Duck, Spot-billed, Anas poecilorhyncha; and
Gull, Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris.

    (2) Add 29 species based on review and acceptance by AOU (prior to 
April 1985) of distributional records documenting their occurrence in 
the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. These 
species belong to families covered by the Canadian and/or Mexican 
Conventions. They were excluded from the 1985 list because their 
occurrence was viewed as accidental or casual, a criterion no longer 
viewed as inconsistent with the MBTA or its underlying Conventions. A 
species of accidental or casual occurrence is one whose normal range is 
far enough removed from the United States as to make regular occurrence 
unlikely or improbable (AOU 1983). For each species, we list the 
State(s) in which it has been recorded plus the relevant AOU 

Albatross, Shy, Thalassarche cauta--Washington (AOU 1982, 1983, 1997, 
Albatross, Wandering, Diomedea exulans--California (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Bunting, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina--Louisiana, Texas (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Bunting, Gray, Emberiza variabilis--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Bunting, Little, Emberiza pusilla--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Chaffinch, Common, Fringilla coelebs--Maine to Massachusetts (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Crake, Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops--Texas, Virginia (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Curlew, Eurasian, Numenius arquata--Massachusetts, New York (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Flycatcher, La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae--Alabama, Florida (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Flycatcher, Variegated, Empidonomus varius--Maine, Tennessee (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Gull, Belcher's, Larus belcheri--Florida (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998, 2003);
Hawk, Roadside, Buteo magnirostis--Texas (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Hummingbird, Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa--Arizona (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Martin, Southern, Progne elegans--Florida (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Mockingbird, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii--Florida (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Petrel, Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis--Hawaii (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Petrel, Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax--Hawaii (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Pewee, Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis--Puerto Rico (AOU 1983, 
1995, 1998);
Pipit, Tree, Anthus trivialis--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1995);
Rail, Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus--Pennsylvania, Texas (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Scops-Owl, Oriental, Otus sunia--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Shearwater, Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas--California (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Shrike, Brown, Lanius cristatus--Alaska, California (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Swift, Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura--U.S. Virgin Islands (AOU 1983, 
Tern, Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex--Illinois, New Jersey, Ohio (AOU 
1983, 1998);
Vireo, Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris--Florida (AOU 1983, 1998);
Warbler, Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus--Alaska, California (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Warbler, Fan-tailed, Euthlypis lachrymosa--Arizona (AOU 1982, 1983, 
1998); and
Warbler, Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998).

    (3) Add 65 species based on review and acceptance by AOU (since 
April 1985) of new distributional records documenting their occurrence 
in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. These 
species belong to families covered by the Canadian and/or Mexican 
Conventions and most are considered to be of accidental or casual 
occurrence. For each species, we list the State(s) in which it has been 
recorded plus the relevant publication(s):

Albatross, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris--Virginia (AOU 2002);
Albatross, Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata--California (AOU 1997, 
Bluetail, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Bunting, Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Bunting, Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola--Alaska (AOU 1989, 1998);
Bunting, Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans--Alaska (AOU 2000);
Carib, Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis--U.S. Virgin Islands (AOU 
Catbird, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris--Texas (AOU 1998);
Duck, Muscovy, Cairina moschata--Texas (AOU 1998);
Egret, Little, Egretta garzetta--Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Puerto 
Rico, Virginia (AOU 1998);
Elaenia, Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata--Texas (AOU 1989, 1998);
Falcon, Red-footed, Falco vespertinus--Massachusetts, (AOU 2007);
Flycatcher, Piratic, Legatus leucophalus--Florida, New Mexico, Texas 
(AOU 2002);

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Flycatcher, Social, Myiozetetes similis--Texas (AOU 2006);
Flycatcher, Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus--Texas (AOU 1998);
Forest-Falcon, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus--Texas (AOU 1998)
Frog-Hawk, Gray, Accipiter soloensis--Hawaii (AOU 1997, 1998);
Gallinule, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris--New York (AOU 1991, 1998, 
Golden-Plover, European, Pluvialis apricaria--Alaska (Western Birds 
Goose, Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Gull, Gray-hooded, Larus cirrocephalus--Florida (AOU 2002);
Gull, Kelp, Larus dominicanus--Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Texas (AOU 
Gull, Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis (=cachinnans)--Maryland (AOU 
1993, 1998, 2007);
Hawk, Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens--Texas (AOU 1998);
Hobby, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo--Alaska (AOU 1985, 1995, 1998);
Hummingbird, Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila--Arizona, New Mexico (AOU 1998);
Hummingbird, Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii--California (AOU 1998);
Mango, Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii--Texas (AOU 1998);
Martin, Brown-chested, Progne tapera--Massachusetts (AOU 1985, 1995, 
Mockingbird, Blue, Melanotis caerulescens--Arizona, Texas (AOU 1998);
Nightingale-Thrush, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus--Texas (AOU 2006);
Nightingale-Thrush, Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris--Texas (AOU 
Owl, Mottled, Ciccaba virgata--Texas (AOU 1989, 1998);
Owl, Stygian, Asio stygius--Texas (AOU 2002);
Petrel, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow--North Carolina (AOU 1998);
Petrel, Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera--California (AOU 2004);
Petrel, Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris--California, Hawaii (AOU 
1989, 1998);
Pewee, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus--Florida (AOU 2004);
Plover, Collared, Charadrius collaris--Texas (AOU 1998);
Pond-Heron, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus--Alaska (AOU 2000);
Reef-Heron, Western, Egretta gularis--Massachusetts (AOU 1985, 1998);
Robin, Siberian Blue, Luscinia cyane--Alaska (AOU 1987, 1998);
Robin, White-throated, Turdus assimilis--Texas (AOU 1998);
Sandpiper, Green, Tringa ochropus--Alaska (AOU 1985, 1998);
Shearwater, Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii--North Carolina (AOU 
Silky-flycatcher, Gray, Ptilogonys cinereus--Texas (AOU 1998);
Siskin, Eurasian, Carduelis spinus--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Stilt, Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus--Alaska (AOU 1985, 1998);
Stonechat, Saxicola torquatus--Alaska (AOU 1987, 1998, 2004);
Storm-Petrel, Black-bellied Fregetta tropica--North Carolina (AOU 
Storm-Petrel, Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi--California (AOU 2007);
Swallow, Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea--Florida (AOU 2005);
Swift, Alpine, Apus melba--Puerto Rico (AOU 1998);
Tanager, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata--Arizona, Texas (AOU 1987, 
Tern, Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii--Hawaii (AOU 1991, 1998, 2006);
Tern, Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida--Delaware, New Jersey (AOU 1997, 
1998, 2003);
Tityra, Masked, Tityra semifasciata--Texas (AOU 1998);
Turtle-Dove, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis--Alaska (AOU 1991, 
Vireo, Yucatan, Vireo magister--Texas (AOU 1987, 1998);
Wagtail, Citrine, Motacilla citreola--Alabama (AOU 1995, 1998);
Warbler, Crescent-chested, Parula superciliosa--Arizona (AOU 1987, 
Warbler, Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata--Alaska, California (AOU 
1985, 1998);
Warbler, Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus--Alaska (AOU 2002);
Whitethroat, Lesser, Sylvia curruca--Alaska (AOU 2004); and
Woodpecker, Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major--Alaska (AOU 1987, 1998).

    (4) Add 24 species that belong to families covered by the Canadian 
and/or Mexican Conventions, but occur naturally in the United States 
only in Hawaii:

Akekee, Loxops caeruleirostris
Akepa, Loxops coccineus
Akialoa, Greater, Hemignathus ellisianus
Akiapolaau, Hemignathus munroi
Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi
Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei
Alauahio, Maui, Paroreomyza montana
Alauahio, Oahu, Paroreomyza maculata
Amakihi, Hawaii, Hemignathus virens
Amakihi, Kauai, Hemignathus kauaiensis
Amakihi, Oahu, Hemignathus flavus
Anianiau, Magumma parva
Apapane, Himatione sanguinea
Creeper, Hawaii, Oreomystis mana
Finch, Laysan, Telespiza cantans
Finch, Nihoa, Telespiza ultima
Iiwi, Vestiaria coccinea
Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea
Millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris
Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus
Ou, Psittirostra psittacea
Palila, Loxioides bailleui
Parrotbill, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys
Poo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma

    (5) Add 28 species that belong to families covered by the Canadian 
and/or Mexican Conventions, but occur naturally in the United States 
only in the Pacific island territories of American Samoa, Baker and 
Howland Islands, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands (Pratt et al. 
1987). We also list the territory or territories in which each species 
is known to occur:

Bittern, Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis (Guam);
Cormorant, Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos (Northern Marianas);
Crake, Spotless, Porzana tabuensis (American Samoa);
Crow, Mariana, Corvus kubaryi (Guam, Northern Marianas);
Duck, Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa (American Samoa);
Fruit-Dove, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus (American Samoa);
Fruit-Dove, Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii (American Samoa);
Fruit-Dove, Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla (Guam, Northern Marianas);
Greenshank, Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer (Guam);
Ground-Dove, Friendly, Gallicolumba stairi (American Samoa);
Ground-Dove, White-throated, Gallicolumba xanthonura (Guam, Northern 
Heron, Gray, Ardea cinerea (Northern Marianas);
Imperial-Pigeon, Pacific, Ducula pacifica (American Samoa);
Kingfisher, Collared, Todirhamphus chloris (American Samoa, Northern 
Kingfisher, Micronesian, Todirhamphus cinnamominus (Guam);
Oystercatcher, Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus (Guam);
Petrel, Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera (American Samoa);
Petrel, Phoenix, Pterodroma alba (Baker and Howland Islands);
Petrel, Tahiti, Pterodroma rostrata (American Samoa);

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Rail, Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis (American Samoa);
Rail, Guam, Gallirallus owstoni (Guam);
Reed-Warbler, Nightingale, Acrocephalus luscinia (Northern Marianas, 
formerly Guam);
Storm-Petrel, Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae (Guam, Northern 
Storm-Petrel, Polynesian, Nesofregata fuliginosa (American Samoa);
Storm-Petrel, White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria (American Samoa);
Swamphen, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio (American Samoa);
Swiftlet, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi (Guam, Northern Marianas); and
Swiftlet, White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius (American Samoa).

    (6) Add 38 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as subspecies have been determined to be distinct 
species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as 
subspecies of a listed species, these additions will not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication(s) supporting 
the change:

Bean-Goose, Tundra, Anser serrirostris (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose [=Bean Goose]) [AOU 2007];
Coot, Hawaiian, Fulica alai (formerly treated as subspecies of Fulica 
americana, American Coot) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Flicker, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Flycatcher, Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Empidonax difficilis, Western [=Pacific-slope] 
Flycatcher) [AOU 1989, 1998];
Gnatcatcher, California, Polioptila californica (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher) [AOU 1989, 
Golden-Plover, Pacific, Pluvialis fulva (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Pluvialis dominica, Lesser [=American] Golden-Plover) [AOU 1993, 
Grebe, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Heron, Green, Butorides virescens (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Butorides striatus, Green-backed [=Striated] Heron) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Phaeornis obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush [=Omao]) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Kite, White-tailed, Elanus leucurus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Elanus caeruleus, Black-shouldered Kite) ([AOU 1983, 1993, 1998]);
Loon, Pacific, Gavia pacifica (formerly treated as subspecies of Gavia 
arctica, Arctic Loon) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Magpie, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Pica pica, Black-billed [=Eurasian] Magpie) [AOU 2000];
Murrelet, Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix--formerly treated as a 
subspecies of Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet (AOU 1997);
Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Phaeornis obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush [=Omao]) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus bullockii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Icterus galbula, Northern [=Baltimore] Oriole) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Petrel, Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Pterodroma phaeopygia, Dark-rumped [=Galapagos] Petrel) 
[AOU 2002];
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Pterodroma externa, White-necked [=Juan Fernandez] 
Petrel) [AOU 1991, 1998];
Pipit, American, Anthus rubescens (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Anthus spinoletta, Water Pipit (AOU 1989, 1998);
Rosy-Finch, Black, Leucosticte atrata (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Sapsucker, Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [AOU 1985, 
Scrub-Jay, Island, Aphelocoma insularis (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub [=Florida] Jay [=Scrub-Jay]) [AOU 
1995, 1998];
Scrub-Jay, Western, Aphelocoma californica (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub [=Florida] Jay [=Scrub-
Jay]) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Snipe, Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe) [AOU 2002];
Sparrow, Nelson's Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus nelsoni (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Ammodramus caudacutus, Sharp-tailed [=Saltmarsh Sharp-
tailed] Sparrow) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Spindalis, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Spindalis zena, Stripe-headed [=Western] Tanager 
[=Spindalis]) [AOU 2000];
Thrush, Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Titmouse, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Parus [=Baeolophus] bicolor, Tufted Titmouse) [AOU 2002];
Titmouse, Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Parus [=Baeolophus] inornatus, Plain [=Oak] Titmouse) [AOU 1997, 
Towhee, California, Pipilo crissalis (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Pipilo fuscus, Brown [=Canyon] Towhee) [AOU 1989, 1998];
Towhee, Spotted, Pipilo maculatus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Rufous-sided [=Eastern] Towhee) [AOU 1995, 
Vireo, Cassin's, Vireo cassinii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Vireo solitarius, Solitary [=Blue-headed] Vireo) [AOU 1997, 1998];
Vireo, Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Vireo solitarius, Solitary [=Blue-headed] Vireo) [AOU 1997, 1998];
Vireo, Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo) [AOU 1987, 1998];
Wagtail, Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Motacilla flava, Yellow Wagtail) [AOU 2004];
Woodpecker, American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Picoides tridactylus, Three-toed [=Eurasian Three-toed] 
Woodpecker) [AOU 2003]; and
Woodpecker, Arizona, Picoides arizonae (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Picoides stricklandi, Strickland's Woodpecker) [AOU 2000].

    (7) Remove 10 species based on revised taxonomic treatments and new 
distributional evidence confirming that their known geographic ranges 
lie entirely outside the political boundaries of the United States and 
its territories. In each case, we reference the AOU publication(s) 
supporting these changes:

[[Page 9287]]

Finch, Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa (AOU 1993, 1998);
Heron, Green-backed (=Striated), Butorides striatus (AOU 1993, 1998);
Kite, Black-shouldered, Elanus caeruleus (AOU 1983, 1993, 1998);
Magpie, Black-billed (=Eurasian), Pica pica (AOU 2000);
Noddy, Lesser, Anous tenuirostris (AOU 1998; treated as conspecific 
with Black Noddy, Anous minutus);
Petrel, Dark-rumped (=Galapagos), Pterodroma phaeopygia (AOU 2002);
Pipit, Water, Anthus spinoletta (AOU 1983, 1989, 1998);
Wagtail, Yellow, Motacilla flava (AOU 2004);
Woodpecker, Strickland's, Picoides stricklandi (AOU 2000); and
Woodpecker, Three-toed (=Eurasian Three-toed), Picoides tridactylis 
(AOU 2003).

    (8) Remove one former species that is now treated as a subspecies:

Wagtail, Black-backed, Motacilla lugens (lugens will remain protected 
as a subspecies of Motacilla alba, White Wagtail) [AOU 2005].

    (9) Revise the common (English) names of 48 species to conform to 
the most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions do not change 
the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which 
they are known. In each case, we reference the published source(s) for 
the name change:

Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba, becomes Owl, Barn (AOU 1989, 1998);
Bittern, Chinese, Ixobrychus sinensis, becomes Bittern, Yellow (AOU 
1991, 1998);
Crow, Mexican, Corvus imparatus, becomes Crow, Tamaulipas (AOU 1997, 
Curlew, Least, Numenius minutus, becomes Curlew, Little (AOU 1987, 
Flycatcher, Gray-spotted, Muscicapa griseisticta, becomes Flycatcher, 
Gray-streaked (AOU 2004);
Flycatcher, Western, Empidonax difficilis, becomes Flycatcher, Pacific-
slope (AOU 1989, 1998);
Golden-Plover, Lesser, Pluvialis dominica, becomes Golden-Plover, 
American (AOU 1993, 1998);
Goose, Bean, Anser fabalis, becomes Bean-Goose, Taiga (AOU 2007)
Goose, Ross', Chen rossii, becomes Goose, Ross's (AOU 1998);
Gull, Common Black-headed, Larus ridibundus, becomes Gull, Black-headed 
(AOU 1995, 1998);
Gull, Ross', Rhodostethia rosea, becomes Gull, Ross's (AOU 1998);
Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow, Accipiter gularis, becomes Sparrowhawk, Japanese 
(Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Hawk, Harris', Parabuteo unicinctus, becomes Hawk, Harris's (AOU 1998);
Hawk-Owl, Northern, Surnia ulula, becomes Owl, Northern Hawk (AOU 1989, 
Heron, Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra, becomes Reef-Egret, Pacific (Monroe 
and Sibley 1993);
Hoopoe, Upupa epops, becomes Hoopoe, Eurasian (AOU 1998);
Jay, Gray-breasted, Aphelocoma ultramarina, becomes Jay, Mexican (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Jay, Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens, becomes Scrub-Jay, Florida (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Kite, American Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus, becomes Kite, 
Swallow-tailed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Murrelet, Xantus', Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, becomes Murrelet, 
Xantus's (AOU 1998);
Nightjar, Jungle, Caprimulgus indicus, becomes Nightjar, Gray (AOU 
Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis, becomes Duck, Long-tailed (AOU 2000);
Oriole, Black-cowled, Icterus dominicensis, becomes Oriole, Greater 
Antillean (AOU 2000);
Oriole, Northern, Icterus galbula, becomes Oriole, Baltimore (AOU 1995, 
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma externa, becomes Petrel, Juan 
Fernandez (AOU 1991, 1998);
Plover, Great Sand, Charadrius leschenaultii, becomes Sand-Plover, 
Greater (AOU 2004);
Plover, Mongolian, Charadrius mongolus, becomes Sand-Plover, Lesser 
(AOU 2004);
Reed-Bunting, Common, Emberiza schoeniclus, becomes Bunting, Reed (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Reed-Bunting, Pallas', Emberiza pallasi, becomes Bunting, Pallas's (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Sandpiper, Spoonbill, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, becomes Sandpiper, Spoon-
billed (AOU 2004);
Skylark, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis, becomes Lark, Sky (AOU 1995, 1998);
Sparrow, Harris', Zonotrichia querela, becomes Sparrow, Harris's (AOU 
Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus, becomes Sparrow, 
Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Starling, Ashy, Sturnus cineraceus, becomes Starling, White-cheeked 
(Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Starling, Violet-backed, Sturnus philippensis, becomes Starling, 
Chestnut-cheeked (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Stint, Rufous-necked, Calidris ruficollis, becomes Stint, Red-necked 
(AOU 1995);
Storm-Petrel, Sooty, Oceanodroma tristrami, becomes Storm-Petrel, 
Tristram's (AOU 1989, 1998);
Swift, Antillean Palm, Tachornis phoenicobia, becomes Palm-Swift, 
Antillean (AOU 1983, 1998);
Tanager, Stripe-headed, Spindalis zena, becomes Spindalis, Western (AOU 
Teal, Falcated, Anas falcata, becomes Duck, Falcated (AOU 1997, 1998);
Thrush, Eye-browed, Turdus obscurus, becomes Thrush, Eyebrowed (AOU 
1989, 1998);
Towhee, Brown, Pipilo fuscus, becomes Towhee, Canyon (AOU 1989, 1998);
Towhee, Rufous-sided, Pipilo erythrophthalmus, becomes Towhee, Eastern 
(AOU 1995, 1998);
Tree-Pipit, Olive, Anthus hodgsoni, becomes Pipit, Olive-backed (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Trogon, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Quetzel, Eared (AOU 2002);
Vireo, Solitary, Vireo solitarius, becomes Vireo, Blue-headed (AOU 
1997, 1998);
Warbler, Elfin Woods, Dendroica angelae, becomes Warbler, Elfin-woods 
(AOU 1998); and
Woodpecker, Lewis', Melanerpes lewis, becomes Woodpecker, Lewis's (AOU 

    (10) Revise the scientific names of 66 species to conform to the 
most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions do not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication(s) 
documenting the name change:

Actitis macularia (Spotted Sandpiper) becomes Actitis macularius (AOU 
Ajaia ajaja (Roseate Spoonbill) becomes Platalea ajaja (AOU 2002);
Amphispiza quinquestriata (Five-striped Sparrow) becomes Aimophila 
quinquestriata (AOU 1997, 1998);
Casmerodius albus (Great Egret) becomes Ardea alba (AOU 1995, 1998);
Catharacta maccormicki (South Polar Skua) becomes Stercorarius 
maccormicki (AOU 2000);
Catharacta skua (Great Skua) becomes Stercorarius skua (AOU 2000);
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Willet) becomes Tringa semipalmata (AOU 
Ceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher) becomes Megaceryl alcyon (AOU 2007);
Ceryle torquatus (= Ceryle torquata) (Ringed Kingfisher) becomes 
Megaceryl torquata (AOU 2004, 2007);

[[Page 9288]]

Columba fasciata (Band-tailed Pigeon) becomes Patagioenas fasciata (AOU 
Columba flavirostris (Red-billed Pigeon) becomes Patagioenas 
flavirostris (AOU 2003);
Columba inornata (Plain Pigeon) becomes Patagioenas inornata (AOU 
Columba leucocephala (White-crowned Pigeon) becomes Patagioenas 
leucocephala (AOU 2003);
Columba squamosa (Scaly-naped Pigeon) becomes Patagioenas squamosa (AOU 
Contopus borealis (Olive-sided Flycatcher) becomes Contopus cooperi 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Cuculus saturatus (Oriental Cuckoo) becomes Cuculus optatus (AOU 2006);
Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) becomes Aethia psittacula 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Delichon urbica (Common House-Martin) becomes Delichon urbicum (AOU 
Diomedea albatrus (Short-tailed Albatross) becomes Phoebastria albatrus 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Diomedea chlororhynchos (Yellow-nosed Albatross) becomes Thalassarche 
chlororhynchos (AOU 1997, 1998);
Diomedea immutabilis (Laysan Albatross) becomes Phoebastria immutabilis 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Diomedea nigripes (Black-footed Albatross) becomes Phoebastria nigripes 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Guiraca caerulea (Blue Grosbeak) becomes Passerina caerulea (AOU 2002);
Heteroscelus brevipes (Gray-tailed Tattler) becomes Tringa brevipes 
(AOU 2006);
Heteroscelus incanus (Wandering Tattler) becomes Tringa incana (AOU 
Helmitheros vermivora (Worm-eating Warbler) becomes Helmitheros 
vermivorum (AOU 2004);
Hirundo fulva (Cave Swallow) becomes Petrochelidon fulva (AOU 1997, 
Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow) becomes Petrochelidon pyrrhonota 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Muscicapa narcissina (Narcissus Flycatcher) becomes Ficedula narcissina 
(AOU 1991, 1998);
Nesochen sandvicensis (Hawaiian Goose) becomes Branta sandvicensis (AOU 
1993, 1998);
Nyctea scandiaca (Snowy Owl) becomes Bubo scandiacus (AOU 2003);
Nycticorax goisagi (Japanese Night-Heron) becomes Gorsachius goisagi 
(Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Nycticorax violaceus (Yellow-crowned Night-Heron) becomes Nyctanassa 
violacea (AOU 1998);
Orthorhynchus cristatus (Antillean Crested Hummingbird) becomes 
Orthorhyncus cristatus (AOU 1987);
Otus asio (Eastern Screech-Owl) becomes Megascops asio (AOU 2003);
Otus kennicottii (Western Screech-Owl) becomes Megascops kennicottii 
(AOU 2003);
Otus nudipes (Puerto Rican Screech-Owl) becomes Megascops nudipes (AOU 
Otus trichopsis (Whiskered Screech-Owl) becomes Megascops trichopsis 
(AOU 2003);
Oxyura dominica (Masked Duck) becomes Nomonyx dominicus (AOU 1997, 
Parus atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) becomes Poecile 
atricapillus (AOU 1997, 1998, 2003);
Parus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) becomes Baeolophus bicolor (AOU 1997, 
Parus carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) becomes Poecile carolinensis 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus gambeli (Mountain Chickadee) becomes Poecile gambeli (AOU 1997, 
Parus hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee) becomes Poecile hudsonica (AOU 
1997, 1998, 2000);
Parus rufescens (Chestnut-backed Chickadee) becomes Poecile rufescens 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus sclateri (Mexican Chickadee) becomes Poecile sclateri (AOU 1997, 
Parus wollweberi (Bridled Titmouse) becomes Baeolophus wollweberi (AOU 
1997, 1998);
Phalaropus fulicaria (Red Phalarope) becomes Phalaropus fulicarius (AOU 
Polyborus plancus (Crested Caracara) becomes Caracara cheriway (AOU 
1993, 1998, 2000);
Porphyrula martinica (Purple Gallinule) becomes Porphyrio martinica 
(AOU 2002);
Saurothera vieilloti (Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo) becomes Coccyzus 
vieilloti (AOU 2006);
Seiurus aurocapillus (Ovenbird) becomes Seiurus aurocapilla (AOU 2003);
Sterna albifrons (Little Tern) becomes Sternula albifrons (AOU 2006);
Sterna aleutica (Aleutian Tern) becomes Onychoprion aleuticus (AOU 
Sterna anaethetus (Bridled Tern) becomes Onychoprion anaethetus (AOU 
Sterna antillarum (Least Tern) becomes Sternula antillarum (AOU 2006);
Sterna caspia (Caspian Tern) becomes Hydroprogne caspia (AOU 2006);
Sterna elegans (Elegant Tern) becomes Thalasseus elegans (AOU 2006);
Sterna fuscata (Sooty Tern) becomes Onychoprion fuscatus (AOU 2006);
Sterna lunata (Gray-backed Tern) becomes Onychoprion lunatus (AOU 
Sterna maxima (Royal Tern) becomes Thalasseus maximus (AOU 2006);
Sterna nilotica (Gull-billed Tern) becomes Gelochelidon nilotica (AOU 
Sterna sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern) becomes Thalasseus sandvicensis 
(AOU 2006);
Sula bassanus (Northern Gannet) becomes Morus bassanus (AOU 1989, 
Tiaris olivacea (Yellow-faced Grassquit) becomes Tiaris olivaceus (AOU 
2004); and
Toxostoma dorsale (Crissal Thrasher) becomes Toxostoma crissale (AOU 
1985, 1998).

    (11) Revise the common (English) and scientific names of seven 
species to conform with the most recent nomenclatural treatment. These 
revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, 
only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the 
publication(s) supporting the name change:

Cormorant, Olivaceous, Phalacrocorax olivaceus, becomes Cormorant, 
Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (AOU 1991, 1998);
Egret, Plumed, Egretta intermedia, becomes Egret, Intermediate, 
Mesophoyx intermedia (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax melanolophus, becomes Night-Heron, 
Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Thrush, Hawaiian, Phaeornis obscurus, becomes Omao, Myadestes obscurus 
(AOU 1985, 1998);
Thrush, Small Kauai, Phaeornis palmeri, becomes Puaiohi, Myadestes 
palmeri (AOU 1985, 1998);
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus, becomes Chickadee, Gray-headed, Poecile 
cincta (AOU 1998, 2000); and
Titmouse, Plain, Parus inornatus, becomes Titmouse, Oak, Baeolophus 
inornatus (AOU 1997, 1998).

    (12) Revise incorrect or invalid scientific names of four species 
in the alphabetical list to reflect the most recent nomenclatural 
treatment and to correct inconsistencies between the alphabetical and 
taxonomic lists:

Kittiwake, Black-legged, Larus tridactyla, becomes Rissa trydactyla 
(AOU 1998);

[[Page 9289]]

Kittiwake, Red-legged, Larus brevirostris, becomes Rissa brevirostris 
(AOU 1998);
Skimmer, Black, Rhynchops niger, becomes Rynchops niger (AOU 1998); and
Thrush, Wood, Hylocichla minima, becomes Hylocichla mustelina (AOU 

    (13) Revise the common (English) name of two species in the 
alphabetical and taxonomic lists to correct misspellings:

Bittern, Schrenk's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus, becomes Bittern, Schrenck's 
(Monroe and Sibley 1993); and
Redstart, Slaty-throated, Myioborus miniatus, becomes Redstart, Slate-
throated (AOU 1998).

    (14) Revise the scientific names of three species in the taxonomic 
list to correct misspellings and inconsistencies between the 
alphabetical and taxonomic lists:

Sialis currucoides (Mountain Bluebird) becomes Sialia currucoides (AOU 
Sialis mexicana (Western Bluebird) becomes Sialia mexicana (AOU 1998); 
Sialis sialis (Eastern Bluebird) becomes Sialia sialis (AOU 1998).

    (15) Change the status of one taxon from protected subspecies to 
non-protected species (because there is no known natural occurrence of 
the newly recognized species in the United States or its territories). 
In accordance with the AOU (1998), the Barbary Falcon has been treated 
as a subspecies (pelegrinoides) of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco 
peregrinus) in 50 CFR 10.13. We defer to the taxonomic treatment of 
Monroe and Sibley (1993) in recognizing F. peregrinus pelegrinoides as 
a distinct species, Falco pelegrinoides, the Barbary Falcon. This 
brings our treatment of this taxon into conformity with that adopted by 
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Flora and Fauna (CITES), thereby removing an inconsistency between the 
MBTA (50 CFR 10.13) and CITES (50 CFR 23.23) lists. This simple 
taxonomic change does not add or remove any species from the list:

Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides, formerly considered a subspecies of the 
Peregrine Falcon, is changed to Falco pelegrinoides, Barbary Falcon 
(Monroe and Sibley 1993). TheBarbary Falcon is not subject to the MBTA 
because its known geographic range lies entirely outside the political 
boundaries of the United States and its territories. This does not 
change the legal status of any other subspecies of the Peregrine 
Falcon, all of which will continue to be protected under the MBTA.

    We continue to consider all previously recognized subspecies of the 
Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) as one species.
    As a general practice, we use the AOU as a key source for taxonomic 
decisions. However, for species that are hunted, we may see a higher 
level of certainty about taxonomic changes before modifying hunting 
regulations and management plans, and communicating those changes to 
the public.
    The AOU recently adopted nomenclature that divides the 11 
subspecies of the previously-recognized single Canada Goose species 
into two species groups, Canada Goose and Cackling Goose (Branta 
hutchinsii) (AOU 2004). However, we choose to include the four 
subspecies AOU now considers Cackling Goose in the listing of Canada 
Goose, rather than include them in a separate species. Some waterfowl 
specialists do not agree that the data on which the AOU relied 
warranted the separation into two species. The AOU recommendation is 
based on research in large part supported by analysis of mitochondrial 
DNA (Van Wagner and Baker 1986, Shields and Wilson 1987, Quinn et al. 
1991, Paxinos et al. 2002, Scribner et al. 2003). These studies suggest 
a difference between Cackling and Canada Geese primarily based on 
maternally inherited nonrecombinate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We 
believe the mtDNA analyzed from geese in the geographic areas sampled 
indicate a substantial evolutionary distance between groups the AOU 
classifies as Cackling and Canada Geese. However, the nuclear 
(recombinant) microsatellite DNA (nuDNA) assessment presented in 
Scribner et al. (2003: Fig. 3) suggests either that the nuDNA has not 
yet sorted (nuDNA takes approximately four times as long to consolidate 
as does mtDNA [Zink and Barrowclough 2008]), or that this historical 
division is not being maintained because hybridization is occurring. An 
assessment of the nuDNA group samples from the North Slope of Alaska 
(now considered B. h. taverneri, a subspecies of Cackling Goose, by the 
AOU) suggests that this group is most closely paired with samples from 
South Central Alaska (B. c. parvipes, considered a subspecies of Canada 
Goose by the AOU). These results are consistent with those reported by 
Van Wagner and Baker (1990). If Cackling and Canada Geese are 
hybridizing, it is unclear what the outcome will be. Consequently, FWS 
is concerned whether the sample size and geographic distribution of 
specimens obtained for genetic analysis was adequate to determine the 
extent of hybridization. We suggest additional analysis of samples 
collected at several potential zones of integration to reduce this 
uncertainty, including the north slope of Alaska (B. h. taverneri and 
B. c. parvipes), and Arctic Canada (B. h. hutchinsii and B. c. 
parvipes, and B. h. hutchinsii and B. c. interior). Some of this work 
is already underway.
    Issues related to monitoring and assessment of the proposed two 
species/Canada Goose complex also need to be resolved to ensure that 
the continuity in status assessments is maintained. We are also 
reluctant to begin informing the public, both hunters and non-hunters 
alike, of the implications of this change until further studies confirm 
that this separation is warranted. Additional research on Canada/
Cackling Goose taxonomy and breeding distribution is currently being 
conducted and better techniques for field and harvest identification 
are in development. We will consider this additional information when 
it is available, at which time we may reconsider our decision. In any 
case, we emphasize that, regardless of name, goose subspecies 
identified as Cackling Goose by the AOU remain protected under the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act as Canada Goose.
    For ease of comparison, changes are summarized in the following 
table (numbers reference the categories treated above). Species whose 
names have been revised (categories 9-14) appear in both the left-hand 
column (old name removed) and right-hand column (new name added). To 
ensure that these two separate actions appear on the same line of the 
table, we employ brackets to identify old (removed) or new (added) 
names that are listed in correct alphabetical order elsewhere in the 

        Removed (alphabetically)              Added (alphabetically)
                                         Akekee, Loxops caeruleirostris
                                         Akepa, Loxops coccineus (4).

[[Page 9290]]

                                         Akialoa, Greater, Hemignathus
                                          ellisianus (4).
                                         Akiapolaau, Hemignathus munroi
                                         Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi (4).
                                         Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei (4).
                                         Alauahio, Maui, Paroreomyza
                                          montana (4).
                                         Alauahio, Oahu, Paroreomyza
                                          maculate (4).
                                         Albatross, Black-browed,
                                          Thalassarche melanophris (3).
Albatross, Black-footed, Diomedea        Albatross, Black-footed,
 nigripes (10).                           Phoebastria nigripes (10).
Albatross, Laysan, Diomedea immutabilis  Albatross, Laysan, Phoebastria
 (10).                                    immutabilis (10).
                                         Albatross, Light-mantled,
                                          Phoebetria palpebrata (3).
Albatross, Short-tailed, Diomedea        Albatross, Short-tailed,
 albatrus (10).                           Phoebastria albatrus (10).
                                         Albatross, Shy, Thalassarche
                                          cauta (2).
                                         Albatross, Wandering, Diomedea
                                          exulans (2).
Albatross, Yellow-nosed, Diomedea        Albatross, Yellow-nosed,
 chlororhynchos (10).                     Thalassarche chlororhynchos
                                         Amakihi, Hawaii, Hemignathus
                                          virens (4).
                                         Amakihi, Kauai, Hemignathus
                                          kauaiensis (4).
                                         Amakihi, Oahu, Hemignathus
                                          flavus (4).
                                         Anianiau, Magumma parva (4).
                                         Apapane, Himatione sanguinea
Auklet, Parakeet, Cyclorrhynchus         Auklet, Parakeet, Aethia
 psittacula (10).                         psittacula (10).
Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba (9)........  [see Owl, Barn].
                                         Bean-Goose, Taiga, Anser
                                          fabalis (9).
                                         Bean-Goose, Tundra, Anser
                                          serrirostris (6).
                                         Bittern, Black, Ixobrychus
                                          flavicollis (5).
Bittern, Chinese, Ixobrychus sinensis    Bittern, Yellow, Ixobrychus
 (9).                                     sinensis (9).
Bittern, Schrenk's, Ixobrychus           Bittern, Schrenck's, Ixobrychus
 eurhythmus (13).                         eurhythmus (13).
Bluebird, Eastern, Sialis sialis (14)..  Bluebird, Eastern, Sialia
                                          sialis (14).
Bluebird, Mountain, Sialis currucoides   Bluebird, Mountain, Sialia
 (14).                                    currucoides (14).
Bluebird, Western, Sialis mexicana (14)  Bluebird, Western, Sialia
                                          mexicana (14).
                                         Bluetail, Red-flanked, Tarsiger
                                          cyanurus (3).
                                         Bunting, Blue, Cyanocompsa
                                          parellina (2).
                                         Bunting, Gray, Emberiza
                                          variabilis (2).
                                         Bunting, Little, Emberiza
                                          pusilla (2).
[see Reed-Bunting, Pallas']............  Bunting, Pallas's, Emberiza
                                          pallasi (9).
                                         Bunting, Pine, Emberiza
                                          leucocephalos (3).
[see Reed-Bunting, Common].............  Bunting, Reed, Emberiza
                                          schoeniclus (9).
                                         Bunting, Yellow-breasted,
                                          Emberiza aureola (3).
                                         Bunting, Yellow-throated,
                                          Emberiza elegans (3).
                                         Carib, Purple-throated,
                                          Eulampis jugularis (3).
Caracara, Crested, Polyborus plancus     Caracara, Crested, Caracara
 (10).                                    cheriway (10).
                                         Catbird, Black, Melanoptila
                                          glabrirostris (3).
                                         Chaffinch, Common, Fringilla
                                          coelebs (2).
Chickadee, Black-capped, Parus           Chickadee, Black-capped,
 atricapillus (10).                       Poecile atricapillus (10).
Chickadee, Boreal, Parus hudsonicus      Chickadee, Boreal, Poecile
 (10).                                    hudsonica (10).
Chickadee, Carolina, Parus carolinensis  Chickadee, Carolina, Poecile
 (10).                                    carolinensis (10).
Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, Parus        Chickadee, Chestnut-backed,
 rufescens (10).                          Poecile rufescens (10).
[see Tit, Siberian]....................  Chickadee, Gray-headed, Poecile
                                          cincta (11).
Chickadee, Mexican, Parus sclateri (10)  Chickadee, Mexican, Poecile
                                          sclateri (10).
Chickadee, Mountain, Parus gambeli (10)  Chickadee, Mountain, Poecile
                                          gambeli (10).
                                         Coot, Hawaiian, Fulica alai
                                         Cormorant, Little Pied,
                                          Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
Cormorant, Olivaceous, Phalacrocorax     Cormorant, Neotropic,
 olivaceus (11).                          Phalacrocorax brasilianus
                                         Crake, Paint-billed, Neocrex
                                          erythrops (2).
                                         Crake, Spotless, Porzana
                                          tabuensis (5).
                                         Creeper, Hawaii, Oreomystis
                                          mana (4).
                                         Crow, Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
Crow, Mexican, Corvus imparatus (9)....  Crow, Tamaulipas, Corvus
                                          imparatus (9).
Cuckoo, Oriental, Cuculus saturatus      Cuckoo, Oriental, Cuculus
 (10).                                    optatus (10).
                                         Curlew, Eurasian, Numenius
                                          arquata (2).
Curlew, Least, Numenius minutus (9)....  Curlew, Little, Numenius
                                          minutus (9).
[see Teal, Falcated]...................  Duck, Falcated, Anas falcata
[see Oldsquaw].........................  Duck, Long-tailed, Clangula
                                          hyemalis (9).
Duck, Masked, Oxyura dominica (10).....  Duck, Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
                                         Duck, Muscovy, Cairina moschata
                                         Duck, Pacific Black, Anas
                                          superciliosa (5).
                                         Duck, Spot-billed, Anas
                                          poecilorhyncha (1).
Egret, Great, Casmerodius albus (10)...  Egret, Great, Ardea alba (10).
Egret, Plumed, Egretta intermedia (11).  Egret, Intermediate, Mesophoyx
                                          intermedia (11).
                                         Egret, Little, Egretta garzetta
                                         Elaenia, Greenish, Myiopagis
                                          viridicata (3).
[Falcon, Barbary, Falco peregrinus       Falcon, Red-footed, Falco
 pelegrinoides (=Falco pelegrinoides)]    vespertinus (3).
                                         Finch, Laysan, Telespiza
                                          cantans (4).
                                         Finch, Nihoa, Telespiza ultima

[[Page 9291]]

Finch, Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa (7)....  [see Rosy-Finch].
                                         Flicker, Gilded, Colaptes
                                          chrysoides (6).
                                         Flycatcher, Cordilleran,
                                          Empidonax occidentalis (6).
Flycatcher, Gray-spotted, Muscicapa      Flycatcher, Gray-streaked,
 griseisticta (9).                        Muscicapa griseisticta (9).
                                         Flycatcher, La Sagra's,
                                          Myiarchus sagrae (2).
Flycatcher, Narcissus, Muscicapa         Flycatcher, Narcissus, Ficedula
 narcissina (10).                         narcissina (10).
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, Contopus        Flycatcher, Olive-sided,
 borealis (10).                           Contopus cooperi (10).
Flycatcher, Western, Empidonax           Flycatcher, Pacific-slope,
 difficilis (9).                          Empidonax difficilis (9).
                                         Flycatcher, Piratic, Legatus
                                          leucophalus (3).
                                         Flycatcher, Social, Myiozetetes
                                          similis (3).
                                         Flycatcher, Tufted, Mitrephanes
                                          phaeocercus (3).
                                         Flycatcher, Variegated,
                                          Empidonomus varius (2).
                                         Forest-Falcon, Collared,
                                          Micrastur semitorquatus (3).
                                         Frog-Hawk, Gray, Accipiter
                                          soloensis (3).
                                         Fruit-Dove, Crimson-crowned,
                                          Ptilinopus porphyraceus (5).
                                         Fruit-Dove, Many-colored,
                                          Ptilinopus perousii (5).
                                         Fruit-Dove, Mariana, Ptilinopus
                                          roseicapilla (5).
                                         Gallinule, Azure, Porphyrio
                                          flavirostris (3).
Gallinule, Purple, Porphyrula martinica  Gallinule, Purple, Porphyrio
 (10).                                    martinica (10).
Gannet, Northern, Sula bassanus (10)...  Gannet, Northern, Morus
                                          bassanus (10).
                                         Gnatcatcher, California,
                                          Polioptila californica (6).
Golden-Plover, Lesser, Pluvialis         Golden-Plover, American,
 dominica (9).                            Pluvialis dominica (9).
                                         Golden-Plover, European,
                                          Pluvialis apricaria (3).
                                         Golden-Plover, Pacific,
                                          Pluvialis fulva (6).
Goose, Bean, Anser fabalis (9).........  [see Bean-Goose, Taiga].
Goose, Hawaiian, Nesochen sandvicensis   Goose, Hawaiian, Branta
 (10).                                    sandvicensis (10).
                                         Goose, Lesser White-fronted,
                                          Anser erythropus (3).
Goose, Ross', Chen rossii (9)..........  Goose, Ross's, Chen rossii (9).
Grassquit, Yellow-faced, Tiaris          Grassquit, Yellow-faced, Tiaris
 olivacea (10).                           olivaceus (10).
                                         Grebe, Clark's, Aechmophorus
                                          clarkii (6).
                                         Greenshank, Nordmann's, Tringa
                                          guttifer (5).
Grosbeak, Blue, Guiraca caerulea (10)..  Grosbeak, Blue, Passerina
                                          caerulea (10).
                                         Ground-Dove, Friendly,
                                          Gallicolumba stairi (5).
                                         Ground-Dove, White-throated,
                                          Gallicolumba xanthonura (5).
                                         Gull, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
Gull, Common Black-headed, Larus         Gull, Black-headed, Larus
 ridibundus (9).                          ridibundus (9).
                                         Gull, Black-tailed, Larus
                                          crassirostris (1).
                                         Gull, Gray-hooded, Larus
                                          cirrocephalus (3).
                                         Gull, Kelp, Larus dominicanus
Gull, Ross', Rhodostethia rosea (9)....  Gull, Ross's, Rhodostethia
                                          rosea (9).
                                         Gull, Yellow-legged, Larus
                                          michahellis (3).
Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow, Accipiter         [see Sparrowhawk, Japanese].
 gularis (9).
                                         Hawk, Crane, Geranospiza
                                          caerulescens (3).
Hawk, Harris', Parabuteo unicinctus (9)  Hawk, Harris's, Parabuteo
                                          unicinctus (9).
                                         Hawk, Roadside, Buteo
                                          magnirostris (2).
Hawk-Owl, Northern, Surnia ulula (9)...  [see Owl, Northern Hawk].
                                         Heron, Gray, Ardea cinerea (5).
                                         Heron, Green, Butorides
                                          virescens (6).
Heron, Green-backed, Butorides striatus  [see Heron, Green].
Heron, Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra (9).  [see Reef-Egret, Pacific].
                                         Hobby, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
Hoopoe, Upupa epops (9)................  Hoopoe, Eurasian, Upupa epops
House-Martin, Common, Delichon urbica    House-Martin, Common, Delichon
 (10).                                    urbicum (10).
Hummingbird, Antillean Crested,          Hummingbird, Antillean Crested,
 Orthorhynchus cristatus (10).            Orthorhyncus cristatus (10).
                                         Hummingbird, Bumblebee, Atthis
                                          heloisa (2).
                                         Hummingbird, Cinnamon, Amazilia
                                          rutila (3).
                                         Hummingbird, Xantus's,
                                          Hylocharis xantusii (3).
                                         Iiwi, Vestiaria coccinea (4).
                                         Imperial-Pigeon, Pacific,
                                          Ducula pacifica (5).
Jay, Gray-breasted, Aphelocoma           Jay, Mexican, Aphelocoma
 ultramarina (9).                         ultramarina (9).
Jay, Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens (9)  [see Scrub-Jay, Florida].
                                         Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea
                                         Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus
                                         Kingfisher, Collared,
                                          Todirhamphus chloris (5).
                                         Kingfisher, Micronesian,
                                          Todirhamphus cinnamominus (5).
Kingfisher, Belted, Ceryle alcyon (10).  Kingfisher, Belted, Megaceryle
                                          alcyon (10).
Kingfisher, Ringed, Ceryle torquatus     Kingfisher, Ringed, Megaceryle
 (10).                                    torquata (10).
Kite, American Swallow-tailed,           Kite, Swallow-tailed, Elanoides
 Elanoides forficatus (9).                forficatus (9).
Kite, Black-shouldered, Elanus           [see Kite, White-tailed].
 caeruleus (7).
                                         Kite, White-tailed, Elanus
                                          leucurus (6).
Kittiwake, Black-legged, Larus           Kittiwake, Black-legged, Rissa
 tridactyla (12).                         trydactyla (12).
Kittiwake, Red-legged, Larus             Kittiwake, Red-legged, Rissa
 brevirostris (12).                       brevirostris (12).
[see Skylark, Eurasian]................  Lark, Sky, Alauda arvensis (9).
Lizard-Cuckoo, Puerto Rican, Saurothera  Lizard-Cuckoo, Puerto Rican,
 vieilloti (10).                          Coccyzus vieilloti (10).

[[Page 9292]]

                                         Loon, Pacific, Gavia pacifica
Magpie, Black-billed (=Eurasian), Pica   [see Magpie, Black-billed, Pica
 pica (7).                                hudsonia].
                                         Magpie, Black-billed, Pica
                                          hudsonia (6).
                                         Mango, Green-breasted,
                                          Anthracothorax prevostii (3).
                                         Martin, Brown-chested, Progne
                                          tapera (3).
                                         Martin, Southern, Progne
                                          elegans (2).
                                         Millerbird, Acrocephalus
                                          familiaris (4).
                                         Mockingbird, Bahama, Mimus
                                          gundlachii (2).
                                         Mockingbird, Blue, Melanotis
                                          caerulescens (3).
                                         Murrelet, Long-billed,
                                          Brachyramphus perdix (6).
Murrelet, Xantus', Synthliboramphus      Murrelet, Xantus's,
 hypoleucus (9).                          Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
Night-Heron, Japanese, Nycticorax        Night-Heron, Japanese,
 goisagi (10).                            Gorsachius goisagi (10).
Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax           Night-Heron, Malayan,
 melanolophus (11).                       Gorsachius melanolophus (11).
Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned, Nycticorax  Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned,
 violaceus (10).                          Nyctanassa violacea (10).
                                         Nightingale-Thrush, Black-
                                          headed, Catharus mexicanus
                                         Nightingale-Thrush, Orange-
                                          billed, Catharus
                                          aurantiirostris (3).
Nightjar, Jungle, Caprimulgus indicus    Nightjar, Gray, Caprimulgus
 (9).                                     indicus (9).
Noddy, Lesser, Anous tenuirostris (7)..  Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus
Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (9)........  [see Duck, Long-tailed].
                                         Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis
[see Thrush, Hawaiian].................  Omao, Myadestes obscurus (11).
Oriole, Northern, Icterus galbula (9)..  Oriole, Baltimore, Icterus
                                          galbula (9).
                                         Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus
                                          bullockii (6).
Oriole, Black-cowled, Icterus            Oriole, Greater Antillean,
 dominicensis (9).                        Icterus dominicensis (9).
                                         Ou, Psittirostra psittacea (4).
Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus (10)....  Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
[see Barn-Owl, Common].................  Owl, Barn, Tyto alba (9).
                                         Owl, Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
[see Hawk-Owl, Northern]...............  Owl, Northern Hawk, Surnia
                                          ulula (9).
Owl, Snowy, Nyctea scandiaca (10)......  Owl, Snowy, Bubo scandiacus
                                         Owl, Stygian, Asio stygius (3).
                                         Oystercatcher, Eurasian,
                                          Haematopus ostralegus (5).
                                         Palila, Loxioides bailleui (4).
[see Swift, Antillean Palm]............  Palm-Swift, Antillean,
                                          Tachornis phoenicobia (9).
                                         Parrotbill, Maui, Pseudonestor
                                          xanthophrys (4).
                                         Petrel, Bermuda, Pterodroma
                                          cahow (3).
                                         Petrel, Black-winged,
                                          Pterodroma nigripennis (2).
Petrel, Dark-rumped, Pterodroma          [see Petrel, Hawaiian].
 phaeopygia (7).
                                         Petrel, Gould's, Pterodroma
                                          leucoptera (5).
                                         Petrel, Great-winged,
                                          Pterodroma macroptera (3).
                                         Petrel, Hawaiian, Pterodroma
                                          sandwichensis (6).
                                         Petrel, Jouanin's, Bulweria
                                          fallax (2).
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma         Petrel, Juan Fernandez,
 externa (9).                             Pterodroma externa (9).
                                         Petrel, Phoenix, Pterodroma
                                          alba (5).
                                         Petrel, Stejneger's, Pterodroma
                                          longirostris (3).
                                         Petrel, Tahiti, Pterodroma
                                          rostrata (5).
                                         Petrel, White-necked,
                                          Pterodroma cervicalis (6).
                                         Pewee, Cuban, Contopus
                                          caribaeus (3).
                                         Pewee, Hispaniolan, Contopus
                                          hispaniolensis (2).
Phalarope, Red, Phalaropus fulicaria     Red Phalarope, Phalaropus
 (10).                                    fulicarius (10).
Pigeon, Band-tailed, Columba fasciata    Pigeon, Band-tailed,
 (10).                                    Patagioenas fasciata (10).
Pigeon, Plain, Columba inornata (10)...  Pigeon, Plain, Patagioenas
                                          inornata (10).
Pigeon, Red-billed, Columba              Pigeon, Red-billed, Patagioenas
 flavirostris (10).                       flavirostris (10).
Pigeon, Scaly-naped, Columba squamosa    Pigeon, Scaly-naped,
 (10).                                    Patagioenas squamosa (10).
Pigeon, White-crowned, Columba           Pigeon, White-crowned,
 leucocephala (10).                       Patagioenas leucocephala (10).
Pipit, Water, Anthus spinoletta (7)....  [see Pipit, American].
                                         Pipit, American, Anthus
                                          rubescens (6).
[see Tree-Pipit, Olive]................  Pipit, Olive-backed, Anthus
                                          hodgsoni (9).
                                         Pipit, Tree, Anthus trivialis
                                         Plover, Collared, Charadrius
                                          collaris (3).
Plover, Great Sand, Charadrius           [see Sand-Plover, Greater].
 leschenaultii (9).
Plover, Mongolian, Charadrius mongolus   [see Sand-Plover, Lesser].
                                         Pond-Heron, Chinese, Ardeola
                                          bacchus (3).
                                         Poo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma
[see Thrush, Small Kauai]..............  Puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri
[see Trogon, Eared]....................  Quetzel, Eared, Euptilotis
                                          neoxenus (9).
                                         Rail, Buff-banded, Gallirallus
                                          philippensis (5).
                                         Rail, Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
                                         Rail, Spotted, Pardirallus
                                          maculatus (2).
Redstart, Slaty-throated, Myioborus      Redstart, Slate-throated,
 miniatus (13).                           Myioborus miniatus (13).
Reed-Bunting, Common, Emberiza           [see Bunting, Reed].
 schoeniclus (9).
Reed-Bunting, Pallas', Emberiza pallasi  [see Bunting, Pallas's].
                                         Reed-Warbler, Nightingale,
                                          Acrocephalus luscinia (5).
[see Heron, Pacific Reef]..............  Reef-Egret, Pacific, Egretta
                                          sacra (9).

[[Page 9293]]

                                         Reef-Heron, Western, Egretta
                                          gularis (3).
                                         Robin, Siberian Blue, Luscinia
                                          cyane (3).
                                         Robin, White-throated, Turdus
                                          assimilis (3).
                                         Rosy-Finch, Black, Leucosticte
                                          atrata (6).
                                         Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped,
                                          Leucosticte australis (6).
                                         Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned,
                                          Leucosticte tephrocotis (6).
                                         Sandpiper, Green, Tringa
                                          ochropus (3).
Sandpiper, Spoonbill, Eurynorhynchus     Sandpiper, Spoon-billed,
 pygmeus (9).                             Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (9).
Sandpiper, Spotted, Actitis macularia    Sandpiper, Spotted, Actitis
 (10).                                    macularius (10).
[see Plover, Great Sand]...............  Sand-Plover, Greater,
                                          Charadrius leschenaultii (9).
[see Plover, Mongolian]................  Sand-Plover, Lesser, Charadrius
                                          mongolus (9).
                                         Sapsucker, Red-naped,
                                          Sphyrapicus nuchalis (6).
                                         Scops-Owl, Oriental, Otus sunia
Screech-Owl, Eastern, Otus asio (10)...  Screech-Owl, Eastern, Megascops
                                          asio (10).
Screech-Owl, Puerto Rican, Otus nudipes  Screech-Owl, Puerto Rican,
 (10).                                    Megascops nudipes (10).
Screech-Owl, Western, Otus kennicottii   Screech-Owl, Western, Megascops
 (10).                                    kennicottii (10).
Screech-Owl, Whiskered, Otus trichopsis  Screech-Owl, Whiskered,
 (10).                                    Megascops trichopsis (10).
[see Jay, Scrub].......................  Scrub-Jay, Florida, Aphelocoma
                                          coerulescens (9).
                                         Scrub-Jay, Island, Aphelocoma
                                          insularis (6).
                                         Scrub-Jay, Western, Aphelocoma
                                          californica (6).
                                         Shearwater, Cape Verde,
                                          Calonectris edwardsii (3).
                                         Shearwater, Streaked,
                                          Calonectris leucomelas (2).
                                         Shrike, Brown, Lanius cristatus
                                         Silky-flycatcher, Gray,
                                          Ptilogonys cinereus (3).
                                         Siskin, Eurasian, Carduelis
                                          spinus (3).
Skimmer, Black, Rhynchops niger (12)...  Skimmer, Black, Rynchops niger
Skua, Great, Catharacta skua (10)......  Skua, Great, Stercorarius skua
Skua, South Polar, Catharacta            Skua, South Polar, Stercorarius
 maccormicki (10).                        maccormicki (10).
Skylark, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis (9).  [see Lark, Sky].
                                         Snipe, Wilson's, Gallinago
                                          delicata (6).
Sparrow, Five-striped, Amphispiza        Sparrow, Five-striped,
 quinquestriata (10).                     Aimophila quinquestriata (10).
Sparrow, Harris', Zonotrichia querula    Sparrow, Harris's, Zonotrichia
 (9).                                     querula (9).
                                         Sparrow, Nelson's Sharp-tailed,
                                          Ammodramus nelsoni (6).
Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus        Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sharp-
 caudacutus (9).                          tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus
[see Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow]............  Sparrowhawk, Japanese,
                                          Accipiter gularis (9).
                                         Spindalis, Puerto Rican,
                                          Spindalis portoricensis (6).
[see Tanager, Stripe-headed]...........  Spindalis, Western, Spindalis
                                          zena (9).
Spoonbill, Roseate, Ajaia ajaja (10)...  Spoonbill, Roseate, Platalea
                                          ajaja (10).
Starling, Violet-backed, Sturnus         Starling, Chestnut-cheeked,
 philippensis (9).                        Sturnus philippensis (9).
Starling, Ashy, Sturnus cineraceus (9).  Starling, White-cheeked,
                                          Sturnus cineraceus (9).
                                         Stilt, Black-winged, Himantopus
                                          himantopus (3).
Stint, Rufous-necked, Calidris           Stint, Red-necked, Calidris
 ruficollis (9).                          ruficollis (9).
                                         Stonechat, Saxicola torquatus
                                         Storm-Petrel, Black-bellied,
                                          Fregetta tropica (3).
                                         Storm-Petrel, Matsudaira's,
                                          Oceanodroma matsudairae (5).
                                         Storm-Petrel, Polynesian,
                                          Nesofregata fuliginosa (5).
                                         Storm-Petrel, Ringed,
                                          Oceanodroma hornbyi (3).
Storm-Petrel, Sooty, Oceanodroma         Storm-Petrel, Tristram's,
 tristrami (9).                           Oceanodroma tristrami (9).
                                         Storm-Petrel, White-bellied,
                                          Fregetta grallaria (5).
Swallow, Cave, Hirundo fulva (10)......  Swallow, Cave, Petrochelidon
                                          fulva (10).
Swallow, Cliff, Hirundo pyrrhonota (10)  Swallow, Cliff, Petrochelidon
                                          pyrrhonota (10).
                                         Swallow, Mangrove, Tachycineta
                                          albilinea (3).
                                         Swamphen, Purple, Porphyrio
                                          porphyrio (5).
                                         Swift, Alpine, Apus melba (3).
Swift, Antillean Palm, Tachornis         [see Palm-Swift, Antillean].
 phoenicobia (9).
                                         Swift, Short-tailed, Chaetura
                                          brachyura (2).
                                         Swiftlet, Mariana, Aerodramus
                                          bartschi (5).
                                         Swiftlet, White-rumped,
                                          Aerodramus spodiopygius (5).
                                         Tanager, Flame-colored, Piranga
                                          bidentata (3).
Tanager, Stripe-headed, Spindalis zena   [see Spindalis, Western].
Tattler, Gray-tailed, Heteroscelus       Tattler, Gray-tailed, Tringa
 brevipes (10).                           brevipes (10).
Tattler, Wandering, Heteroscelus         Tattler, Wandering, Tringa
 incanus (10).                            incana (10).
Teal, Falcated, Anas falcata (9).......  [see Duck, Falcated].
Tern, Aleutian, Sterna aleutica (10)...  Tern, Aleutian, Onychoprion
                                          aleuticus (10).
Tern, Bridled, Sterna anaethetus (10)..  Tern, Bridled, Onychoprion
                                          anaethetus (10).
Tern, Caspian, Sterna caspia (10)......  Tern, Caspian, Hydroprogne
                                          caspia (10).
Tern, Elegant, Sterna elegans (10).....  Tern, Elegant, Thalasseus
                                          elegans (10).
Tern, Gray-backed, Sterna lunata (10)..  Tern, Gray-backed, Onychoprion
                                          lunatus (10).
                                         Tern, Great Crested, Thalasseus
                                          bergii (3).
Tern, Gull-billed, Sterna nilotica (10)  Tern, Gull-billed, Gelochelidon
                                          nilotica (10).
                                         Tern, Large-billed, Phaetusa
                                          simplex (2).
Tern, Least, Sterna antillarum (10)....  Tern, Least, Sternula
                                          antillarum (10).
Tern, Little, Sterna albifrons (10)....  Tern, Little, Sternula
                                          albifrons (10).
Tern, Royal, Sterna maxima (10)........  Tern, Royal, Thalasseus maximus

[[Page 9294]]

Tern, Sandwich, Sterna sandvicensis      Tern, Sandwich, Thalasseus
 (10).                                    sandvicensis (10).
Tern, Sooty, Sterna fuscata (10).......  Tern, Sooty, Onychoprion
                                          fuscatus (10).
                                         Tern, Whiskered, Chlidonias
                                          hybrida (3).
Thrasher, Crissal, Toxostoma dorsale     Thrasher, Crissal, Toxostoma
 (10).                                    crissale (10).
                                         Thrush, Bicknell's, Catharus
                                          bicknelli (6).
Thrush, Eye-browed, Turdus obscurus (9)  Thrush, Eyebrowed, Turdus
                                          obscurus (9).
Thrush, Hawaiian, Phaeornis obscurus     [see Omao].
Thrush, Small Kauai, Phaeornis palmeri   [see Puaiohi].
Thrush, Wood, Hylocichla minima (12)...  Thrush, Wood, Hylocichla
                                          mustelina (12).
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus (11)......  [see Chickadee, Gray-headed].
                                         Titmouse, Black-crested,
                                          Baeolophus atricristatus (6).
Titmouse, Bridled, Parus wollweberi      Titmouse, Bridled, Baeolophus
 (10).                                    wollweberi (10).
                                         Titmouse, Juniper, Baeolophus
                                          ridgwayi (6).
Titmouse, Plain, Parus inornatus (11)..  Titmouse, Oak, Baeolophus
                                          inornatus (11).
Titmouse, Tufted, Parus bicolor (10)...  Titmouse, Tufted, Baeolophus
                                          bicolor (10).
                                         Tityra, Masked, Tityra
                                          semifasciata (3).
                                         Towhee, California, Pipilo
                                          crissalis (6).
Towhee, Brown, Pipilo fuscus (9).......  Towhee, Canyon, Pipilo fuscus
Towhee, Rufous-sided, Pipilo             Towhee, Eastern, Pipilo
 erythrophthalmus (9).                    erythrophthalmus (9).
                                         Towhee, Spotted, Pipilo
                                          maculatus (6).
Tree-Pipit, Olive, Anthus hodgsoni (9).  [see Pipit, Olive-backed].
Trogon, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus (9).  [see Quetzel, Eared].
                                         Turtle-Dove, Oriental,
                                          Streptopelia orientalis (3).
Vireo, Solitary, Vireo solitarius (9)..  Vireo, Blue-headed, Vireo
                                          solitarius (9).
                                         Vireo, Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
                                         Vireo, Plumbeous, Vireo
                                          plumbeus (6).
                                         Vireo, Thick-billed, Vireo
                                          crassirostris (2).
                                         Vireo, Yellow-green, Vireo
                                          flavoviridis (6).
                                         Vireo, Yucatan, Vireo magister
Wagtail, Black-backed, Motacilla lugens  Wagtail, Citrine, Motacilla
 (8).                                     citreola (3).
Wagtail, Yellow, Motacilla flava (7)...  [see Wagtail, Eastern Yellow].
                                         Wagtail, Eastern Yellow,
                                          Motacilla tschutschensis (6).
                                         Warbler, Crescent-chested,
                                          Parula superciliosa (3).
                                         Warbler, Dusky, Phylloscopus
                                          fuscatus (2).
Warbler, Elfin Woods, Dendroica angelae  Warbler, Elfin-woods, Dendroica
 (9).                                     angelae (9).
                                         Warbler, Fan-tailed, Euthlypis
                                          lachrymosa (2).
                                         Warbler, Lanceolated,
                                          Locustella lanceolata (3).
                                         Warbler, Wood, Phylloscopus
                                          sibilatrix (2).
                                         Warbler, Yellow-browed,
                                          Phylloscopus inornatus (3).
Warbler, Worm-eating, Helmitheros        Warbler, Worm-eating,
 vermivora (10).                          Helmitheros vermivorum (10).
                                         Whitethroat, Lesser, Sylvia
                                          curruca (3).
Willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus      Willet, Tringa semipalmata
 (10).                                    (10).
                                         Woodpecker, American Three-
                                          toed, Picoides dorsalis (6).
                                         Woodpecker, Arizona, Picoides
                                          arizonae (6).
                                         Woodpecker, Great Spotted,
                                          Dendrocopos major (3).
Woodpecker, Lewis', Melanerpes lewis     Woodpecker, Lewis's, Melanerpes
 (9).                                     lewis (9).
Woodpecker, Strickland's, Picoides       [see Woodpecker, Arizona].
 stricklandi (7).
Woodpecker, Three-toed, Picoides         [see Woodpecker, American Three-
 tridactylis (7).                         toed].

How Do the Changes Implemented Here Differ From Those Discussed in the 
Proposed Rule?

    (1) Three species are added to category 2:

Tern, Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex;
Warbler, Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus; and
Warbler, Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix.

    (2) Six species are added to category 3:

Falcon, Red-footed, Falco vespertinus;
Golden-Plover, European, Pluvialis apricaria;
Storm-Petrel, Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi;
Warbler, Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata;
Warbler, Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus; and
Whitethroat, Lesser, Sylvia curruca.

    (3) A new category 4 is created and 24 species are added to this 

Akekee, Loxops caeruleirostris;
Akepa, Loxops coccineus;
Akialoa, Greater, Hemignathus ellisianus;
Akiapolaau, Hemignathus munroi;
Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi;
Akohekohe, Palmeria dole;
Alauahio, Maui, Paroreomyza montana;
Alauahio, Oahu, Paroreomyza maculate;
Amakihi, Hawaii, Hemignathus virens;
Amakihi, Kauai, Hemignathus kauaiensis;
Amakihi, Oahu, Hemignathus flavus;
Anianiau, Magumma parva;
Apapane, Himatione sanguinea;
Creeper, Hawaii, Oreomystis mana;
Finch, Laysan, Telespiza cantans;
Finch, Nihoa, Telespiza ultima;
Iiwi, Vestiaria coccinea;
Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea;
Millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris;
Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus;
Ou, Psittirostra psittacea;
Palila, Loxioides bailleui;
Parrotbill, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys; and
Poo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma.

    (4) One species is added to category 5:

Reed-Warbler, Nightingale, Acrocephalus luscinia

    (5) One species is removed from category 6:

Goose, Cackling, Branta hutchinsii. Recognition as a separate species 
deferred and will remain as subspecies of Branta canadensis, Canada 

[[Page 9295]]

    (6) One species is added to category 6:

Bean-Goose, Tundra, Anser serrirostris.

    (7) One species deleted from category 7 is reinstated:

Kingbird, Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus.

    (8) The common name of one species is changed (category 9):

Goose, Bean, Anser fabalis, becomes Bean-Goose, Taiga.

    (9) The scientific name of four species is changed (category 3, 
category 10):

Gull, Yellow-legged, Larus cachinnans becomes Larus michahellis;
Kingfisher, Belted, Ceryle alcyon becomes Megaceryle alcyon;
Kingfisher, Ringed, Ceryle torquatus becomes Megaceryle torquata; and
Hummingbird, Antillean Crested, Orthorhynchus cristatus becomes 
Orthorhyncus cristatus.

    (10) The scientific names of six species spelled erroneously in the 
proposed rule are corrected to conform to the AOU Check-list (1998) and 

Bunting, Reed, Emberiza schoeniculus becomes Emberiza schoeniclus;
Flycatcher, Social, Myiozetetes similes becomes Myiozetetes similes;
Owl, Snowy, Bubo scandiaca becomes Bubo scandiacus;
Pewee, Cuban, Contopus caribeaus becomes Contopus caribaeus;
Tanager, Puerto Rican, Neospingus speculiferus becomes Nesospingus 
speculiferus; and
Warbler, Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorus becomes Helmitheros 

    (11) Other editorial changes:

Crake, Paint-billed (category 2)--Louisiana is deleted from, and 
Virginia added to, the known range;
Ground-Dove, White-throated (category 5)--American Samoa is deleted 
from, and Guam and the Northern Marianas are added to, the known range;
Gull, Kelp (category 3)--Indiana and Texas are added to the known 
Murrelet, Long-billed--moved from category 3 to category 6;
Shrike, Brown (category 2)--California is added to the known range;
Storm-Petrel, Ringed (category 2)--Alaska is deleted from, and 
California added to, the known range; and
the family Cathartidae, and its included species, is moved from the 
Ciconiiformes to the beginning of the Falconiformes, as they were on 
the 1985 list.

How Is the List of Migratory Birds Organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: Alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, 
species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific 
name of each species following the English group name. This format, 
similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to 
members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed 
in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, 
we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, 
and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOU 
(1998, 2004) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What Species Are Not Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The MBTA does not apply to:
    (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or its 
territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance 
that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or 
Russian Conventions, in accordance with the MBTRA. See 70 FR 12710 
(March 15, 2005) for a partial list of nonnative human-introduced bird 
species in this category. Note, though, that native species that are 
introduced into parts of the United States where they are not native 
are still protected under the MBTA regardless of where they occur in 
the U.S. or its territories.
    (2) Nonnative human-introduced species that belong to families or 
groups not covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, 
including Tinamidae (tinamous), Cracidae (chachalacas), Megapodiidae 
(megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Turnicidae 
(buttonquails), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Pteroclididae 
(sandgrouse), Psittacidae (parrots), Dicruridae (drongos), 
Rhamphastidae (toucans), Musophagidae (turacos), Bucerotidae 
(hornbills), Bucorvidae (ground-hornbills), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), 
Pittidae (pittas), Irenidae (fairy-bluebirds), Timaliidae (babblers), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings; except as listed in 
the Japanese Convention), Passeridae (Old World sparrows), Ploceidae 
(weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and numerous other families 
not currently represented in the United States or its territories.
    (3) Native species that belong to families or groups represented in 
the United States, but which are not expressly mentioned by the 
Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, including the Megapodiidae 
(megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), 
Odontophoridae (New World quail), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae 
(pratincoles), Psittacidae (parrots), Todidae (todies), Meliphagidae 
(honeyeaters), Monarchidae (monarchs), Timaliidae (wrentit), and 
Coerebidae (bananaquit). It should be noted that this rule supersedes 
the 70 FR 12710 notice to the extent that they are inconsistent. 
Specifically, the Mexican Convention lists the family Sylviidae (which 
includes and subfamily Sylviinae) and the family Fringillidae (which 
includes the subfamily Depanidinae). Thus, all members of these two 
subfamilies are now included on this list.
    Partial lists of the species included in categories 2 and 3 are 
available at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/RegulationsPolicies/

Responses to Public Comments

    On August 24, 2006, we published in the Federal Register (71 FR 
50194) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 
10.13. We solicited public comments on the proposed rule for 60 days, 
ending on October 23, 2006. The comment period was reopened on December 
14, 2006 (71 FR 75188), extending the comment period to December 29, 
2006. Any comments submitted from October 24, 2006, to the extension 
date were considered in this final rule.
    We received 69 comment letters in response to the proposed rule; 32 
letters were from 21 identified agencies, organizations, or private 
firms (includes 10 separate letters from one firm, and two from an 
organization). The following text discusses the substantive comments 
received and provides our responses to those comments.
    Comment. The American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife 
Resources, and the Office of the Governor of American Samoa objected to 
the inclusion of 14 species native to American Samoa. They argued a 
``complete absence of a scientific basis for inclusion in a treaty 
based on the concept of ``shared migratory' species'' and ``lack of 
demonstrated biological need for protection.'' They also felt that the 
Service ``did not consider the extent to which the stringent 
requirement of the new federal regulation will affect the daily 
activities of our people,'' and emphasized that ``All species proposed 
for listing are fully protected under Chapter 8, Title 24, of the 
American Samoa Administrative Code.''
    Response: We recognize and appreciate the positive steps taken by

[[Page 9296]]

the government of American Samoa to protect its native wildlife 
resources. The Service looks forward to continuing a close working 
relationship with the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, and 
pledges to consult with that agency before undertaking any action on 
any species covered by this rule that might affect the people of 
American Samoa.
    Our determination that these species merit protection under the 
MBTA is based strictly on legal, not biological, considerations. Unlike 
the Endangered Species Act, the MBTA requires no ``demonstrated 
biological need for protection.'' Furthermore, the MBTA and 
implementing regulations provide considerable flexibility for managing 
bird populations, including establishment of hunting seasons (where 
deemed appropriate), the control of nuisance bird populations, and the 
issuance of permits allowing appropriate use by humans.
    Applying the protection of the MBTA to these 14 species will not 
affect the people of American Samoa to any greater or lesser degree 
than the protection of more than 900 other species of migratory birds 
affects the residents of the other 13 territories, 50 States, and the 
District of Columbia.
    We find this action to be consistent with the protection of bird 
species native to other U.S. territories (i.e., Hawaii prior to 
Statehood, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin 
Islands) that belong to families covered by the Canadian and Mexican 
Conventions. Under those Conventions, any species that belongs to a 
covered family is protected anywhere and everywhere that it might occur 
in the U.S. and its territories, regardless of its biological or 
migratory status.
    We note that each of the 14 species added to the list from American 
Samoa belong to one of seven families expressly covered by the Canadian 
or Mexican Conventions: Anatidae (ducks), Procellariidae (petrels), 
Hydrobatidae (storm-petrels), Rallidae (rails), Columbidae (pigeons), 
Apodidae (swifts), Alcedinidae (kingfishers). Examples of related 
species from the Hawaiian Islands that have historically been protected 
under the MBTA include Hawaiian Duck, Hawaiian Petrel, Tristram's 
Storm-Petrel, and Hawaiian Coot.
    Finally, we note that several other species of birds native to 
American Samoa, notably petrels, shearwaters, tropicbirds, boobies, 
frigatebirds, shorebirds, and terns and noddies, have long been 
protected under the MBTA without presenting undue regulatory burdens on 
the government and residents of American Samoa.
    Comment. The Atlantic Flyway Council, Florida Fish and Wildlife 
Conservation Commission, South Florida Water Management District, 
Everglades National Park, and The Nature Conservancy all raised 
concerns about adding the Purple Swamphen on grounds that Federal 
protection would ``compromise efforts to remove'' this species from 
south Florida, where it has become established in recent years and is 
now viewed as an ``undesirable exotic.''
    Response: We are aware that adding the Purple Swamphen to the list 
of MBTA-protected species (because of its occurrence as a native 
species in American Samoa) will have the undesirable consequence of 
affording similar protection to the introduced population now 
established in south Florida. We agree that this species ``has the 
capacity to become a serious invasive problem.''
    Fortunately, the MBTA provides mechanisms that allow for the 
prudent management of species that are causing, or are about to cause, 
economic or ecological damage. In the case of the Purple Swamphen in 
south Florida, we believe that a depredation order targeting this 
species in selected geographic areas will address the concerns raised 
by the above agencies and organizations. Depredation orders allow 
specified species of birds to be taken at specified times and places 
and under specified conditions without need of a Federal permit; they 
are designed expressly for the types of control actions envisioned in 
this instance. The Service recognizes the urgency of the problem, and 
today has finalized a rule allowing control of Purple Swamphens 
anywhere in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, 
and the U.S. Virgin Islands that they are found.
    Comment. The Atlantic Flyway Council, Florida Fish and Wildlife 
Conservation Commission, South Carolina Department of Natural 
Resources, Texas Parks and Wildlife, Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources, Everglades National Park, The Nature Conservancy, a member 
of the Brevard County (Florida) Board of County Commissioners, and 
three residents of Palm City, Florida, expressed concerns about adding 
the Muscovy Duck because of various kinds of damages that the birds 
have been documented to inflict on private properties.
    Response: The Service has concluded that the Muscovy Duck warrants 
protection under the MBTA because of the recent northward expansion of 
wild birds into extreme south Texas, where breeding has been confirmed. 
The unfortunate consequence of this is that all Muscovy Ducks in the 
U.S., regardless of their origin and status, will also receive the 
protection of the MBTA.
    The Muscovy Duck has a long history of having been intentionally 
introduced to localities throughout the U.S. Small flocks of domestic 
or semi-domestic birds are found on farm ponds, in municipal parks, or 
in zoological parks in captive, semi-captive, and semi-wild conditions. 
Where present, these birds are largely or entirely dependent on human 
assistance for their survival, especially in the form of food handouts.
    In some parts of the southern U.S. (in Florida, especially), birds 
have escaped or been released, and have subsequently formed feral 
populations in close association with humans. In Florida, for example, 
feral populations have been confirmed breeding and have apparently been 
self-sustaining for more than 10 years, with breeding now documented in 
all 67 of Florida's counties.
    Muscovy Ducks can foul backyards, patios, swimming pools, bathing 
beaches, golf courses, and docks with their droppings. Their aggressive 
behavior can prevent landowners from using their own properties, or 
citizens from using public recreation facilities. To alleviate this 
problem, today we have revised 50 CFR part 21 to prohibit sale of 
muscovy ducks for hunting, and to authorize a depredation order 
allowing their removal without a permit in locations in which the 
species does not occur naturally in the contiguous United States, 
Alaska, and Hawaii, and in U.S. territories and possessions.
    Comment. The American Bird Conservancy and a private individual 
expressed their concern that the Hawaiian honeycreepers were excluded 
from the list. They countered the Service's justification for excluding 
this group by arguing that, ``The fact that the Drepanidinae is not 
expressly mentioned in the treaties is irrelevant because the taxonomic 
status of the group has been changed and it now falls under a family 
that is included under the MBTA, the Fringillidae.''
    Response: Species included in the subfamily Drepanidinae (which 
includes the Hawaiian honeycreepers) are added to the list under the 
family Fringillidae. This addition is consistent with the latest 
edition of the AOU Checklist of North American Birds on matters of 
taxonomy and also meets the criteria for qualifying as an MBTA-
protected species requiring that a species belongs to a family or group 
of species named in one of the MBTA's

[[Page 9297]]

underlying Conventions. In addition, Millerbird (Acrocephalus 
familiaris) and Nightingale Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia) have 
been added to the list under the Sylviidae family (subfamily 
Sylviinae), another family specifically named in the Mexican Convention 
of 1936.
    Comment. International Zoological Imports and their legal counsel 
questioned the inclusion of Eurasian Bullfinch and Hawfinch on the 
list, citing, for example, beliefs that (a) ``their geographic ranges 
lie entirely outside the United States and its territories,'' (b) they 
are ``nonnative,'' and (c) they ``have only an accidental/casual 
presence in the United States, and accidental/casual birds are not 
covered by the MBTA.''
    Response: There is ample scientific documentation of the natural 
occurrence of these species in western Alaska. Given the paucity of 
observers in western Alaska to record their presence, it seems likely 
that both species occur there annually, albeit in small numbers. 
Whether these species are regular migrants in the U.S. or merely 
vagrants is irrelevant. Vagrancy is a natural process inherent to many 
species of migratory birds and can lead to the development of regular 
migratory patterns or the establishment of new populations (such as 
those of the Cattle Egret and the Lesser Black-backed Gull). It was a 
previous unwritten FWS policy, not the language of the MBTA, that 
excluded some species of casual or accidental occurrence from inclusion 
in previous versions of 50 CFR 10.13. This policy mirrored earlier 
versions of the AOU Check-list, which flagged species of casual or 
accidental occurrence and did not treat them as regular members of the 
North American avifauna, a practice discontinued with the 5th (1957) 
edition of the Check-list. Moreover, the policy was never applied 
uniformly: A few accidental/casual species, such as the, Corn Crake and 
the Eurasian Lapwing, have long been listed in 50 CFR 10.13, though 
many others have not. We also note the precedent set by the Japanese 
and Russian Conventions, which specifically list numerous species of 
casual or accidental occurrence in the U.S., such as the Chinese Egret 
and the European Hoopoe.
    In summary, neither the MBTA nor the Conventions explicitly exclude 
any species of migratory bird because it is casual or accidental in the 
U.S. More to the point, Eurasian Bullfinch and Hawfinch are both 
specifically listed in the Japanese and Russian Conventions.
    Comment. Opposition to the addition of Common Chaffinch and 
Eurasian Siskin was received from two importers or suppliers of cage 
birds (International Pet and Supply, International Zoological Imports), 
five cage bird organizations (American Federation of Aviculture, 
Michiana Bird Society, National Cage Bird Show, National Finch and 
Softbill Society, Society of Parrot Breeders and Exhibitors), and 27 
private citizens. In support of their argument, opponents claimed that 
(a) these species are non-native to the U.S.; (b) individuals are 
present in the wild only as a result of intentional releases or 
accidental escapes from captivity, and that sightings occur especially 
near where birds are sold; (c) thousands of breeders are raising these 
birds in captivity; (d) they have been imported and sold since 1998; 
and (e) adding them to 50 CFR 10.13 will harm pet bird owners, bird 
enthusiasts, and breeders, and have a negative financial impact on the 
pet bird trade.
    Response: The Common Chaffinch is considered to be ``casual in 
northeastern North American'' south to Maine and Massachusetts, ``where 
presumably natural vagrants'' (AOU 1998), with ``about a dozen reports, 
some accepted by local bird record committees, reported between late 
September and late May, from e. Canada, New England, and New Jersey'' 
(American Birding Association 2002). It also appears on the official 
checklists of Maine (Maine Bird Records Committee 2005) and 
Massachusetts (Massachusetts Avian Records Committee 2006) as natural 
    There is one definitive specimen record (plus a sight report) of 
the Eurasian Siskin in Alaska, where considered accidental (AOU 1998). 
This species is also included on the official list of Maine birds 
(Maine Bird Records Committee 2005), apparently on the basis of a bird 
captured in 1962 that showed no signs of having been in captivity 
(Borrer 1963).
    We cannot confirm the opponents' statements that ``thousands of 
breeders are raising these birds in captivity.'' One dealer reported 
importing, purchasing, and selling ``large quantities'' of these 
species ``for the past 15 years;'' while another claimed to have 
imported more than 4,000 Common Chaffinches and 10,000 Eurasian Siskins 
in the past decade. But these claims are contradicted by one commenter 
who noted that ``these birds are bred by very few U.S. hobbyists and 
others interested in captive breeding. For instance, current available 
information reveals that in 2003 NFSS [National Finch and Softbill 
Society] annual census reported only two out of eight-hundred NFSS 
members registered working with the Common Chaffinch and the same two 
members registered working with the Eurasian Siskin.''
    It is true that there is a long history of importing and selling 
these species in the U.S. For example, over a six-year period (1969-
1974), 190 Common Chaffinches and 272 Eurasian Siskins were imported 
into the U.S. (as summarized by McLaren et al. 1989). If figures 
supplied by dealers are accurate (see preceding paragraph), then 
imports have increased substantially in recent years.
    It is also true that there have been many intentional releases or 
accidental escapes of captive individuals of these and other European 
finches into the wild, as is acknowledge by the AOU (1998) and American 
Birding Association (ABA) (2002). The most notable and recent example 
was a series of reports from throughout the Great Lakes and New England 
in spring 2004 of innumerable individuals of numerous European 
species--including Common Chaffinch and Eurasian Siskin--that had 
apparently escaped from an import facility near Chicago, Illinois 
(Dinsmore and Silcock 2004). One major importer reported the 
intentional release or accidental escape of 12,700 (15 percent) of 
82,800 individuals of 19 species from one facility during the past 
decade; this included 1,131 Common Chaffinches and 1,946 European 
    In summary, while there is documented evidence of the intentional 
release or accidental escape of caged Common Chaffinches and Eurasian 
Siskins, we also find credible evidence to support our contention that 
both species have occurred in the U.S. as natural vagrants unhindered 
by human intervention. As with the Eurasian Bullfinch and Hawfinch 
discussed above, the Common Chaffinch and Eurasian Siskin warrant 
protection under the MBTA, regardless of their status as casual or 
accidental vagrants.
    Comment. One commenter cautioned against listing cage-birds bought 
in Mexico, smuggled across the border, and released in Texas ``just to 
please those wanting to either raise funds for a refuge, or add to 
their bird life-list.'' Five species were specifically mentioned in 
this regard: Masked Tityra, Blue Mockingbird, Orange-billed 
Nightingale-Thrush, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush, and Blue Bunting.
    Response: We are keenly aware of the problems posed by the illegal 
smuggling of birds into the U.S. from Mexico. Both the AOU (1998) and 
the Texas Ornithological Society (TOS) (Lockwood et al. 2003) go to 
great lengths to investigate the origins of rare birds reported in 
Texas near the

[[Page 9298]]

Mexican border and to invalidate any records for which there is 
evidence of human intervention, such as illegal trafficking or 
smuggling. We are not aware of any evidence to suggest that the 
activities alluded to by the commenter have actually taken place. The 
U.S. birding community is relatively small, close-knit, and self-
policed, with the vast majority of birders adhering to a voluntary 
``code of ethics''. If anyone was conducting illegal activities to pad 
their life-lists or to help raise funds for a refuge, it would most 
likely become widely known and condemned. Each of the species mentioned 
by the commentator has been accepted by the AOU and TOS as valid, wild 
migrants in the U.S. As such, we deem them eligible for inclusion in 50 
CFR 10.13.
    Comment. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources indicated 
that recognition and protection of the Cackling Goose as distinct from 
the Canada Goose would create management problems, as it is probably 
unrealistic to expect hunters to be able to recognize and distinguish 
between these similar species on the wing. It was requested that the 
Service consider professional discussions that have occurred over the 
last two years.
    Response: The Service recognizes the management concerns referred 
to by the commenter, as well as the current lack of uniform agreement 
among waterfowl specialists. The Service has reviewed many of the 
professional views concerning the AOU decision to split the Canada 
Goose into two species. The AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature indicated that additional taxonomic changes may occur as a 
result of further research on Canada Goose taxonomy (AOU 2004). We will 
consider new information when it is available. As discussed in the 
rule, at this time, we will continue to include the Cackling Goose 
within the listing for the Canada Goose rather than as a separate 
    Comment. The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) complained that we 
continue to deny Federal protection to several species that are native 
to the U.S., or occur in the U.S. as natural vagrants. They 
specifically mention seven species in this regard: Oriental Pratincole, 
Green Parakeet, Puerto Rican Parrot, Red-crowned Parrot, Puerto Rican 
Tody, Wrentit, and Bananaquit.
    Response: These species do not qualify for protection under the 
MBTA because they (1) belong to families (Glareolidae, Todidae, 
Coerebidae, Psittacidae, Timaliidae, Coerebidae) not covered by either 
the Canadian or Mexican Conventions, and (2) are not specifically 
listed in either the Japanese or Russian Conventions. While this 
treatment may not be logical, as suggested by ABC, it is required by 
the language of the Conventions underlying the MBTA.
    Comment. The Pacific Flyway Council expressed confusion over the 
status of the family Timaliidae (including babblers and Wrentit), 
noting that we had listed it (71 FR 50205) both as an example of a 
nonnative human-introduced family not protected by the MBTA and also as 
an example of a native family not specifically mentioned in treaties 
with Canada, Mexico, or Russia.
    Response: The Timaliidae properly belongs in category 2 as an 
example of nonnative human-introduced species (the babblers, introduced 
to Hawaii) not protected by the MBTA. The Timaliidae also properly 
belongs in category 3 as an example of a native family and species (the 
Wrentit) not specifically mentioned in Conventions with Canada or 
Mexico. This section of the final rule has been re-written for greater 
    Comment. The Pacific Flyway Council recommended that we define 
``human introduction,'' noting that ``the issue of human-related 
introductions of species is potentially controversial, and defining the 
term in the document would clarify the Service's intent and eliminate 
the need to search for the definition elsewhere.''
    Response: We agree with the desirability of being as specific as 
possible as to what we mean by ``human introduction'' or ``human-
assisted introduction.'' Accordingly, we have added clarifying language 
to the end of the section entitled ``What Criteria Are Used to Identify 
Individual Species Protected by the MBTA?''
    Comment. One commenter noted that numerous species intentionally 
introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from the continental U.S. are now 
protected under the MBTA, even though they are nonnative (examples: 
Cattle Egret, Mourning Dove, Barn Owl, Northern Cardinal, House Finch). 
In many instances, these species are competitors for food, carriers of 
disease, and predators of native wildlife.
    Response: In contrast to the Endangered Species Act, the MBTA has 
no provision for excluding a species from protection in designated 
parts of its range. A species protected by the MBTA is protected 
anywhere and everywhere that it might occur in the U.S. or its 
territories, even in localities where they are nonnative and introduced 
by humans. That being said, we also note that the MBTA provides 
mechanisms for dealing with situations in which protected species are 
causing economic damage, creating threats to human health and safety, 
or may be having a deleterious impact on native wildlife, particularly 
through issuance of depredation permits or authorization of depredation 

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866)

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has determined that this 
rule is not significant and has reviewed it under Executive Order 
12866. OMB bases its determination upon the following four criteria:
    (a) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or 
more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, 
productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government.
    (b) Whether the rule will create inconsistencies with other Federal 
agencies' actions.
    (c) Whether the rule will materially affect entitlements, grants, 
user fees, loan programs, or the rights and obligations of their 
    (d) Whether the rule raises novel legal or policy issues.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121)), whenever an agency is required to 
publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must 
prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility 
analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., 
small businesses, small organizations, and small government 
jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required 
if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal 
agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying 
that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. A small number of caged bird 
dealers will be affected by this rule. However, we have examined this 
rule's potential effects on small entities as required by the 
Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that this action does 
not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. This

[[Page 9299]]

determination is based on the fact that we are simply updating the list 
of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions. 
Consequently, we certify that because this rule does not have a 
significant economic effect on a substantial number of small entities, 
a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required.
    This rule is not a major rule under the SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). 
It does not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small 
    a. This rule does not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 
million or more.
    b. This rule will not cause a major increase in costs or prices for 
consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government 
agencies, or geographic regions. The updating of the list of migratory 
birds does not significantly affect costs or prices in any sector of 
the economy.
    c. This rule will not have significant adverse effects on 
competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the 
ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based 

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we have determined the following:
    a. This rule does not ``significantly or uniquely'' affect small 
governments. A small government agency plan is not required. b. This 
rule does not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or greater in 
any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.


    In accordance with Executive Order 12630, the rule does not have 
significant takings implications. This rule does not contain a 
provision for taking of private property. A takings implication 
assessment is not required.


    This rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant 
preparation of a Federalism assessment under Executive Order 13132. It 
does not interfere with the States' ability to manage themselves or 
their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected to result 
from the updating of the list of migratory bird species.

Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the 
Solicitor has determined that the rule does not unduly burden the 
judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) 
of the Order.

Paperwork Reduction Act

    We examined these regulations under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 
1995. This regulations change has no direct impact on information 

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative 
in nature and does not constitute a Federal action in the context of 
NEPA it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements, as 
provided by Department of the Interior Manual 516 DM 2, Appendix 1.10.

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Ninety-six of the species on the List of Migratory Birds are also 
designated as endangered or threatened in all or some portion of their 
U.S. range under provisions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 
U.S.C. 1531, et seq.; see 50 CFR 17.11). No legal complications arise 
from the dual listing since the two lists are developed under separate 
authorities and for different purposes. Because the rule is strictly 
administrative in nature, it does not require ESA consultation.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 
addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, 
distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
Because this rule only affects the listing of protected species in the 
United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under 
Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy 
supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a 
significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is 
    Regarding Government-to-Government relationships with Tribes (59 FR 
22951) and Executive Order 13175, these revisions to existing 
regulations are purely administrative in nature. They will have no 
effect on Federally recognized Tribes or Tribal trust resources.

References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available upon request 
(see ADDRESSES above).

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 

Regulation Promulgation

For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we amend title 50, chapter 
I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as 


1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 703-712; 16 U.S.C. 668a-d; 
19 U.S.C. 1202; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407; 
16 U.S.C. 742a-742j-l; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.-q4
2. Revise Sec.  10.13 to read as follows:

Sec.  10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

    (a) Legal authority for this list. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
(MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 
1978, 16 U.S.C. 712, and 16 U.S.C. 742a-j. The MBTA implements 
Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries 
for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds, 
August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 
Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628, as amended;
    (2) Mexico: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States 
(=Mexico), 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912, as amended;
    (3) Japan: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 
United States-Japan, 25 U.S.T. 3329, T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and
    (4) Russia: Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Birds and 
Their Environment, United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
(=Russia), November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073, 16 U.S.C. 
703, 712.
    (b) Purpose of this list. The purpose is to inform the public of 
the species protected by regulations designed to enforce the terms of 
the MBTA. These regulations, found in parts 10, 20, and 21 of this 
chapter, cover most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, 
sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory 
    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species 
protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the 
varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and taxonomically in

[[Page 9300]]

paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally 
follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-
list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2007). For 
species not treated by the AOU Check-list, we generally follow Monroe 
and Sibley's A World Checklist of Birds (1993).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name. It is possible that alphabetical listing by 
common group names may create confusion in those few instances in which 
the common (English) name of a species has changed. The species 
formerly known as the Falcated Teal, for example, is now known as the 
Falcated Duck. To prevent confusion, the alphabetical list has two 
entries for Falcated Duck: ``DUCK, Falcated'' and ``[TEAL, Falcated 
(see DUCK, Falcated)].'' Other potential ambiguities are treated in the 
same way.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
AKEKEE, Loxops caeruleirostris
AKEPA, Loxops coccineus
AKIALOA, Greater, Hemignathus ellisianus
AKIAPOLAAU, Hemignathus munroi
AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi
AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei
ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana
    Oahu, Paroreomyza maculata
ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris
    Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Shy, Thalassarche cauta
    Wandering, Diomedea exulans
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Hemignathus virens
    Kauai, Hemignathus kauaiensis
    Oahu, Hemignathus flavus
ANIANIAU, Magumma parva
APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
[BARN-OWL, Common (see OWL, Barn)]
BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis
    Tundra, Anser serrirostris
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis
    [Chinese (see Yellow)]
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACK-HAWK, Common, Buteogallus anthracinus
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus
BLUETHROAT, Luscinia svecica
BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
BOOBY, Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Loxigilla portoricensis
BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina
    Gray, Emberiza variabilis
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Little, Emberiza pusilla
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
    Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola
    Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
    Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis
CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris
    Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonica
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cincta
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Caprimulgus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Caribbean, Fulica caribaea
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    [Olivaceous (see Neotropic)]
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops
    Spotless, Porzana tabuensis
    Yellow-breasted, Porzana flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Grus canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
    Hawaii, Oreomystis mana
CROSSBILL, Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
    [Mexican (see Tamaulipas)]
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus optatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Eurasian, Numenius arquata
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    [Least (see Little)]

[[Page 9301]]

    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Falcated, Anas falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Muscovy, Cairina moschata
    Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Spot-billed, Anas poecilorhyncha
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia
    Little, Egretta garzetta
    [Plumed (see Intermediate)]
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
    Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
    Red-Footed, Falco vespertinus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Carpodacus cassinii
    House, Carpodacus mexicanus
    Laysan, Telespiza cantans
    Nihoa, Telespiza ultima
    Purple, Carpodacus purpureus
    [Rosy (see ROSY-FINCH)]
FLAMINGO, Greater, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    [Gray-spotted (see Gray-streaked)]
    Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Piratic, Legatus leucophalus
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Social, Myiozetetes similis
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
    Variegated, Empidonomus varius
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    [Western (see Cordilleran and Pacific-slope)]
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FROG-HAWK, Gray, Accipiter soloensis
FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
    Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii
    Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Anas strepera
GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris
    Purple, Porphyrio martinica
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Anas querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    European, Pluvialis apricaria
    [Lesser (see American)]
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDFINCH, American, Carduelis tristis
    Lawrence's, Carduelis lawrencei
    Lesser, Carduelis psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    [Bean, (see BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga)]
    Canada, Branta canadensis (including Cackling Goose, Branta 
    Emperor, Chen canagica
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus
    Ross's, Chen rossii
    Snow, Chen caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Carduelis sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
    Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Passerina caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina
    Friendly, Gallicolumba stairi
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
    White-throated, Gallicolumba xanthonura
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
    Black-headed, Larus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Larus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    [Common Black-headed (see Black-headed)]
    Franklin's, Larus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Gray-hooded, Larus cirrocephalus
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea

[[Page 9302]]

    Kelp, Larus dominicanus
    Laughing, Larus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Larus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Thayer's, Larus thayeri
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
    Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus cyaneus
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
HAWK, [Asiatic Sparrow (see SPARROWHAWK, Japanese)]
    Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo nitidus
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Roadside, Buteo magnirostris
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Buteo albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Cuculus fugax
[HAWK-OWL, Northern (see OWL, Northern Hawk)]
HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    [Green-backed (see Green)]
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    [Pacific Reef (see REEF-EGRET, Pacific)]
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa
    Calliope, Stellula calliope
    Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Magnificent, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
    Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
IIWI, Vestiaria coccinea
IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Cyanocorax morio
    Gray, Perisoreus canadensis
    [Gray-breasted (see Mexican)]
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma ultramarina
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    [Scrub (see SCRUB-JAY)]
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
KAKAWAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea
KAMAO, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Belted, Megaceryle alcyon
    Collared, Todirhamphus chloris
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Micronesian, Todirhamphus cinnamominus
    Ringed, Megaceryle torquata
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, [American Swallow-tailed (see Swallow-tailed)]
    Black, Milvus migrans
    [Black-shouldered (see White-tailed)]
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
    Sky, Alauda arvensis
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Calcarius mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
    Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii
MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
    Southern, Progne elegans
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta
MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris
MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii
    Blue, Melanotis caerulescens
    Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Xantus's, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi
    [Malay (see Malayan)]
    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus
    Orange-billed, Catharus

[[Page 9303]]

NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Caprimulgus ridgwayi
    Gray, Caprimulgus indicus
    [Jungle (see Gray)]
    Puerto Rican, Caprimulgus noctitherus
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Procelsterna cerulea
    Brown, Anous stolidus
    [Lesser (see Black)]
NUKUPUU, Hemignathus lucidus
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
[OLDSQUAW (see DUCK, Long-tailed)]
OLOMAO, Myadestes lanaiensis
OMAO, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    [Black-cowled (see Greater Antillean)]
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Greater Antillean, Icterus dominicensis
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    [Northern (see Baltimore and Bullock's)]
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
OU, Psittirostra psittacea
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Otus flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Bubo scandiacus
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
    Stygian, Asio stygius
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
    Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus
PALILA, Loxioides bailleui
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys
PARULA, Northern, Parula americana
    Tropical, Parula pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    [Dark-rumped (see Hawaiian)]
    Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera
    Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera
    Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis
    Herald, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Phoenix, Pterodroma alba
    Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris
    Tahiti, Pterodroma rostrata
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
    [White-necked, Pterodroma externa (see Petrel, Juan Fernandez)]
PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata
    Plain, Patagioenas inornata
    Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa
    White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree, Anthus trivialis
    [Water (see American)]
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Collared, Charadrius collaris
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    [Great Sand (see Sand-Plover, Greater)]
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    [Mongolian (see Sand-Plover, Lesser)]
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
POO-ULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
QUETZEL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus
RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis
    Clapper, Rallus longirostris
    Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
    King, Rallus elegans
    Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Carduelis flammea
    Hoary, Carduelis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
[REED-BUNTING, Common (see BUNTING, Reed)]
    [Pallas' (see BUNTING, Pallas's)]
REED-WARBLER, Nightingale, Acrocephalus luscinia
REEF-EGRET, Pacific, Egretta sacra
REEF-HERON, Western, Egretta gularis
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
    Siberian Blue, Luscinia cyane
    White-throated, Turdus assimilis
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
ROSY-FINCH, Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Luscinia calliope
RUFF, Philomachus pugnax
SANDERLING, Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Limicola falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Tryngites subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Green, Tringa ochropus

[[Page 9304]]

    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata
    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    [Spoonbill (see Spoon-billed)]
    Spoon-billed, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus
    Spotted, Actitis macularius
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Lesser, Charadrius mongolus
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta nigra
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio
    Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes
    Western, Megascops kennicottii
    Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Western, Aphelocoma californica
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, White-collared, Sporophila torqueola
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Buller's, Puffinus bulleri
    Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Puffinus carneipes
    Greater, Puffinus gravis
    Little, Puffinus assimilis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Pink-footed, Puffinus creatopus
    Short-tailed, Puffinus tenuirostris
    Sooty, Puffinus griseus
    Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas
    Townsend's, Puffinus auricularis
    Wedge-tailed, Puffinus pacificus
SHOVELER, Northern, Anas clypeata
SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius excubitor
SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptilogonys cinereus
SISKIN, Eurasian, Carduelis spinus
    Pine, Carduelis pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
[SKYLARK, Eurasian (see LARK, Sky)]
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago (rare in western Alaska; also see 
SNIPE, Wilson's)
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
    Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (the ``common'' snipe hunted in most 
of the U.S.)
SOLITAIRE, Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizella arborea
    Bachman's, Aimophila aestivalis
    Baird's, Ammodramus bairdii
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Aimophila botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Aimophila cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Aimophila quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Ammodramus henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    Le Conte's, Ammodramus leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Aimophila carpalis
    Sage, Amphispiza belli
    Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammodramus maritimus
    [Sharp-tailed (see Nelson's Sharp-tailed and Saltmarsh Sharp-
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis
    Western, Spindalis zena
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja
STARLING, [Ashy (see White-cheeked)]
    Chestnut-cheeked, Sturnus philippensis
    [Violet-backed (see Chestnut-cheeked)]
    White-cheeked, Sturnus cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
    Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    [Rufous-necked (see Red-necked)]
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae
    Polynesian, Nesofregata fuliginosa
    Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi
    [Sooty (see Tristram's)]
    Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Aphriza virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba
    [Antillean Palm (see PALM-SWIFT, Antillean)]
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi
    White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata

[[Page 9305]]

    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    [Stripe-headed (see SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican and Western)]
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes
    Wandering, Tringa incana
TEAL, Baikal, Anas formosa
    Blue-winged, Anas discors
    Cinnamon, Anas cyanoptera
    [Falcated (see DUCK, Falcated)]
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus
    Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Thalasseus elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus
    Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii
    Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica
    Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex
    Least, Sternula antillarum
    Little, Sternula albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Thalleseus maximus
    Sandwich, Thalleseus sandvicensis
    Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus
    Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    Le Conte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Blue Rock, Monticola solitarius
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    [Hawaiian (see KAMAO, OLOMAO, and OMAO)]
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus
    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    [Small Kauai (see PUAIOHI)]
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
    [TIT, Siberian (see CHICKADEE, Gray-headed)]
TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus
    Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    [Plain (see Juniper and Oak)]
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata
TOWHEE, Abert's, Pipilo aberti
    [Brown (see California and Canyon)]
    California, Pipilo crissalis
    Canyon, Pipilo fuscus
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    [Rufous-sided (see Eastern and Spotted)]
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
[TREE-PIPIT, Olive (see PIPIT, Olive-backed)]
TROGON, [Eared (see QUETZEL, Eared)]
    Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLET-EAR, Green, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapillus
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    [Solitary (see Blue-headed, Cassin's, and Plumbeous)]
    Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
    Yucatan, Vireo magister
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, [Black-backed (see White)]
    Citrine, Motacilla citreola
    Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
    [Yellow (see Eastern Yellow)]
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Dendroica adelaidae
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Black-throated Blue, Dendroica caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Dendroica nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Dendroica virens
    Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca
    Blackpoll, Dendroica striata
    Blue-winged, Vermivora pinus
    Canada, Wilsonia canadensis
    Cape May, Dendroica tigrina
    Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica
    Colima, Vermivora crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Crescent-chested, Parula superciliosa
    Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus
    Elfin-woods, Dendroica angelae
    Fan-tailed, Euthlypis lachrymosa
    Golden-cheeked, Dendroica chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Dendroica graciae
    Hermit, Dendroica occidentalis
    Hooded, Wilsonia citrina
    Kentucky, Oporornis formosus
    Kirtland's, Dendroica kirtlandii
    Lanceolated, Locustella lanceoloata
    Lucy's, Vermivora luciae
    MacGillivray's, Oporornis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia
    Mourning, Oporornis philadelphia
    Nashville, Vermivora ruficapilla
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Vermivora celata
    Palm, Dendroica palmarum
    Pine, Dendroica pinus
    Prairie, Dendroica discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Vermivora peregrina
    Townsend's, Dendroica townsendi
    Virginia's, Vermivora virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla
    Wood, Phylloscopus siilatrix
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum
    Yellow, Dendroica petechia
    Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus
    Yellow-rumped, Dendroica coronata
    Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Seiurus motacilla
    Northern, Seiurus noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Caprimulgus vociferus
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca

[[Page 9306]]

WIGEON, American, Anas americana
    Eurasian, Anas penelope
WILLET, Tringa semipalmata
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis
    Arizona, Picoides arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Picoides pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major
    Hairy, Picoides villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Picoides scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Picoides nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Picoides borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    [Strickland's (see Arizona)]
    [Three-toed (see American Three-toed)]
    White-headed, Picoides albolarvatus
WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Winter, Troglodytes troglodytes
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence 
by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the 
scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list 
the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.

    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
    Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose
    Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose
    Chen canagica, Emperor Goose
    Chen caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Chen rossii, Ross's Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose (including Branta hutchinsii, 
Cackling Goose)
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
Subfamily ANATINAE
    Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Anas strepera, Gadwall
    Anas falcata, Falcated Duck
    Anas penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Anas americana, American Wigeon
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas poecilorhyncha, Spot-billed Duck
    Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck
    Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Anas cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal
    Anas clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas querquedula, Garganey
    Anas formosa, Baikal Teal
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta nigra, Black Scoter
    Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon
    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe
    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Thalassarche cauta, Shy Albatross
    Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross
    Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross
    Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's

[[Page 9307]]

    Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel
    Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel
    Pterodroma rostrata, Tahiti Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel
    Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater
    Puffinus creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus gravis, Greater Shearwater
    Puffinus pacificus, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Puffinus griseus, Sooty Shearwater
    Puffinus tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus auricularis, Townsend's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus assimilis, Little Shearwater
    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Nesofregetta fuiginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel
    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird
    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
    Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga
    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern
    Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Mesophoyx intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta garzetta, Little Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Egret
    Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron
    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis
    Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill
    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork
    Phoenicopterus ruber, Greater Flamingo
    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor
    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Circus cyaneus, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter soloensis, Gray Frog-Hawk
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Buteo magnirostris, Roadside Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo nitidus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle

[[Page 9308]]

    Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon
    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon
    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail
    Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus longirostris, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake
    Porzana flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake
    Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail
    Porphyrio martinica, Purple Gallinule
    Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen
    Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule
    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
    Fulica caribaea, Caribbean Coot
    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin
    Grus canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane
    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover
    Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel
    Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher
    Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet
    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper
    Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank
    Tringa semipalmata, Willet
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Aphriza virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Spoon-billed Sandpiper
    Limicola falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Philomachus pugnax, Ruff
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe (the ``common'' snipe hunted in 
most of the U.S.)
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe (rare in western Alaska; also see 
Gallinago delicata)
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope
Subfamily LARINAE
    Larus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Larus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus minutus, Little Gull
    Larus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Larus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull
    Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull

[[Page 9309]]

    Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull
    Larus thayeri, Thayer's Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Procelsterna cerulea, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern
    Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern
    Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern
    Sternula albifrons, Little Tern
    Sternula antillarum, Least Tern
    Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern
    Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias hybridus, Whiskered Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern
    Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern
    Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer
    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
    Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
    Gallicolumba xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove
    Gallicolumba stairi, Friendly Ground-Dove
    Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
    Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon
    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Cuculus fugax, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo
    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani
    Tyto alba, Barn Owl
    Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl
    Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio stygius, Stygian Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl
    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Caprimulgus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar

[[Page 9310]]

    Caprimulgus vociferus, Whip-poor-will
    Caprimulgus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Caprimulgus indicus, Gray Nightjar
    Cypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet
    Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet
Subfamily APODINAE
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Apus melba, Alpine Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift
    Colibri thalassinus, Green Violet-ear
    Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Eugenes fulgens, Magnificent Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Stellula calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird
    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzel
    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe
    Todirhamphus cinnamominus, Micronesian Kingfisher
    Todirhamphus chloris, Collared Kingfisher
    Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher
Subfamily JYNGINAE
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
Subfamily PICINAE
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker
    Picoides scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Picoides nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Picoides villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Picoides arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Picoides borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Picoides albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
    Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee
    Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher

[[Page 9311]]

    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Legatus leucophalus, Piratic Flycatcher
    Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
    Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra
    Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike
    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius excubitor, Northern Shrike
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo atricapillus, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo
    Perisoreus canadensis, Gray Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Cyanocorax morio, Brown Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, Western Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma ultramarina, Mexican Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven
    Alauda arvensis, Sky Lark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark
    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Progne elegans, Southern Martin
    Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin
    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonica, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cincta, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse
    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin
    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit
Subfamily SITTINAE
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch
    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes troglodytes, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren
    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler
    Acrocephalus luscinia, Nightingale Reed-Warbler
    Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler
    Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler
    Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed

[[Page 9312]]

    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher
    Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher
    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher
    Luscinia calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Luscinia svecica, Bluethroat
    Luscinia cyane, Siberian Blue Robin
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock Thrush
    Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, Kamao
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao
    Myadestes obscurus, Omao
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Robin
    Turdus assimilis, White-throated Robin
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush
    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
    Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird
    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, Le Conte's Thrasher
    Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher
    Sturnus philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Sturnus cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling
    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor
    Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit
    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
    Ptilogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler
    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora pinus, Blue-winged Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler
    Vermivora peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Vermivora celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Vermivora ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Vermivora virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Vermivora crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Vermivora luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Parula superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler
    Parula americana, Northern Parula
    Parula pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Dendroica nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Dendroica chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Dendroica virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Dendroica townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Dendroica occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Dendroica fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Dendroica dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Dendroica graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Dendroica adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler
    Dendroica kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Dendroica palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Dendroica castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Dendroica angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird
    Seiurus noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Seiurus motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Oporornis formosus, Kentucky Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Oporornis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Wilsonia canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
    Euthlypis lachrymosa, Fan-tailed Warbler
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler

[[Page 9313]]

    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
    Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia
    Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater
    Tiaris olivacea, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
    Pipilo fuscus, Canyon Towhee
    Pipilo crissalis, California Towhee
    Pipilo aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Aimophila carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Aimophila cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Aimophila aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Aimophila botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Aimophila quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Spizella arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Amphispiza belli, Sage Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Ammodramus bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Ammodramus henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammodramus leconteii, Le Conte's Sparrow
    Ammodramus nelsoni, Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus caudacutus, Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Calcarius mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting
    Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting
    Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting
    Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting
    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting
    Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus dominicensis, Greater Antillean Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole
    Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling
    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch
    Carpodacus cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Carpodacus mexicanus, House Finch
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Carduelis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Carduelis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Carduelis spinus, Eurasian Siskin
    Carduelis pinus, Pine Siskin
    Carduelis psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Carduelis lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Carduelis tristis, American Goldfinch
    Carduelis sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch
    Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch

[[Page 9314]]

    Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch
    Psittirostra psittacea, Ou
    Loxioides bailleui, Palila
    Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill
    Hemignathus virens, Hawaii Amakihi
    Hemignathus flavus, Oahu Amakihi
    Hemignathus kauaiensis, Kauai Amakihi
    Hemignathus ellisianus, Greater Akialoa
    Hemignathus lucidus, Nukupuu
    Hemignathus munroi, Akiapolaau
    Magumma parva, Anianiau
    Oreomystis bairdi, Akikiki
    Oreomystis mana, Hawaii Creeper
    Paroreomyza maculata, Oahu Alauahio
    Paroreomyza flammea, Kakawahie
    Paroreomyza montana, Maui Alauahio
    Loxops caeruleirostris, Akekee
    Loxops coccineus, Akepa
    Vestiaria coccinea, Iiwi
    Palmeria dolei, Akohekohe
    Himatione sanguinea, Apapane
    Melamprosops phaeosoma, Poo-uli

    Dated: February 3, 2010.
Thomas L. Strickland,
Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
[FR Doc. 2010-3294 Filed 2-26-10; 8:45 am]