[Federal Register: August 24, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 164)]
[Proposed Rules]               
[Page 50193-50221]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]

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Part III

Department of the Interior


Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Part 10

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Proposed Rule

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Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

RIN 1018-AB72

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to revise the 
List of Migratory Birds by adding numerous species and removing 
numerous species. Reasons for the proposed changes to the list include 
correcting previous mistakes including misspellings, adding species 
based on new evidence of occurrence in the United States or U.S. 
territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the 
United States, and changing names based on new taxonomy. The net 
increase of 140 species (152 added and 12 removed) brings to 972 the 
total number of species protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
(MBTA). We regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, 
transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of 
migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected 
by the MBTA is essential for regulatory purposes.

DATES: Submit comments on or before October 23, 2006.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments on this proposal in one of the 
following ways:
    (1) By postal mail to Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop 
4107, Arlington, VA 22203.
    (2) By hand-delivery to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of 
Migratory Bird Management, 4501 North Fairfax Drive, Room 4000, 
Arlington, VA 22203. You can also examine materials available for 
public inspection at this address;
    (3) By fax to (703) 358-2272; or
    (4) By e-mail to mbtabirdlist@fws.gov.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John L. Trapp, (703) 358-1714.


What Statutory Authority Does the Service Have for This Rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-711), the Fish and 
Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 712), and the Fish and 
Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-j). The MBTA implements treaties 
between the United States and four neighboring countries for the 
protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds, 
August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 
Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628;
    (2) Mexico: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States 
(=Mexico), 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912;
    (3) Japan: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 
United States-Japan, 25 U.S.T. 3329, T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and
    (4) Russia: Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Birds and 
Their Environment, United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
(=Russia), November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073.

What Is the Purpose of This Rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by 
regulations implementing the MBTA. These regulations are found in Title 
50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 10, 20, and 21. We 
regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, 
purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An 
accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is 
essential for regulatory purposes.

Why Is This Amendment to the List of Migratory Birds Necessary?

    The proposed amendment is needed to: (1) Add 2 species covered by 
the Japanese and Russian treaties that were mistakenly omitted from 
previous lists; (2) add 26 species of accidental or casual occurrence 
documented prior to April 1985, but not included in prior lists; (3) 
add 60 species based on new distributional records documenting their 
occurrence in the United States since April 1985; (4) add 27 species 
that occur naturally in the United States only in the Pacific island 
territories of American Samoa, Baker and Howland Islands, Guam, or the 
Northern Mariana Islands; (5) add 37 species newly recognized as a 
result of taxonomic changes; (6) remove 11 species not known to occur 
within the boundaries of the United States; (7) remove 1 species that 
is now treated as a subspecies; (8) change the common (English) names 
of 47 species to conform with accepted usage; (9) change the scientific 
names of 64 species to conform with accepted usage; (10) change the 
common and scientific names of 7 species to conform with accepted 
usage; (11) change the scientific names of 4 species in the 
alphabetical list to conform with accepted usage and to correct 
inconsistencies between the alphabetical and taxonomic lists; (12) 
correct errors in the common (English) name of 2 species; (13) correct 
errors in the scientific names of 3 species in the taxonomic list; and 
(14) change the status of 1 taxon from protected subspecies to non-
protected species (due to lack of natural occurrence in the United 
States or its territories). In accordance with the Migratory Bird 
Treaty Reform Act of 2004 (Pub. L. 108-447) (MBTRA), we also reaffirm 
our determination of March 15, 2005 (70 FR 12710), that the mute swan 
(Cygnus olor), which was never formally listed in 50 CFR 10.13 but was 
treated as protected by the MBTA since December 28, 2001, as the result 
of a court order (Hill v. Norton, 275 F.3d 98 (D.C. Cir. 2001)), is no 
longer afforded protection because it is nonnative and human-
introduced. See Fund for Animals v. Norton, 374 F. Supp. 2d 91 (D.D.C. 
2005) (denying injunction because of the clear language of the MBTRA), 
appeal pending.
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
April 5, 1985 (50 FR 13710). In a proposed rule published May 9, 1995 
(60 FR 24686), we suggested updating the List of Migratory Birds by 
adding 20 species, removing 1 species, and revising the common 
(English) or scientific names of 23 previously listed species to 
conform to the most recent nomenclature. The proposed amendments were 
necessitated by five published supplements to the 6th (1983) edition of 
the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU's) Check-list of North 
American birds. Knowing that additional amendments would be necessary 
following the anticipated publication of a 7th edition of the Check-
list, we elected to delay publication of a final rule until after the 
appearance of the revised Check-list. The 1995 proposed rule generated 
just two public comments, from the American Ornithologists' Union and 
the Association of Scientific Collections. The comments of those 
organizations, mostly editorial in nature, are reflected in this 
document, as appropriate.
    Following publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list in July 
1998, administrative workloads and staff shortages prevented work on a 
final rule

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until September 2000. A followup proposed rule was deemed necessary 
because of the 5-year delay since publication of the initial proposed 
rule, and the many new changes necessitated by the 7th edition of the 
Check-list. In a second proposed rule published October 12, 2001 (66 FR 
52282), we suggested adding 30 species, removing 1 species, and 
revising the common (English) or scientific names of 78 previously 
listed species to conform to accepted usage.
    Of the 116 letters received on the proposed rule of October 12, 
2001, 109 dealt solely with the presumed protective status of the mute 
swan (Cygnus olor) under the MBTA. Of the remaining seven letters, 
three provided comments of a general nature (including recommendations 
for adding or deleting certain species); two expressed general support 
without offering specific comments; one questioned the legality of 
extending MBTA protection to species that do not cross State or 
international boundaries; and one expressed concern about the harvest 
of MBTA-protected shorebirds in the Caribbean. These comments remain 
part of the public record and will be incorporated, as appropriate, 
into the final rule.
    Because of the delay since publication of the 2001 proposed rule, 
plus the many new changes necessitated by six published supplements 
(AOU 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006) to the 7th edition of the 
Check-list, we are issuing another proposed rule. This will enhance 
efficiency by allowing the public to review and comment on all of the 
desired changes that have come to light since publication of the 1995 
and 2001 proposed rules.

What Scientific Authorities Are Used To Amend the List of Migratory 

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
staying current with standardized usage is necessary to avoid confusion 
in communications. We here follow the 7th edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds (AOU 1998), 
as amended (AOU 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006), on 
matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and 
other higher taxonomic categories (orders, families, subfamilies). For 
the few species that occur outside the geographic area covered by the 
Check-list, we follow Monroe and Sibley (1993).

What Criteria Are Used To Identify Individual Species Protected by the 

    A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or 
more of the following four criteria:
    (1) It (a) Belongs to a family or group of species named in the 
Canadian convention of 1916, as amended in 1996; (b) specimens, 
photographs, videotape recordings, or audiotape recordings provide 
convincing evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or its 
territories; and (c) the documentation of such records has been 
recognized by the AOU or other competent scientific authorities.
    (2) It (a) Belongs to a family of group of species named in the 
Mexican convention of 1936, as amended in 1972; (b) specimens, 
photographs, videotape recordings, or audiotape recordings provide 
convincing evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or its 
territories; and (c) the documentation of such records has been 
recognized by the AOU or other competent scientific authorities.
    (3) It is a species listed in the annex to the Japanese convention 
of 1972, as amended.
    (4) It is a species listed in the appendix to the Russian 
convention of 1976.
    In accordance with the MBTRA, we have not listed species whose 
occurrences in the United States are strictly the result of intentional 
human introduction(s).

How Do the Scientific Names Proposed Here Compare to Those That Appear 
in the Japanese and Russian Treaties?

    The Japanese and Russian treaties list individual species of birds 
that are covered. For 37 of these species, the scientific (genus or 
species) name currently recognized by scientific authorities (AOU 1998, 
1999; Monroe and Sibley 1993) differs from that which appears in the 
treaties. The following cross-reference provides a linkage between the 
scientific names used in this list and those that appear in the annex 
to the Japanese treaty and the appendix to the Russian treaty. The 
first name is the modern equivalent proposed here, and the second name 
is that which appears in one or both of the treaties. These changes 
modernize the regulatory list without revising either the Japanese or 
the Russian treaty (indicated by J and R, respectively):

Accipiter gularis (Japanese Sparrowhawk) is listed as Accipiter 
virgatus (J & R);
Actitis hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper) is listed as Tringa hypoleucos (J 
& R);
Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) is listed as Cyclorrhynchus 
psittacula (R);
Anas americana (American Wigeon) is listed as Mareca americana (J);
Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) is listed as Spatula clypeata (J);
Anas penelope (Eurasian Wigeon) is listed as Mareca penelope (J);
Anous minutus (Black Noddy) is listed as Anous tenuirostris (J);
Anthus rubescens (American Pipit) is listed as Anthus spinoletta (J & 
Branta bernicla (Brant) incorporates Branta nigricans (R);
Calidris alba (Sanderling) is listed as Crocethia alba (J);
Calidris subminuta (Long-toed Stint) is listed as part of Calidris 
minutilla (J);
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll) is listed as Acanthis flammea (J);
Carduelis hornemanni (Hoary Redpoll) is included as part of Carduelis 
flammea (J), and is listed as Acanthis hornemanni (R);
Charadrius morinellus (Eurasian Dotterel) is listed as Eudromias 
morinellus (J & R);
Chen caerulescens (Snow Goose) is listed as Anser caerulescens (J);
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose) is listed as Anser canagicus (J), and 
Philacte canagica (R);
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan) incorporates Cygnus bewickii (R);
Egretta sacra (Pacific Reef-Egret) is listed as Demigretta sacra (J);
Ficedula narcissina (Narcissus Flycatcher) is listed as Muscicapa 
narcissina (J);
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin) is listed as Lunda cirrhata (J & 
Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe) is listed as Capella gallinago (R);
Gallinago megala (Swinhoe's Snipe) is listed as Capella megala (R);
Gallinago stenura (Pin-tailed Snipe) is listed as Capella stenura (R);
Heteroscelus brevipes (Gray-tailed Tattler) is included as part of 
Tringa incana (J);
Heteroscelus incanus (Wandering Tattler) is listed as Tringa incana 
Luscinia calliope (Siberian Rubythroat) is listed as Erithacus calliope 
Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter) incorporates Melanitta deglandi 
Mergellus albellus (Smew) is listed as Mergus albellus (J & R);
Milvus migrans (Black Kite) is listed as Milvus korschun (R);
Numenius borealis (Eskimo Curlew) is included as part of Numenius 
minutus (J);
Phalaropus lobatus (Red-necked Phalarope) is listed as Lobipes lobatus 
Phoebastria albatrus (Short-tailed Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
albatrus (J & R);

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Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
immutabilis (J & R);
Phoebastria nigripes (Black-footed Albatross) is listed as Diomedea 
nigripes (J & R);
Pterodroma hypoleuca (Bonin Petrel) is listed as Pterodroma leucoptera 
Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) is listed as Iridoprocne bicolor 
(R); and
Turdus obscurus (Eyebrowed Thrush) is listed as Turdus pallidus (R).

How Do the Proposed Changes Affect the List of Migratory Birds?

    The proposed amendments (152 additions, 12 removals, 118 name 
changes, and 9 corrections) will affect a grand total of 290 species 
and result in a net addition of 140 species to the List of Migratory 
Birds, increasing the species total from 832 to 972. Of the 140 species 
that we propose adding to the list, 37 were previously covered under 
the MBTA as subspecies of listed species. These amendments can be 
logically arranged in the following 14 categories:
    (1) Add two species that are included in the Appendix of the 
Russian treaty and in the Annex to the Japanese treaty, respectively; 
the omission of these species in previous lists was an oversight. These 
species also qualify for protection under the Canadian and Mexican 
treaties as members of the families Anatidae and Laridae, respectively:

Duck, Spot-billed, Anas poecilorhyncha; and
Gull, Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris.

    (2) Add 26 species based on review and acceptance by AOU (prior to 
April 1985) of distributional records documenting their occurrence in 
the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. These 
species belong to families covered by the Canadian and Mexican 
treaties. They were excluded from the 1985 list because their 
occurrence was viewed as accidental or casual, a criterion no longer 
viewed as consistent with the MBTA or its underlying treaties. A 
species of accidental or casual occurrence is one whose normal range is 
far enough removed from the United States as to make regular occurrence 
unlikely or improbable (AOU 1983). For each species, we list the 
State(s) in which it has been recorded plus the relevant AOU 

Albatross, Shy, Thalassarche cauta--Washington (AOU 1982, 1983, 1997, 
Albatross, Wandering, Diomedea exulans--California (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Bunting, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina--Louisiana, Texas (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Bunting, Gray, Emberiza variabilis--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Bunting, Little, Emberiza pusilla--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Chaffinch, Common, Fringilla coelebs--Maine to Massachusetts (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Crake, Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops--Louisiana, Texas (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Curlew, Eurasian, Numenius arquata--Massachusetts, New York (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Flycatcher, La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae--Alabama, Florida (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Flycatcher, Variegated, Empidonomus varius--Maine, Tennessee (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Gull, Belcher's, Larus belcheri--Florida (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998, 2003);
Hawk, Roadside, Buteo magnirostis--Texas (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Hummingbird, Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa--Arizona (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Martin, Southern, Progne elegans--Florida (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Mockingbird, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii--Florida (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Petrel, Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis--Hawaii (AOU 1982, 1983, 
Petrel, Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax--Hawaii (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Pewee, Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis--Puerto Rico (AOU 1983, 
1995, 1998);
Pipit, Tree, Anthus trivialis--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1995);
Rail, Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus--Pennsylvania, Texas (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Scops-Owl, Oriental, Otus sunia--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Shearwater, Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas--California (AOU 1982, 
1983, 1998);
Shrike, Brown, Lanius cristatus--Alaska (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998);
Swift, Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura--U.S. Virgin Islands (AOU 1983, 
Vireo, Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris--Florida (AOU 1983, 1998); and
Warbler, Fan-tailed, Euthlypis lachrymosa--Arizona (AOU 1982, 1983, 

    (3) Add 60 species based on review and acceptance by AOU (since 
April 1985) of new distributional records documenting their occurrence 
in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. These 
species belong to families covered by the Canadian and Mexican treaties 
and most are considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For 
each species, we list the State(s) in which it has been recorded plus 
the relevant AOU publication(s):

Albatross, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris--Virginia (AOU 2002);
Albatross, Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata--California (AOU 1997, 
Bluetail, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Bunting, Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Bunting, Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola--Alaska (AOU 1989, 1998);
Bunting, Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans--Alaska (AOU 2000);
Carib, Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis--U.S. Virgin Islands (AOU 
Catbird, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris--Texas (AOU 1998);
Duck, Muscovy, Cairina moschata--Texas (AOU 1998);
Egret, Little, Egretta garzetta--Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Puerto 
Rico, Virginia (AOU 1998);
Elaenia, Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata--Texas (AOU 1989, 1998);
Flycatcher, Piratic, Legatus leucophalus--Florida, New Mexico, Texas 
(AOU 2002);
Flycatcher, Social, Myiozetetes similis--Texas (AOU 2006);
Flycatcher, Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus--Texas (AOU 1998);
Forest-Falcon, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus--Texas (AOU 1998);
Frog-Hawk, Gray, Accipiter soloensis--Hawaii (AOU 1997, 1998);
Gallinule, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris--New York (AOU 1991, 1998, 
Goose, Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Gull, Gray-hooded, Larus cirrocephalus--Florida (AOU 2002);
Gull, Kelp, Larus dominicanus--Louisiana, Maryland (AOU 2002);
Gull, Yellow-legged, Larus cachinnans--Maryland (AOU 1993, 1998);
Hawk, Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens--Texas (AOU 1998);
Hobby, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo--Alaska (AOU 1985, 1995, 1998);
Hummingbird, Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila--Arizona, New Mexico (AOU 1998);
Hummingbird, Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii--California (AOU 1998);
Mango, Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii--Texas (AOU 1998);
Martin, Brown-chested, Progne tapera--Massachusetts (AOU 1985, 1995, 

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Mockingbird, Blue, Melanotis caerulescens--Arizona, Texas (AOU 1998);
Murrelet, Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix--10 States (AOU 1997, 
Nightingale-Thrush, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus--Texas (AOU 2006);
Nightingale-Thrush, Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris--Texas (AOU 
Owl, Mottled, Ciccaba virgata--Texas (AOU 1989, 1998);
Owl, Stygian, Asio stygius--Texas (AOU 2002);
Petrel, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow--North Carolina (AOU 1998);
Petrel, Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera--California (AOU 2004);
Petrel, Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris--California, Hawaii (AOU 
1989, 1998);
Pewee, Cuban, Contopus caribeaus--Florida (AOU 2004);
Plover, Collared, Charadrius collaris--Texas (AOU 1998);
Pond-Heron, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus--Alaska (AOU 2000);
Reef-Heron, Western, Egretta gularis--Massachusetts (AOU 1985, 1998);
Robin, Siberian Blue, Luscinia cyane--Alaska (AOU 1987, 1998);
Robin, White-throated, Turdus assimilis--Texas (AOU 1998);
Sandpiper, Green, Tringa ochropus--Alaska (AOU 1985, 1998);
Shearwater, Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii--North Carolina (AOU 
Silky-flycatcher, Gray, Ptilogonys cinereus--Texas (AOU 1998);
Siskin, Eurasian, Carduelis spinus--Alaska (AOU 1995, 1998);
Stilt, Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus--Alaska (AOU 1985, 1998);
Stonechat, Saxicola torquatus--Alaska (AOU 1987, 1998, 2004);
Storm-Petrel, Black-bellied Fregetta tropica--North Carolina (AOU 
Swallow, Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea--Florida (AOU 2005);
Swift, Alpine, Apus melba--Puerto Rico (AOU 1998);
Tanager, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata--Arizona, Texas (AOU 1987, 
Tern, Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii--Hawaii (AOU 1991, 1998, 2006);
Tern, Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida--Delaware, New Jersey (AOU 1997, 
1998, 2003);
Tityra, Masked, Tityra semifasciata--Texas (AOU 1998);
Turtle-Dove, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis--Alaska (AOU 1991, 
Vireo, Yucatan, Vireo magister--Texas (AOU 1987, 1998);
Wagtail, Citrine, Motacilla citreola--Alabama (AOU 1995, 1998);
Warbler, Crescent-chested, Parula superciliosa--Arizona (AOU 1987, 
1998); and
Woodpecker, Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major--Alaska (AOU 1987, 1998).

    (4) Add 27 species that belong to families covered by the Canadian 
and Mexican treaties, but occur naturally in the United States only in 
the Pacific island territories of American Samoa, Baker and Howland 
Islands, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands (Pratt et al. 1987). We 
also list the territory or territories in which each species is known 
to occur:

Bittern, Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis (Guam);
Cormorant, Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos (Northern Marianas);
Crake, Spotless, Porzana tabuensis (American Samoa);
Crow, Mariana, Corvus kubaryi (Guam, Northern Marianas);
Duck, Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa (American Samoa);
Fruit-Dove, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus (American Samoa);
Fruit-Dove, Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii (American Samoa);
Fruit-Dove, Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla (Guam, Northern Marianas);
Greenshank, Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer (Guam);
Ground-Dove, Friendly, Gallicolumba stairi (American Samoa);
Ground-Dove, White-throated, Gallicolumba xanthonura (American Samoa);
Heron, Gray, Ardea cinerea (Northern Marianas);
Imperial-Pigeon, Pacific, Ducula pacifica (American Samoa);
Kingfisher, Collared, Todirhamphus chloris (American Samoa, Northern 
Kingfisher, Micronesian, Todirhamphus cinnamominus (Guam);
Oystercatcher, Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus (Guam);
Petrel, Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera (American Samoa);
Petrel, Phoenix, Pterodroma alba (Baker and Howland Islands);
Petrel, Tahiti, Pterodroma rostrata (American Samoa);
Rail, Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis (American Samoa);
Rail, Guam, Gallirallus owstoni (Guam);
Storm-Petrel, Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae (Guam, Northern 
Storm-Petrel, Polynesian, Nesofregata fuliginosa (American Samoa);
Storm-Petrel, White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria (American Samoa);
Swamphen, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio (American Samoa);
Swiftlet, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi (Guam, Northern Marianas); and
Swiftlet, White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius (American Samoa).

    (5) Add 37 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as subspecies have been determined to be distinct 
species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as 
subspecies of a listed species, these additions will not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication(s) supporting 
the change:

Coot, Hawaiian, Fulica alai (formerly treated as subspecies of Fulica 
americana, American Coot) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Flicker, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Flycatcher, Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Empidonax difficilis, Western [=Pacific-slope] 
Flycatcher) [AOU 1989, 1998];
Gnatcatcher, California, Polioptila californica (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher) [AOU 1989, 
Golden-Plover, Pacific, Pluvialis fulva (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Pluvialis dominica, Lesser [=American] Golden-Plover) [AOU 1993, 
Goose, Cackling, Branta hutchinsii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Branta canadensis, Canada Goose) [AOU 2004];
Grebe, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Heron, Green, Butorides virescens (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Butorides striatus, Green-backed [=Striated] Heron) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Phaeornis obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush [=Omao]) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Kite, White-tailed, Elanus leucurus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Elanus caeruleus, Black-shouldered Kite) (AOU 1983, 1993, 1998);
Loon, Pacific, Gavia pacifica (formerly treated as subspecies of Gavia 
arctica, Arctic Loon) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Magpie, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Pica pica, Black-billed [=Eurasian] Magpie) [AOU 2000];

[[Page 50198]]

Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Phaeornis obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush [=Omao]) [AOU 1985, 1998];
Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus bullockii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Icterus galbula, Northern [=Baltimore] Oriole) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Petrel, Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Pterodroma phaeopygia, Dark-rumped [=Galapagos] Petrel) 
[AOU 2002];
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Pterodroma externa, White-necked [=Juan Fernandez] 
Petrel) [AOU 1991, 1998];
Pipit, American, Anthus rubescens (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Anthus spinoletta, Water Pipit (AOU 1989, 1998);
Rosy-Finch, Black, Leucosticte atrata (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch) [AOU 1993, 1998];
Sapsucker, Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [AOU 1985, 
Scrub-Jay, Island, Aphelocoma insularis (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub [=Florida] Jay [=Scrub-Jay]) [AOU 
1995, 1998];
Scrub-Jay, Western, Aphelocoma californica (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub [=Florida] Jay [=Scrub-
Jay]) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Snipe, Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe) [AOU 2002];
Sparrow, Nelson's Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus nelsoni (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Ammodramus caudacutus, Sharp-tailed [=Saltmarsh Sharp-
tailed] Sparrow) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Spindalis, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Spindalis zena, Stripe-headed [=Western] Tanager 
[=Spindalis]) [AOU 2000];
Thrush, Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush) [AOU 1995, 1998];
Titmouse, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Parus [=Baeolophus] bicolor, Tufted Titmouse) [AOU 2002];
Titmouse, Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Parus Baeolophus] inornatus, Plain [=Oak] Titmouse) [AOU 1997, 
Towhee, California, Pipilo crissalis (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Pipilo fuscus, Brown Towhee) [AOU 1989, 1998];
Towhee, Spotted, Pipilo maculatus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Rufous-sided [=Eastern] Towhee) [AOU 1995, 
Vireo, Cassin's, Vireo cassinii (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Vireo solitarius, Solitary [=Blue-headed] Vireo) [AOU 1997, 1998];
Vireo, Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus (formerly treated as subspecies of 
Vireo solitarius, Solitary [=Blue-headed] Vireo) [AOU 1997, 1998];
Vireo, Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo) [AOU 1987, 1998];
Wagtail, Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Motacilla flava, Yellow Wagtail) [AOU 2004];
Woodpecker, American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis (formerly treated as 
subspecies of Picoides tridactylus, Three-toed [=Eurasian Three-toed] 
Woodpecker) [AOU 2003]; and
Woodpecker, Arizona, Picoides arizonae (formerly treated as subspecies 
of Picoides stricklandi, Strickland's Woodpecker) [AOU 2000].

    (6) Remove 11 species based on revised taxonomic treatments and new 
distributional evidence confirming that their known geographic ranges 
lie entirely outside the political boundaries of the United States and 
its territories. In each case, we reference the AOU publication(s) 
supporting these changes:

Finch, Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa (AOU 1993, 1998);
Heron, Green-backed (=Striated), Butorides striatus (AOU 1993, 1998);
Kingbird, Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus (AOU 2002);
Kite, Black-shouldered, Elanus caeruleus (AOU 1983, 1993, 1998);
Magpie, Black-billed (=Eurasian), Pica pica (AOU 2000);
Noddy, Lesser, Anous tenuirostris (AOU 1998; treated as conspecific 
with Black Noddy, Anous minutus);
Petrel, Dark-rumped (=Galapagos), Pterodroma phaeopygia (AOU 2002);
Pipit, Water, Anthus spinoletta (AOU 1983, 1989, 1998);
Wagtail, Yellow, Motacilla flava (AOU 2004);
Woodpecker, Strickland's, Picoides stricklandi (AOU 2000); and
Woodpecker, Three-toed (=Eurasian Three-toed), Picoides tridactylis 
(AOU 2003).

    (7) Remove one former species that is now treated as a subspecies:

Wagtail, Black-backed, Motacilla lugens (lugens will remain protected 
as a subspecies of Motacilla alba, White Wagtail) [AOU 2005].

    (8) Revise the common (English) names of 47 species to conform to 
the most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions will not 
change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by 
which they are known. In each case, we reference the published 
source(s) for the name change:

Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba, will be changed to Owl, Barn (AOU 1989, 
Bittern, Chinese, Ixobrychus sinensis, will be changed to Bittern, 
Yellow (AOU 1991, 1998);
Crow, Mexican, Corvus imparatus, will be changed to Crow, Tamaulipas 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Curlew, Least, Numenius minutus, will be changed to Curlew, Little (AOU 
1987, 1998);
Flycatcher, Gray-spotted, Muscicapa griseisticta, will be changed to 
Flycatcher, Gray-streaked (AOU 2004);
Flycatcher, Western, Empidonax difficilis, will be changed to 
Flycatcher, Pacific-slope (AOU 1989, 1998);
Golden-Plover, Lesser, Pluvialis dominica, will be changed to Golden-
Plover, American (AOU 1993, 1998);
Goose, Ross', Chen rossii, will be changed to Goose, Ross's (AOU 1998);
Gull, Common Black-headed, Larus ridibundus, will be changed to Gull, 
Black-headed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Gull, Ross', Rhodostethia rosea, will be changed to Gull, Ross's (AOU 
Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow, Accipiter gularis, will be changed to 
Sparrowhawk, Japanese (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Hawk, Harris', Parabuteo unicinctus, will be changed to Hawk, Harris's 
(AOU 1998);
Hawk-Owl, Northern, Surnia ulula, will be changed to Owl, Northern Hawk 
(AOU 1989, 1998);
Heron, Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra, will be changed to Reef-Egret, 
Pacific (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Hoopoe, Upupa epops, will be changed to Hoopoe, Eurasian (AOU 1998);

[[Page 50199]]

Jay, Gray-breasted, Aphelocoma ultramarina, will be changed to Jay, 
Mexican (AOU 1995, 1998);
Jay, Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens, will be changed to Scrub-Jay, 
Florida (AOU 1995, 1998);
Kite, American Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus, will be changed to 
Kite, Swallow-tailed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Murrelet, Xantus', Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, will be changed to 
Murrelet, Xantus's (AOU 1998);
Nightjar, Jungle, Caprimulgus indicus, will be changed to Nightjar, 
Gray (AOU 2004);
Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis, will be changed to Duck, Long-tailed (AOU 
Oriole, Black-cowled, Icterus dominicensis, will be changed to Oriole, 
Greater Antillean (AOU 2000);
Oriole, Northern, Icterus galbula, will be changed to Oriole, Baltimore 
(AOU 1995, 1998);
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma externa, will be changed to Petrel, 
Juan Fernandez (AOU 1991, 1998);
Plover, Great Sand, Charadrius leschenaultii, will be changed to Sand-
Plover, Greater (AOU 2004);
Plover, Mongolian, Charadrius mongolus, will be changed to Sand-Plover, 
Lesser (AOU 2004);
Reed-Bunting, Common, Emberiza schoeniclus, will be changed to Bunting, 
Reed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Reed-Bunting, Pallas', Emberiza pallasi, will be changed to Bunting, 
Pallas's (AOU 1995, 1998);
Sandpiper, Spoonbill, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, will be changed to 
Sandpiper, Spoon-billed (AOU 2004);
Skylark, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis, will be changed to Lark, Sky (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Sparrow, Harris', Zonotrichia querela, will be changed to Sparrow, 
Harris's (AOU 1998);
Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus, will be changed to 
Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Starling, Ashy, Sturnus cineraceus, will be changed to Starling, White-
cheeked (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Starling, Violet-backed, Sturnus philippensis, will be changed to 
Starling, Chestnut-cheeked (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Stint, Rufous-necked, Calidris ruficollis, will be changed to Stint, 
Red-necked (AOU 1995);
Storm-Petrel, Sooty, Oceanodroma tristrami, will be changed to Storm-
Petrel, Tristram's (AOU 1989, 1998);
Swift, Antillean Palm, Tachornis phoenicobia, will be changed to Palm-
Swift, Antillean (AOU 1983, 1998);
Tanager, Stripe-headed, Spindalis zena, will be changed to Spindalis, 
Western (AOU 2000);
Teal, Falcated, Anas falcata, will be changed to Duck, Falcated (AOU 
1997, 1998);
Thrush, Eye-browed, Turdus obscurus, will be changed to Thrush, 
Eyebrowed (AOU 1989, 1998);
Towhee, Brown, Pipilo fuscus, will be changed to Towhee, Canyon (AOU 
1989, 1998);
Towhee, Rufous-sided, Pipilo erythrophthalmus, will be changed to 
Towhee, Eastern (AOU 1995, 1998);
Tree-Pipit, Olive, Anthus hodgsoni, will be changed to Pipit, Olive-
backed (AOU 1995, 1998);
Trogon, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus, will be changed to Quetzel, Eared 
(AOU 2002);
Vireo, Solitary, Vireo solitarius, will be changed to Vireo, Blue-
headed (AOU 1997, 1998);
Warbler, Elfin Woods, Dendroica angelae, will be changed to Warbler, 
Elfin-woods (AOU 1998); and
Woodpecker, Lewis', Melanerpes lewis, will be changed to Woodpecker, 
Lewis's (AOU 1998).

    (9) Revise the scientific names of 64 species to conform to the 
most recent nomenclature treatment. These revisions will not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication(s) 
documenting the name change:

Actitis macularia (Spotted Sandpiper) will be changed to Actitis 
macularius (AOU 2004);
Ajaia ajaja (Roseate Spoonbill) will be changed to Platalea ajaja (AOU 
Amphispiza quinquestriata (Five-striped Sparrow) will be changed to 
Aimophila quinquestriata (AOU 1997, 1998);
Casmerodius albus (Great Egret) will be changed to Ardea alba (AOU 
1995, 1998);
Catharacta maccormicki (South Polar Skua) will be changed to 
Stercorarius maccormicki (AOU 2000);
Catharacta skua (Great Skua) will be changed to Stercorarius skua (AOU 
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Willet) will be changed to Tringa 
semipalmata (AOU 2006);
Ceryle torquata (Ringed Kingfisher) will be changed to Ceryle torquatus 
(AOU 2004);
Columba fasciata (Band-tailed Pigeon) will be changed to Patagioenas 
fasciata (AOU 2003);
Columba flavirostris (Red-billed Pigeon) will be changed to Patagioenas 
flavirostris (AOU 2003);
Columba inornata (Plain Pigeon) will be changed to Patagioenas inornata 
(AOU 2003);
Columba leucocephala (White-crowned Pigeon) will be changed to 
Patagioenas leucocephala (AOU 2003);
Columba squamosa (Scaly-naped Pigeon) will be changed to Patagioenas 
squamosa (AOU 2003);
Contopus borealis (Olive-sided Flycatcher) will be changed to Contopus 
cooperi (AOU 1997, 1998);
Cuculus saturatus (Oriental Cuckoo) will be changed to Cuculus optatus 
(AOU 2006);
Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) will be changed to Aethia 
psittacula (AOU 1997, 1998);
Delichon urbica (Common House-Martin) will be changed to Delichon 
urbicum (AOU 2004);
Diomedea albatrus (Short-tailed Albatross) will be changed to 
Phoebastria albatrus (AOU 1997, 1998);
Diomedea chlororhynchos (Yellow-nosed Albatross) will be changed to 
Thalassarche chlororhynchos (AOU 1997, 1998);
Diomedea immutabilis (Laysan Albatross) will be changed to Phoebastria 
immutabilis (AOU 1997, 1998);
Diomedea nigripes (Black-footed Albatross) will be changed to 
Phoebastria nigripes (AOU 1997, 1998);
Guiraca caerulea (Blue Grosbeak) will be changed to Passerina caerulea 
(AOU 2002);
Heteroscelus brevipes (Gray-tailed Tattler) will be changed to Tringa 
brevipes (AOU 2006);
Heteroscelus incanus (Wandering Tattler) will be changed to Tringa 
incana (AOU 2006);
Helmitheros vermivora (Worm-eating Warbler) will be changed to 
Helmitheros vermivorus (AOU 2004);
Hirundo fulva (Cave Swallow) will be changed to Petrochelidon fulva 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow) will be changed to Petrochelidon 
pyrrhonota (AOU 1997, 1998);
Muscicapa narcissina (Narcissus Flycatcher) will be changed to Ficedula 
narcissina (AOU 1991, 1998);
Nesochen sandvicensis (Hawaiian Goose) will be changed to Branta 
sandvicensis (AOU 1993, 1998);
Nyctea scandiaca (Snowy Owl) will be changed to Bubo scandiaca (AOU 
Nycticorax goisagi (Japanese Night-Heron) will be changed to Gorsachius 
goisagi (Monroe and Sibley 1993);

[[Page 50200]]

Nycticorax violaceus (Yellow-crowned Night-Heron) will be changed to 
Nyctanassa violacea (AOU 1998);
Otus asio (Eastern Screech-Owl) will be changed to Megascops asio (AOU 
Otus kennicottii (Western Screech-Owl) will be changed to Megascops 
kennicottii (AOU 2003);
Otus nudipes (Puerto Rican Screech-Owl) will be changed to Megascops 
nudipes (AOU 2003);
Otus trichopsis (Whiskered Screech-Owl) will be changed to Megascops 
trichopsis (AOU 2003);
Oxyura dominica (Masked Duck) will be changed to Nomonyx dominicus (AOU 
1997, 1998);
Parus atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) will be changed to Poecile 
atricapillus (AOU 1997, 1998, 2003);
Parus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) will be changed to Baeolophus bicolor 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) will be changed to Poecile 
carolinensis (AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus gambeli (Mountain Chickadee) will be changed to Poecile gambeli 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee) will be changed to Poecile 
hudsonica (AOU 1997, 1998, 2000);
Parus rufescens (Chestnut-backed Chickadee) will be changed to Poecile 
rufescens (AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus sclateri (Mexican Chickadee) will be changed to Poecile sclateri 
(AOU 1997, 1998);
Parus wollweberi (Bridled Titmouse) will be changed to Baeolophus 
wollweberi (AOU 1997, 1998);
Phalaropus fulicaria (Red Phalarope) will be changed to Phalaropus 
fulicarius (AOU 2002);
Polyborus plancus (Crested Caracara) will be changed to Caracara 
cheriway (AOU 1993, 1998, 2000);
Porphyrula martinica (Purple Gallinule) will be changed to Porphyrio 
martinica (AOU 2002);
Saurothera vieilloti (Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo) will be changed to 
Coccyzus vielloti (AOU 2006);
Seiurus aurocapillus (Ovenbird) will be changed to Seiurus aurocapilla 
(AOU 2003);
Sterna albifrons (Little Tern) will be changed to Sternula albifrons 
(AOU 2006);
Sterna aleutica (Aleutian Tern) will be changed to Onychoprion 
aleuticus (AOU 2006);
Sterna anaethetus (Bridled Tern) will be changed to Onychoprion 
anaethetus (AOU 2006);
Sterna antillarum (Least Tern) will be changed to Sternula antillarum 
(AOU 2006);
Sterna caspia (Caspian Tern) will be changed to Hydroprogne caspia (AOU 
Sterna elegans (Elegant Tern) will be changed to Thalasseus elegans 
(AOU 2006);
Sterna fuscata (Sooty Tern) will be changed to Onychoprion fuscatus 
(AOU 2006);
Sterna lunata (Gray-backed Tern) will be changed to Onychoprion lunatus 
(AOU 2006);
Sterna maxima (Royal Tern) will be changed to Thalasseus maximus (AOU 
Sterna nilotica (Gull-billed Tern) will be changed to Gelochelidon 
nilotica (AOU 2006);
Sterna sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern) will be changed to Thalasseus 
sandvicensis (AOU 2006);
Sula bassanus (Northern Gannet) will be changed to Morus bassanus (AOU 
1989, 1998);
Tiaris olivacea (Yellow-faced Grassquit) will be changed to Tiaris 
olivaceus (AOU 2004); and
Toxostoma dorsale (Crissal Thrasher) will be changed to Toxostoma 
crissale (AOU 1984, 1985, 1998).

    (10) Revise the common (English) and scientific names of seven 
species to conform with the most recent nomenclature treatment. These 
revisions will not change the protective status of any of these taxa, 
only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the 
publication(s) supporting the name change:

Cormorant, Olivaceous, Phalacrocorax olivaceus, will be changed to 
Cormorant, Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (AOU 1991, 1998);
Egret, Plumed, Egretta intermedia, will be changed to Egret, 
Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax melanolophus, will be changed to Night-
Heron, Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus (Monroe and Sibley 1993);
Thrush, Hawaiian, Phaeornis obscurus, will be changed to Omao, 
Myadestes obscurus (AOU 1985, 1998);
Thrush, Small Kauai, Phaeornis palmeri, will be changed to Puaiohi, 
Myadestes palmeri (AOU 1985, 1998);
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus, will be changed to Chickadee, Gray-
headed, Poecile cincta (AOU 1998, 2000); and
Titmouse, Plain, Parus inornatus, will be changed to Titmouse, Oak, 
Baeolophus inornatus (AOU 1997, 1998).
    (11) Revise incorrect or invalid scientific names of four species 
in the alphabetical list to reflect the most recent nomenclatural 
treatment and to correct inconsistencies between the alphabetical and 
taxonomic lists:

Kittiwake, Black-legged, Larus tridactyla, will be changed to Rissa 
trydactyla (AOU 1998);
Kittiwake, Red-legged, Larus brevirostris, will be changed to Rissa 
brevirostris (AOU 1998);
Skimmer, Black, Rhynchops niger, will be changed to Rynchops niger (AOU 
1998); and
Thrush, Wood, Hylocichla minima, will be changed to Hylocichla 
mustelina (AOU 1998).

    (12) Revise the common (English) name of two species in the 
alphabetical and taxonomic lists to correct misspellings:

Bittern, Schrenk's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus, will be changed to Bittern, 
Schrenck's (Monroe and Sibley 1993); and
Redstart, Slaty-throated, Myioborus miniatus, will be changed to 
Redstart, Slate-throated (AOU 1998).

    (13) Revise the scientific names of three species in the taxonomic 
list to correct misspellings and inconsistencies between the 
alphabetical and taxonomic lists:
Sialis currucoides (Mountain Bluebird) will be changed to Sialia 
currucoides (AOU 1998);
Sialis mexicana (Western Bluebird) will be changed to Sialia mexicana 
(AOU 1998); and
Sialis sialis (Eastern Bluebird) will be changed to Sialia sialis (AOU 
    (14) Change the status of one taxon from protected subspecies to 
non-protected species (because there is no known natural occurrence of 
the newly recognized species in the United States or its territories). 
In accordance with the AOU (1998), the Barbary Falcon is currently 
treated as a subspecies (pelegrinoides) of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco 
peregrinus) in 50 CFR 10.13. We propose deferring to the taxonomic 
treatment of Monroe and Sibley (1993) in recognizing F. peregrinus 
pelegrinoides as a distinct species, Falco pelegrinoides, the Barbary 
Falcon. This change will bring our treatment of this taxon into 
conformity with that adopted by the Convention on International Trade 
in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), thereby removing 
an inconsistency between the MBTA (50 CFR 10.13) and CITES (50 CFR 
23.23) lists. This simple taxonomic change will not result in the 
addition or removal of any species from the list:

Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides, a subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon, 
will be changed to Falco

[[Page 50201]]

pelegrinoides, Barbary Falcon (Monroe and Sibley 1993). (The newly 
recognized Barbary Falcon is not subject to the MBTA because its known 
geographic range lies entirely outside the political boundaries of the 
United States and its territories. This action will not change the 
legal status of any other subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon, all of 
which will continue to be protected under the MBTA.)

    For ease of comparison, the proposed changes are summarized in the 
following table (numbers reference the categories treated above). 
Categories that involve name revisions (i.e., 9, 10, and 11) will 
require removal of the old name (left-hand column) and addition of the 
new name (right-hand column). To ensure that these two separate actions 
appear on the same line of the table, we employ brackets to identify 
old (removed) or new (added) names that are listed in correct 
alphabetical order elsewhere in the table:

        Removed (alphabetically)              Added (alphabetically)
                                         Albatross, Black-browed,
                                          Thalassarche melanophris (3).
Albatross, Black-footed, Diomedea        Albatross, Black-footed,
 nigripes (9).                            Phoebastria nigripes (9).
Albatross, Laysan, Diomedea immutabilis  Albatross, Laysan, Phoebastria
 (9).                                     immutabilis (9).
                                         Albatross, Light-mantled,
                                          Phoebetria palpebrata (3).
Albatross, Short-tailed, Diomedea        Albatross, Short-tailed,
 albatrus (9).                            Phoebastria albatrus (9).
                                         Albatross, Shy, Thalassarche
                                          cauta (2).
                                         Albatross, Wandering, Diomedea
                                          exulans (2).
Albatross, Yellow-nosed, Diomedea        Albatross, Yellow-nosed,
 chlororhynchos (9).                      Thalassarche chlororhynchos
Auklet, Parakeet, Cyclorrhynchus         Auklet, Parakeet, Aethia
 psittacula (9).                          psittacula (9).
Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba (8)........  [see Owl, Barn].
                                         Bittern, Black, Ixobrychus
                                          flavicollis (4).
Bittern, Chinese, Ixobrychus sinensis    Bittern, Yellow, Ixobrychus
 (8).                                     sinensis (8).
Bittern, Schrenk's, Ixobrychus           Bittern, Schrenck's, Ixobrychus
 eurhythmus (12).                         eurhythmus (12).
Bluebird, Eastern, Sialis sialis (13)..  Bluebird, Eastern, Sialia
                                          sialis (13).
Bluebird, Mountain, Sialis currucoides   Bluebird, Mountain, Sialia
 (13).                                    currucoides (13).
Bluebird, Western, Sialis mexicana (13)  Bluebird, Western, Sialia
                                          mexicana (13).
                                         Bluetail, Red-flanked, Tarsiger
                                          cyanurus (3).
                                         Bunting, Blue, Cyanocompsa
                                          parellina (2).
                                         Bunting, Gray, Emberiza
                                          variabilis (2).
                                         Bunting, Little, Emberiza
                                          pusilla (2).
[see Reed-Bunting, Pallas']............  Bunting, Pallas's, Emberiza
                                          pallasi (8).
                                         Bunting, Pine, Emberiza
                                          leucocephalos (3).
[see Reed-Bunting, Common].............  Bunting, Reed, Emberiza
                                          schoeniculus (8).
                                         Bunting, Yellow-breasted,
                                          Emberiza aureola (3).
                                         Bunting, Yellow-throated,
                                          Emberiza elegans (3).
                                         Carib, Purple-throated,
                                          Eulampis jugularis (3).
Caracara, Crested, Polyborus plancus     Caracara, Crested, Caracara
 (9).                                     cheriway (9).
                                         Catbird, Black, Melanoptila
                                          glabrirostris (3).
                                         Chaffinch, Common, Fringilla
                                          coelebs (2).
Chickadee, Black-capped, Parus           Chickadee, Black-capped,
 atricapillus (9).                        Poecile atricapillus (9).
Chickadee, Boreal, Parus hudsonicus (9)  Chickadee, Boreal, Poecile
                                          hudsonica (9).
Chickadee, Carolina, Parus carolinensis  Chickadee, Carolina, Poecile
 (9).                                     carolinensis (9).
Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, Parus        Chickadee, Chestnut-backed,
 rufescens (9).                           Poecile rufescens (9).
[see Tit, Siberian]....................  Chickadee, Gray-headed, Poecile
                                          cincta (10).
Chickadee, Mexican, Parus sclateri (9).  Chickadee, Mexican, Poecile
                                          sclateri (9).
Chickadee, Mountain, Parus gambeli (9).  Chickadee, Mountain, Poecile
                                          gambeli (9).
                                         Coot, Hawaiian, Fulica alai
                                         Cormorant, Little Pied,
                                          Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
Cormorant, Olivaceous, Phalacrocorax     Cormorant, Neotropic,
 olivaceus (10).                          Phalacrocorax brasilianus
                                         Crake, Paint-billed, Neocrex
                                          erythrops (2).
                                         Crake, Spotless, Porzana
                                          tabuensis (4).
                                         Crow, Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
Crow, Mexican, Corvus imparatus (8)....  Crow, Tamaulipas, Corvus
                                          imparatus (8).
Cuckoo, Oriental, Cuculus saturatus (9)  Cuckoo, Oriental, Cuculus
                                          optatus (9).
                                         Curlew, Eurasian, Numenius
                                          arquata (2).
Curlew, Least, Numenius minutus (8)....  Curlew, Little, Numenius
                                          minutus (8).
[see Teal, Falcated]...................  Duck, Falcated, Anas falcata
[see Oldsquaw].........................  Duck, Long-tailed, Clangula
                                          hyemalis (8).
Duck, Masked, Oxyura dominica (9)......  Duck, Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
                                         Duck, Muscovy, Cairina moschata
                                         Duck, Pacific Black, Anas
                                          superciliosa (4).
                                         Duck, Spot-billed, Anas
                                          poecilorhyncha (1).
Egret, Great, Casmerodius albus (9)....  Egret, Great, Ardea alba (9).
Egret, Plumed, Egretta intermedia (10).  Egret, Intermediate, Mesophoyx
                                          intermedia (10).
                                         Egret, Little, Egretta garzetta
                                         Elaenia, Greenish, Myiopagis
                                          viridicata (3).
[Falcon, Barbary, Falco peregrinus
 pelegrinoides (=Falco pelegrinoides)]
Finch, Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa (6)....  [see Rosy-Finch]
                                         Flicker, Gilded, Colaptes
                                          chrysoides (5).
                                         Flycatcher, Cordilleran,
                                          Empidonax occidentalis (5).
Flycatcher, Gray-spotted, Muscicapa      Flycatcher, Gray-streaked,
 griseisticta (8).                        Muscicapa griseisticta (8).
                                         Flycatcher, La Sagra's,
                                          Myiarchus sagrae (2).

[[Page 50202]]

Flycatcher, Narcissus, Muscicapa         Flycatcher, Narcissus, Ficedula
 narcissina (9).                          narcissina (9).
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, Contopus        Flycatcher, Olive-sided,
 borealis (9).                            Contopus cooperi (9).
Flycatcher, Western, Empidonax           Flycatcher, Pacific-slope,
 difficilis (8).                          Empidonax difficilis (8).
                                         Flycatcher, Piratic, Legatus
                                          leucophalus (3).
                                         Flycatcher, Social, Myiozetetes
                                          similes (3).
                                         Flycatcher, Tufted, Mitrephanes
                                          phaeocercus (3).
                                         Flycatcher, Variegated,
                                          Empidonomus varius (2).
                                         Forest-Falcon, Collared,
                                          Micrastur semitorquatus (3).
                                         Frog-Hawk, Gray, Accipiter
                                          soloensis (3).
                                         Fruit-Dove, Crimson-crowned,
                                          Ptilinopus porphyraceus (4).
                                         Fruit-Dove, Many-colored,
                                          Ptilinopus perousii (4).
                                         Fruit-Dove, Mariana, Ptilinopus
                                          roseicapilla (4).
                                         Gallinule, Azure, Porphyrio
                                          flavirostris (3).
Gallinule, Purple, Porphyrula martinica  Gallinule, Purple, Porphyrio
 (9).                                     martinica (9).
Gannet, Northern, Sula bassanus (9)....  Gannet, Northern, Morus
                                          bassanus (9).
                                         Gnatcatcher, California,
                                          Polioptila californica (5).
Golden-Plover, Lesser, Pluvialis
 dominica (8).
                                         Golden-Plover, American,
                                          Pluvialis dominica (8).
                                         Golden-Plover, Pacific,
                                          Pluvialis fulva (5).
                                         Goose, Cackling, Branta
                                          hutchensii (5).
Goose, Hawaiian, Nesochen sandvicensis   Goose, Hawaiian, Branta
 (9).                                     sandvicensis (9).
                                         Goose, Lesser White-fronted,
                                          Anser erythropus (3).
Goose, Ross', Chen rossii (8)..........  Goose, Ross's, Chen rossii (8).
Grassquit, Yellow-faced, Tiaris          Grassquit, Yellow-faced, Tiaris
 olivacea (9).                            olivaceus (9).
                                         Grebe, Clark's, Aechmophorus
                                          clarkii (5).
                                         Greenshank, Nordmann's, Tringa
                                          guttifer (4).
Grosbeak, Blue, Guiraca caerulea (9)...  Grosbeak, Blue, Passerina
                                          caerulea (9).
                                         Ground-Dove, Friendly,
                                          Gallicolumba stairi (4).
                                         Ground-Dove, White-throated,
                                          Gallicolumba xanthonura (4).
                                         Gull, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
Gull, Common Black-headed, Larus         Gull, Black-headed, Larus
 ridibundus (8).                          ridibundus (8).
                                         Gull, Black-tailed, Larus
                                          crassirostris (1).
                                         Gull, Gray-hooded, Larus
                                          cirrocephalus (3).
                                         Gull, Kelp, Larus dominicanus
Gull, Ross', Rhodostethia rosea (8)....  Gull, Ross's, Rhodostethia
                                          rosea (8).
                                         Gull, Yellow-legged, Larus
                                          cachinnans (3).
Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow, Accipiter         [see Sparrowhawk, Japanese]
 gularis (8).
                                         Hawk, Crane, Geranospiza
                                          caerulescens (3).
Hawk, Harris', Parabuteo unicinctus (8)  Hawk, Harris's, Parabuteo
                                          unicinctus (8).
                                         Hawk, Roadside, Buteo
                                          magnirostris (2).
Hawk-Owl, Northern, Surnia ulula (8)...  [see Owl, Northern Hawk]
                                         Heron, Gray, Ardea cinerea (4).
                                         Heron, Green, Butorides
                                          virescens (5).
Heron, Green-backed, Butorides striatus  [see Heron, Green].
Heron, Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra (8).  [see Reef-Egret, Pacific].
                                         Hobby, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
Hoopoe, Upupa epops (8)................  Hoopoe, Eurasian, Upupa epops
House-Martin, Common, Delichon urbica    House-Martin, Common, Delichon
 (9).                                     urbicum (9).
                                         Hummingbird, Bumblebee, Atthis
                                          heloisa (2).
                                         Hummingbird, Cinnamon, Amazilia
                                          rutila (3).
                                         Hummingbird, Xantus's,
                                          Hylocharis xantusii (3).
                                         Imperial-Pigeon, Pacific,
                                          Ducula pacifica (4).
Jay, Gray-breasted, Aphelocoma           Jay, Mexican, Aphelocoma
 ultramarina (8).                         ultramarina (8).
Jay, Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens (8)  [see Scrub-Jay, Florida].
                                         Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus
Kingbird, Loggerhead, Tyrannus           Kingfisher, Collared,
 caudifasciatus (6).                      Todirhamphus chloris (4).
                                         Kingfisher, Micronesian,
                                          Todirhamphus cinnamominus (4).
Kingfisher, Ringed, Ceryle torquata (9)  Kingfisher, Ringed, Ceryle
                                          torquatus (9).
Kite, American Swallow-tailed,           Kite, Swallow-tailed, Elanoides
 Elanoides forficatus (8).                forficatus (8).
Kite, Black-shouldered, Elanus           [see Kite, White-tailed].
 caeruleus (6).
                                         Kite, White-tailed, Elanus
                                          leucurus (5).
Kittiwake, Black-legged, Larus           Kittiwake, Black-legged, Rissa
 tridactyla (11).                         trydactyla (11).
Kittiwake, Red-legged, Larus             Kittiwake, ed-legged, Rissa
 brevirostris (11).                       brevirostris (11).
[see Skylark, Eurasian]................  Lark, Sky, Alauda arvensis (8).
Lizard-Cuckoo, Puerto Rican, Saurothera  Lizard-Cuckoo, Puerto Rican,
 vieilloti (9).                           Coccyzus vieilloti (9).
                                         Loon, Pacific, Gavia pacifica
Magpie, Black-billed (=Eurasian), Pica   [see Magpie, Black-billed, Pica
 pica (6).                                hudsonia].
                                         Magpie, Black-billed, Pica
                                          hudsonia (5).
                                         Mango, Green-breasted,
                                          Anthracothorax prevostii (3).
                                         Martin, Brown-chested, Progne
                                          tapera (3).
                                         Martin, Southern, Progne
                                          elegans (2).
                                         Mockingbird, Bahama, Mimus
                                          gundlachii (2).
                                         Mockingbird, Blue, Melanotis
                                          caerulescens (3).
                                         Murrelet, Long-billed,
                                          Brachyramphus perdix (3).

[[Page 50203]]

Murrelet, Xantus', Synthliboramphus      Murrelet, Xantus's,
 hypoleucus (8).                          Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
Night-Heron, Japanese, Nycticorax        Night-Heron, Japanese,
 goisagi (9).                             Gorsachius goisagi (9).
Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax           Night-Heron, Malayan,
 melanolophus (10).                       Gorsachius melanolophus (10).
Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned, Nycticorax  Night-Heron, Yellow-crowned,
 violaceus (9).                           Nyctanassa violacea (9).
Nightjar, Jungle, Caprimulgus indicus    Nightjar, Gray, Caprimulgus
 (8).                                     indicus (8).
                                         Nightingale-Thrush, Black-
                                          headed, Catharus mexicanus
                                         Nightingale-Thrush, Orange-
                                          billed, Catharus
                                          aurantiirostris (3).
Noddy, Lesser, Anous tenuirostris (6)..
Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (8)........  [see Duck, Long-tailed].
                                         Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis
[see Thrush, Hawaiian].................  Omao, Myadestes obscurus (10).
Oriole, Northern, Icterus galbula (8)..  Oriole, Baltimore, Icterus
                                          galbula (8).
                                         Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus
                                          bullockii (5).
Oriole, Black-cowled, Icterus            Oriole, Greater Antillean,
 dominicensis (8).                        Icterus dominicensis (8).
Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus (9).....  Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
[see Barn-Owl, Common].................  Owl, Barn, Tyto alba (8).
                                         Owl, Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
[see Hawk-Owl, Northern]...............  Owl, Northern Hawk, Surnia
                                          ulula (8).
Owl, Snowy, Nyctea scandiaca (9).......  Owl, Snowy, Bubo scandiaca (9).
                                         Owl, Stygian, Asio stygius (3).
                                         Oystercatcher, Eurasian,
                                          Haematopus ostralegus (4).
[see Swift, Antillean Palm]............  Palm-Swift, Antillean,
                                          Tachornis phoenicobia (8).
                                         Petrel, Bermuda, Pterodroma
                                          cahow (3).
                                         Petrel, Black-winged,
                                          Pterodroma nigripennis (2).
Petrel, Dark-rumped, Pterodroma          [see Petrel, Hawaiian]
 phaeopygia (6).
                                         Petrel, Gould's, Pterodroma
                                          leucoptera (4).
                                         Petrel, Great-winged,
                                          Pterodroma macroptera (3).
                                         Petrel, Hawaiian, Pterodroma
                                          sandwichensis (5).
                                         Petrel, Jouanin's, Bulweria
                                          fallax (2).
Petrel, White-necked, Pterodroma         Petrel, Juan Fernandez,
 externa (8).                             Pterodroma externa (8).
                                         Petrel, Phoenix, Pterodroma
                                          alba (4).
                                         Petrel, Stejneger's, Pterodroma
                                          longirostris (3).
                                         Petrel, Tahiti, Pterodroma
                                          rostrata (4).
                                         Petrel, White-necked,
                                          Pterodroma cervicalis (5).
                                         Pewee, Cuban, Contopus
                                          caribeaus (3).
                                         Pewee, Hispaniolan, Contopus
                                          hispaniolensis (2).
Phalarope, Red, Phalaropus fulicaria     Red Phalarope, Phalaropus
 (9).                                     fulicarius (9).
Pigeon, Band-tailed, Columba fasciata    Pigeon, Band-tailed,
 (9).                                     Patagioenas fasciata (9).
Pigeon, Plain, Columba inornata (9)....  Pigeon, Plain, Patagioenas
                                          inornata (9).
Pigeon, Red-billed, Columba              Pigeon, Red-billed, Patagioenas
 flavirostris (9).                        flavirostris (9).
Pigeon, Scaly-naped, Columba squamosa    Pigeon, Scaly-naped,
 (9).                                     Patagioenas squamosa (9).
Pigeon, White-crowned, Columba           Pigeon, White-crowned,
 leucocephala (9).                        Patagioenas leucocephala (9).
Pipit, Water, Anthus spinoletta (6)....  [see Pipit, American].
                                         Pipit, American, Anthus
                                          rubescens (5).
[see Tree-Pipit, Olive]................  Pipit, Olive-backed, Anthus
                                          hodgsoni (8).
                                         Pipit, Tree, Anthus trivialis
                                         Plover, Collared, Charadrius
                                          collaris (3).
Plover, Great Sand, Charadrius           [see Sand-Plover, Greater].
 leschenaultii (8).
Plover, Mongolian, Charadrius mongolus   [see Sand-Plover, Lesser].
                                         Pond-Heron, Chinese, Ardeola
                                          bacchus (3).
[see Thrush, Small Kauai]..............  Puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri
[see Trogon, Eared]....................  Quetzel, Eared, Euptilotis
                                          neoxenus (8).
                                         Rail, Buff-banded, Gallirallus
                                          philippensis (4).
                                         Rail, Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
                                         Rail, Spotted, Pardirallus
                                          maculatus (2).
Redstart, Slaty-throated, Myioborus      Redstart, Slate-throated,
 miniatus (12).                           Myioborus miniatus (12).
Reed-Bunting, Common, Emberiza           [see Bunting, Reed].
 schoeniculus (8).
Reed-Bunting, Pallas', Emberiza pallasi  [see Bunting, Pallas's].
[see Heron, Pacific Reef]..............  Reef-Egret, Pacific, Egretta
                                          sacra (8).
                                         Reef-Heron, Western, Egretta
                                          gularis (3).
                                         Robin, Siberian Blue, Luscinia
                                          cyane (3).
                                         Robin, White-throated, Turdus
                                          assimilis (3).
                                         Rosy-Finch, Black, Leucosticte
                                          atrata (5).
                                         Rosy-Finch, Brown-capped,
                                          Leucosticte australis (5).
                                         Rosy-Finch, Gray-crowned,
                                          Leucosticte tephrocotis (5).
                                         Sandpiper, Green, Tringa
                                          ochropus (3).
Sandpiper, Spoonbill, Eurynorhynchus     Sandpiper, Spoon-billed,
 pygmeus (8).                             Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (8).
Sandpiper, Spotted, Actitis macularia    Sandpiper, Spotted, Actitis
 (9).                                     macularius (9).
[see Plover, Great Sand]...............  Sand-Plover, Greater,
                                          Charadrius leschenaultii (8).
[see Plover, Mongolian]................  Sand-Plover, Lesser, Charadrius
                                          mongolus (8).
                                         Sapsucker, Red-naped,
                                          Sphyrapicus nuchalis (5).
                                         Scops-Owl, Oriental, Otus sunia
Screech-Owl, Eastern, Otus asio (9)....  Screech-Owl, Eastern, Megascops
                                          asio (9).
Screech-Owl, Puerto Rican, Otus nudipes  Screech-Owl, Puerto Rican,
 (9).                                     Megascops nudipes (9).

[[Page 50204]]

Screech-Owl, Western, Otus kennicottii   Screech-Owl, Western, Megascops
 (9).                                     kennicottii (9).
Screech-Owl, Whiskered, Otus trichopsis  Screech-Owl, Whiskered,
 (9).                                     Megascops trichopsis (9).
[see Jay, Scrub].......................  Scrub-Jay, Florida, Aphelocoma
                                          coerulescens (8).
                                         Scrub-Jay, Island, Aphelocoma
                                          insularis (5).
                                         Scrub-Jay, Western, Aphelocoma
                                          californica (5).
                                         Shearwater, Cape Verde,
                                          Calonectris edwardsii (3).
                                         Shearwater, Streaked,
                                          Calonectris leucomelas (2).
                                         Shrike, Brown, Lanius cristatus
                                         Silky-flycatcher, Gray,
                                          Ptilogonys cinereus (3).
                                         Siskin, Eurasian, Carduelis
                                          spinus (3).
Skimmer, Black, Rhynchops niger (11)...  Skimmer, Black, Rynchops niger
Skua, Great, Catharacta skua (9).......  Skua, Great, Stercorarius skua
Skua, South Polar, Catharacta            Skua, South Polar, Stercorarius
 maccormicki (9).                         maccormicki (9).
Skylark, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis (8).  [see Lark, Sky].
                                         Snipe, Wilson's, Gallinago
                                          delicata (5).
Sparrow, Five-striped, Amphispiza        Sparrow, Five-striped,
 quinquestriata (9).                      Aimophila quinquestriata (9).
Sparrow, Harris', Zonotrichia querula    Sparrow, Harris's, Zonotrichia
 (8).                                     querula (8).
                                         Sparrow, Nelson's Sharp-tailed,
                                          Ammodramus nelsoni (5).
Sparrow, Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus        Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sharp-
 caudacutus (8).                          tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus
[see Hawk, Asiatic Sparrow]............  Sparrowhawk, Japanese,
                                          Accipiter gularis (8).
                                         Spindalis, Puerto Rican,
                                          Spindalis portoricensis (5).
[see Tanager, Stripe-headed]...........  Spindalis, Western, Spindalis
                                          zena (8).
Spoonbill, Roseate, Ajaia ajaja (9)....  Spoonbill, Roseate, Platalea
                                          ajaja (9).
Starling, Violet-backed, Sturnus         Starling, Chestnut-cheeked,
 philippensis (8).                        Sturnus philippensis (8).
Starling, Ashy, Sturnus cineraceus (8).  Starling, White-cheeked,
                                          Sturnus cineraceus (8).
                                         Stilt, Black-winged, Himantopus
                                          himantopus (3).
Stint, Rufous-necked, Calidris           Stint, Red-necked, Calidris
 ruficollis (8).                          ruficollis (8).
                                         Stonechat, Saxicola torquatus
                                         Storm-Petrel, Black-bellied,
                                          Fregetta tropica (3).
                                         Storm-Petrel, Matsudaira's,
                                          Oceanodroma matsudairae (4).
                                         Storm-Petrel, Polynesian,
                                          Nesofregata fuliginosa (4).
Storm-Petrel, Sooty, Oceanodroma         Storm-Petrel, Tristram's,
 tristrami (8).                           Oceanodroma tristrami (8).
                                         Storm-Petrel, White-bellied,
                                          Fregetta grallaria (4).
Swallow, Cave, Hirundo fulva (9).......  Swallow, Cave, Petrochelidon
                                          fulva (9).
Swallow, Cliff, Hirundo pyrrhonota (9).  Swallow, Cliff, Petrochelidon
                                          pyrrhonota (9).
                                         Swallow, Mangrove, Tachycineta
                                          albilinea (3).
                                         Swamphen, Purple, Porphyrio
                                          porphyrio (4).
                                         Swift, Alpine, Apus melba (3).
Swift, Antillean Palm, Tachornis         [see Palm-Swift, Antillean].
 phoenicobia (8).
                                         Swift, Short-tailed, Chaetura
                                          brachyura (2).
Tanager, Stripe-headed, Spindalis zena   [see Spindalis, Western].
                                         Swiftlet, Mariana, Aerodramus
                                          bartschi (4).
                                         Swiftlet, White-rumped,
                                          Aerodramus spodiopygius (4).
                                         Tanager, Flame-colored, Piranga
                                          bidentata (3).
Tattler, Gray-tailed, Heteroscelus       Tattler, Gray-tailed, Tringa
 brevipes (9).                            brevipes (9).
Tattler, Wandering, Heteroscelus         Tattler, Wandering, Tringa
 incanus (9).                             incana (9).
Teal, Falcated, Anas falcata (8).......  [see Duck, Falcated].
Tern, Aleutian, Sterna aleutica (9)....  Tern, Aleutian, Onychoprion
                                          aleuticus (9).
Tern, Bridled, Sterna anaethetus (9)...  Tern, Bridled, Onychoprion
                                          anaethetus (9).
Tern, Caspian, Sterna caspia (9).......  Tern, Caspian, Hydroprogne
                                          caspia (9).
Tern, Elegant, Sterna elegans (9)......  Tern, Elegant, Thalasseus
                                          elegans (9).
Tern, Gray-backed, Sterna lunata (9)...  Tern, Gray-backed, Onychoprion
                                          lunatus (9).
                                         Tern, Great Crested, Thalasseus
                                          bergii (3).
Tern, Gull-billed, Sterna nilotica (9).  Tern, Gull-billed, Gelochelidon
                                          nilotica (9).
Tern, Least, Sterna antillarum (9).....  Tern, Least, Sternula
                                          antillarum (9).
Tern, Little, Sterna albifrons (9).....  Tern, Little, Sternula
                                          albifrons (9).
Tern, Royal, Sterna maxima (9).........  Tern, Royal, Thalasseus maximus
Tern, Sandwich, Sterna sandvicensis (9)  Tern, Sandwich, Thalasseus
                                          sandvicensis (9).
Tern, Sooty, Sterna fuscata (9)........  Tern, Sooty, Onychoprion
                                          fuscatus (9).
                                         Tern, Whiskered, Chlidonias
                                          hybrida (3).
Thrasher, Crissal, Toxostoma dorsale     Thrasher, Crissal, Toxostoma
 (9).                                     crissale (9).
                                         Thrush, Bicknell's, Catharus
                                          bicknelli (5).
Thrush, Eye-browed, Turdus obscurus (8)  Thrush, Eyebrowed, Turdus
                                          obscurus (8).
Thrush, Hawaiian, Phaeornis obscurus     [see Omao].
Thrush, Small Kauai, Phaeornis palmeri   [see Puaiohi].
Thrush, Wood, Hylocichla minima (11)...  Thrush, Wood, Hylocichla
                                          mustelina (11).
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus (10)......  [see Chickadee, Gray-headed].
                                         Titmouse, Black-crested,
                                          Baeolophus atricristatus (5).
Titmouse, Bridled, Parus wollweberi (9)  Titmouse, Bridled, Baeolophus
                                          wollweberi (9).
                                         Titmouse, Juniper, Baeolophus
                                          ridgwayi (5).
Titmouse, Plain, Parus inornatus (10)..  Titmouse, Oak, Baeolophus
                                          inornatus (10).
Titmouse, Tufted, Parus bicolor (9)....  Titmouse, Tufted, Baeolophus
                                          bicolor (9).
                                         Tityra, Masked, Tityra
                                          semifasciata (3).
                                         Towhee, California, Pipilo
                                          crissalis (5).

[[Page 50205]]

Towhee, Brown, Pipilo fuscus (8).......  Towhee, Canyon, Pipilo fuscus
Towhee, Rufous-sided, Pipilo             Towhee, Eastern, Pipilo
 erythrophthalmus (8).                    erythrophthalmus (8).
                                         Towhee, Spotted, Pipilo
                                          maculatus (5).
Tree-Pipit, Olive, Anthus hodgsoni (8).  [see Pipit, Olive-backed].
Trogon, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus (8).  [see Quetzel, Eared].
                                         Turtle-Dove, Oriental,
                                          Streptopelia orientalis (3).
Vireo, Solitary, Vireo solitarius (8)..  Vireo, Blue-headed, Vireo
                                          solitarius (8).
                                         Vireo, Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
                                         Vireo, Plumbeous, Vireo
                                          plumbeus (5).
                                         Vireo, Thick-billed, Vireo
                                          crassirostris (2).
                                         Vireo, Yellow-green, Vireo
                                          flavoviridis (5).
                                         Vireo, Yucatan, Vireo magister
Wagtail, Black-backed, Motacilla lugens  Wagtail, Citrine, Motacilla
 (7).                                     citreola (3).
Wagtail, Yellow, Motacilla flava (6)...  [see Wagtail, Eastern Yellow].
                                         Wagtail, Eastern Yellow,
                                          Motacilla tschutschensis (5).
                                         Warbler, Crescent-chested,
                                          Parula superciliosa (3).
Warbler, Elfin Woods, Dendroica angelae  Warbler, Elfin-woods, Dendroica
 (8).                                     angelae (8).
                                         Warbler, Fan-tailed, Euthlypis
                                          lachrymosa (2).
Warbler, Worm-eating, Helmitheros        Warbler, Worm-eating,
 vermivora (9).                           Helmitheros vermivorus (9).
Willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (9)  Willet, Tringa semipalmata (9).
                                         Woodpecker, American Three-
                                          toed, Picoides dorsalis (5).
                                         Woodpecker, Arizona, Picoides
                                          arizonae (5).
                                         Woodpecker, Great Spotted,
                                          Dendrocopos major (3).
Woodpecker, Lewis', Melanerpes lewis     Woodpecker, Lewis's, Melanerpes
 (8).                                     lewis (8).
Woodpecker, Strickland's, Picoides       [see Woodpecker, Arizona].
 stricklandi (6).
Woodpecker, Three-toed, Picoides         [see Woodpecker, American Three-
 tridactylis (6).                         toed].

How Do the Changes Proposed Here Differ From Those Discussed in the 
2001 Proposed Rule?

    We propose adding another 85 species (88 species in the current 
proposed rule versus 3 species in the 2001 proposed rule) based on 
documented evidence of their occurrence in the United States, Puerto 
Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. We propose adding 28 species (28 
versus 0) that belong to families covered by the Canadian and Mexican 
treaties that occur naturally in the United States only in the Pacific 
island territories of American Samoa, Baker and Howland Islands, Guam, 
or the Northern Mariana Islands. We propose adding an additional 11 
species (37 versus 26) because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as subspecies have been elevated to the status of 
full species. We propose removing an additional 11 species (12 versus 
1) based on revised taxonomic treatments and new distributional 
information. We propose changing the common and/or scientific names of 
an additional 25 species (103 versus 78). We propose correcting errors 
in the common or scientific names of an additional 8 species (9 versus 

How Is the List of Migratory Birds Organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, 
species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific 
name of each species following the English group name. This format, 
which is similar to that used in modern telephone directories, will be 
most useful to members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, 
species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with 
the English name following the scientific name. To help clarify species 
relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of 
Order, Family, and Subfamily. This format, which follows the sequence 
adopted by the AOU (1998, 2004), will be most useful to ornithologists 
and other scientists.

What Species Are Not Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The MBTA does not apply to species that fall into any of the 
following three categories:
    (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or its 
territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance 
that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or 
Russian treaties, in accordance with the MBTRA. See 70 FR 12710 (March 
15, 2005) for a partial list of nonnative human-introduced bird species 
in this category.
    (2) Nonnative human-introduced species that belong to families or 
groups not covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian treaties, 
including Tinamidae (tinamous), Cracidae (chachalacas), Megapodiidae 
(megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Turnicidae 
(buttonquails), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Pteroclididae 
(sandgrouse), Psittacidae (parrots), Dicruridae (drongos), 
Rhamphastidae (toucans), Musophagidae (turacos), Bucerotidae 
(hornbills), Bucorvidae (ground-hornbills), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), 
Pittidae (pittas), Irenidae (fairy-bluebirds), Timaliidae (wrentits), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings; except as listed in 
the Japanese treaty), Passeridae (Old World sparrows), Ploceidae 
(weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and numerous other families 
not currently represented in the United States or its territories.
    (3) Native species that belong to families or groups represented in 
the United States, but which are not expressly mentioned by the 
Canadian, Mexican, or Russian treaties, including the Megapodiidae 
(megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), 
Odontophoridae (New World quail), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae 
(pratincoles), Psittacidae (parrots), Todidae (todies), Meliphagidae 
(honeyeaters), Monarchidae (monarchs), Timaliidae (wrentits), 
Coerebidae (bananaquits), and Drepanidinae (Hawaiian honeycreepers).
    Partial lists of the species included in categories 2 and 3 are 
available at http://migratorybirds.fws.gov/issues/nonnative/MBTA-Protected&NonprotectedSpecies.htm

[[Page 50206]]

Does This Rule Comply With NEPA?

    Given that the proposed revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly 
administrative in nature and does not constitute a Federal action in 
the context of NEPA it is categorically excluded from further NEPA 
requirements, as provided by Department of the Interior Manual 516 DM 
2, Appendix 1.10.

Does This Rule Comply With the Endangered Species Act?

    Yes. Eighty of the species on the List of Migratory Birds are also 
designated as endangered or threatened in all or some portion of their 
U.S. range under provisions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 
U.S.C. 1531, et seq.; see 50 CFR 17.11). No legal complications arise 
from the dual listing since the two lists are developed under separate 
authorities and for different purposes. Because the proposed rule is 
strictly administrative in nature, it does not require ESA 

Does This Rule Affect Energy Supplies, Distribution, or Use?

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 on 
regulations that significantly effect energy supply, distribution, and 
use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to prepare Statements of 
Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. Because this rule is 
only making revisions to existing regulations that are strictly 
administrative in nature, it is not a significant regulatory action 
under Executive Order 12866 and is not expected to significantly affect 
energy supplies, distribution, and use. Therefore, this action is not a 
significant energy action, and no Statement of Energy Effects is 

Clarity of the Rule

    Executive Order 12866 requires each agency to write regulations/
notices that are easy to understand. We invite your comments on how to 
make this proposed rule easier to understand, including answers to 
questions such as the following: (1) Are the requirements in the 
proposed rule clearly stated? (2) Does the proposed rule contain 
unnecessary technical language or jargon that interferes with the 
clarity? (3) Does the format of the proposed rule (grouping and order 
of sections, use of headings, paragraphing, etc.) aid or reduce its 
clarity? (4) Is the description of the proposed rule in the 
Supplementary Information section of the preamble helpful in 
understanding the proposed rule? (5) What else could we do to make the 
proposed rule easier to understand?
    Send a copy of any comments that concern how we could make this 
proposed rule easier to understand to: Office of Regulatory Affairs, 
Department of the Interior, Room 7229, 1849 C Street NW., Washington, 
DC 20240. You may e-mail your comments to the following address: 

What About Other Required Determinations?

    Because the revision to the List of Migratory Birds merely re-
describes the birds already protected by Federal treaties with Canada, 
Japan, Mexico, and Russia, we determined that this document does not 
have a significant economic effect on a substantial number of small 
entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).
    This document has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and 
Budget under E.O. 12866. In accordance with the criteria in Executive 
Order 12866, this rule is not a significant regulatory action.
    This rule is not a major rule under the terms of 5 U.S.C. 804(2), 
the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act.
    The rule does not contain information collection requirements that 
must be approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.).
    We find and certify, in compliance with the requirements of the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.), that the 
rule is not a significant regulatory action and will not impose a cost 
of $100 million or more in any given year on local or State government 
or private entities.
    As noted above, the rule will not have sufficient federalism 
implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism Assessment 
under Executive Order 13132.
    We have determined that these regulations meet the applicable 
standards provided in Sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 
12988 for civil justice reform.
    This rule does not have significant takings implications for 
private property, as defined in Executive Order 12630. A takings 
implication assessment is not required because migratory birds are a 
Federally managed resource under laws implementing international 
treaties and are not personal property.
    Regarding Government-to-Government relationships with Tribes (59 FR 
22951) and Executive Order 13175, these revisions to existing 
regulations are purely administrative in nature. They will have no 
effect on Federally recognized Tribes or Tribal trust resources.

References Cited

American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Eugene Eisenmann (chair--deceased), Burt L. Monroe Jr. 
(acting chair), Kenneth C. Parkes, Lester L. Short, Richard C. 
Banks, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, and Robert W. Storer]. 
1982. Thirty-fourth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union 
Check-list of North American birds. Auk 99: 1CC-16CC.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Eugene Eisenmann (chair--deceased), Burt L. Monroe Jr. 
(acting chair), Kenneth C. Parkes, Lester L. Short, Richard C. 
Banks, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, and Robert W. Storer]. 
1983. Check-list of North American birds: the species of birds of 
North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West 
Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 6th edition. American Ornithologists' 
Union, Washington, DC. 877 pp.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Burt L. Monroe Jr. (chair), Richard C. Banks, John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Henri Ouellet, James 
V. Remsen, and Robert W. Storer]. 1985. Thirty-fifth supplement to 
the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American 
birds. Auk 102: 680-686.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Burt L. Monroe (chair), Richard C. Banks, John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Henri Ouellet, James 
V. Remsen, and Robert W. Storer]. 1987. Thirty-sixth supplement to 
the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American 
birds. Auk 104: 591-596.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Burt L. Monroe Jr. (chair), Richard C. Banks, John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Henri Ouellet, J. V. 
Remsen, and Robert W. Storer]. 1989. Thirty-seventh supplement to 
the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American 
birds. Auk 106: 532-538.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Burt L. Monroe Jr. (chair), Richard C. Banks, John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Henri Ouellet, J. V. 
Remsen, and Robert W. Storer]. 1991. Thirty-eighth supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. 
Auk 108: 750-754.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Burt L. Monroe Jr. (chair), Richard C. Banks, John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Henri Ouellet, J. V. 
Remsen, and Robert W. Storer]. 1993. Thirty-ninth supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-

[[Page 50207]]

list of North American birds. Auk 110: 675-682.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Burt L. Monroe Jr. (chair-deceased), Richard C. Banks 
(acting chair), John W. Fitzpatrick, Thomas R. Howell, Ned K. 
Johnson, Henri Ouelet, J. V. Remsen, and Robert W. Storer]. 1995. 
Fortieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list 
of North American birds. Auk 112: 819-830.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), John W. Fitzpatrick, Thomas 
R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Burt L. Monroe (chair-deceased), Henri 
Ouellet, J. V. Remsen Jr., and Robert W. Storer]. 1997. Forty-first 
supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North 
American birds. Auk 114: 542-552.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), John W. Fitzpatrick, Thomas 
R. Howell, Ned K. Johnson, Burt L. Monroe Jr. (chair-deceased), 
Henri Ouellet, J. V. Remsen Jr., and Robert W. Storer]. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds: the species of birds of North America 
from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and 
Hawaiian Islands. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, 
Washington, D.C. 829 pp.
American Ornithologists' Union. 1999. Notice from the Committee on 
Classification and Nomenclature. Auk 116: 282-283.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, 
Andrew W. Kratter, Henri Ouellet (deceased), Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. 
V. Remsen Jr., James A. Rising, and Douglas F. Stotz]. 2000. Forty-
second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list 
of North American birds. Auk 117:847-858.
American Ornithologists' Union. 2002 [=AOU Committee on 
Classification and Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), Carla 
Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. 
Remsen Jr., James D. Rising, and Douglas F. Stotz]. Forty-third 
supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North 
American birds. Auk 119: 897-906.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, 
Andrew W. Kratter, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., James D. 
Rising, and Douglas F. Stotz]. 2003. Forty-fourth supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. 
Auk 120:923-931.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, 
Andrew W. Kratter, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., James D. 
Rising, and Douglas F. Stotz]. 2004. Forty-fifth supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. 
Auk 121:985-995.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, 
Andrew W. Kratter, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., James D. 
Rising, and Douglas F. Stotz]. 2005. Forty-sixth supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. 
Auk 122:1026-1031.
American Ornithologists' Union [=AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature: Richard C. Banks (chair), Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, 
Andrew W. Kratter, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., James D. 
Rising, and Douglas F. Stotz]. 2006. Forty-seventh supplement to the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. 
Auk 123:926-936.
Monroe, Burt. L., Jr., and Charles G. Sibley. 1993. A world 
checklist of birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. 
393 pp.
Pratt, H. Douglas, Phillip L. Bruner, and Delwyn G. Berrett. 1987. A 
field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. 
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. 409 pp.

Public Comments Invited

    We invite interested parties to submit written comments or 
suggestions regarding the draft revised list of migratory birds 
protected by the MBTA by any one of the means identified in the 
ADDRESSES section. Duplicate submissions are discouraged. The complete 
file for this notice will be available for public inspection during 
normal business hours, by appointment, at the location identified in 
the ADDRESSES section.
    E-mail comments should be submitted as an ASCII file with ``Revised 
List of Migratory Birds'' in the subject line. Avoid the use of special 
characters and any form of encryption.
    While all comments will be considered, we encourage reviewers to 
focus on the following questions:
    (1) Do the five criteria used to identify individual species 
protected by the MBTA accurately reflect the language and intentions of 
the MBTA and the underlying conventions? If not, what changes would you 
    (2) Have we included any species that doesn't meet any of the 
criteria for protection under the MBTA? Please be specific, and provide 
as much detail as possible.
    (3) Have we omitted any species that should be protected by the 
MBTA because they meet one or more of the specified criteria?
    Following review and consideration of the comments, we will publish 
a final list in the Federal Register.


    John L. Trapp, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of 
Migratory Bird Management, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop 4107, 
Arlington, VA 22203.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 

Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend 
title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations, as follows:


    1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 703-712; 16 U.S.C. 668a-d; 19 
U.S.C. 1202; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407; 16 
U.S.C. 742a-742j-l; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.

    2. Revise Sec.  10.13 to read as follows:

Sec.  10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

    (a) What is the legal authority for this list? The Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act (MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and Wildlife 
Improvement Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 712, and 16 U.S.C. 742a-j. The MBTA 
implements treaties between the United States and four neighboring 
countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds, 
August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 
Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628;
    (2) Mexico: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States 
(=Mexico), 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912;
    (3) Japan: Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 
United States-Japan, 25 U.S.T. 3329, T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and
    (4) Russia: Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Birds and 
Their Environment, United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
(=Russia), November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073, 16 U.S.C. 
703, 712.
    (b) What is the purpose of this list? The purpose is to inform the 
public of the species protected by regulations designed to enforce the 
terms of the MBTA. These regulations, found in parts 10, 20, and 21 of 
this chapter, cover most aspects of the taking, possession, 
transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of 
migratory birds.

[[Page 50208]]

    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species 
protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the 
varying needs of the user: alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy 
and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds (1998, as 
amended through 2004); for species not treated by the AOU Check-list, 
we follow Monroe and Sibley's A World Checklist of Birds (1993).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name. It is possible that alphabetical listing by 
common group names may create confusion in those few instances in which 
the common (English) name of a species has changed. The species 
formerly known as the Falcated Teal, for example, is now known as the 
Falcated Duck. To prevent confusion, the alphabetical list has two 
entries for Falcated Duck: ``DUCK, Falcated;'' and ``[TEAL, Falcated 
(see DUCK, Falcated)]''. Other potential ambiguities are treated in the 
same way.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris
    Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Shy, Thalassarche cauta
    Wandering, Diomedea exulans
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
[BARN-OWL, Common (see OWL, Barn)].
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis
    [Chinese (see Yellow)]
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACK-HAWK, Common, Buteogallus anthracinus
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus
BLUETHROAT, Luscinia svecica
BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
BOOBY, Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Loxigilla portoricensis
BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina
    Gray, Emberiza variabilis
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Little, Emberiza pusilla
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniculus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
    Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola
    Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
    Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis
CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris
    Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonica
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cincta
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Caprimulgus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Caribbean, Fulica caribaea
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    [Olivaceous (see Neotropic)]
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops
    Spotless, Porzana tabuensis
    Yellow-breasted, Porzana flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Grus canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
CROSSBILL, Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
    [Mexican (see Tamaulipas)]
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus optatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Eurasian, Numenius arquata
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    [Least (see Little)]
    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita

[[Page 50209]]

DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Falcated, Anas falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Muscovy, Cairina moschata
    Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Spot-billed, Anas poecilorhyncha
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia
    Little, Egretta garzetta
    [Plumed (see Intermediate)]
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
    Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Carpodacus cassinii
    House, Carpodacus mexicanus
    Purple, Carpodacus purpureus
    [Rosy (see ROSY-FINCH)]
FLAMINGO, Greater, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    [Gray-spotted (see Gray-streaked)]
    Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Piratic, Legatus leucophalus
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Social, Myiozetetes similis
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
    Variegated, Empidonomus varius
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    [Western (see Cordilleran and Pacific-slope)]
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FROG-HAWK, Gray, Accipiter soloensis
FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
    Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii
    Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Anas strepera
GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris
    Purple, Porphyrio martinica
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Anas querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    [Lesser (see American)]
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDFINCH, American, Carduelis tristis
    Lawrence's, Carduelis lawrencei
    Lesser, Carduelis psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Bean, Anser fabalis
    Cackling, Branta hutchinsii
    Canada, Branta canadensis
    Emperor, Chen canagica
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus
    Ross's, Chen rossii
    Snow, Chen caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Carduelis sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
    Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Passerina caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina
    Friendly, Gallicolumba stairi
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
    White-throated, Gallicolumba xanthonura
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
    Black-headed, Larus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Larus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    [Common Black-headed (see Black-headed)]
    Franklin's, Larus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Gray-hooded, Larus cirrocephalus
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea
    Kelp, Larus dominicanus
    Laughing, Larus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Larus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Thayer's, Larus thayeri
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
    Yellow-legged, Larus cachinnans
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus cyaneus
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes

[[Page 50210]]

HAWK, [Asiatic Sparrow (see SPARROWHAWK, Japanese)]
    Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo nitidus
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Roadside, Buteo magnirostris
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Buteo albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Cuculus fugax
[HAWK-OWL, Northern (see OWL, Northern Hawk)]
HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    [Green-backed (see Green)]
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    [Pacific Reef (see REEF-EGRET, Pacific)]
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhynchus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa
    Calliope, Stellula calliope
    Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Magnificent, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
    Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Cyanocorax morio
    Gray, Perisoreus canadensis
    [Gray-breasted (see Mexican)]
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma ultramarina
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    [Scrub (see SCRUB-JAY)]
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
KAMAO, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Belted, Ceryle alcyon
    Collared, Todirhamphus chloris
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Micronesian, Todirhamphus cinnamominus
    Ringed, Ceryle torquatus
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, [American Swallow-tailed (see Swallow-tailed)]
    Black, Milvus migrans
    [Black-shouldered (see White-tailed)]
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
    Sky, Alauda arvensis
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Calcarius mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
    Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii
MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
    Southern, Progne elegans
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta
MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii
    Blue, Melanotis caerulescens
    Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Xantus's, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi
    [Malay (see Malayan)]
    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus
    Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris
NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Caprimulgus ridgwayi
    Gray, Caprimulgus indicus
    [Jungle (see Gray)]
    Puerto Rican, Caprimulgus noctitherus
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Procelsterna cerulea
    Brown, Anous stolidus
    [Lesser (see Black)]
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
[OLDSQUAW (see DUCK, Long-tailed)]
OLOMAO, Myadestes lanaiensis
OMAO, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis

[[Page 50211]]

    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    [Black-cowled (see Greater Antillean)]
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Greater Antillean, Icterus dominicensis
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    [Northern (see Baltimore and Bullock's)]
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Otus flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Bubo scandiaca
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
    Stygian, Asio stygius
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
    Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARULA, Northern, Parula americana
    Tropical, Parula pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    [Dark-rumped (see Hawaiian)]
    Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera
    Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera
    Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis
    Herald, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Phoenix, Pterodroma alba
    Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris
    Tahiti, Pterodroma rostrata
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
    [White-necked, Pterodroma externa (see Petrel, Juan Fernandez)]
PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribeaus
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata
    Plain, Patagioenas inornata
    Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa
    White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree, Anthus trivialis
    [Water (see American)]
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Collared, Charadrius collaris
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    [Great Sand (see Sand-Plover, Greater)]
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    [Mongolian (see Sand-Plover, Lesser)]
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
QUETZEL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus
RAIL, Black Laterallus jamaicensis
    Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis
    Clapper, Rallus longirostris
    Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
    King, Rallus elegans
    Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Carduelis flammea
    Hoary, Carduelis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
[REED-BUNTING, Common (see BUNTING, Reed)]
    [Pallas' (see BUNTING, Pallas's)]
REEF-EGRET, Pacific, Egretta sacra
REEF-HERON, Western, Egretta gularis
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
    Siberian Blue, Luscinia cyane
    White-throated, Turdus assimilis
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
ROSY-FINCH, Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
[ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW, Northern (see SWALLOW, Northern Rough-winged)]
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Luscinia calliope
RUFF, Philomachus pugnax
SANDERLING,Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Limicola falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Tryngites subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Green, Tringa ochropus
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata
    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    [Spoonbill (see Spoon-billed)]
    Spoon-billed, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus
    Spotted, Actitis macularius
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Lesser, Charadrius mongolus
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila

[[Page 50212]]

    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta nigra
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio
    Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes
    Western, Megascops kennicottii
    Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Western, Aphelocoma californica
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, White-collared, Sporophila torqueola
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Buller's, Puffinus bulleri
    Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Puffinus carneipes
    Greater, Puffinus gravis
    Little Puffinus assimilis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Pink-footed, Puffinus creatopus
    Short-tailed, Puffinus tenuirostris
    Sooty, Puffinus griseus
    Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas
    Townsend's, Puffinus auricularis
    Wedge-tailed, Puffinus pacificus
SHOVELER, Northern, Anas clypeata
SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius excubitor
SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptilogonys cinereus
SISKIN, Eurasian, Carduelis spinus
    Pine, Carduelis pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger
[SKYLARK, Eurasian (see LARK, Sky)]
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago (restricted to Alaska; also see 
SNIPE, Wilson's)
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
    Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (the ``common'' snipe hunted in most 
of the U.S.)
SOLITAIRE, Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizella arborea
    Bachman's, Aimophila aestivalis
    Baird's, Ammodramus bairdii
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Aimophila botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Aimophila cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Aimophila quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Ammodramus henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    Le Conte's, Ammodramus leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Aimophila carpalis
    Sage, Amphispiza belli
    Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammodramus maritimus
    [Sharp-tailed (see Nelson's Sharp-tailed and Saltmarsh Sharp-
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis
    Western, Spindalis zena
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja
STARLING, [Ashy (see White-cheeked)]
    Chestnut-cheeked, Sturnus philippensis
    [Violet-backed (see Chestnut-cheeked)]
    White-cheeked, Sturnus cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
    Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    [Rufous-necked (see Red-necked)]
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae
    Polynesian, Nesofregata fuliginosa
    [Sooty (see Tristram's)]
    Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Aphriza virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba
    [Antillean Palm (see PALM-SWIFT, Antillean)]
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi
    White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Neospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    [Stripe-headed Tanager (see SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican and Western)]
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes
    Wandering, Tringa incana
TEAL, Baikal, Anas formosa
    Blue-winged, Anas discors
    Cinnamon, Anas cyanoptera
    [Falcated (see DUCK, Falcated)]
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus
    Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Thalasseus elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus
    Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii
    Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica

[[Page 50213]]

    Least, Sternula antillarum
    Little, Sternula albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Thalleseus maximus
    Sandwich, Thalleseus sandvicensis
    Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus
    Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    Le Conte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Blue Rock, Monticola solitarius
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    [Hawaiian (see KAMAO, OLOMAO, and OMAO)]
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus
    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    [Small Kauai (see PUAIOHI)]
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
[TIT, Siberian (see CHICKADEE, Gray-headed)]
TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus
    Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    [Plain (see Juniper and Oak)]
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata
TOWHEE, Abert's, Pipilo aberti
    [Brown (see California and Canyon)]
    California, Pipilo crissalis
    Canyon, Pipilo fuscus
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    [Rufous-sided (see Eastern and Spotted)]
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
[TREE-PIPIT, Olive (see PIPIT, Olive-backed)]
TROGON, [Eared (see QUETZEL, Eared)]
    Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLET-EAR, Green, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapillus
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    [Solitary (see Blue-headed, Cassin's, and Plumbeous)]
    Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
    Yucatan, Vireo magister
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, [Black-backed (see White)]
    Citrine, Motacilla citreola
    Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
    [Yellow (see Eastern Yellow)]
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Dendroica adelaidae
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Black-throated Blue, Dendroica caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Dendroica nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Dendroica virens
    Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca
    Blackpoll, Dendroica striata
    Blue-winged, Vermivora pinus
    Canada, Wilsonia canadensis
    Cape May, Dendroica tigrina
    Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica
    Colima, Vermivora crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Crescent-chested, Parula superciliosa
    Elfin-woods, Dendroica angelae
    Fan-tailed, Euthlypis lachrymosa
    Golden-cheeked, Dendroica chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Dendroica graciae
    Hermit, Dendroica occidentalis
    Hooded, Wilsonia citrina
    Kentucky, Oporornis formosus
    Kirtland's, Dendroica kirtlandii
    Lucy's, Vermivora luciae
    MacGillivray's, Oporornis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia
    Mourning, Oporornis philadelphia
    Nashville, Vermivora ruficapilla
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Vermivora celata
    Palm, Dendroica palmarum
    Pine, Dendroica pinus
    Prairie, Dendroica discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Vermivora peregrina
    Townsend's, Dendroica townsendi
    Virginia's, Vermivora virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorus
    Yellow, Dendroica petechia
    Yellow-rumped, Dendroica coronata
    Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Seiurus motacilla
    Northern, Seiurus noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Caprimulgus vociferus
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WIGEON, American, Anas americana
    Eurasian, Anas penelope
WILLET, Tringa semipalmata
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis
    Arizona, Picoides arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Picoides pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major
    Hairy, Picoides villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Picoides scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Picoides nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Picoides borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    [Strickland's (see Arizona)]
    [Three-toed (see American Three-toed)]
    White-headed, Picoides albolarvatus

[[Page 50214]]

WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Winter, Troglodytes troglodytes
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence 
by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the 
scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list 
the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.

    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck

    Anser fabalis, Bean Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose
    Chen canagica, Emperor Goose
    Chen caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Chen rossii, Ross's Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan

Subfamily ANATINAE
    Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Anas strepera, Gadwall
    Anas falcata, Falcated Duck
    Anas penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Anas americana, American Wigeon
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas poecilorhyncha, Spot-billed Duck
    Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck
    Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Anas cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal
    Anas clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas querquedula, Garganey
    Anas formosa, Baikal Teal
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta nigra, Black Scoter
    Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck

    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon

    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe

    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Thalassarche cauta, Shy Albatross
    Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross
    Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross
    Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross

    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel
    Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel
    Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel
    Pterodroma rostrata, Tahiti Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel
    Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater
    Puffinus creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus gravis, Greater Shearwater
    Puffinus pacificus, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Puffinus griseus, Sooty Shearwater
    Puffinus tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus auricularis, Townsend's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus assimilis, Little Shearwater

    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-

[[Page 50215]]

    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Nesofregetta fuiginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storcm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel

    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird

    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet

    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican

    Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant.
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant


    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga
    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird

    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern
    Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern
    Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Mesophoyx intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta garzetta, Little Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Egret
    Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron

    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis

    Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill

    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork

    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor

    Phoenicopterus ruber, Greater Flamingo

    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey

    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Circus cyaneus, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter soloensis, Gray Frog-Hawk
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Buteo magnirostris, Roadside Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo nitidus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle

    Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon

    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara

    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon

    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail
    Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus longirostris, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake
    Porzana flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake
    Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail
    Porphyrio martinica, Purple Gallinule

[[Page 50216]]

    Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen
    Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule
    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
    Fulica caribaea, Caribbean Coot

    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin

    Grus canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane

    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing

    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover
    Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel

    Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher

    Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet

    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana

    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper
    Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank
    Tringa semipalmata, Willet
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Aphriza virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Spoon-billed Sandpiper
    Limicola falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Philomachus pugnax, Ruff
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe (the ``common'' snipe hunted in 
most of the U.S.)
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe (restricted to Alaska; also see 
Gallinago delicata)
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock

    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope

Subfamily LARINAE
    Larus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Larus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus minutus, Little Gull
    Larus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Larus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull
    Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus cachinnans, Yellow-legged Gull
    Larus thayeri, Thayer's Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull

    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Procelsterna cerulea, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern
    Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern
    Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern

[[Page 50217]]

    Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern
    Sternula albifrons, Little Tern
    Sternula antillarum, Least Tern
    Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias hybridus, Whiskered Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern
    Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern
    Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern

    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer

    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger

    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin

    Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
    Gallicolumba xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove
    Gallicolumba stairi, Friendly Ground-Dove
    Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
    Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon

    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Cuculus fugax, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo

    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner

    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani

    Tyto alba, Barn Owl

    Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl
    Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Bubo scandiaca, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio stygius, Stygian Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl

    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk

    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Caprimulgus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Caprimulgus vociferus, Whip-poor-will
    Caprimulgus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Caprimulgus indicus, Gray Nightjar

    Cpseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift

    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet
    Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet

Subfamily APODINAE
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Apus melba, Alpine Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift

[[Page 50218]]

    Colibri thalassinus, Green Violet-ear
    Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Orthorhynchus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Eugenes fulgens, Magnificent Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Stellula calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird

    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzel

    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe

    Todirhamphus cinnamominus, Micronesian Kingfisher
    Todirhamphus chloris, Collared Kingfisher
    Ceryle torquatus, Ringed Kingfisher
    Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher

Subfamily JYNGINAE
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck

Subfamily PICINAE
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker
    Picoides scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Picoides nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Picoides villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Picoides arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Picoides borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Picoides albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker

    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia

    Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus caribeaus, Cuban Pewee
    Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher

    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiozetetes similes, Social Flycatcher
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Legatus leucophalus, Piratic Flycatcher
    Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed

[[Page 50219]]

    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
    Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra

    Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike
    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius excubitor, Northern Shrike
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo atricapillus, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo

    Perisoreus canadensis, Gray Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Cyanocorax morio, Brown Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, Western Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma ultramarina, Mexican Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven

    Alauda arvensis, Sky Lark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark

    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Progne elegans, Southern Martin
    Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin

    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonica, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cincta, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse

    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin

    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit

Subfamily SITTINAE
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch

    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper

    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes troglodytes, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren

    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper

    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet

    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat

    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher

    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher

    Luscinia calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Luscinia svecica, Bluethroat
    Luscinia cyane, Siberian Blue Robin
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock Thrush
    Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, Kamao
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao
    Myadestes obscurus, Omao
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush

[[Page 50220]]

    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Robin
    Turdus assimilis, White-throated Robin
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush

    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
    Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird
    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, Le Conte's Thrasher
    Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher

    Sturnus philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Sturnus cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling

    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor

    Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit

    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing

    Ptilogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla

    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler

    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora pinus, Blue-winged Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler
    Vermivora peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Vermivora celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Vermivora ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Vermivora virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Vermivora crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Vermivora luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Parula superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler
    Parula americana, Northern Parula
    Parula pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Dendroica nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Dendroica chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Dendroica virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Dendroica townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Dendroica occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Dendroica fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Dendroica dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Dendroica graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Dendroica adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler
    Dendroica kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Dendroica palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Dendroica castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Dendroica angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Helmitheros vermivorus, Worm-eating Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird
    Seiurus noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Seiurus motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Oporornis formosus, Kentucky Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Oporornis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Wilsonia canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
    Euthlypis lachrymosa, Fan-tailed Warbler
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat

    Neospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia

    Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater
    Tiaris olivacea, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
    Pipilo fuscus, Canyon Towhee
    Pipilo crissalis, California Towhee
    Pipilo aberti, Abert's Towhee

[[Page 50221]]

    Aimophila carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Aimophila cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Aimophila aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Aimophila botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Aimophila quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Spizella arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Amphispiza belli, Sage Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Ammodramus bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Ammodramus henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammodramus leconteii, Le Conte's Sparrow
    Ammodramus nelsoni, Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus caudacutus, Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Calcarius mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting
    Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting
    Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting
    Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniculus, Reed Bunting
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting

    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting
    Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel

    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus dominicensis, Greater Antillean Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole

    Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling


    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch
    Carpodacus cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Carpodacus mexicanus, House Finch
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Carduelis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Carduelis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Carduelis spinus, Eurasian Siskin
    Carduelis pinus, Pine Siskin
    Carduelis psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Carduelis lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Carduelis tristis, American Goldfinch
    Carduelis sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch

    Dated: August 8, 2006.
David M. Verhey,
Acting Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
[FR Doc. 06-7001 Filed 8-23-06; 8:45 am]