[Federal Register: June 17, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 116)]
[Rules and Regulations]               
[Page 35949-36406]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr17jn03-9]                         
 

[[Page 35949]]

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Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service



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50 CFR Part 17



Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Designations or 
Nondesignations of Critical Habitat for 101 Plant Species From the 
Island of Oahu, HI; Final Rule


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

RIN 1018-AI24

 
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Designations 
or Nondesignations of Critical Habitat for 101 Plant Species From the 
Island of Oahu, HI

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate 
critical habitat pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as 
amended (Act), for 99 of the 101 species known historically from the 
Hawaiian island of Oahu. A total of approximately 22,274 hectares (ha) 
(55,040 acres (ac)) of land on Oahu fall within the boundaries of the 
303 critical habitat units designated for the 99 species. This critical 
habitat designation requires the Service to consult under section 7 of 
the Act with regard to actions carried out, funded, or authorized by a 
Federal agency. Section 4 of the Act requires us to consider economic 
and other relevant impacts when specifying any particular area as 
critical habitat. This rule also determines that designating critical 
habitat would not be prudent for two species (Cyrtandra crenata and 
Pritchardia kaalae). We solicited data and comments from the public on 
all aspects of the proposed rule, including data on economic and other 
impacts of the designation.

DATES: This rule becomes effective on July 17, 2003.

ADDRESSES: Comments and materials received, as well as supporting 
documentation, used in the preparation of this final rule will be 
available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business 
hours at U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Office, 300 
Ala Moana Blvd., Room 3-122, PO Box 50088, Honolulu, HI 96850-0001.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul Henson, Field Supervisor, Pacific 
Islands Office at the above address (telephone 808/541-3441; facsimile 
808/541-3470).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Disclaimer

    Designation of critical habitat provides little additional 
protection to species. In 30 years of implementing the ESA, the Service 
has found that the designation of statutory critical habitat provides 
little additional protection to most listed species, while consuming 
significant amounts of scarce conservation resources. The present 
system for designating critical habitat has evolved since its original 
statutory prescription into a process that provides little real 
conservation benefit, is driven by litigation rather than biology, 
forces decisions to be made before complete scientific information is 
available, consumes enormous agency resources that would otherwise be 
applied to actions of much greater conservation benefit, and imposes 
huge social and economic costs. The Service believes that rational 
public policy demands serious attention to this issue in order to allow 
our limited resources to be applied to those actions that provide the 
greatest benefit to the species most in need of protection.

Role of Critical Habitat in Actual Practice of Administering and 
Implementing the Act

    While attention to and protection of habitat is paramount to 
successful conservation actions, we have consistently found that, in 
most circumstances, the designation of critical habitat is of little 
additional value for most listed species, yet it consumes large amounts 
of conservation resources. [Sidle (1987. Env. Manage.11(4):429-437) 
stated, ``Because the ESA can protect species with and without critical 
habitat designation, critical habitat designation may be redundant to 
the other consultation requirements of section 7.''] Currently, only 
306 species or 25% of the 1,211 listed species in the U.S. under the 
jurisdiction of the Service have designated critical habitat. We 
address the habitat needs of all 1,211 listed species through 
conservation mechanisms such as listing, section 7 consultations, the 
Section 4 recovery planning process, the Section 9 protective 
prohibitions of unauthorized take, Section 6 funding to the States, and 
the Section 10 incidental take permit process. The Service believes 
that it is these measures that may make the difference between 
extinction and survival for many species.

Procedural and Resource Difficulties in Designating Critical Habitat

    With a budget consistently inadequate to fund all of the petition 
review, listing, and critical habitat designation duties required of us 
by statute, we have in the past prioritized our efforts and focused our 
limited resources on adding species in need of protection to the lists 
of threatened or endangered species. We have been inundated with 
lawsuits for our failure to designate critical habitat, and we face a 
growing number of lawsuits challenging critical habitat determinations 
once they are made. These lawsuits have subjected the Service to an 
ever-increasing series of court orders and court-approved settlement 
agreements, compliance with which now consumes nearly the entire 
listing program budget. This leaves the Service with little ability to 
prioritize its activities to direct scarce listing resources to the 
listing program actions with the most biologically urgent species 
conservation needs.
    The consequence of the critical habitat litigation activity is that 
limited listing funds are used to defend active lawsuits, to respond to 
Notices of Intent (NOIs) to sue relative to critical habitat, and to 
comply with the growing number of adverse court orders. As a result, 
listing petition responses, the Service's own proposals to list 
critically imperiled species, and final listing determinations on 
existing proposals are significantly delayed. Litigation over critical 
habitat issues for species already listed and receiving the Act's full 
protection has precluded or delayed many listing actions nationwide.
    The accelerated schedules of court ordered designations have left 
the Service with almost no ability to provide for adequate public 
participation or ensure a defect-free rulemaking process before making 
decisions on listing and critical habitat proposals due to the risks 
associated with noncompliance with judicially-imposed deadlines. This 
in turn fosters a second round of litigation in which those who fear 
adverse impacts from critical habitat designations challenge those 
designations. The cycle of litigation appears endless, is very 
expensive, and in the final analysis provides relatively little 
additional protection to listed species.
    The costs resulting from the designation include legal costs, the 
cost of preparation and publication of the designation, the analysis of 
the economic effects and the cost of requesting and responding to 
public comment, and in some cases the costs of compliance with NEPA, 
all are part of the cost of critical habitat designation. None of these 
costs result in any benefit to the species that is not already afforded 
by the protections of the Act enumerated earlier, and they directly 
reduce the funds available for direct and tangible conservation 
actions.

Background

    In the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants (50 CFR 17.12(h)),

[[Page 35951]]

there are 101 plant species that, at the time of listing, were reported 
from the island of Oahu and are at issue in this final rule. These 
species and their distribution by island are identified in Table 1 in 
the Federal Register notice proposing this critical habitat designation 
(67 FR 37107-37272; chart page 37108).
    Fifty-seven of these species are endemic to the island of Oahu, 
while 44 species are reported from one or more other islands, as well 
as Oahu. Each of these species is described in more detail below in the 
section ``Discussion of Plant Taxa.'' Although we considered 
designating critical habitat on Oahu for each of the 101 plant species, 
for the reasons described below, the final designation includes 
critical habitat for 99 of 101 plant species. We have designated 
critical habitat on other islands (Kauai, Niihau, Maui, and Molokai) 
for species that are also reported from Oahu. Critical habitat may be 
designated for the species that are also reported from the island of 
Hawaii in a subsequent rulemaking.

The Island of Oahu

    The island of Oahu was formed from the remnants of two large shield 
volcanoes, the younger Koolau volcano to the east and the older Waianae 
volcano to the west (60 FR 51398; Service 1995a, 1996b). Their original 
shield volcano shape has been lost as a result of extensive erosion, 
and today these volcanoes are called mountains or ranges and consist of 
long, narrow ridges. The Koolau Mountains were built by eruptions that 
took place primarily along a northwest-trending rift zone and formed a 
range now approximately 60 kilometers (km) (37 miles (mi)) long 
(Service 1996b). Median annual rainfall for the Koolau Mountains varies 
from 100 to 710 centimeters (cm) (40 to 280 inches (in)), most of which 
is received at higher elevations along the entire length of the 
windward (northeastern) side (Service 1996b).
    The Waianae Mountains were built by eruptions that took place 
primarily along three rift zones. The two principal rift zones run in a 
northwestward and south-southeastward direction from the summit, and a 
lesser one runs to the northeast. The range is approximately 32 km (20 
mi) long. The caldera lies between the north side of Makaha Valley and 
the head of Nanakuli Valley (MacDonald et al. 1983). The Waianae 
Mountains are in the rain shadow of the parallel Koolau Mountains and 
receive much less rainfall, except for Mt. Kaala, the highest point on 
Oahu at an elevation of 1,225 meters (m) (4,020 feet (ft)) (Wagner et 
al. 1999). The median annual rainfall for the Waianae Mountains varies 
from 51 to 190 cm (20 to 75 in), with only the small summit area of Mt. 
Kaala receiving the highest amount (Service 1995a).

Discussion of the Plant Taxa

Species Endemic to Oahu

Abutilon sandwicense[chyph] (No common name (NCN))
    Abutilon sandwicense, a member of the mallow family (Malvaceae) and 
a short-lived perennial, is a shrub that grows to 3 m (5 ft) tall and 
is covered with short glandular hairs. This species is distinguished 
from others in the genus by the green or reddish-brown tipped petals 
that extend beyond the sepals (Bates 1999).
    Abutilon sandwicense has been observed flowering in winter and 
spring. By summer, most plants have flowered, and the fruits have 
usually dried up by fall. Fruit capsules develop within six weeks. 
Although seedlings are often initially abundant, few plants appear to 
survive to maturity for unknown reasons (56 FR 55770). Little else is 
known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors.
    Historically, Abutilon sandwicense was known from nearly the entire 
length of the Waianae Mountains, from Makaleha Valley to Nanakuli 
Valley. This species is now known from Huliwai Gulch, Kaawa Gulch, 
Kaimuhole Gulch, Palikea Gulch, Makaha Valley, Makaha-Waianae Kai 
Ridge, Makaleha Valley, Manuwai Gulch, Halona subdistrict, Mikilua 
subdistrict, Alaiheihe Gulch, and Nanakuli Valley on Federal, State, 
private, city, and county lands. The 30 known occurrences contain an 
estimated 253 to 263 individuals (Bates 1999; Hawaii Heritage Program 
(HINHP) Database 2001).
    Abutilon sandwicense typically grows on steep slopes or gulches in 
dry to mesic lowland forest between 149 and 875 m (489 and 2,870 ft) 
elevation. Associated native species include Antidesma pulvinatum 
(hame), Diospyros sandwicensis (lama), Elaeocarpus bifidus (kalia), 
Eugenia reinwardtiana (nioi), Hibiscus arnottianus (kokio keokeo), 
Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia), Myrsine lanaiensis (kolea), Nestegis 
sandwicensis (olopua), Pipturus albidus (mamaki), Pisonia sp. (papala 
kepau), Pittosporum sp. (hoawa), Pleomele sp. (hala pepe), Psydrax 
odorata (alahee), Rauvolfia sandwicensis (hao), Reynoldsia sandwicensis 
(ohe), and Sapindus oahuensis (lonomea) (Bates 1999; HINHP Database 
2001; Environmental Division of the U.S. Army (EDA), in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Abutilon sandwicense are competition from the 
nonnative plant species Ageratina riparia (hamakua pamakani), Aleurites 
moluccana (kukui), Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse), Ficus microcarpa 
(Chinese banyan), Grevillea robusta (silk oak), Hyptis pectinata (Comb 
hyptis), Ipomoea sp. (morning glory), Kalanchoe pinnata (air plant), 
Leucaena leucocephala (koa haole), Melia azedarach (chinaberry), 
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass), Montanoa hibiscifolia (tree 
daisy), Oplismenus hirtellus (basketgrass), Panicum maximum (Guinea 
grass), Passiflora suberosa (huehue haole), Pimenta dioica (allspice), 
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava), Psidium guajava (guava), Rivina 
humilis (coral berry), Schinus terebinthifolius (Christmasberry), 
Syzygium cumini (Java plum), and/or Toona ciliata (Australian red 
cedar); fire; damage from the black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) 
and Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus); habitat degradation and/or 
destruction by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and goats (Capra hircus); and 
trampling by feral cattle (Bos taurus) (Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Alsinidendron obovatum (NCN)
    Alsinidendron obovatum, a member of the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a branching subshrub 
growing to 3 ft (1 m) tall with thick, somewhat fleshy leaves. This 
species and Alsinidendron trinerve can be distinguished from other 
members of the genus by their shrubby habit and fleshy purple sepals 
surrounding the capsule. This species differs from A. trinerve in 
having a more crowded inflorescence (flowering part of plant) with 
shorter peduncles (flower stalks) and sepals with a rounded tip (Wagner 
et al. 1999).
    Alsinidendron obovatum generally flowers after about two years of 
growth. Plants flower and fruit year round, but flowering is usually 
heavier in winter and spring depending on the level of precipitation. 
Plants survive three to six years, unless there are drought conditions. 
Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors (56 FR 55770).
    Historically, Alsinidendron obovatum was known from the northern 
and southern ends of the Waianae Range. This species remains in 
Keawapilau

[[Page 35952]]

Gulch, Kahanakaiki Gulch, Makaleha, Kapuna Gulch, and Pahole Gulch on 
Federal and State lands. The 6 known occurrences contain about 8 to 10 
individuals (EDA Database 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 
1999).
    Alsinidendron obovatum typically grows on ridges and slopes in 
lowland diverse mesic forest dominated by Acacia koa (koa) and 
Metrosideros polymorpha between 476 and 943 m (1,561 and 3,093 ft) 
elevation. Associated native species include Alyxia oliviformis 
(maile), Antidesma platyphyllum (hame), Bidens torta (kookoolau), 
Cibotium chamissoi (hapuu), Coprosma sp. (pilo), Hedyotis terminalis 
(manono), Ilex anomala (kawau), Machaerina sp. (uki), Peperomia sp. 
(ala ala wai nui), Perrottetia sandwicensis (olomea), Pipturus sp. 
(mamaki), Psydrax odorata, or the endangered Cyanea longiflora (haha) 
(HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Alsinidendron obovatum are competition from 
the aggressive nonnative plant species Blechnum appendiculatum (NCN), 
Clidemia hirta, Grevillea robusta, Melinus minutiflora, Paspalum 
conjugatum (Hilo grass), Psidium cattleianum, Rubus argutus (prickly 
Florida blackberry), Schinus terebinthifolius, and/or Stachytarpheta 
dichotoma (owi); habitat degradation by feral pigs; trampling by 
humans; rockslides; and the small number of occurrences and 
individuals, which make the species highly vulnerable to extinction 
from random environmental events (Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).

Alsinidendron trinerve (NCN)

    Alsinidendron trinerve, a member of the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is very similar in 
appearance to A. obovatum but differs in that it has a more open 
inflorescence with peduncles more than 2 cm (0.8 in) long and sepals 
with an acute tip (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Alsinidendron trinerve flowers and fruits throughout the year with 
the possible exception of fall (56 FR 55770). Little else is known 
about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors.
    Historically, Alsinidendron trinerve was known from the north-
central and southern Waianae Mountains. This species is known to be in 
Makaleha Gulch, on Mt. Kaala and Puu Kalena on Federal and State lands. 
The 13 known occurrences total between 18 and 34 individuals (EDA 
Database 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Alsinidendron trinerve typically grows on slopes in wet forest or 
the wetter portions of diverse mesic forest dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha and Ilex anomala or Metrosideros polymorpha montane wet 
forest between 833 and 1,233 m (2,732 and 4,044 ft) elevation. 
Associated native species include Broussaisia arguta (kanawao), 
Coprosma ochracea (pilo), Diplazium sandwichianum (hoio), Gunnera sp. 
(apeape), Hedyotis sp. (NCN), Machaerina sp., Nothoperanema rubiginosa, 
Peperomia sp., Perrottetia sandwicensis, Phyllostegia sp. (NCN), 
Pipturus albidus, or Vaccinium sp. (ohelo) (HINHP Database 2001; Wagner 
et al. 1999; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Alsinidendron trinerve are competition from 
the aggressive nonnative plant species Buddleia asiatica (butterfly 
bush), Clidemia hirta, Kalanchoe pinnata, and Rubus argutus; habitat 
degradation by feral pigs; trampling by humans along trails; and the 
small number of extant individuals, which makes the species highly 
vulnerable to extinction from random environmental events (Service 
1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana (Akoko)
    Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, a member of the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a low-growing or 
upright shrub to 5 ft (1.5 m) tall with milky sap. Its leaves fall off 
during the dry season, are mostly hairless, and are arranged in two 
opposite rows along the stem. This species is distinguished from other 
members of the genus in the area in which it grows in that it is a 
woody shrub rather than an herb or small subshrub (Koutnik and Huft 
1999).
    Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana has been observed flowering 
and fruiting throughout the year, probably in response to 
precipitation. Fruits mature in three to four weeks and plants live 
from five to 10 years. No additional information is available on 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, or limiting factors (56 
FR 55770).
    Historically, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana was known from 
the northwestern end of the Waianae Mountains as well as from one 
collection from the southeastern end of the Koolau Mountains. This 
taxon remains at Kaena Point, Keawaula, Alau Gulch, Waianae Kai, and 
Kahanahaiki on State land and land under Federal jurisdiction. The 15 
known occurrences contain 569 individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Koutnik 
and Huft 1999).
    Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana typically grows in coastal dry 
shrubland on windward talus slopes, leeward rocky cliffs, open grassy 
slopes, or on vegetated cliff faces between sea level and 862 m (0 and 
2,827 ft) elevation. Associated native species include Artemisia 
australis (ahinahina), Boerhavia sp. (alena), Chamaesyce celastroides 
var. amplectans (akoko), Dodonaea viscosa (aalii), Gossypium tomentosum 
(mao), Heteropogon contortus (pili grass), Jacquemontia ovalifolia ssp. 
sandwicensis (pauohiiaka), Lipochaeta lobata (nehe), Myoporum 
sandwicense (naio), Plumbago zeylanica (iliee), Psilotum nudum (moa), 
Psydrax odorata, Santalum sp. (iliahi), Sida fallax (ilima), or 
Waltheria indica (uhaloa) ( HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana are 
competition from the nonnative plant species Acacia confusa (Formosan 
koa), Grevillea robusta, Hyptis pectinata, Leucaena leucocephala, 
Melinis repens (natal redtop), Panicum maximum, Pluchea carolinensis 
(sourbush), and/or Schinus terebinthifolius; fire; and effects of 
recreational activities (Service 1998b; 56 FR 5577).
Chamaesyce deppeana (Akoko)
    Chamaesyce deppeana, a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is an erect subshrub up to 1.2 m (4 ft) 
tall with fuzzy branches. This species is distinguished from others in 
the genus by the following combination of characters: Leaves arranged 
in two rows on opposite sides of the branches, leaves glabrous, leaf 
apex notched, leaf margin toothed, and cyathia (flower cluster) width 
(Koutnik and Huft 1999).
    Chamaesyce deppeana has been observed in flower in May and 
September. No further information is available on flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Chamaesyce deppeana was known only from southern 
Oahu. Because the few collections that were made were collected prior 
to the 20th century, it was thought to be extinct. In 1986, Joel Lau 
and Sam Gon of The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (TNCH) rediscovered C. 
deppeana on State land in the southern Koolau Mountains of Oahu in 
Nuuanu Pali Wayside State Park near the Pali Lookout, a popular tourist 
attraction. About 50 individuals grow near there (HINHP Database 2001; 
Koutnik and Huft 1999).

[[Page 35953]]

    The habitat of the only known occurrence of Chamaesyce deppeana is 
windward-facing ridge crests, cliff faces, and mixed native cliffs with 
such plant species as Bidens sandvicensis (kookoolau) or Metrosideros 
polymorpha between 274 and 661 m (899 and 2,168 ft) elevation (HINHP 
Database 2001).
    The major threats to the single known occurrence of Chamaesyce 
deppeana are competition for water, space, light, and nutrients with 
the nonnative plant species Casuarina equisetifolia (common ironwood), 
Paspalum conjugatum, and Schinus terebinthifolius; and extinction due 
to naturally caused events because of the limited number of individuals 
and restricted range. Fire and impact by humans threaten the species as 
well (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
Chamaesyce herbstii (Akoko)
    Chamaesyce herbstii, a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is a small tree ranging from 3 to 8 m (10 
to 26 ft) tall with thin, leathery leaves arranged in pairs on the same 
plane. This species is distinguished from others in the genus by the 
length of the flowering stalk and the color of the angular fruits 
(Koutnik and Huft 1999).
    Chamaesyce herbstii has been observed in flower year-round in 
January, May, July, September, and October. Little else is known about 
its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Historically, Chamaesyce herbstii was known from scattered 
occurrences in the northern and central Waianae Mountains on the island 
of Oahu. Currently, this species is known from 4 occurrences with 
between 162 and 164 individuals in the central and northern Waianae 
Mountains, South Ekahanui Gulch, Pahole (Kukuiula) Gulch, Kapuna Gulch, 
and West Makaleha-Central Makaleha. These occurrences are found on 
private and State lands (Geographic Decision Systems International 
(GDSI) 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Chamaesyce herbstii typically grows in shaded gulch bottoms and 
slopes in mesic Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forests or 
diverse mesic forests at elevations between 435 and 886 m (1,427 and 
2,906 ft). Associated plant species include Antidesma platyphyllum, 
Coprosma sp., Diplazium sandwichianum, Hedyotis sp., Hibiscus 
arnottianus var. arnottianus (kokio keokeo), Melicope sp. (alani), 
Morinda trimera (noni), Pipturus albidus, Pouteria sandwicensis (alaa), 
Pteralyxia sp. (kaulu), Urera glabra (opuhe), or Xylosma sp. (maua) 
(HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threats to Chamaesyce herbstii are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral pigs; competition with nonnative plant 
species such as Clidemia hirta, Grevillea robusta, Passiflora suberosa, 
Psidium cattleianum, and Schinus terebinthifolius; potential fire; a 
risk of extinction from naturally occurring events (such as hurricanes) 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining 
occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Chamaesyce kuwaleana (Akoko)
    Chamaesyce kuwaleana, a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is an erect shrub 20 to 90 cm (8 to 36 in) 
tall with leaves arranged in two rows along the stem. This species is 
distinguished from other species of the genus in its habitat by its 
stalked, oval to rounded leaves with untoothed margins and by the bent 
stalk supporting the small fruit capsule (Koutnik and Huft 1999).
    Chamaesyce kuwaleana bears fruit in spring and early summer and has 
usually finished fruiting by fall. No further information is available 
on flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(56 FR 55770).
    Historically, Chamaesyce kuwaleana was known from the central 
Waianae Mountains and Moku Manu Island off the eastern coast of Oahu. 
This species is currently known only from Kauaopuu Peak, Mauna Kuwale, 
Waianae Kai-Lualualei Ridge, Puu Kailio, and Kauaopuu in the Waianae 
Mountains, on Federal and State lands. The 5 occurrences contain around 
2,000 individuals (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Koutnik and Huft 
1999).
    Chamaesyce kuwaleana typically grows in thin guano soil on basaltic 
rock, on arid, exposed volcanic cliffs, on dry or mesic rocky ridges, 
or on sparsely vegetated slopes between sea level and 596 m (0 to 1,955 
ft) elevation. Associated native species include Artemisia sp. 
(hinahina), Bidens sp. (kookoolau), Carex sp. (NCN), Chamaesyce sp. 
(akoko), Dodonaea viscosa, Heteropogon contortus, Plectranthus 
parviflorus (ala ala wai nui), Schiedea sp. (NCN), or Sida fallax 
(HINHP Database 2001; Koutnik and Huft 1999; Service 1998b).
    The major threats to Chamaesyce kuwaleana are competition from the 
nonnative plant species Cenchrus ciliaris (buffelgrass), Kalanchoe 
pinnata, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis repens, Opuntia sp. (prickly 
pear), and Schinus terebinthifolius; fire; two-spotted leafhoppers 
(Saphonia rufofascia); and the small number of occurrences, which makes 
the species highly vulnerable to extinction from random environmental 
events (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Chamaesyce rockii (Akoko)
    Chamaesyce rockii, a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is usually a compact shrub or sometimes a 
small tree typically ranging from 0.5 to 2 m (1.6 to 6.6 ft) tall, but 
in protected sites it has been known to reach 4 m (13 ft) in height. 
This species differs from others in the genus in that it has large, 
red, capsular fruit (Koutnik and Huft 1999).
    Chamaesyce rockii has been observed fruiting in February. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Chamaesyce rockii was known historically from scattered occurrences 
along the Koolau Mountains on the island of Oahu. Today, 20 occurrences 
are located in Waikakalaua Gulch, Kaukonahua-Kahana summit area, 
Punaluu-Kaluanui, Peahinaia Trail Laie-Kaipapau-Kawai Nui junction 
area, Puu Keahiakahoe, Halawa Trail, summit ridge between Aiea Ridge 
Trail and Waimano Trail, Ewa Forest Reserve, Halemano Gulch, Kawaiiki-
Opaeula Ridge, Puu Kainapuaa, Kawai Iki Stream, Maakua Gulch, and 
Kaipapau-Loloa Ridge, on State, Federal, and private lands. Currently 
the total number of plants is estimated to be between 641 and 773 (EDA 
Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Chamaesyce rockii typically grows on gulch slopes, gulch bottoms, 
and ridge crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
(uluhe) forest and shrubland between 208 and 871 m (682 and 2,857 ft) 
in elevation. Associated plant species include Bidens sp., Antidesma 
platyphyllum, Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium sp. (hapuu), Coprosma 
longifolia (pilo), Diplopterygium pinnatum (uluhe lau nui), Dubautia 
laxa (naenae pua melemele), Hedyotis terminalis, Machaerina sp., 
Melicope spp., Myrsine juddii (kolea), Psychotria spp. (kopiko), and 
Wikstroemia sp. (akia) (HINHP Database 2001).
    The primary threats to Chamaesyce rockii are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral pigs; trail clearing;

[[Page 35954]]

potential impacts from military activities; and competition with 
nonnative plant species such as Clidemia hirta, Leptospermum scoparium 
(tea tree), Paspalum conjugatum, Psidium cattleianum, and Pterolepis 
glomerata (NCN) (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Cyanea acuminata (Haha)
    Cyanea acuminata, a member of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched shrub 0.3 to 2 m (1 to 
6.6 ft) tall with inversely lance-shaped to narrowly egg-shaped or 
elliptic leaves. This species is distinguished from others in this 
endemic Hawaiian genus by the color of the petals and fruit and the 
length of the calyx (the outer of two series of floral leaves) lobes, 
flowering stalk, and leaf stalks (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea acuminata has been observed fruiting in February and 
November. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Cyanea acuminata was known from 31 scattered 
occurrences in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, fewer than 200 
plants are known from 20 occurrences on private, city, county, State, 
and Federal lands on Puu o Kona, near South Kaukonahua Stream, in 
Halemano Gulch, Kawai Iki Gulch, near Poamoho Stream, on Schofield-
Waikane Trail, Helemano-Punaluu summit ridge, Konahuanui, in Kamana Nui 
Valley, Pukele, in Makaua Gulch, on Niu-Waimanalo summit ridge, Waahila 
Ridge, Kaipapau, Puu Keahia Kahoe, Kaala, Kaluanui, Pia Gulch, 
Makaleha, and Maakua Gulch (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Cyanea acuminata typically grows on slopes, ridges, or stream banks 
between 216 and 1,208 m (708 and 3,962 ft) elevation. The plants are 
found in Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis, Acacia koa-M. 
polymorpha wet or mesic forest or shrubland, or Diospyros sandwicensis-
M. polymorpha lowland mesic forest with one or more of the following 
associated native species: Antidesma sp. (hame), Broussaisia argutas, 
Chamaesyce sp., Charpentiera sp. (papala), Cyrtandra spp. (hai wale), 
Diplazium sandwichianum, Dryopteris sandwicensis (palapalaia), Dubautia 
laxa, Freycinetia arborea (ieie), Hibiscus sp. (aloalo), Hedyotis sp., 
Ilex anomala, Labordia sp. (kamakahala), Machaerina sp., Melicope spp., 
Perrottetia sandwicensis, Phyllostegia sp., Pipturus albidus, Pisonia 
sp., Psychotria sp., Sadleria sp. (amau), Syzygium sandwicensis, 
Touchardia latifolia (olona), or Wikstroemia sp. (ohia ha) (HINHP 
Database 2001; Lammers 1999).
    The major threats to Cyanea acuminata are habitat degradation and/
or destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; potential predation by rats (Rattus rattus); competition 
with the nonnative plant species Ageratina adenophora (Maui pamakani), 
Aleurites moluccana, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline fruticosa (ti), 
Dioscorea sp. (yam), Erigeron karvinskianus (daisy fleabane), Musa sp. 
(banana), Passiflora suberosa, Rubus argutus, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining 
individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Cyanea crispa (NCN)
    Cyanea crispa, a member of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched shrub with leaves 
clustered at the ends of succulent stems. It is distinguished from 
other species in this endemic Hawaiian genus by its leaf shape, 
distinct calyx lobes, and the length of the flowers and stalks of 
flower clusters (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea crispa was observed in flower in April 1930. It was more 
recently observed fruiting in June and September. Little else is known 
about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
    Historically, Cyanea crispa was known from scattered locations 
throughout the upper elevations of the Koolau Mountains of Oahu from 
Kaipapau Valley to Waialae Iki Ridge. This species is now known from 
Federal, State, city, county, and private lands in Hidden Valley, 
Palolo Valley, Kapakahi Gulch, Moanalua Valley, Wailupe, Koolau Summit 
Trail, Kawaipapa Gulch, Maakua Gulch, Kaipapa Gulch, Maunawili, and Pia 
Valley. There are a total of 11 occurrences containing a total of 56 
individual plants (EDA Database 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyanea crispa is found in habitats ranging from steep, open mesic 
forests to gentle slopes or moist gullies of closed wet forests and 
stream banks, at elevations between 56 and 959 m (184 and 3,146 ft ). 
Associated native plant species include Antidesma platyphylla, 
Boehmeria grandis (akolea), Broussaisia argutus, Christella cyatheoides 
(kikawaio), Cibotium chamissoi, Cyrtandra spp., Diospyros sp. (lama), 
Dubautia sp. (naenae), Metrosideros polymorpha, Perrottetia 
sandwicensis, Pipturus albidus, Pisonia umbellifera (papala kepau), 
Psychotria sp., or Touchardia latifolia (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b).
    The major threats to Cyanea crispa are habitat alteration and 
predation by feral pigs; competition with the nonnative plant species 
Arthrostemma ciliatum (NCN), Clidemia hirta, Psidium cattleianum, 
Psidium guajava, Pterolepis glomerata, Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry), 
Schinus terebinthifolius, Setaria palmifolia (palm grass), and Zingiber 
zerumbet (awapuhi); and extinction due to naturally occurring events 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining 
individuals, their limited gene pool, and restricted distribution 
(Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae (Haha)
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a shrub, usually 
unbranched, growing from 1 to 3.2 m (3.3 to 10.5 ft) tall with wide, 
deeply lobed leaves. This subspecies can be distinguished from the 
other two by its short, narrow calyx lobes that are not fused or 
overlapping (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae flowers and fruits year round, 
depending on rainfall. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (59 FR 32932).
    Historically, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae was known from the 
southern Waianae Mountains from Puu Hapapa to Kaaikukai. This taxon is 
known to be extant in Kaluaa Gulch, Ekahanui Gulch, North Palawai 
Gulch, and Pahole Gulch. The occurrences are on State and private 
lands. A total of 8 occurrences are known that contain 16 individuals 
(GDSI 2000; HINHP Database 2001; Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae typically grows on steep, moist, 
shaded slopes in diverse mesic to wet lowland forests between 404 and 
1,075 m (1,325 and 3,528 ft) elevation. Associated native species 
include Acacia koa, Antidesma platyphyllum, Chamaesyce sp., 
Charpentiera obovata (papala), Cibotium chamissoi, Claoxylon 
sandwicense (poola), Coprosma sp., Cyanea membranacea (haha), Cyrtandra 
waianaeensis (hahala), Diplazium sandwichianum, Dryopteris unidentata

[[Page 35955]]

(akole), Dubautia sp., Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis acuminata (au), 
Hedyotis terminalis, Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine lessertiana 
(kolea lau nui), Nothocestrum sp. (aiea), Perrottetia sandwicensis, 
Pipturus albidus, Pisonia umbellifera, Pouteria sandwicensis, 
Psychotria hathewayi (kopiko), Rumex sp. (sorrel), Selaginella 
arbuscula (lepelepe a moa), and Streblus pendulinus (aiai) (HINHP 
Database 2001; Lammers 1999; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs; competition from nonnative plant species 
such as Ageratina riparia, Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Buddleia asiatica, Clidemia hirta, Christella 
parasitica (NCN), Lantana camara (lantana), Morella faya (firetree), 
Paspalum conjugatum, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Rubus 
rosifolius, Schinus terebinthifolius, Setaria palmifolia, and Toona 
ciliata; predation of seeds or fruits by introduced slugs; and 
extinction caused by naturally occurring events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of extant individuals (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 59 FR 32932).
Cyanea humboltiana (Haha)
    Cyanea humboltiana, a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched shrub 1 
to 2 m (3.2 to 6.6 ft) tall with woody stems and inversely egg-shaped 
to broadly elliptic leaves. The leaf edges are hardened and have 
shallow, ascending, rounded teeth. This species differs from others in 
this endemic Hawaiian genus by the downward bending flowering stalk and 
the length of the flowering stalk (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea humboltiana has been observed in flower from September 
through January. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Cyanea humboltiana was known historically from 17 occurrences from 
the central portion to the southern end of the Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu. Currently, between 133 and 239 plants are known from 9 
occurrences at Konahuanui summit, Moanalua-Kaneohe summit, Wailupe 
summit, Poamoho Trail, Opaeula Gulch, Maakua Gulch, Kaluanui, and 
Lulumahu Gulch. These occurrences are on Federal, private, State, city, 
and county lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyanea humboltiana is usually found in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland between 261 and 959 m (856 and 
3,146 ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include Acacia 
koa, Bobea elatior (ahakea), Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium chamissoi, 
Dubautia laxa, Hedyotis terminalis, Ilex anomala, Machaerina 
angustifolia (uki), Melicope sp., Phyllostegia sp., Psychotria 
mariniana (kopiko), Sadleria sp., Scaevola mollis (naupaka kuahiwi), 
Syzygium sandwicensis, Wikstroemia sp., and ferns (HINHP Database 
2001).
    The major threats to Cyanea humboltiana are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral pigs; potential predation by rats; 
competition with the nonnative plant species Axonopus fissifolius 
(narrow-leaved carpet grass), Clidemia hirta, Erigeron karvinskianus, 
Psidium cattleianum, and Pterolepis glomerata, and a risk of extinction 
from naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due 
to the small number of remaining occurrences. The Konahuanui summit 
occurrence is also threatened by trampling by hikers (HINHP Database 
2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Cyanea koolauensis (Haha)
    Cyanea koolauensis, a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched shrub 1 
to 1.5 m (3.5 to 5 ft) tall with woody stems and linear to narrowly 
elliptic leaves with a whitish underside. The leaf edges are hardened 
with shallow, ascending, rounded teeth. Cyanea koolauensis is 
distinguished from other species in this endemic Hawaiian genus by the 
leaf shape and width; the whitish green lower leaf surface; and the 
lengths of the leaf stalks, calyx lobes, and hypanthium (base of 
flower) (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea koolauensis has been observed in flower and fruit during the 
months of May through August. Little else is known about its flowering 
cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Cyanea koolauensis was known historically from 27 scattered 
occurrences throughout the Koolau Mountains on Oahu. Currently, 42 
occurrences totaling fewer than 80 plants are known from the Waimea-
Malaekahana Ridge to Hawaii Loa Ridge in the Koolau Mountains. These 
occurrences are on private, city, county, State, and Federal lands (EDA 
Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyanea koolauensis is usually found on slopes, stream banks, and 
ridge crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
forest or shrubland at elevations between 163 and 959 m (535 and 3,146 
ft). Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, Antidesma 
platyphyllum, Bidens sp., Bobea elatior, Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium 
sp., Diplopterygium pinnatum, Dubautia sp., Hedyotis sp., Machaerina 
sp., Melicope sp., Pittosporum sp., Pritchardia martii (loulu hiwa), 
Psychotria mariniana, Sadleria sp., Scaevola sp. (naupaka), Syzygium 
sandwicensis, or Wikstroemia sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Lammers 1999).
    The major threats to Cyanea koolauensis are habitat destruction by 
feral pigs; potential impacts from military activities; trail clearing; 
potential predation by rats; competition with the aggressive nonnative 
plant species Clidemia hirta, Heliocarpus popayanensis (moho), Psidium 
cattleianum, and Pterolepis glomerata; trampling by hikers; and a risk 
of extinction from naturally occurring events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining individuals 
(HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Cyanea longiflora (Haha)
    Cyanea longiflora, a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched shrub 1 
to 3 m (3.5 to 10 ft) long with woody stems and elliptic or inversely 
lance-shaped leaves. Mature leaves have smooth or hardened leaf edges 
with shallow, ascending, rounded teeth. Cyanea longiflora differs from 
others in this endemic Hawaiian genus by the fused calyx lobes (Lammers 
1999).
    Cyanea longiflora has been observed in flower in February, April, 
and May and in fruit in August. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Cyanea longiflora was known historically from five occurrences in 
the Waianae Mountains and six occurrences in the Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu. Currently, 4 occurrences with less than 217 individuals of this 
species are known on State, Federal, city, county, and private lands on 
Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge, Makaha Valley, Kapuna Gulch, and Pahole Gulch 
in the Waianae Mountains (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b).
    Cyanea longiflora is usually found on steep slopes, bases of 
cliffs, or ridge

[[Page 35956]]

crests in mesic Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forest 
usually between 221 and 1,191 m (725 and 3,906 ft) elevation. 
Associated native plant species include Antidesma sp., Cibotium sp., 
Coprosma sp., Dicranopteris linearis, Psychotria sp., Schiedea sp., or 
Syzygium sandwicensis (HINHP Database 2001; Lammers 1999).
    The major threats to Cyanea longiflora are habitat degradation and/
or destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; potential predation by rats; competition with the nonnative 
plant species Psidium cattleianum and Rubus arguta; potential fire; and 
a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining, widely 
dispersed occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 
53089).
Cyanea pinnatifida (Haha)
    Cyanea pinnatifida, a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a shrub, usually 
unbranched, growing from 0.8 to 3.0 m (2.6 to 10 ft) tall, with deeply 
lobed leaves. This species differs from other members of the genus on 
Oahu by its leaves, which are deeply cut into two to six lobes per 
side. The only other member of the genus on Oahu with lobed leaves has 
9 to 12 lobes per side (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea pinnatifida has been observed flowering in August. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Cyanea pinnatifida was known from the central Waianae 
Mountains. The last known wild individual died in August 2001 (HINHP 
Database 2001; Lammers 1999; Trae Menard, TNCH, pers. comm., 2001). 
Currently, this species is known only from individuals under 
propagation at the University of Hawaii's Lyon Arboretum and the 
National Tropical Botanical Garden (G. Koob, pers. comm., 2002).
    Cyanea pinnatifida typically grows on steep, wet, rocky slopes in 
diverse mesic forest between 450 and 881 m (1,476 and 2,890 ft) 
elevation. Associated native plant species include Canavalia sp. 
(awikiwiki), Diplazium sandwichianum, Pipturus albidus, Pisonia 
sandwicensis (aulu), Pisonia umbellifera, Psychotria sp., Strongylodon 
ruber (nunuiiwi), and native ferns (HINHP Database 2001; Lammers 1999).
    The major threats to Cyanea pinnatifida are competition from the 
nonnative plant species Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum appendiculatum, 
Clidemia hirta, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium 
guajava, and Toona ciliata; habitat degradation by feral pigs; 
predation by slugs; and trampling by humans on or near trails (Service 
1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Cyanea st-johnii (Haha)
    Cyanea st-johnii, a member of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched shrub with a woody stem 
30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) long and lance-shaped to inversely lance-
shaped leaves. The leaf edges are thickened, are smoothly toothed, and 
curl under. This species is distinguished from others in this endemic 
Hawaiian genus by the length of the leaves, the distinctly curled leaf 
margins, and the petal color (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea st-johnii has been observed in flower in July through 
September. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Cyanea st-johnii was known historically from 11 occurrences in the 
central and southern Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Currently, 57 plants are 
known from 7 occurrences at Waimano Trail summit to Aiea Trail summit, 
the summit ridge crest between Manana and Kipapa Trails, between the 
summit of Aiea and Halawa trails, Summit Trail south of Poamoho Cabin, 
and Wailupe-Waimanalo summit ridge. These occurrences are found on 
city, county, private, and State lands, as well as lands under Federal 
jurisdiction (GDSI Database 2000; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyanea st-johnii typically grows on wet, windswept slopes and 
ridges between 415 and 959 m (1,361 and 3,146 ft) elevation in 
Metrosideros polymorpha mixed lowland shrubland or Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland. Associated native 
plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma sp., Bidens 
macrocarpa (kookoolau), Broussaisia arguta, Chamaesyce clusiifolia 
(akoko), Cibotium sp., Dubautia laxa, Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis 
sp., Labordia sp., Machaerina angustifolia, Melicope sp., Psychotria 
sp., Sadleria pallida (amau), Scaevola mollis, or Syzygium sandwicensis 
(HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Cyanea st-johnii are habitat degradation and/
or destruction by feral pigs; potential predation by rats; predation by 
slugs and snails; competition with the nonnative plant species 
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge), Axonopus fissifolius, Clidemia 
hirta, and Sacciolepis indica (Glenwood grass); and a risk of 
extinction from naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the small number of remaining occurrences and individuals. 
The plants between the summit of Aiea and Halawa Trail are also 
threatened by trampling by hikers (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 
61 FR 53089).
Cyanea superba (NCN)
    Cyanea superba, of member the bellflower family (Campanulaceae) and 
a short-lived perennial, is morphologically very different from its 
closest relatives. It grows to 6 m (20 ft) tall and has a terminal 
rosette of large leaves; each rosette is 50 to 100 cm long (20 to 40 
in) and 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) wide atop a single, unbranched trunk 
(Lammers 1999).
    The flowering season of Cyanea superba varies from year to year 
depending on precipitation. It ranges from late August to early 
October. Generally, flowering is at its peak in early to mid-September. 
Fruits have been known to mature in two to five months, depending on 
climatic conditions (Service 1998b). Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors.
    Historically, Cyanea superba was collected from the gulches of 
Makaleha on Mt. Kaala in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, 
there are no natural occurrences and an outplanted population of 140 
individuals on State and Federal lands in the Waianae Mountains (EDA 
Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; K. 
Kawela, pers. comm., 2003, M. Keir, pers. comm., 2001).
    Cyanea superba grows in the understory on sloping terrain on well 
drained rocky substrate within mesic forest between 232 and 872 m (761 
and 2,860 ft) in elevation with one or more of the following associated 
native species: Diospyros sp., Hedyotis terminalis, Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Nestegis sandwicensis, Pisonia brunoniana (papala kepau), 
Psychotria sp., and Xylosma sp. (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Cyanea superba are degradation of its habitat 
due to competition with the nonnative plant species Aleurites 
moluccana, Melinis minutiflora, Psidium cattleianum, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; wildfires generated in the nearby military firing 
range; habitat degradation by feral pigs;

[[Page 35957]]

a restricted range that makes it vulnerable to any local environmental 
disturbance or single incident that could destroy a significant 
percentage of the known individuals; and the limited gene pool that may 
depress reproductive vigor (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 
46235).
Cyanea truncata (Haha)
    Cyanea truncata, a member of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched or sparsely branched 
shrub covered with small sharp prickles. Its oval leaves are wider 
above the middle and lined with hardened teeth along the margins. 
Cyanea truncata is distinguished from other members of this genus by 
the length of the flower cluster stalk and the size of the flowers and 
flower lobes (Lammers 1999).
    Cyanea truncata was observed in flower in December 1919 and 
November 1980, the last time the species was observed at that 
population before feral pigs extirpated it. Little else is known about 
its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
    Historically, Cyanea truncata was known from Punaluu, Waikane, and 
Waiahole in the northern Koolau Mountains of Oahu. Two occurrences are 
currently known to exist in Hanaimoa Gulch on State and private lands 
(GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyanea truncata typically grows on windward slopes and stream banks 
in mesic to wet forests at elevations between 54 and 705 m (177 and 
2,312 ft). Associated native plant species include Cibotium chamissoi, 
Cyrtandra calpidicarpa (haiwale), Cyrtandra laxiflora (haiwale), 
Cyrtandra propinqua (haiwale), Diospyros sandwicensis, Hibiscus 
arnottianus, Metrosideros polymorpha, Neraudia melastomifolia (maaloa), 
Pipturus albidus, or Pisonia umbellifera (HINHP Database 2001; Lammers 
1999; Service 1998b).
    The major threats to Cyanea truncata are habitat degradation and 
predation by feral pigs; competition with the invasive nonnative plant 
species Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline fruticosa, 
Oplismenus hirtellus, and Psidium cattleianum; predation by rats and 
slugs; and extinction due to naturally caused events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining individuals 
(Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
Cyrtandra crenata (Haiwale)
    Cyrtandra crenata, a member of the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a shrub 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 
ft) tall with few branches and leaves arranged in whorls of three, 
which are tufted at the end of branches. Cyrtandra crenata is 
distinguished from other species in the genus by the combination of its 
three-leaf arrangement, bilaterally symmetrical calyx, and brownish, 
hemispherical glands (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Cyrtandra crenata has been observed in flower in June. Little else 
is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
    Historically, Cyrtandra crenata was known from Waikane Valley along 
the Waikane-Schofield Trail in the Koolau Mountains and was last 
observed in 1947 (HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyrtandra crenata typically grows on steep slopes, in ravines, or 
gulches in mesic to wet forests between elevations of 328 and 779 m 
(1,076 and 2,555 ft) with associated native plant species such as 
Dicranopteris linearis, Machaerina angustifolia, and Metrosideros 
polymorpha (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; Wagner et al. 1999).
    The primary threat to Cyrtandra crenata is extinction due to 
naturally caused events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
species' restricted range. No individuals are known to be extant at 
this time (Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
Cyrtandra dentata (Haiwale)
    Cyrtandra dentata, a member of the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a sparingly branched 
shrub ranging from 1.5 to 5 m (5 to 16 ft) tall with papery textured 
leaves. This species is distinguished from others in the genus by the 
number and arrangement of the flowers, the length of the bracts and 
flower stalks, and the shape of the leaves (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Cyrtandra dentata has been observed in flower and fruit in May and 
November. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Cyrtandra dentata was historically known from six occurrences in 
the Waianae Mountains and three occurrences in the Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu. Currently, this species is found only in Pahole Gulch, Kapuna 
Valley, Ekahanui Gulch, Keawapilau Gulch, Kahanahaiki, Kawai Iki Gulch, 
Opaeula Stream, and Makaleha Valley on Federal, State, city, and county 
lands (within TNCH's Honouliuli Preserve). The 11 known occurrences 
total 136 individuals (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 
2001).
    Cyrtandra dentata typically grows in gulches, slopes, stream banks, 
or ravines in mesic or wet forest with associated native plant species 
such as Acacia koa, Metrosideros polymorpha, Pipturus albidus, Pisonia 
sandwicensis, Pisonia umbellifera, Pouteria sandwicensis, Syzygium 
sandwicensis, or Urera glabra, at elevations between 255 and 953 m (836 
and 3,126 ft) (HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999; EDA, in litt. 
2001).
    The major threats to Cyrtandra dentata are competition with the 
nonnative plant species Aleurites moluccana, Belchnum appendiculatum, 
Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium 
guajava, and Schinus terebinthifolius; potential predation by rats; 
potential fire; and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring 
events (such as landslides/hurricanes/flooding) and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of extant occurrences and 
individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Cyrtandra polyantha (Haiwale)
    Cyrtandra polyantha, a member of the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is an unbranched or few-
branched shrub 1 to 3 m (3 to 10 ft) in height with leathery, elliptic, 
unequal leaves. Cyrtandra polyantha is distinguished from other species 
in the genus by the texture and hairiness of the leaf surfaces and the 
length, shape, and degree of cleft of the calyx. This species differs 
from C. crenata by the lack of short-stalked glands and by its leathery 
leaves, opposite leaf arrangement, and radially symmetrical calyx 
(Wagner et al. 1999).
    Nothing is known about the flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors for Cyrtandra polyantha (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Cyrtandra polyantha was known from the Kalihi region 
and from Kulepeamoa Ridge above Niu Valley on the leeward (southwest) 
side of the southern Koolau Mountains. Currently, one occurrence with 
three individuals is extant on the summit ridge between Kuliouou and 
Waimanalo on State and private lands (HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyrtandra polyantha grows on ridges in Metrosideros polymorpha 
mesic or

[[Page 35958]]

wet forests at elevations between 331 and 762 m (1,086 and 2,499 ft). 
Cyrtandra polyantha probably grows in association with Broussaisia 
arguta, Coprosma foliosa (pilo), Dicranopteris linearis, Machaerina 
angustifolia, and Psychotria sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b).
    The primary threats to Cyrtandra polyantha are habitat degradation 
by feral pigs; competition with the invasive plant species Ageratina 
adenophora, Clidemia hirta, Erigeron karvinskianus, and Melinus 
minutiflora; extinction due to naturally caused events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining individuals and 
their restricted distribution (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 59 
FR 14482).
Cyrtandra subumbellata (Haiwale)
    Cyrtandra submumbellata, a member of the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a shrub 2 to 3 m (6.6 to 
10 ft) tall. Papery in texture, the leaves are almost circular to egg-
shaped. It is distinguished from other species in the genus by its leaf 
shape and texture, the number of flowers per cluster, and the length of 
bracts, flower stem, calyx lobes, floral tube, and styles (Wagner et 
al. 1999).
    Cyrtandra submumbellata has been observed in fruit in September. 
Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Cyrtandra submumbellata was known from the Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu. Currently, there are 5 occurrences containing 12 
individuals in the central Koolau Mountains at Schofield-Waikane Trail, 
Puu Ohulehule, and in Kaukonahua drainage on Federal, private, and 
State lands (EDA Database 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyrtandra submumbellata typically grows on moist, forested slopes 
or gulch bottoms dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or in mixed 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis-Acacia koa wet forests 
between 345 and 790 m (1,132 and 2,591 ft) elevation. Associated native 
plant species include Boehmeria grandis, Broussaisia arguta, Dryopteris 
sp. (palapalai), and Machaerina sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b; Wagner et al. 1999).
    The primary threats to Cyrtandra submumbellata are competition with 
the nonnative plant species Clidemia hirta, impacts from military 
activities, predation by rats, fire, and risk of extinction from 
naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
small number of extant occurrences and individuals (HINHP Database 
2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Cyrtandra viridiflora (Haiwale)
    Cyrtandra viridiflora, a member of the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a small shrub 0.5 to 2 m 
(1.6 to 6.6 ft) tall. This species is distinguished from others in the 
genus by the leaves, which are thick, fleshy, heart-shaped, and densely 
hairy on both surfaces (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Cyrtandra viridiflora has been observed in flower and fruit from 
May through September. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Cyrtandra viridiflora was known from scattered 
occurrences in the Koolau Mountains on the island of Oahu. Fifty-two 
plants are known from 23 occurrences at Puu Kainapuaa, Maakua-Kaipapau 
Ridge, Kawai Nui Drainage, Opaeula Gulch, and Kawai Nui-Laie Divide 
(GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Cyrtandra viridiflora is usually found on wind-blown ridge tops in 
cloud-covered wet forest or shrubland at elevations between 443 and 867 
m (1,453 and 2,844 ft). Associated native plant species include 
Broussaisia arguta, Cheirodendron platyphyllum (olapa), Dicranopteris 
linearis, Diplopterygium pinnatum, Dubautia sp., Freycinetia arborea, 
Hedyotis sp., Ilex anomala, Machaerina sp., Melicope sp., Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Metrosideros rugosa (lehua papa), Psychotria sp., or 
Syzygium sandwicensis (HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999; EDA, in 
litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Cyrtandra viridiflora are habitat degradation 
or destruction by feral pigs, impacts from military activities, 
predation by rats, competition with the nonnative plant species 
Clidemia hirta and Psidium catteianum, and risk of extinction from 
naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
small number of remaining occurrences and individuals (HINHP Database 
2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Delissea subcordata (Oha)
    Delissea subcordata, a member of the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a branched or 
unbranched shrub 1 to 3 m (3.5 to 10 ft) tall. This species is 
distinguished from others in this endemic Hawaiian genus by the shape 
and size of the leaves, the length of the calyx lobes and corolla, and 
the hairless condition of the anthers (Lammers 1999).
    Fertile plants of Delissea subcordata have been observed in July. 
An examination of herbarium specimens shows that this plant flowers 
throughout the year. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Delissea subcordata was known from scattered 
occurrences in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains of Oahu. A specimen 
collected by Mann and Brigham in the 1860s and labeled from the island 
of Kauai is believed to have been mislabeled. Delissea subcordata is 
now known from 21 occurrences at South Huliwai Gulch, Palikea Gulch, 
Kaluaa Gulch, South Mohiakea Gulch, Kahanahaiki Valley, Kapuhi Gulch, 
South Ekahanui Gulch, Waikoekoe Gulch, Pahole Gulch, Kaawa Gulch, North 
Palawai Gulch, Kealia land section, Kapuna Gulch, Keawapilau Gulch, 
North Huliwai Gulch, Kuaokala, and Kolekole. This species is found on 
private, Federal, and State lands. The total number of plants is 
estimated to be fewer than 70 (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Delissea subcordata typically grows on moderate to steep gulch 
slopes in mixed mesic forests between 162 and 1,025 m (531 and 3,362 
ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, 
Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma sp., Bobea sp. (ahakea), Chamaesyce 
multiformis (akoko), Charpentiera obovata, Claoxylon sandwicense, 
Diospyros hillebrandii (lama), Diospyros sandwicensis, Hedyotis 
acuminata, Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine lanaiensis, Nestegis 
sandwicensis, Pisonia sp., Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria hathewayi, 
Psydrax odorata, or Streblus pendulinus (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b).
    The major threats to Delissea subcordata are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by pigs and goats; impacts from military activities, 
including road construction and housing development; predation by rats 
and slugs; competition with the nonnative plant species Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Grevillea robusta, Lantana camara, 
Melinus minutiflora, Oplismenus hirtellus, Passiflora suberosa, Pimenta 
dioica, Psidium cattleianum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, 
and Toona ciliata; fire; and a risk of extinction from naturally 
occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small 
number of

[[Page 35959]]

remaining individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 
53089).
Diellia falcata (NCN)
    Diellia falcata, in the polypody family (Polypodiaceae) and a 
short-lived perennial fern, grows from a rhizome (underground stem) 1 
to 5 cm (0.4 to 2 in) long and 0.5 to 2 cm (0.2 to 0.8 in) in diameter. 
The rhizome is covered with small black or maroon scales. This species 
is distinguished from others in the genus by the color and texture of 
its leaf stalk, the venation pattern of its fronds, the color of its 
scales, its rounded and reduced lower pinnae (leaflets), and its 
separate sori (spore clusters) arranged on marginal projections 
(Service 1998b; Wagner 1952).
    Diellia falcata hybridizes with Diellia unisora. It has been 
observed with fronds bearing sori (spores) year-round. Little else is 
known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Diellia falcata was known from almost the entire 
length of the Waianae Mountains, from Manini Gulch to Palehua Iki, as 
well as from the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, from Kaipapau Valley to Aiea 
Gulch. This species remains in Waieli Gulch, Ekahanui Gulch, Makaleha 
Valley, Makaha Valley, Palikea Gulch, Makua Valley, Kaimuhole Gulch, 
Kuaokala-Manini Gulch, Pahole Gulch, Puu Ku Makalii, Kapuna Gulch, 
Mohiakea Gulch, Waianae Kai, Pualii Gulch, Napepeiauolelo Gulch, 
Kahanahaiki Valley, Nanakuli-Lualualei Ridge, Makua, Kamaileunu Ridge, 
Kaluaa Gulch, and Huliwai Gulch on Federal, State, city, county, and 
private lands. The 30 known occurrences contain fewer than 6,000 
individuals (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Diellia falcata is a terrestrial fern that typically grows in deep 
shade or open understory on moderate to moderately steep slopes and 
gulch bottoms in diverse mesic forest between 224 and 953 m (735 and 
3,126 ft) elevation. Associated native species include Acacia koa, 
Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma sp., Asplenium kaulfussii (kuau), Carex 
meyenii (NCN), Charpentiera sp., Claoxylon sandwicense, Coprosma 
foliosa, Diospyros hillebrandii, Diplazium sandwichianum, Doodia 
kunthiana (okupukupu), Dryopteris unidentata, Elaeocarpus bifidus, 
Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus sp., Melicope sp., 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine lanaiensis, Nephrolepis exaltata 
(kupukupu), Nestegis sandwicensis, Nothocestrum sp., Pipturus sp., 
Pisonia sandwicensis, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria sp., Psydrax 
odorata, Sapindus oahuensis, Selaginella arbuscula, Sophora 
chrysophylla (mamane), or Xylosma sp. (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Diellia falcata are habitat degradation by 
feral goats and pigs; competition from the nonnative plant species 
Aleurites moluccana, Ageratina riparia, Blechnum appendiculatum, 
Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Grevillea robusta, Heliocarpus 
popayanensis, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Melinus minutiflora, 
Paspalum conjugatum, Passiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla), 
Passiflora suberosa, Pimenta dioica, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium 
guajava, Rubus argutus, Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree), Schinus 
terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata; and fire (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Diellia unisora (NCN)
    Diellia unisora, a short-lived perennial in the polypody fern 
family (Polypodiaceae), grows from a slender, erect rhizome to reach 
0.5 to 3 cm (0.2 to 1.2 in) in height and 0.5 to 1 cm (0.2 to 0.4 in) 
in diameter. The rhizome is covered with the bases of the leaf stalks 
and a few small black scales. This species is distinguished from others 
in the genus by a rhizome completely covered by the persisting bases of 
the leaf stalks and few, very small scales; by sori mostly confined to 
the upper pinnae margins; and by delicate fronds gradually and 
symmetrically narrowing toward the apex (Wagner 1952).
    Diellia unisora hybridizes with Diellia falcata. Little else is 
known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Diellia unisora was known from steep, grassy, rocky 
slopes on the western side of the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. This 
species is known to be extant in the southern Waianae Mountains at 
South Ekahanui Gulch, Palawai Gulch, and the Pualii-Napepeiauolelo 
Ridge. The 4 known occurrences, which are on State and private lands, 
contain fewer than 800 individuals (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Diellia unisora is a terrestrial fern that typically grows on 
moderate to steep slopes or gulch bottoms in deep shade or open 
understory, mesic forest between 382 and 953 m (1,253 and 3,126 ft) 
elevation. Associated native species include Acacia koa, Alyxia 
oliviformis, Antidesma sp., Bidens torta, Carex meyenii, Chamaesyce 
multiformis, Coprosma sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Doryopteris unidentata, 
Eragrostis grandis (lovegrass), Hedyotis schlechtendahliana (kopa), 
Hedyotis terminalis, Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine lessertiana, 
Rumex sp., Psychotria sp., or Selaginella arbuscula (HINHP Database 
2001; 59 FR 32932).
    The major threats to Diellia unisora are habitat degradation by 
feral pigs and competition from the nonnative plant species Ageratina 
riparia, Blechnum appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Melinis minutiflora, 
Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Schefflera actinophylla, and 
Schinus terebinthifolius (HINHP Database 2001; 59 FR 32932).
Dubautia herbstobatae (Naenae)
    Dubautia herbstobatae, a member of the aster family (Asteraceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is a small, spreading shrub to 50 cm (20 
in) tall. Dubautia herbstobatae is distinguished from other species on 
Oahu in this endemic genus by the outer bracts of the flower heads 
being fused, forming a cup surrounding the florets, and by one large 
vein showing in each leaf (Carr 1999).
    Dubautia herbstobatae is likely out-crossing and possibly self-
incompatible (i.e., pollen from the same plant will not produce seed). 
Flowering usually occurs in May and June. Pollination is almost 
certainly achieved by insect activity, and fruit dispersal is probably 
quite localized (Service 1998b). Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors.
    Dubautia herbstobatae is known to be extant in 12 occurrences in 
the northern Waianae Mountains, on Ohikilolo and Kamaileunu Ridges, 
Keaau, and Waianae Kai on State lands and land under Federal 
jurisdiction. Fewer than 100 individuals are known from these locations 
(EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Dubautia herbstobatae typically grows on rock outcrops, ridges, 
moderate slopes, or vertical cliffs in dry or mesic shrubland at 
elevations between 266 and 978 m (872 and 3,208 ft). Associated native 
species include Artemisia australis, Bidens torta, Carex meyenii, 
Chamaesyce celastroides (akoko), Dodonaea viscosa, Eragrostis 
variabilis (kawelu), Metrosideros polymorpha, and Schiedea mannii (NCN) 
(HINHP Database 2001; 56 FR 55770; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Dubautia herbstobatae are habitat degradation 
by

[[Page 35960]]

feral goats and pigs; competition from the nonnative plant species 
Ageratina riparia, Bromus mollis (soft chess), Grevillea robusta, 
Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis minutiflora, Melinis repens, and Schinus 
terebinthifolis; fire; visitation and possible trampling by humans; and 
a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events due to the small 
number of remaining individuals (56 FR 55770).
Eragrostis fosbergii (Fosberg's love grass)
    Eragrostis fosbergii, a member of the grass family (Poaceae), is a 
short-lived perennial species with stout, tufted culms (stems), which 
are 61 to 102 cm (24 to 40 in) long and usually arise from an abruptly 
bent woody base. This species is distinguished from others in the genus 
by its stiffly ascending flowering stalk and the long hairs on the 
margins of the glumes (floral bracts) and occasionally on the margins 
of the lemmas (floral bracts) (O'Connor 1999).
    No information is available on flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Eragrostis fosbergii was known only from the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu, from the slopes of Mount Kaala, and in Waianae Kai 
and its associated ridges. Only four individuals are known to remain in 
Waianae Kai and on Kumaipo Trail in four occurrences on Federal and 
State lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Eragrostis fosbergii typically grows on ridge crests or moderate 
slopes in dry and mesic forests between 578 and 941 m (1,896 and 3,086 
ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, 
Alyxia oliviformis, Bidens sp., Chamaesyce sp., Dodonaea viscosa, 
Doodia sp. (oku pukupulauii), Eragrostis grandis, Melicope sp., 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Nephrolepis exaltata, Psydrax odorata, or 
Sphenomeris sp. (palaa) (HINHP Database 2001; 61 FR 53089).
    The major threats to Eragrostis fosbergii are degradation of 
habitat by feral pigs and goats; competition with nonnative plant 
species such as Grevillea robusta, Psidium cattleianum, and Schinus 
terebinthifolis; trampling by hikers; hybridization with Eragrostis 
grandis; and a threat of extinction from random environmental events 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining 
occurrences and individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; G. 
Koob, pers. comm., 2001).
Gardenia mannii (Nanu)
    Gardenia mannii, a short-lived perennial member of the coffee 
family (Rubiaceae), is a tree 5 to 15 m (16 to 50 ft) tall. This 
species is distinguished from others in the genus by the shape and 
number of the calyx spurs (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Gardenia mannii has been observed in flower and fruit in June and 
September. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Gardenia mannii was known from 7 widely scattered 
occurrences in the Waianae Mountains and 39 occurrences distributed 
along almost the entire length of the Koolau Mountains of Oahu. 
Currently, there are 49 occurrences of Gardenia mannii at Haleauau 
Gulch, Peahinaia Ridge, Kaunala Gulch and Kaunala-Waimea Ridge, Castle 
Trail, Halawa Valley and Halawa-Kalauao Ridge, Moanalua Valley, Makaua-
Kahana Ridge, Poamoho and Halemano Gulches, Kaluaa and Maunauna 
Gulches, Waimano Trail, Kawailoa Trail, Puu Hapapa and Waieli Gulch, 
Wiliwilinui Ridge, Koloa Stream, Waialae Nui-Kapakahi Ridge, Manaiki 
Valley, Laie Trail, Malaekahana-Waimea Summit Ridge, Haleauau Gulch, 
Schofield-Waikane Trail, Kaukonahua Gulch, Kapakahi Gulch, Manana 
Trail, Peahinaia Trail and Opaeula Stream, Kamana Nui Stream, Pukele, 
Hanaimoa Gulch, Papali Gulch, Kawai Nui, and Kaipapau Gulch. The 49 
extant occurrences are on private, State, and Federal lands. The 
existing occurrences total between 69 and 80 plants (EDA Database 2001; 
GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Gardenia mannii is usually found on moderate to moderately steep 
gulch slopes, ridge crests, in gulch bottoms, and on stream banks in 
mesic or wet forests between 82 and 1,050 m (269 and 3,444 ft) in 
elevation. Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, Alyxia 
oliviformis, Antidesma platyphyllum, Bobea sp., Boehmeria grandis, 
Broussaisia arguta, Cheirodendron sp. (NCN), Cibotium sp., Coprosma 
foliosa, Dicranopteris linearis, Elaeocarpus sp., Freycinetia arborea, 
Hedyotis acuminata, Ilex anomala, Melicope sp., Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Perottetia sandwicensis, Pipturus sp., Pisonia sp., 
Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria mariniana, Syzygium sandwicensis, and 
Thelypteris sp. (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Gardenia mannii are habitat degradation and/or 
destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military activities; 
competition with nonnative plant species such as Clidemia hirta, 
Leptospermum scoparium, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, 
Psidium guajava, Rubus argutus, and Toona ciliata; fire; and risk of 
extinction from random environmental events and/or reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the widely dispersed, small number of remaining 
individuals. The Kapakahi Gulch occurrence is also threatened by the 
black twig borer (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Hedyotis degeneri (NCN)
    Hedyotis degeneri, a short-lived perennial member of the coffee 
family (Rubiaceae), is a prostrate shrub with four-sided stems and 
peeling, corky bark. This species can be distinguished from others in 
the genus on Oahu by its low-growing habit, the peeling corky layers on 
older stems, and the short, crowded, leafy shoots growing in the leaf 
axils; two varieties within the species are recognized: Hedyotis 
degeneri var. coprosmifolia and Hedyotis degeneri var. degeneri (Wagner 
et al. 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower in June, July, and 
November, and in fruit in July. No further information is available on 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, or limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Historically, Hedyotis degeneri is known from Mt. Kaala in the 
northern Waianae Mountains. Variety coprosmifolia has not been 
collected since the 1980s, and no current occurrences are known. Four 
occurrences, totaling 60 individuals, of variety degeneri are known 
from Makaleha, Pahole Gulch, Kahanahaiki, and Alaiheihe Gulch on 
Federal, State, city, and county lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; 
Wagner et al. 1999).
    Hedyotis degeneri typically grows on ridge crests in diverse mesic 
forest between 349 and 1,083 m (1,145 and 3,552 ft) elevation. 
Associated native species include Alyxia oliviformis, Carex meyenii 
Chamaesyce multiformis, Cocculus sp. (huehue), Dicranopteris linearis, 
Diospyros sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Gahnia sp. (NCN), Hedyotis 
terminalis, Leptecophylla tameiameiae (pukiawe), Lobelia yuccoides 
(panaunau), Lysimachia hillebrandii (kolokolo kuahiwi), Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Pleomele sp., Psychotria hathewayi, Psydrax odorata, or 
Wikstroemia oahuensis (akia) (HINHP Database 2001).

[[Page 35961]]

    The major threats to Hedyotis degeneri are habitat destruction by 
feral pigs; competition from the nonnative plant species Ageratina 
adenophora, Blechnum appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Grevillea robusta, 
Melinis minutiflora, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, Rubus 
argutus, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Toona ciliata; and a threat of 
extinction from random environmental events and/or decreased 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of extant individuals and 
occurrences (HINHP Database 2001).
Hedyotis parvula (NCN)
    Hedyotis parvula, a short-lived perennial member of the coffee 
family (Rubiaceae), is a small, many-branched shrub, either upright or 
sprawling, with stems usually no more than 30 cm (1 ft) in length. 
Closely spaced, overlapping leaves that are uniform in size along the 
stem distinguish this species from other members of the genus on Oahu 
(Wagner et al. 1999).
    Hedyotis parvula has been observed flowering in both winter and 
summer. The plant is found in dry areas and flowering may be induced by 
rain. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Hedyotis parvula was known from the central and 
southern Waianae Mountains, from Makaleha Valley to Nanakuli Valley. 
Currently, this species is known from five locations on Federal, State, 
city, and county lands at Makaleha Ridge, Makua-Keaau Ridge, Lualualei-
Nananakuli Ridge, Ohikilolo Ridge, and Halona. Seven occurrences 
totaling between 116 and 131 individuals are known (EDA Database 2001; 
GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999).
    Hedyotis parvula typically grows on and at the base of cliff faces, 
rock outcrops, and ledges in mesic habitat at elevations between 331 
and 1,160 m (1,086 and 3,805 ft). Associated native species include 
Bidens sp., Carex sp., Chamaesyce sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Eragrostis sp. 
(kawelu), Metrosideros polymorpha, Metrosideros tremuloides (lehua 
ahihi), Plectranthus parviflorus, Psydrax odorata, or Rumex sp. (HINHP 
Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999; 56 FR 55770).
    The major threats to Hedyotis parvula are habitat degradation by 
feral goats and pigs; competition from the nonnative plant species 
Ageratina riparia, Melinis minutiflora, Morella faya, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; and a threat of extinction from random environmental 
events and/or decreased reproductive vigor due to the small number of 
individuals and occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; 56 FR 55770).
Labordia cyrtandrae (Kamakahala)
    Labordia cyrtandrae, a short-lived perennial member of the logania 
family (Loganiaceae), is a shrub 0.7 to 2 m (2.3 to 6.6 ft) tall. This 
species is distinguished from others in the genus by its fleshy, hairy, 
cylindrical stem that flattens upon drying, the shape and length of the 
floral bracts, and the length of the corolla tube and lobes (Wagner et 
al. 1999).
    Labordia cyrtandrae has been observed flowering from May through 
June, fruiting from July through August, and is sporadically fertile 
year-round. The flowers are functionally unisexual, and male and female 
flowers are on separate plants. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Historically, Labordia cyrtandrae was known from both the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains of Oahu. In the Koolau Mountains, this species 
extended from Kawailoa Trail to Waialae Iki, almost the entire length 
of the mountain range. This species currently is known only from 20 
individuals in 10 occurrences in Haleauau Gulch, Mohiakea Gulch, Kaala, 
and Makaleha. These occurrences are on State, city, county, and private 
lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Labordia cyrtandrae typically grows in shady gulches, slopes, and 
glens in mesic to wet forests and shrublands dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Diplopterygium pinnatum, and/or  Acacia koa between the 
elevations of 212 and 1,233 m (695 and 4,044 ft). Associated native 
plant species include Antidesma sp., Artemisia australis, Bidens torta, 
Boehmeria grandis, Broussaisia arguta, Chamaesyce sp., Coprosma sp., 
Cyrtandra sp., Dicranopteris linearis, Diplazium sandwichianum, 
Dubautia plantaginea (naenae), Lysimachia hillebrandii, Peperomia 
membranacea (ala ala wai nui), Perrottetia sandwicensis, Phyllostegia 
sp., Pipturus albidus, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria sp., or Rumex 
sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b).
    The major threats to Labordia cyrtandrae are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; competition with the nonnative plant species Axonopus 
fissifolius, Clidemia hirta, Juncus planifolius (NCN), Psidium 
cattleianum, Rubus argutus, Setaria parviflora (yellow foxtail), and 
Schinus terebinthifolius; fire; and risk of extinction from random 
environmental events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small 
number of remaining individuals and occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; 
Service 1998b).
Lepidium arbuscula (Anaunau)
    Lepidium arbuscula, a short-lived perennial member of the mustard 
family (Brassicaceae), is a gnarled shrub 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) 
tall. The species is distinguished from others in the genus by its 
height (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Lepidium arbuscula has been observed in flower in February. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Lepidium arbuscula was known from 10 occurrences in 
the Waianae Mountains on Oahu. Currently, there are a total of 
approximately 1,000 individuals known from 12 occurrences on Federal, 
State, city, and county lands at Kamaileunu Ridge, Lualualei-Nanakuli 
Ridge, Kapuhi Gulch, northwest of Puu Kaua, Manini Gulch, Mohiakea 
Gulch, Ohikilolo Ridge, Makua-Keaau Ridge, the ridge between the Paahoa 
and Halona subdistricts, northwest of Puu Ku Makalii, and Halona 
subdistrict (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Lepidium arbuscula generally grows on exposed ridge tops and cliff 
faces in mesic and dry vegetation communities between 131 and 978 m 
(430 and 3,208 ft) elevation. This species is typically associated with 
native plant species such as Artemisia australis, Bidens sp., Carex 
meyenii, Carex wahuensis (NCN), Chamaesyce multiformis, Dodonaea 
viscosa, Dryopteris unidentata, Dubautia sp., Eragrostis sp., 
Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Lysimachia hillebrandii, Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Peperomia sp., Psydrax odorata, Rumex albescens (huahuako), 
Schiedea ligustrina (NCN), Sida fallax, or Sophora chrysophylla (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b).
    The primary threats to Lepidium arbuscula are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral goats, potential impacts from military 
activities, competition with nonnative plants, and fire. The occurrence 
at the head of Kapuhi Gulch is also threatened by its proximity to a 
road (HINHP Database 2001; 61 FR 53089).
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla (Nehe)
    Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, a member of the aster family 
(Asteraceae),

[[Page 35962]]

is a low, somewhat woody, short-lived perennial herb with arched or 
nearly prostrate stems that may be up to 150 cm (59 in) long. Aside 
from being a coastal species, this species is the only member of its 
genus on Oahu with four-parted disk florets. This variety has narrower 
leaves, spaced more closely along the stem, than those of Lipochaeta 
lobata var. lobata, the only other variety of the species (Wagner et 
al. 1999).
    Flowering of Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla is probably rain-
induced. Occurrences may consist of fewer distinct individuals than it 
appears because many plants are connected underground by the roots and 
are probably clones. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla was known from the 
southern Waianae Mountains of Oahu, from Kolekole Pass to Lualualei. 
Currently, there are a total of 147 individuals found in 4 occurrences 
on State, Federal, city, and county lands at Lualualei-Nanakuli Ridge, 
Kauhiuhi, Puu Hapapa, Mikilua, and Kamaileunu Ridge, (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999).
    Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla typically grows on cliffs, 
ridges, and slopes in dry or mesic shrubland at elevations between 256 
and 978 m (840 and 3,208 ft). Associated native species include 
Artemisia australis, Bidens sp., Carex meyenii, Diospyros sp., Dodonaea 
viscosa, Eragrostis sp., Melanthera tenuis (nehe), Peperomia sp., 
Psydrax odorata, and Stenogyne sp. (NCN) (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in 
litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla include 
competition from nonnative plant species such as Ageratina adenophora, 
Ageratina riparia, Erigeron karvinskianus, Grevillea robusta, Kalanchoe 
pinnata, Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis minutiflora, 
Passiflora suberosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius; habitat degradation 
by feral pigs and goats; fire; and a threat of extinction from random 
environmental events and/or decreased reproductive vigor due to the 
small number of individuals and occurrences (HINHP Database 2001).
Lipochaeta tenuifolia (Nehe)
    Lipochaeta tenuifolia, a member of the aster family (Asteraceae), 
is a low growing, somewhat woody, short-lived perennial herb with 
short, more or less erect branches. Its five-parted disk florets and 
its deeply cut, stalkless leaves separate this species from other 
members of the genus (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Lipochaeta tenuifolia has been observed flowering in April. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Lipochaeta tenuifolia occurs in the northern half of the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu, from Kaluakauila Gulch to Kamaileunu Ridge and east 
to Mt. Kaala, and northwest, southwest, southeast, and north of Puu Ku 
Makalii on State, Federal, city, and county lands. The 41 known 
occurrences contain between 759 and 1,174 individuals (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Lipochaeta tenuifolia typically grows on ridgetops and bluffs in 
open areas, protected pockets of dry to mesic forests and shrublands, 
and forests dominated by Diospyros sandwicensis at elevations between 
67 and 978 m (220 and 3,208 ft). Associated native species include 
Artemisia australis, Bidens sp., Carex meyenii, Diospyros sp., Dodonaea 
viscosa, Doryopteris sp. (kumu niu), Dubautia sp., Eragrostis sp., 
Myoporum sandwicense, Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (ulei), Psydrax 
odorata, Reynoldsia sandwicensis, Rumex sp., Santalum sp., Sapindus 
oahuensis, or Schiedea sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999).
    The major threats to Lipochaeta tenuifolia are habitat degradation 
by feral goats and pigs; competition for light and space from nonnative 
plant species including Ageratina riparia, Aleurites moluccana, 
Blechnum appendiculatum, Coffea arabica (coffee), Grevillea robusta, 
Hyptis pectinata, Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis 
minutiflora, Panicum maximum, Psidium cattleianum, Rivina humilis, 
Schinus terebinithifolius, or Toona ciliata; and fire (HINHP Database 
2001; 56 FR 55770).
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis (NCN)
    Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, a short-lived perennial 
member of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is an unbranched, 
woody shrub 0.3 to 1 m (1 to 3.5 ft) tall. The species is distinguished 
from others in the genus by the length of the stem, the length and 
color of the corolla, the leaf width, the length of the floral bracts, 
and the length of the calyx lobes. The subspecies koolauensis is 
distinguished by the greenish or yellowish white petals and the 
branched flowering stalks (Lammers 1990; 61 FR 53089).
    Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis has been observed in flower 
in September and in fruit in December. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Historically, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis was known from 
only two occurrences in the central Koolau Mountains on Oahu. 
Currently, this subspecies is known from five occurrences in the 
central Koolau Mountains, on Federal, State, and private lands at 
Waimano-Waiawa Ridge, Waimano, the plateau above Sacred Falls, and 
Kaukonahua Gulch. The total number of plants is estimated to be fewer 
than 270 (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis typically grows on moderate 
to steep slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha lowland wet shrublands and 
bogs at elevations between 383 and 867 m (1,256 and 2,844 ft). 
Associated native plant species include Bidens sp., Broussaisia arguta, 
Cibotium sp., Dicanthelium koolauense (NCN), Isachne distichophylla 
(ohe), Machaerina angustifolia, Melicope sp., Sadleria pallida, 
Scaevola sp., or Vaccinium dentatum (ohelo) (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, 
in litt. 2001).
    The primary threats to Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis are 
habitat degradation and/or destruction by feral pigs; competition with 
the nonnative plant species Axonopus fissifolius, Clidemia hirta, 
Pterolepis glomerata, and Sacciolepis indica; trampling by hikers; 
landslides; and risk of extinction from random environmental events 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor of the few remaining individuals 
(HINHP Database 2001; 61 FR 53089).
Lobelia monostachya (NCN)
    Lobelia monostachya, a short-lived perennial member of the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is a prostrate woody shrub with 
stems 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in) long. The species is distinguished from 
others in the genus by its narrow, linear leaves without stalks and its 
short pink flowers (Lammers 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower in May and June. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific

[[Page 35963]]

environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Lobelia monostachya was known only from the Koolau 
Mountains and had not been seen since its original discovery in the 
1800s in Niu Valley, and in the 1920s in Manoa Valley. In 1994, Joel 
Lau discovered one individual in a previously unknown location in 
Wailupe Valley on State and private lands. Currently, one occurrence 
with a total of three plants is known (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Lobelia monostachya occurs on steep, sparsely vegetated cliffs in 
mesic shrubland between 44 and 614 m (144 and 2,014 ft) elevation. 
Associated native plant species include Artemisia australis, Carex 
meyenii, Eragrostis sp., or Psilotum nudum (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Lobelia monostachya are predation by rats; 
competition with the nonnative plants Ageratum riparia, Kalanchoe 
pinnata, Melinis minutiflora, and Schinus terebinthifolius; and risk of 
extinction from random environmental events and/or reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the low number of individuals in the only known occurrence 
(HINHP Database 2001; 61 FR 53089).
Lobelia oahuensis (NCN)
    Lobelia oahuensis, a short-lived perennial member of the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae), is a stout, erect, unbranched shrub 1 to 3 m (3 
to 10 ft) tall. Lobelia oahuensis differs from other members of the 
genus in having the following combination of characters: Erect stems 1 
to 3 m (3 to 10 ft) long, dense rosettes of leaves at the end of stems, 
lower leaf surfaces covered with coarse grayish or greenish hairs, and 
flowers 42 to 45 millimeters (mm) (1.7 to 1.8 in) long (Lammers 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower during November. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Lobelia oahuensis was known from Kahana Ridge, Kipapa 
Gulch, and the southeastern Koolau Mountains of Oahu. The 12 current 
occurrences totaling 42 individuals are located on private, State, and 
Federal lands. These occurrences are on Mt. Olympus, Konahuanui summit, 
Waikakalaua-Waikane Ridge, Puu o Kona, the summit area between Aiea and 
Halawa Valley, Puu Keahiakahoe and the summit ridge south of Puu 
Keahiakahoe, Waialae Nui-Waimanalo and Kapakahi-Waimanalo, Puu Kalena, 
and Eleao (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Lobelia oahuensis grows on steep slopes between elevations of 415 
and 959 m (1,361 and 3,146 ft) on summit cliffs in cloudswept wet 
forests or in lowland wet shrubland that is frequently exposed to heavy 
wind and rain. Associated native plant species include Bidens sp., 
Broussaisia arguta, Cheirodendron trigynum (olapa), Cibotium sp., 
Dicranopteris linearis, Dubautia laxa, Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis 
sp., Labordia hosakana (kamakahala), Lycopodiella cernua (wawae iole), 
Machaerina angustifolia, Melicope sp., Metrosideros polymorpha, 
Peperomia sp., Phyllostegia sp., Sadleria squarrosa (apuu), Scaevola 
sp., Syzygium sandwicensis, Vaccinium sp., or Wikstroemia sp. (HINHP 
Database 2001; Lammers 1999; Service 1998b).
    The primary threats to Lobelia oahuensis are competition with the 
nonnative plant species Clidemia hirta, Erigeron karvinskianus, 
Paspalum conjugatum, Rubus argutus, and Rubus rosifolius, and habitat 
degradation by feral pigs (HINHP Database 2001).
Melicope lydgatei (Alani)
    Melicope lydgatei, a long-lived perennial member of the citrus 
family (Rutaceae), is a small shrub that has leaves arranged oppositely 
or in threes. The species' leaf arrangement, the amount of fusion of 
the fruit sections, and the hairless exocarp (outermost layer of the 
fruit wall) and endocarp (innermost layer) distinguish it from other 
species in the genus (Wagner et al. 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower in May and in fruit from 
June to July. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Melicope lydgatei was formerly known throughout the Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu from Hauula to Kahana, Kipapa Gulch to Waimano, and 
Kalihi Valley to Wailupe Valley. Eighteen occurrences remain within its 
historical range on State and private lands along Poamoho Trail, 
Peahinaia Trail, and Manana Trail (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Melicope lydgatei typically grows in association with Acacia koa, 
Bobea elatior, Dicranopteris linearis, Metrosideros polymorpha, 
Psychotria sp., or Syzygium sandwicensis on ridges in mesic and wet 
forests at elevations between 349 and 671 m (1,145 and 2,201 ft) (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threat to Melicope lydgatei is a threat of extinction 
due to random environmental events and/or reduced reproductive vigor 
because of the small number of occurrences remaining (59 FR 14482).
Melicope saint-johnii (Alani)
    Melicope saint-johnii, a long-lived perennial member of the rue 
family (Rutaceae), is a slender tree 3 to 6 m (10 to 20 ft) tall. This 
species is distinguished from others in the genus by the combination of 
the hairless exocarp, hairy endocarp, densely hairy petals, and 
sparsely hairy to smooth sepals (Stone et al. 1999).
    No information exists on flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Melicope saint-johnii was known from both the Waianae 
and Koolau Mountains at Makaha to Mauna Kapu in the Waianae Mountains 
and Papali Gulch in Hauula, Manoa-Aihualama, Wailupe, and Niu Valley in 
the Koolau Mountains. Today 6 occurrences of this species are found on 
Federal and private lands from the region between Puu Kaua and Puu 
Kanehoa to Mauna Kapu in the southern Waianae Mountains, with a total 
of fewer than 170 individuals (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Melicope saint-johnii typically grows on mesic forested ridges and 
gulch bottoms between the elevation of 240 and 953 m (787 and 3,126 
ft). Associated native plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, 
Artemisia australis, Bidens torta, Carex wahuensis, Coprosma 
longifolia, Eragrostis sp., Hedyotis schlechtendahliana, Labordia 
kaalae (kamakahala), Lysimachia hillebrandii, Metrosideros polymorpha, 
Panicum beechyi (panic grass), Pipturus albidus, Pittosporum sp., 
Pleomele halapepe (hala pepe), Psychotria hathewayi, or Rumex albescens 
(HINHP Database 2001).
    The primary threats to Melicope saint-johnii are habitat 
degradation and/or destruction by feral goats and pigs; potential 
predation by the black twig borer; potential fire; competition with 
nonnative plant species such as Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina 
riparia, Clidemia hirta, Grevillea robusta, Lantana camara, Melinis 
minutiflora, Morella faya, Passiflora suberosa, Passiflora sp., Psidium 
cattleianum, and Schinus terebinthifolius; and risk of extinction due 
to naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor because 
of the few individuals remaining and their restricted distribution 
(HINHP

[[Page 35964]]

Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Myrsine juddii (Kolea)
    Myrsine juddii, short-lived perennial a member of the myrsine 
family (Myrsinaceae), is a many branched shrub ranging from 1 to 2 m 
(3.5 to 6.6 ft) tall. This species is distinguished from others in the 
genus by the hairiness of the lower leaf surface and the shape of the 
leaf base. In addition, the hairy leaves distinguish this species from 
all other species of Myrsine on Oahu (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Myrsine juddii has been reported from only three occurrences in the 
central Koolau Mountains: the North Kaukonahua-Kahana Summit divide, 
Peahinaia Trail, and Puu Kainapuaa to Poamoho Trail. These occurrences 
are found on State and Federal lands. The total number of individuals 
is thought to be around 5,000 (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Myrsine juddii typically grows on ridge crests and gulch slopes in 
wet forests and shrublands dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or a 
mixture of Metrosideros polymorpha and Dicranopteris linearis at 
elevations between 384 and 867 m (1,260 and 2,844 ft). Associated 
native plant species include Cheirodendron platyphyllum, Cheirodendron 
trigynum, Machaerina sp., Melicope clusiifolia (kolokolo mokihana), 
Psychotria mariniana, and Syzygium sandwicensis (GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threats to Myrsine juddii are habitat degradation and/
or destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; competition with nonnative plant species such as Clidemia 
hirta and Psidium cattleianum; and a risk of extinction from naturally 
occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small 
number of extant occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 
53089).
Neraudia angulata (NCN)
    Neraudia angulata, a short-lived perennial member of the nettle 
family (Urticaceae), is an erect shrub up to 3 m (10 ft) tall. This 
species is distinguished from other species in its genus by the 
conspicuously angled, ridged, fleshy calyx in the female flower. There 
are two varieties, N. angulata var. angulata and N. angulata var. 
dentata, that differ in the types of leaf hairs on the lower surface of 
the leaves and the type of leaf margin (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Neraudia angulata flowers and fruits from early spring to summer. 
Fruits mature in about one month. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Historically, Neraudia angulata was known from almost the entire 
length of the Waianae Mountains, from Kaluakauila Gulch nearly to Puu 
Manawahua. This species is currently known from Kaluakauila Gulch along 
Makua-Keaau Ridge to Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge, on Federal, State, city, 
county, and private lands. The 27 known occurrences are estimated to 
comprise approximately 51 individuals (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; 
HINHP Database 2001).
    Neraudia angulata var. angulata typically grows on slopes, ledges, 
or gulches in lowland mesic or dry forest between 189 and 978 m (620 
and 3,208 ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include 
Artemisia australis, Bidens sp., Carex meyenii, Diospyros sp., Dodonaea 
viscosa, Hibiscus sp., Nestegis sandwicensis, Pisonia sandwicensis, 
Psydrax odorata, or Sida fallax. Neraudia angulata var. dentata 
typically grows on cliffs, rock embankments, gulches, and slopes in 
mesic or dry forests between 110 and 978 m (361 and 3,208 ft) 
elevation. Associated native plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, 
Antidesma pulvinatum, Artemisia australis, Bidens torta, Canavalia sp., 
Carex sp., Charpentiera sp., Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros 
sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Eragrostis sp., Hibiscus sp., 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine lanaiensis, Nestegis sandwicensis, 
Pisonia sp., Psydrax odorata, Rauvolfia sandwicensis, Sapindus 
oahuensis, Sida fallax, or Streblus pendulinus (HINHP Database 2001; 
Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Neraudia angulata var. angulata are habitat 
degradation by feral goats and pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; competition from the nonnative plant species Ageratina 
riparia, Melinis minutiflora, Passiflora sp., Psidium cattleianum, and 
Schinus terebinthifolius; fire; and a risk of extinction from naturally 
occurring events due to the small number of extant individuals. The 
major threats to Neraudia angulata var. dentata are habitat degradation 
by feral pigs and goats; fire; competition with the nonnative plant 
species Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina riparia, Aleurites moluccana, 
Blechnum appendiculatum, Erigeron karvinskianus, Leucaena leucocephala, 
Melinis sp., Montanoa hibiscifolia, Oplismenus hirtellus, Passiflora 
suberosa, Pimenta dioica, Psidium guajava, Schefflera actinophylla, 
Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Tecoma castanifolia 
(yellow elder); and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring 
events due to the small number of extant individuals (HINHP Database 
2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Phyllostegia hirsuta (NCN)
    Phyllostegia hirsuta, a short-lived perennial member of the mint 
family (Lamiaceae), is an erect subshrub or vine with stems densely 
covered with coarse or stiff hairs. This species is distinguished from 
others in the genus by the texture, hairiness, size of the leaves, and 
the length of the upper bracts (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Phyllostegia hirsuta has been observed in flower in February and in 
fruit in June. Cultivated material flowered in July. Little else is 
known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Phyllostegia hirsuta was known from widespread 
locations in the Waianae and Koolau Mountains on Oahu. Currently, this 
species is found in 26 occurrences with a total of between 214 and 227 
individuals from the ridge between Makaha and Waianae Kai to the south 
fork of North Palawai Gulch in the Waianae Mountains and from Kawainui 
Gulch in Kawailoa Training Area to south Kaukonahua drainage in the 
Koolau Mountains. These occurrences are on Federal, State, city, 
county, and private lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 
2001).
    Phyllostegia hirsuta is usually found on steep, shaded slopes, 
cliffs, ridges, gullies, and stream banks in mesic or wet forests 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of Metrosideros 
polymorpha and Dicranopteris linearis between 195 and 1,202 m (640 and 
3,943 ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include Antidesma 
platyphyllum, Astelia sp. (painiu), Brousaissia arguta, Chamaesyce 
multiformis, Cibotium sp., Claoxylon sandwicense, Clermontia kekeana 
(oha wai), Coprosma longifolia, Cyanea membranacea, Cyrtandra 
waianaeensis, Diplazium sandwichianum, Dryopteris unidentata, Dubautia 
laxa, Dubautia sherffiana (naenae), Elaeocarpus bifidus, Freycinetia 
arborea, Hedyotis schlechtendahliana, Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus 
sp., Ilex anomala, Labordia kaalae, Liparis hawaiiensis 
(awapuhiakanaloa), Lysimachia

[[Page 35965]]

hillebrandii, Machaerina angustifolia, Melicope sp., Myrsine 
lessertiana, Myrsine sandwicensis (kolea lau nui), Neraudia sp. (NCN), 
Nothocestrum sp., Perottetia sandwicensis, Phyllostegia grandiflora 
(kapana), Pipturus sp., Pisonia sp., Pleomele sp., Pouteria 
sandwicensis, Psychotria sp., Rumex albescens, Scaevola gaudichaudiana 
(naupaka kuahiwi), Streblus pendulinus, Zanthoxylum kauaense (ae), or 
native ferns (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
    The primary threats to Phyllostegia hirsuta are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; rockslides; predation by rats; and competition with 
Adiantum raddianum, Athyrium sp. (NCN), Axonopus fissifolius, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Buddleia asiatica, Clidemia hirta, Drymaria cordata 
(pipili), Lantana camara, Melinis minutiflora, Passiflora suberosa, 
Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis peruviana (poha), Pimenta dioica, Psidium 
cattleianum, Rubus argutus, Rubus rosifolius, or Schinus 
terebinthifolius (HINHP Database 2001).
Phyllostegia kaalaensis (NCN)
    Phyllostegia kaalaensis, a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
is a short-lived perennial herb. The egg-shaped leaves are 5 to 13 cm 
(2 to 5 in) long. The species is distinguished from others of the genus 
by the spreading, pointed teeth on the leaf edges and by the hairs 
along the margins of the calyx and bracts (Wagner et al. 1999).
    No information is available on flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Phyllostegia kaalaensis was formerly known from only six scattered 
locations in the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. Currently, this species is 
known from 7 occurrences containing a total of fewer than 45 plants, in 
Waianae Kai, Pahole Gulch, central Ekahanui Gulch, Ekahanui Gulch, and 
Palikea Gulch. These occurrences are on State and private lands (GDSI 
2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Phyllostegia kaalaensis is found on gulch slopes and bottoms and on 
almost vertical rock faces in mesic forest or Sapindus oahuensis forest 
between 374 and 796 m (1,227 and 2,611 ft) elevation. Associated native 
plant species include Antidesma platyphyllum, Claoxylon sandwicense, 
Diplazium sandwichianum, Freycinetia arborea, Hibiscus sp., Myrsine 
lanaiensis, Myrsine lessertiana, Neraudia melastomifolia, Pipturus 
albidus, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria hathewayi, Streblus 
pendulinus, or Urera glabra (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Phyllostegia kaalaensis are habitat 
degradation and/or destruction by feral pigs and goats; fire; trail 
clearing; competition with the nonnative plant species Ageratina 
adenophora, Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum appendiculatum, Buddleia 
asiatica, Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline fruticosa, 
Lantana camara, Oplismenus hirtellus, Passiflora edulis (passion 
fruit), Passiflora ligularis, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, 
Psidium guajava, Rubus rosifolius, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Toona 
ciliata; and risk of extinction from naturally occurring events and/or 
reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of occurrences and 
individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Pritchardia kaalae (Loulu)
    Pritchardia kaalae, a long-lived perennial member of the palm 
family (Arecaceae), is a single-stemmed palm up to 5 m (16 ft) tall. 
The waxy, hairless leaves are thin and papery or thick and leathery. 
Sometimes small points, dots, or linear, rusty scales are scattered on 
the lower leaf surface. Pritchardia kaalae is distinguished from other 
members of the genus by the hairless or scaly leaves (Read and Hodel 
1999).
    Pritchardia kaalae plants have been observed in fruit in April, 
August, and October and may fruit throughout the year. Little else is 
known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Pritchardia kaalae was known from scattered 
occurrences in the central and north-central Waianae Mountains of Oahu. 
Currently, 6 occurrences are known from Manuwai Gulch, East Makaleha, 
Kaumokunui Gulch, Waianae Kai-Haleauau summit divide, Makua-Keaau Ridge 
and Makaha Valley, totaling about 200 individuals. These occurrences 
are located on Federal, State, city, and county lands (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Pritchardia kaalae is typically found on steep slopes and gulches 
in mesic forest or shrubland between elevations of 421 and 1,123 m 
(1,381 and 3,683 ft). Associated native plant species include Bidens 
sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Dubautia sp., Eragrostis sp., Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Metrosideros tremuloides, Myrsine sp., Pipturus sp., or 
Tetraplasandra sp. (ohe ohe) (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 
53089; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    Major threats to Pritchardia kaalae are habitat degradation by 
feral pigs and goats; fruit predation by rats; potential impacts from 
military activities; competition with the nonnative plant species 
Ageratina adenophora, Rubus argutus, and Schinus terebinthifolius; 
potential fire; and risk of extinction from naturally occurring events 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of 
occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Sanicula mariversa (NCN)
    Sanicula mariversa, a short-lived perennial member of the parsley 
family (Apiaceae), is an upright herb, 40 to 70 cm (16 to 28 in) tall, 
that produces a caudex (a single branched stem from a sturdy base) 
growing just beneath the surface of the soil. The larger size of the 
plant and basal leaves, the color of the flower petals, and the hooked 
prickles on the fruit separate this species from others of the genus in 
Hawaii (Constance and Affolter 1999).
    Sanicula mariversa is known to flower from February through May, 
and fruits can be found until August. Dry fruits remain on the plant 
for a long time and may persist beyond August. Little else is known 
about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b).
    Historically, Sanicula mariversa was known from the central Waianae 
Mountains from Makua-Keaau Ridge to Kaluaa-Lualualei Summit Ridge. This 
species is now extant on Ohikilolo Ridge, Keaau-Makaha Ridge, 
Kamaileunu Ridge, and northwest of Puu Kanehoa on Federal, State, city, 
and county lands. The 4 known occurrences contain approximately 170 
individuals (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Sanicula mariversa typically grows on well-drained, dry slopes and 
rock faces in mesic shrublands and open grassy areas at elevations 
between 582 and 978 m (1,909 and 3,208 ft). Associated native species 
include Bidens torta, Carex meyenii, Doryopteris sp., Eragrostis sp., 
Metrosideros polymorpha, or Metrosideros tremuloides (HINHP Database 
2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Sanicula mariversa are habitat degradation by 
feral goats; fire; erosion; competition from the nonnative plant 
species Ageratina riparia, Erigeron karvinskianus, Melinus minutiflora, 
Schinus terebinthifolius, and

[[Page 35966]]

Stachytarpheta dichotoma; trampling by humans on or near trails; and 
the risk of extinction due to the small number of occurrences (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Schiedea kaalae (NCN)
    Schiedea kaalae, a short-lived perennial member of the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), has a short woody caudex less than 20 cm (8 in) 
long. This species can be distinguished from other members of its genus 
by its very short stems and its thick leaves with one conspicuous vein 
(Wagner et al. 1999).
    This plant has been observed in flower from March through June. 
Based on field and greenhouse observations, Schiedea kaalae has 
bisexual flowers. A series of experimental self-pollinations, within-
population crosses, and crosses among occurrences has demonstrated that 
Schiedea kaalae experiences moderately strong inbreeding depression. 
These results indicate that reductions in population size could result 
in expression of inbreeding depression among progeny, with potentially 
deleterious consequences for the long-term persistence of this species. 
Consistent with the evidence for inbreeding depression, Schiedea kaalae 
appears to be an out-crossing species. Under greenhouse conditions, 
flowers do not set seed unless hand-pollinated. In the field, this 
species was observed being visited by the introduced syrphid fly, 
Simosyrphus grandicornis. The fly did not appear to be foraging for 
nectar but may have been feeding on pollen. Individuals of Schiedea 
kaalae appear to be long-lived, but there is no evidence of 
regeneration from seed under field conditions. Seedlings of Schiedea 
kaalae, like those of other Schiedea species in mesic or wet sites, are 
apparently consumed by introduced slugs and snails, which have been 
observed feeding on Schiedea membranacea, a mesic forest species from 
Kauai. In contrast, Schiedea occurring in dry areas produce abundant 
seedlings following winter rains, presumably because dry areas have 
fewer nonnative predators. Little else is known about its flowering 
cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b; Weller 
and Sakai, unpublished data).
    Historically, Schiedea kaalae was known from the north-central and 
south-central Waianae Mountains and the northern Koolau Mountains of 
Oahu. This species remains on State and private lands at Pahole Gulch, 
Kaluaa Gulch, Puu Kaua, Palawai Gulch, Maakua Gulch, Huliwai Gulch, and 
Makaua Stream. The 7 known occurrences contain only 49 individuals 
(GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Schiedea kaalae typically grows in deep shade on steep slopes, 
cliffs, and stream banks in diverse mesic and wet forests at elevations 
between 64 and 869 m (210 and 2,850 ft). Associated native species 
include Alyxia oliviformis, Athyrium arnottii (hoio), Athyrium 
sandwichianum, Boehmeria grandis, Charpentiera sp., Claoxylon 
sandwicense, Cyrtandra calpidicarpa, Cyrtandra laxiflora, Diospyros 
hillebrandii, Dryopteris unidentata, Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis 
acuminata, Nothocestrum longifolium (aiea), Pipturus albidus, Pisonia 
sandwicensis, Pisonia umbellifera, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria 
hathewayi, Selaginella arbuscula, or Xylosma hawaiiense (maua) (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b).
    The major threats to Schiedea kaalae are habitat degradation by 
feral pigs and goats; competition from the nonnative plant species 
Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina riparia, Blechnum appendiculatum, 
Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline fruticosa, Melinus 
minutiflora, Morella faya, Oplismenus hirtellus, Passiflora suberosa, 
Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, Rubus rosifolius, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; fire; predation by introduced slugs and snails; and a 
risk of extinction from naturally occurring events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining individuals 
(HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b).
Schiedea kealiae (Ma oli oli)
    Schiedea kealiae, a short-lived perennial member of the pink family 
(Caryophyllaceae), is a subshrub with weakly ascending to sprawling 
stems that form loose clumps. The species is distinguished from others 
of this endemic Hawaiian genus by the length of the sepals and 
nectaries and by the stalkless glands found only on the flowering stalk 
(Wagner et al. 1999).
    Schiedea kealiae has been observed in flower in December. A series 
of self-pollinations, within-population crosses, and crosses among 
occurrences has demonstrated that many related Schiedea species 
experience moderately strong inbreeding depression. These results 
indicate that reductions in population size could result in expression 
of inbreeding depression among progeny, with potentially deleterious 
consequences for the long-term persistence of the species. Individuals 
of Schiedea kealiae appear to be long-lived; however, there is no 
evidence of regeneration from seed under field conditions. Seedlings of 
Schiedea species occurring in mesic or wet sites are apparently 
consumed by introduced slugs and snails, which have been observed 
feeding on Schiedea membranacea, a mesic forest species from Kauai. In 
contrast, Schiedea occurring in dry areas produce abundant seedlings 
following winter rains, presumably because dry areas have fewer 
nonnative predators. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b; Weller 
and Sakai, unpublished data).
    Historically, Schiedea kealiae was known from the northern Waianae 
Mountains and one collection from the Palikea area, near the southern 
end of the same mountain range. Currently, 4 occurrences totaling 
between 265 and 315 plants are located on the cliffs above Dillingham 
Airfield and Camp Erdman and at Kaena Point at the northern end of the 
Waianae Mountains. These occurrences are on private and State lands, as 
well as State lands under Federal jurisdiction (Army 2001b; GDSI 2001; 
HINHP Database 2001).
    Schiedea kealiae is usually found on steep slopes and cliff faces 
and bases in dry remnant Erythrina sandwicensis forest at elevations 
between 46 and 341 m (151 and 1,118 ft). Associated native plant 
species include Bidens sp., Hibiscus arnottianus, Lepidium bidentatum 
(anaunau), Lipochaeta remyi (nehe), Myoporum sandwicense, Plumbago 
zeylanica, Psydrax odorata, Sicyos sp. (anunu), or Sida fallax (HINHP 
Database 2001).
    The major threats to Schiedea kealiae are competition with the 
nonnative plant species Leucaena leucocephala, Panicum maximum, and 
Schinus terebinthifolius; predation by introduced slugs and snails; 
lack of a pollinator; and risk of extinction from naturally occurring 
events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of 
existing occurrences. The Kaena Point occurrence is additionally 
threatened by naturally occurring rock slides and fire (HINHP Database 
2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Silene perlmanii (NCN)
    Silene perlmanii, a member of the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), is 
a short-lived perennial plant with stems that are woody at the base. It 
usually is much branched from the base and often forms clumps. It is 
the only species of the genus on Oahu and can be distinguished from 
other Silene species by its white petals and a calyx that is

[[Page 35967]]

more than 19 mm (0.7 in) long and densely covered with short hairs 
(Wagner et al. 1999).
    Silene perlmanii flowers in the spring, depending on climatic 
conditions. Flowers last for one day. Fruits develop in a few weeks. 
Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Silene perlmanii was discovered in the 1980s and was known from a 
few individuals in two occurrences in the southern Waianae Mountains on 
Federal and privately owned lands. The occurrences were about 1.6 km (1 
mi) apart at Palikea and Palawai Gulch. Since December of 1997, no 
individuals are known to be extant in the wild. Currently, this species 
is known only from individuals under propagation at the National 
Tropical Botanical Garden (G. Koob, pers. comm. 2002; GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
    Silene perlmanii typically grew on steep rocky slopes in Acacia 
koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forest at elevations between 
493 and 919 m (1,617 and 3,014 ft) (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 
56 FR 55770).
    The major threats to Silene perlmanii are competition from the 
nonnative plant species Ageratina adenophora, Erigeron karvinskianus, 
Melinis minutiflora, Morella faya, Passiflora suberosa, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; habitat degradation by feral pigs; and the risk of 
extinction from naturally occurring events and reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the small number of individuals believed to be extinct 
(HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Stenogyne kanehoana (NCN)
    Stenogyne kanehoana is a climbing vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae) with stems weakly four-angled, hairy, and 1 to 2 m (3 to 6 
ft) long. Stenogyne kanehoana is distinguished from the only other 
member of the genus occurring on Oahu, S. kaalae, primarily by the size 
and color of its flowers. The flowers of S. kanehoana are large, white 
to yellow, and tipped in pink, while those of S. kaalae are small and 
deep purple (Weller and Sakai 1999).
    Stenogyne kanehoana generally flowers from February through March, 
but flowering depends on precipitation, and flowers have been noted 
from January to as late as April. Fruits mature within six weeks. The 
lifespan of this species appears to be about seven to 12 years. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Stenogyne kanehoana was known from the east ridge of Puu Kanehoa in 
the Waianae Mountains, near the summit of the ridge connecting Puu 
Kanehoa with Puu Hapapa to the north and Puu Kaua to the south, a 
distance totaling approximately 2.8 km (1.7 mi). This population 
consisting of two plants near the summit of Puu Kanehoa on privately 
owned land was found dead recently. An additional occurrence in Kaluaa 
Gulch was discovered in 2000 by Joan Yoshioka of TNCH. This occurrence 
consists of one to six individual plants and is located on privately 
owned land (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 57 FR 
20592).
    The remnant occurrence of Stenogyne kanehoana is found in lowland 
mesic forest between 559 and 1,168 m (1,834 and 3,831 ft) elevation. 
Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, Alyxia oliviformis, 
Bidens sp., Chamaesyce sp., Cibotium sp., Freycinetia arborea, 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Psychotria sp., or Scaevola sp. (HINHP 
Database 2001).
    The major threats to Stenogyne kanehoana are habitat degradation 
and competition for space, water, light, and nutrients by the nonnative 
species Clidemia hirta, Paspalum conjugatum, Passiflora suberosa, 
Psidium cattleianum, and Schinus terebinthifolius. The extremely small 
number of individual plants and their restricted distribution increases 
the potential for extinction from naturally occurring events. Other 
potential threats that have been suggested include fire and 
deforestation, but, at present, these probably are not serious threats 
to the species. Habitat degradation by feral pigs, predation by the two 
spotted leafhopper, and trampling by hikers are also thought to be 
threats to this species (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 57 FR 
20592).
Tetramolopium filiforme (NCN)
    Tetramolopium filiforme, a short-lived perennial member of the 
aster family (Asteraceae), is a dwarf shrub from 5 to 15 cm (2 to 6 in) 
tall with complexly branched stems. This species is distinguished from 
the other extant species on Oahu by its separate male and female 
flowers both on the same plant and its inflorescence of one to four 
heads (Lowrey 1999).
    In cultivation, Tetramolopium filiforme germinates in about three 
weeks. Fifteen weeks after germination, the plants are approximately 9 
cm (3.5 in) high and produce their first buds. The first blossoms are 
noted about 18 weeks after germination. During growth, an inflorescence 
forms at the apex of each shoot while new shoots develop laterally. 
Tetramolopium filiforme is relatively short-lived, usually living fewer 
than five years. In the wild, it usually flowers in the late winter or 
spring but flowering can also be induced by heavy rainfall. Little else 
is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Tetramolopium filiforme was known from the northern 
Waianae Mountains, from Ohikilolo Ridge, Keaau Valley, and Makaha 
Valley. This species remains in Keaau Valley, Kahanahaiki Valley, 
Makua-Keaau Ridge, Lualualei, Waianae Kai, and Puu Kawiwi on Federal, 
State, city, and county lands. The 21 known occurrences are estimated 
to contain approximately 253 individuals (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; 
HINHP Database 2001).
    Tetramolopium filiforme typically grows on dry cliff faces and 
ridges in dry and mesic forests at elevations of 247 to 978 m (810 to 
3,208 ft). Associated native species include Artemisia australis, 
Bidens torta, Carex meyenii, Dodonaea viscosa, Peperomia tetraphylla 
(ala ala wai nui), Schiedea sp., or Sida fallax (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Tetramolopium filiforme are habitat 
degradation by feral goats; competition from the nonnative plant 
species Acacia confusa, Ageratina riparia, Erigeron karvinskianus, 
Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis 
minutiflora, Melinis repens, and Schinus terebinthifolius; fire; 
potential impacts from military activities; trampling or collection by 
humans on or near trails; and a risk of extinction from naturally 
occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small 
number of remaining occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b).
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa (Oheohe)
    Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, a long-lived perennial member of the 
ginseng family (Araliaceae), is a tree 2.5 to 10 m (8 to 33 ft) tall 
with 7 to 21 leathery, oval to elliptic leaflets per leaf. 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa is distinguished from all other species in 
the genus in that its ovary appears placed fully above the base of the 
flower (Lowrey 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower in November 1991 and in 
fruit in May, September, and November. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles,

[[Page 35968]]

pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa was historically known from Punaluu, 

Waikakalaua Gulch, Mount Olympus, and the region between Niu and 
Wailupe, all in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu. This species was also 
sighted in the Waianae Range at Palikea in 1954. Currently, 30 
occurrences are scattered along the summit ridges of the Koolau 
Mountains from the region of Paumalu at the northern extreme to 
Kuliouou and Waimanalo at the southeasternmost point, on Federal, 
State, city, and county lands. Fewer than 100 individuals are known 
(EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa is typically found on windswept summit 
ridges, on slopes, or in gullies in wet or sometimes mesic lowland 
forests and shrublands between elevations of 93 and 959 m (305 and 
3,146 ft). Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, 
Antidesma platyphyllum, Bidens sp., Bobea elatior, Broussaisia arguta, 
Cheirodendron sp., Cibotium chamissoi, Cibotium spp., Cyanea 
humboltiana, Dicranopteris linearis, Diplopterygium pinnatum, Dubautia 
laxa, Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis fosbergii (manono), Hedyotis 
terminalis, Labordia sp., Lobelia hypoleuca (kuhiaikamoowahie), 
Machaerina angustifolia, Melicope spp., Metrosideros polymorpha, 
Myrsine fosbergii (kolea), Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria spp., 
Sadleria spp., Syzygium sandwicensis, Tetraplasandra oahuensis (ohe 
mauka), or Wikstroemia sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 59 FR 
14482).
    The major threats to Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa are competition with 
the nonnative plant species Aleurites moluccana, Araucaria columnaris 
(Norfolk Island pine), Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia), Axonopus 
fissifolius, Clidemia hirta, Erigeron karvinskianus, Eucalyptus sp. 
(gum tree), Paspalum conjugatum, Psidium cattleianum, Pterolepis 
glomerata, Sacciolepis indica, and Setaria palmifolia; the two-spotted 
leafhopper; habitat degradation by feral pigs; and reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the species' limited gene pool as a consequence of the 
small number of extant individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 
59 FR 14482).
Trematolobelia singularis (NCN)
    Trematolobelia singularis, a short-lived perennial member of the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is an unbranched shrub with stems 
0.6 to 1.5 m (2 to 5 ft) long. This species differs from others of this 
endemic Hawaiian genus by the unbranched, erect flowering stalk 
(Lammers 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower in October and has wind 
dispersed seeds. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Trematolobelia singularis has been reported only from the southern 
Koolau Mountains. Approximately 165 plants are known from 3 occurrences 
at Moanalua-Tripler Ridge summit to Puu Keahiakahoe, Konahuanui, and 
Puu Lanipo. These occurrences are found on State and private lands 
(GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    This species usually grows on steep, windswept cliff faces or 
slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet 
shrubland from 545 to 953 m (1,788 to 3,126 ft) elevation. Associated 
native plant species include Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium sp., Dubautia 
laxa, Eugenia sp. (nioi), Melicope sp., Sadleria sp., or Wikstroemia 
sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
    The major threats to Trematolobelia singularis are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs, potential predation by rats and slugs, 
competition with the aggressive nonnative plant species Clidemia hirta, 
and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of extant occurrences (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Urera kaalae (Opuhe)
    Urera kaalae, a long-lived perennial member of the nettle family 
(Urticaceae), is a small tree or shrub 3 to 7 m (10 to 23 ft) tall. 
This species can be distinguished from the other Hawaiian species of 
the genus by its heart-shaped leaves (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Urera kaalae has been observed flowering in the spring. It is 
difficult to predict when seeds will be produced and they are often 
sterile. This may be an indication of pollinator limitation. The plants 
are fast-growing. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Urera kaalae was known from the central to southern 
windward Waianae Mountains, from Waianae Uka to Kupehau Gulch. This 
species now occurs only in North and South Ekahanui, Pualii Gulch, 
Halona Gulch, Kaluaa Gulch, North and South Palawai, Puu Hapapa, 
Napepeiauolelo Gulch, and Waianae Kai on Federal, State, and private 
lands. The 12 known occurrences contain approximately 41 individuals 
(EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Urera kaalae typically grows on slopes and in gulches in diverse 
mesic forest at elevations of 439 to 1,074 m (1,440 to 3,523 ft). 
Associated native species include Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma 
platyphyllum, Asplenium kaulfusii, Athyrium sp., Canavalia sp., 
Charpentiera sp., Chamaesyce sp., Claoxylon sandwicense, Diospyros 
hillebrandii, Doryopteris sp., Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis acuminata, 
Hibiscus sp., Nestegis sandwicensis, Pipturus albidus, Pleomele sp., 
Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria sp., Senna gaudichaudii (kolomona), 
Streblus pendulinus, Urera glabra, or Xylosma hawaiiense (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; Wagner et al. 1999; 61 FR 53089).
    The major threats to Urera kaalae are habitat degradation by feral 
pigs; competition from the nonnative plant species Buddleia asiatica, 
Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Heliocarpus popayaensis, Melinis 
minutiflora, Morella faya, Passiflora suberosa, Pimenta dioica, Psidium 
cattleianum, Psidium guajava, Rubus rosifolius, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; fire; rockslides; and a risk of extinction from 
naturally-occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
small number of remaining individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b; 61 FR 53089).
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana (Pamakani)
    Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, a short-lived perennial 
member of the violet family (Violaceae), is a branched shrub up to 90 
cm (3 ft) tall. This subspecies can be distinguished from the other 
members of the genus in the Waianae Mountains by the small size of its 
leaves (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana has been observed in fruit 
and flower in April, August, and October. No further information is 
available on flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, or limiting 
factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana was known from 
the central and southern Waianae Mountains and Makaleha Valley. This 
taxon now occurs on Kamaileunu Ridge,

[[Page 35969]]

Palikea Ridge (between Nanakuli and Lualualei), Puu Hapapa, Makua-Keaau 
Ridge, Halona, and Puu Kumakalii on Federal, State, city, and county 
lands. The 15 known occurrences contain 59 individuals (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana typically grows on dry 
cliffs, rocky ledges, and steep slopes in mesic shrubland and cliff 
vegetation at elevations of 414 to 1,149 m (1,358 to 3,769 ft). 
Associated native species include Artemisia australis, Bidens torta, 
Carex meyenii, Chamaesyce sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Dubautia sp., 
Eragrostis sp., Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Lipochaeta tenuis, 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Peperomia sp., Rumex sp., Schiedea sp., or 
Sida fallax (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
    The major threats to Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana are 
habitat degradation by feral goats and pigs; competition from the 
nonnative plant species Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina riparia, 
Erigeron karvinskianus, Melinis minutiflora, Morella faya, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; fire; landslides; and a risk of extinction from 
naturally-occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
small number of remaining individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Viola oahuensis (NCN)
    Viola oahuensis, a short-lived perennial member of the violet 
family (Violaceae), is usually an erect, unbranched subshrub 6 to 40 cm 
(2.4 to 16 in) tall. This species is distinguished from other Hawaiian 
members of the genus by the shape of the stipules (leaf bracts), the 
length of the leaf stalks, and the length and papery texture of the 
leaves (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Viola oahuensis has been observed flowering in August and 
September. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Viola oahuensis was known from 17 occurrences in the 
Koolau Mountains of Oahu, scattered over about a 37 km (23 mi) distance 
from Puu Kainapuaa to Palolo. The 18 extant occurrences, which total 
fewer than 200 individuals, are now found from the Kawainui-Koloa 
summit divide to the Waimalu-Koolaupoko divide on Federal, State, and 
private lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Viola oahuensis is generally found on exposed, windswept ridges of 
moderate to steep slope in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris 
linearis shrublands and Metrosideros polymorpha mixed montane bogs in 
the cloud zone from 415 to 959 m (1,361 to 3,146 ft) elevation. This 
species typically grows among wind-stunted Antidesma sp., Bidens 
macrocarpa, Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium sp., Dubautia laxa, Hedyotis 
terminalis, Labordia sp., Machaerina sp., Melicope sp., Sadleria sp., 
Syzygium sandwicensis, Vaccinium sp., or Wikstroemia sp. (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).
    The primary threats to Viola oahuensis are habitat degradation and/
or destruction by feral pigs; potential impacts from military 
activities; competition with the nonnative plants Axonopus fissifolius, 
Clidemia hirta, Paspalum conjugatum, Psidium cattleianum, and 
Pterolepis sp. (NCN); and risk of extinction from naturally occurring 
events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of 
occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 61 FR 53089).

Multi-Island Species

Adenophorus periens (Pendent kihi fern)
    Adenophorus periens, a member of the grammitis family 
(Grammitidaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a small, pendent, 
epiphytic (not rooted on the ground) fern. This species differs from 
other species in this endemic Hawaiian genus by having hairs along the 
pinna margins, by the pinnae being at right angles to the midrib axis, 
by the placement of the sori on the pinnae, and by the degree of 
dissection of each pinna (Linney 1989).
    Little is known about the life history of Adenophorus periens, 
which seems to grow only in closed canopy dense forest with high 
humidity. Its breeding system is unknown, but outbreeding is very 
likely to be the predominant mode of reproduction. Spores are dispersed 
by wind, possibly by water, and perhaps on the feet of birds or 
insects. Spores lack a thick resistant coat, which may indicate their 
longevity is brief, probably measured in days at most. Due to the weak 
differences between the seasons in the habitats where this species is 
found, there seems to be no evidence of seasonality in growth or 
reproduction. Additional information on reproductive cycles, longevity, 
specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors is not 
available (Linney 1989).
    Historically, Adenophorus periens was known from Kauai, the Koolau 
Mountains of Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii. Currently, it 
is known from several locations on Kauai, Molokai, and Hawaii. This 
species is no longer extant on the island of Oahu. It was collected in 
1909 on the west ridge of Palolo Crater and the west ridge of Palolo 
Valley (HINHP Database 2001).
    Adenophorus periens grows epiphytically on trees in Metrosideros 
polymorpha and Metrosideros rugosa wet forests between 309 and 867 m 
(1,014 and 2,844 ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include 
Cheirodendron spp., Cibotium sp., Dicranopteris linearis, Hedyotis 
terminalis, Machaerina angustifolia, or Syzygium sandwicensis (HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Nothing is known of the threats to Adenophorus periens on Oahu 
because the species was last collected there in 1909 (Service 1999; 59 
FR 56333).
Alectryon macrococcus (Mahoe)
    Alectryon macrococcus, a member of the soapberry family 
(Sapindaceae), consists of two varieties, macrococcus and auwahiensis, 
both trees with reddish-brown branches and leaves with one to five 
pairs of sometimes asymmetrical egg-shaped leaflets. On leaves of young 
A. macrococcus var. macrococcus plants, the underside of the leaf has 
dense brown hairs. Alectryon macrococcus var. auwahiensis is only found 
on the island of Maui. The only member of its genus found in Hawaii, 
this species is distinguished from other Hawaiian members of its family 
by being a tree with a hard fruit 2.5 cm (1 in) or more in diameter 
(Wagner et al. 1999).
    Alectryon macrococcus is a relatively slow-growing, long lived tree 
that grows in xeric to mesic sites and is adapted to periodic drought. 
Little else is known about the life history of this species. Flowering 
cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, and specific 
environmental requirements are unknown (Service 1997).
    Currently and historically, Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus 
occurs on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. On Oahu, there are a total of 
82 occurrences containing around 300 individuals. These occurrences are 
found in Kapuna Gulch, Huliwai Gulch, Kaluaa Gulch, Ekahanui Gulch, 
Manuwai Gulch, Mohiakea Gulch, Makua Valley, Puu Ku Makalii, Nanakuli-
Lualualei Ridge, Palikea Gulch, Makaha, Pahole Gulch, Makaleha Valley, 
Waianae Kai, Waieli Gulch, Kaluakauila Gulch, Kaaua Gulch, Puu Hapapa, 
Mikilua subdistrict, Kaaawa Gulch, and Napepeiauolelo

[[Page 35970]]

Gulch on Federal, State, city, county, and private lands (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999; EDA, in litt. 
2001).
    Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus grows on slopes or ridges, 
or in gulches, within mesic lowland forests between elevations of 367 
and 941 m (1,204 and 3,086 ft). Associated native plant species include 
Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma platyphyllum, Canavalia sp., Charpentiera 
sp., Claoxylon sandwicense, Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros 
sandwicensis, Diplazium sandwichianum, Elaeocarpus bifidus, Hibiscus 
arnottianus, Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine lanaiensis, Neraudia sp., 
Nestegis sandwicensis, Pipturus albidus, Pisonia sandwicensis, Pisonia 
umbellifera, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria hathewayi, Psydrax 
odorata, Streblus pendulinus, or Xylosma sp. (HINHP Database 2001).
    The threats to Alectryon macrococcus var. macrococcus on Oahu are 
habitat degradation by feral goats and pigs; competition with the 
nonnative plant species Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum appendiculatum, 
Buddleia asiatica, Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Heliocarpos 
popayanensis, Lanatana camara, Melinus minutiflora, Oplismenus 
hirtellus, Passiflora suberosa, Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass), 
Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, Rubus rosifolius, Schinus 
terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata; damage from the 
black twig borer; seed predation by rats, mice (Mus domesticus), and 
insects; fire; depressed reproductive vigor; loss of pollinators; and, 
due to the very small remaining number of individuals and their limited 
distribution, a single natural or human-caused environmental 
disturbance, which could easily be catastrophic (Service 1997; 57 FR 
20772).
Bonamia menziesii (NCN)
    Bonamia menziesii, a member of the morning-glory family 
(Convolvulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a vine with twining 
branches that are fuzzy when young. This species is the only member of 
the genus that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and differs from 
other genera in the family by its two styles, longer stems and 
petioles, and rounder leaves (Austin 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Bonamia menziesii. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1999).
    Historically, Bonamia menziesii was known from Kauai, the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii. Currently, 
this species is extant on Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii. There 
are 18 total occurrences on Oahu, containing a total of fewer than 100 
plants. These occurrences are found in Niu Valley, Makaleha Valley, 
Makua-Keaau Ridge, Wailupe, Waialae Nui-Kapakahi Ridge and Kapakahi 
Gulch, Kaluakauila Gulch, Keawaula, Hawaii Loa Ridge and Kului Gulch, 
Nanakuli Valley, Kuaokala, Halona, Waialae Iki, Kapuna Gulch, Mikilua, 
Waianae Kai, and Alaiheihe Gulch on Federal, State, and private lands 
(EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Bonamia menziesii is found on Oahu on steep slopes or level ground 
in dry or mesic forest in open or closed canopy at elevations between 
31 and 809 m (102 and 2,654 ft). Associated native species include 
Acacia koa, Alyxia oliviformis, Dianella sandwicensis, Diospyros 
sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Erythrina sandwicensis, ,Hedyotis 
terminalis, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Melicope sp., Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Myoporum sandwicense, Nestegis sandwicensis, Pisonia sp., 
Pittosporum sp., Pleomele sp., Pouteria sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, 
Rauvolfia sandwicensis, Sapindus oahuensis, Sicyos sp., Sida fallax, or 
Waltheria indica (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999).
    The primary threats to Bonamia menziesii on Oahu are habitat 
degradation and possible predation by wild and feral pigs, goats, and 
cattle; competition with the nonnative plant species Aleurites 
moluccana, Grevillea robusta, Hyptis pectinata, Kalanchoe pinnata, 
Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melia azedarach, Montanoa 
hibiscifolia, Panicum maximum, Passiflora suberosa, Pennisetum setaceum 
(fountain grass), Pimenta dioica, Psidium cattleianum, Rivina humilis, 
Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata; fire; and 
nonnative insect (Physomerus grossipes); and potential impacts from 
military activities (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999; 59 FR 56333).
Cenchrus agrimonioides (Kamanomano)
    Cenchrus agrimonioides, a member of the grass family (Poaceae) and 
a short-lived perennial, has leaf blades that are flat or folded and 
that have a prominent midrib. There are two varieties, C. agrimonioides 
var. laysanensis and C. agrimonioides var. agrimonioides. They differ 
from each other in that var. agrimonioides has smaller burs, shorter 
stems, and narrower leaves. This species is distinguished from others 
in the genus by the cylindrical to lance-shaped bur and the arrangement 
and position of the bristles (O'Conner 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Cenchrus agrimonioides. 
Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors, except that this species has been observed to 
produce fruit year-round (Service 1999; 65 FR 53108).
    Historically, Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides was known 
from the Waianae Mountains of Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and an undocumented 
account from the island of Hawaii. Cenchrus agrimonioides var. 
laysanensis was historically and currently only known from the 
Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Currently, Cenchrus agrimonioides var. 
agrimonioides is known from Oahu and Maui; on Oahu from a total of 7 
occurrences containing between 113 and 118 individuals. These 
occurrences are found in Pahole Gulch, on Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge, in 
or near Kahanahaiki Gulch, in east Makaleha, Puu Kaua, Huliwai Gulch, 
and in Pualii drainage, on Federal, State, city, county, and private 
lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999; 
61 FR 53108).
    Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides on Oahu is usually found 
on dry upper slopes or ridges in lowland mixed mesic forest at 
elevations between 357 and 890 m (1,171 and 2,919 ft). Associated 
native plant species include Acacia koa, Alyxia oliviformis, Bobea sp., 
Carex wahuensis, Chamaesyce multiformis, Coprosma foliosa, Diospyros 
sandwicensis, Eragrostis variabilis, Gahnia beecheyi (NCN), 
Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Metrosideros polymorpha, Nestegis 
sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, or Psychotria sp. (HINHP Database 2001; 
EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides on 
Oahu are habitat degradation and/or destruction by feral pigs; 
competition with the nonnative plant species Ageratina riparia, 
Blechnum appendiculatum, Casuarina sp., Clidemia hirta, Grevillea 
robusta, Paspalum conjugatum, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, 
Rubus argutus, and Schinus terebinthifolius; trampling and fire from 
military activities; and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring 
events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of 
existing individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).

[[Page 35971]]

Centaurium sebaeoides (Awiwi)
    Centaurium sebaeoides, a member of the gentian family 
(Gentianaceae), is an annual herb with fleshy leaves and stalkless 
flowers. This species is distinguished from C. erythraea (bitter herb), 
which is naturalized in Hawaii, by its fleshy leaves and the unbranched 
arrangement of the flower cluster (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Centaurium sebaeoides has been observed flowering in April. 
Flowering may be induced by heavy rainfall. Occurrences are found in 
dry areas, and plants are more likely to be found following heavy 
rains. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (56 FR 55770).
    Historically and currently, Centaurium sebaeoides is known from 
Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Maui. Currently on Oahu, 2 occurrences 
of this species remain with a total of between 60 and 80 individuals at 
Kaena Point and Koko Head on State, city, and county lands (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1999; Wagner et al. 1999).
    Centaurium sebaeoides typically grows in volcanic or clay soils or 
on cliffs in arid coastal areas or on coral plains below 368 m (1,207 
ft) elevation. Associated native species include Artemisia sp., Bidens 
sp., Jacquemontia ovalifolia, Lipochaeta succulenta (nehe), or 
Lysimachia sp. (kolokolo kuahiwi) (HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 
1999; 56 FR 55770).
    The major threats to Centaurium sebaeoides on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral goats and cattle, competition from the nonnative 
plant species Leucaena leucocephala, trampling by humans on or near 
trails, fire, and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events 
due to the small number of existing occurrences and individuals (56 FR 
55770; Service 1999).
Colubrina oppositifolia (Kauila)
    Colubrina oppositifolia, a member of the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae) and a long-lived perennial, is a tree with extremely hard 
red wood. This species is readily distinguished from the other species 
in Hawaii by its opposite leaf position, dull leaf surface, and entire 
leaf margins (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Colubrina oppositifolia has been observed in flower during January, 
June, September, and December and in fruit during January, June, and 
September. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (HINHP Database 2001).
    Historically and currently, Colubrina oppositifolia was known from 
Oahu, Maui, and the island of Hawaii. Currently, there is a total of 5 
occurrences containing 61 individuals on Oahu. These occurrences are 
found in Kaumokunui Gulch, Makaleha Valley, and Manuwai Gulch on State 
and private lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Colubrina oppositifolia is found in lowland dry and mesic forests 
dominated by Diospyros sandwicensis at elevations between 277 and 761 m 
(909 and 2,496 ft). Associated native species include Alyxia 
oliviformis, Nestegis sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, Reynoldsia 
sandwicensis, or Sapindus oahuensis (HINHP Database 2001).
    The threats to this species on Oahu are habitat destruction by 
feral pigs and goats; competition with the nonnative plant species 
Aleurites moluccana, Lantana camara, Pennisetum setaceum, Psidium 
cattleianum, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Syzygium cumini; damage from 
the black twig borer and Chinese rose beetle; fire; potential impacts 
from military activities; and a risk of extinction from naturally 
occurring events due to the small number of existing occurrences and 
individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1996c; 59 FR 10305).
Ctenitis squamigera (Pauoa)
    Ctenitis squamigera, a short-lived member of the woodfern family 
(Aspleniaceae), has a rhizome creeping above the ground that is densely 
covered with scales similar to those on the lower part of the leaf 
stalk. It can be readily distinguished from other Hawaiian species of 
Ctenitis by the dense covering of tan-colored scales on its frond 
(Degener and Degener 1957; Wagner and Wagner 1992).
    Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors for Ctenitis squamigera (Service 
1998a).
    Historically, Ctenitis squamigera was recorded from Kauai, the 
Koolau and Waianae Mountains of Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and the island of 
Hawaii. This species is currently extant on Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and 
Maui. Currently on Oahu, 8 occurrences with more than 80 individuals 
are found in Makaleha Valley, Kaaawa Gulch, Makua Valley, and Waianae 
Kai Forest Reserve on Federal, State, and private lands (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Ctenitis squamigera is found on gentle to steep slopes in 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Diospyros sandwicensis mesic forest and diverse 
mesic forest at elevations of 387 to 923 m (1,269 to 3,027 ft). 
Associated native plant taxa include Alyxia oliviformis, Carex meyenii, 
Diospyros hillebrandii, Dodonaea viscosa, Doodia kunthiana, Dryopteris 
unidentata, Freycinetia arborea, Hibiscus sp., Myrsine sp., Nestegis 
sandwicensis, Pisonia sp., Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria sp., 
Psydrax odorata, or Xylosma sp. (HINHP Database 2001).
    The primary threats to Ctenitis squamigera on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs and goats; competition with the nonnative 
plant species Ageratina riparia, Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, 
Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata; fire; and 
decreased reproductive vigor and a risk of extinction caused by 
naturally occurring events due to the small number of existing 
occurrences (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998; 59 FR 49025).
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana (Haha)
    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, a member of the bellflower 
family (Campanulaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a shrub with 
pinnately divided leaves. This species is distinguished from others in 
this endemic Hawaiian genus by the pinnately lobed leaf margins and the 
width of the leaf blades. This subspecies is distinguished from the 
other two subspecies by the shape and size of the calyx lobes, which 
overlap at the base (Lammers 1999).
    On Molokai, flowering plants have been reported in July and August. 
Little else is known about the life history of Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana. Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors are unknown (Service 1999).
    Currently and historically, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana is 
known from the Waianae and Koolau Mountains on Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, 
and Maui. On Oahu, there are seven occurrences known from Palikea 
Gulch, North Haleauau Gulch, Pahole Natural Area Reserve (NAR), Pia 
Gulch, Kului Gulch, and in Waialae Iki-Kapakahi on Federal, State, 
city, county, and private lands containing a total of nine individuals 
(EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).

[[Page 35972]]

    Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana is typically found in mesic 
forest often dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or M. polymorpha and 
Acacia koa, or on rocky or steep slopes of stream banks, at elevations 
between 114 and 746 m (374 and 2,447 ft). Associated native plant 
species include Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma sp., Bobea sp., 
Clermontia persicaefolia (oha wai), Coprosma sp., Cyanea angustifolia 
(haha), Dicranopteris linearis, Diplazium sandwichianum, Joinvillea sp. 
(ohe), Melicope sp., Myrsine sp., Nestegis sandwicensis, Psychotria 
sp., Syzygium sandwicensis, or Xylosma sp. (Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
    The threats to Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana on Oahu are 
habitat degradation and/or destruction caused by wild and feral goats 
and pigs; competition with the nonnative plant species Clidemia hirta, 
Psidium cattleianum, and Toona ciliata; random naturally occurring 
events creating a risk of extinction due to the small number of 
existing individuals; fire; trampling by hikers and/or military 
activities; landslides; and predation by rats and various species of 
slugs (Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
Cyperus trachysanthos (Puukaa)
    Cyperus trachysanthos, a member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae), 
is a short-lived, perennial, grass-like plant with a short rhizome. The 
stems are densely tufted, obtusely triangular in cross-section, tall, 
sticky, and leafy at the base. This species is distinguished from 
others in the genus by the short rhizome, the leaf sheath with 
partitions at the nodes, the shape of the glumes, and the length of the 
stems (Koyama 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Cyperus trachysanthos. 
Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors (Service 1999).
    Historically, Cyperus trachysanthos was known from Niihau, Kauai, 
scattered locations on Oahu, Molokai, and Lanai. This species is now 
extant on Niihau, Kauai, and Oahu. On Oahu, it is known from Kaena 
Point NAR, nearby Manini Gulch, Diamond Head, Makapuu, Queens Beach, 
and the Kawainui Marsh area, on Federal, State, and private lands. 
There are 6 occurrences with a total of 40 individuals on Oahu (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1999).
    Cyperus trachysanthos is usually found in seasonally wet sites (mud 
flats, wet clay soil, seasonal ponds, or wet cliff seeps) on seepy 
flats, coastal cliffs, or talus slopes at elevations between 6 and 194 
m (609 ft). Hibiscus tiliaceus (hau) is often found in association with 
this species (HINHP Database 2001; Koyama 1999; Service 1999; 61 FR 
53108).
    The threats to Cyperus trachysanthos on Oahu are a risk of 
extinction from naturally-occurring events due to the small number of 
occurrences; competition with nonnative plant species; habitat 
degradation by feral goats; fire; habitat disturbance by off-road 
vehicles; pumping of wetlands for flood and mosquito control; 
modifications to the wetland topography; mowing; herbicide application; 
and run-off from nearby Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) activities 
such as the cleaning of vehicles, dumping of paints or thinners, or the 
use of pesticides (Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
Diellia erecta (Aspenium-leaved diellia)
    Diellia erecta, a member of the spleenwort family (Aspleniaceae) 
and a short-lived perennial, is a fern that grows in tufts of three to 
nine lance shaped fronds that emerge from a rhizome covered with brown 
to dark gray scales. This species differs from other members of the 
genus in having larger brown or dark gray scales, fused or separate 
sori along both margins of the pinna, shiny black midribs that have a 
hardened surface, and veins that do not usually encircle the sori 
(Degener and Greenwell 1950; Wagner 1952).
    Little is known about the life history of Diellia erecta. 
Reproductive cycles, dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors are unknown (Service 
1999).
    Historically, Diellia erecta was known from Kauai, the Koolau 
Mountains on Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii. 
Currently, it is known from Kauai, Molokai, Maui, Oahu, and Hawaii. On 
Oahu, it is known from a single occurrence containing at least 20 
plants on Hawaii Loa Ridge on State and private lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Diellia erecta is found on moderate to steep gulch slopes or 
sparsely vegetated rock faces in mesic forest at elevations between 118 
and 550 m (387 and 1,804 ft). Associated native plant species include 
Coprosma sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Dryopteris unidentata, Myrsine sp., 
Psychotria sp., Psydrax odorata, Sapindus oahuensis, Syzygium 
sandwicensis, or Wikstroemia sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999).
    The major threats to Diellia erecta on Oahu are habitat degradation 
by pigs; competition with nonnative plant species, including Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline fruticosa (ti), Oplismenus 
hirtellus, Phymatosorus grossus (lauae), Psidium cattleianum, 
Schefflera actinophylla, and Schinus terebinthifolius; and random 
naturally-occurring events causing extinction and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of occurrences and existing 
individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999; 59 FR 56333).
Diplazium molokaiense (NCN)
    Diplazium molokaiense, a short-lived perennial member of the 
woodfern family (Dryopteridaceae), has a short prostrate rhizome and 
green or straw colored leaf stalks with thin-textured fronds. This 
species can be distinguished from other species of Diplazium in the 
Hawaiian Islands by a combination of characteristics, including 
venation pattern, the length and arrangement of the sori, frond shape, 
and the degree of dissection of the frond (Wagner and Wagner 1992).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
for Diplazium molokaiense are unknown (Service 1998a).
    Historically, Diplazium molokaiense was found at Makaleha and 
Schofield Barracks on Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, and Maui. However, 
within the last 20 years, only one occurrence of one individual has 
been recorded from East Maui. This species was last collected on Oahu 
in 1945 from Kolekole Pass to Kaala (HINHP Database 2001).
    Diplazium molokaiense on Oahu was found on steep, rocky, wooded 
gulch walls in wet forests from 618 to 1,202 m (2,027 to 3,943 ft) 
elevation (HINHP Database 2001).
    Nothing is known of the threats to Diplazium molokaiense because 
this species was last collected there in 1945.
Eugenia koolauensis (Nioi)
    Eugenia koolauensis, a long-lived perennial member of the myrtle 
family (Myrtaceae), is a small tree or shrub between 2 and 7 m (7 and 
23 ft) tall with branch tips covered with dense brown hairs. Eugenia 
koolauensis is one of two species in the genus that are native to 
Hawaii. It differs from the other species in having leaves that are 
densely hairy on the lower surface and leaf margins that curve under 
the leaves (Wagner et al. 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower from February to December. 
Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific

[[Page 35973]]

environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Eugenia koolauensis was historically known from Molokai and from 
Kaipapau Valley, Hanaimoa and Kahawainui Gulches, and a gully southeast 
of Kahuku on Oahu. Currently, this species is only found on Oahu in 12 
occurrences on Federal, State, and private lands in Hanaimoa, Papali, 
Kaleleiki, Aimuu, Kaunala, Pahipahialua, Oio, and Palikea Gulches. A 
total of fewer than 70 individuals occur on Oahu (EDA Database 2001; 
GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Eugenia koolauensis is found on gentle to steep slopes or ridges in 
mesic or dry forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or Diospyros 
sp. from 57 to 437 m (187 to 1,433 ft) in elevation. Other associated 
native plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, Bobea elatior, Carex 
meyenii, Dicranopteris linearis, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Myrsine 
lessertiana, Nestegis sandwicensis, Pleomele halapepe, Pouteria 
sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, or Rauvolfia sandwicensis (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b).
    The major threats to Eugenia koolauensis on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs; competition with nonnative plant species 
such as Acacia confusa, Aleurites moluccana, Araucaria columnaris, 
Ardisia elliptica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline 
fruticosa, Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta, Hyptis pectinata, Lantana 
camara, Melia azedarach, Oplismenus hirtellus, Panicum maximum, 
Passiflora laurifolia (yellow granadilla), Passiflora suberosa, Psidium 
cattleianum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona 
ciliata; and the limited numbers of this species, which make it 
vulnerable to extinction due to naturally caused events and reduced 
reproductive vigor (HINHP Database 2001; 59 FR 14482).
Euphorbia haeleeleana (Akoko)
    Euphorbia haeleeleana, a member of the spurge family 
(Euphorbiaceae) and a short-lived perennial, is a dioecious (female and 
male flowers on separate plants) tree 3 to 14 m (10 to 46 ft) tall. 
This species is distinguished from others in the genus in that it is a 
tree and by the large leaves with prominent veins (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Individual trees of Euphorbia haeleeleana bear only male or female 
flowers and must be cross-pollinated from a different tree to produce 
viable seed. This species sets fruit between August and October. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1999; Wagner et al. 1999).
    Euphorbia haeleeleana is known historically and currently from 
northwestern Kauai and the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. On Oahu, 8 
occurrences of approximately 134 individuals are known from Keawaula 
Gulch, Kahanahaiki Valley, Kaumokunui-Kaumokuiki Ridge, and Alaieihe 
Gulch on Federal, State, and private lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 
2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Euphorbia haeleeleana on Oahu is usually found in dry forest that 
is often dominated by Diospyros sp. at elevations between 156 and 586 m 
(512 and 1,922 ft). Associated native plant species include Dodonaea 
viscosa, Erythrina sandwicensis, Pleomele sp., Psydrax odorata, 
Reynoldsia sandwicensis, or Sapindus oahuensis (HINHP Database 2001).
    The main threats to Euphorbia haeleeleana on Oahu are habitat 
degradation and/or destruction by wild and feral goats and pigs; 
predation by rats; fire; potential impacts from military activities; 
and competition with the nonnative plant species Aleurites moluccana, 
Caesalpinia decapetala (wait-a-bit), Coffea arabica, Digitaria 
insularis (sourgrass), Ficus microcarpa, Grevillea robusta, Hyptis 
pectinata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, 
Melia azedarach, Melinus minutiflora, Panicum maximum, Passiflora 
suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Rivina humilis, Schinus 
terenbinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata (HINHP Database 
2001).
Flueggea neowawraea (Mehamehame)
    Flueggea neowawraea, a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) 
and a long-lived perennial, is a large dioecious tree up to 30 m (100 
ft) tall with white oblong pores covering its scaly, pale brown bark. 
This species is the only member of the genus found in Hawaii and can be 
distinguished from similar Hawaiian species in the family by its 
hairless, whitish lower leaf surfaces and round fruits (Hayden 1999; 
Service 1999).
    Individual trees of Flueggea neowawraea bear only male or female 
flowers and must be cross-pollinated from a different tree to produce 
viable seed. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Hayden 1999; Service 
1999).
    Historically, Flueggea neowawraea was known from Oahu, Kauai, Maui, 
Molokai, and the island of Hawaii. Currently, it is known from Kauai, 
Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. On Oahu, Flueggea neowawraea is known from 23 
occurrences with a total of approximately 31 individuals on Federal, 
State, city, county, and private lands at Makua Valley, Makaha, 
Alaiheihe Gulch, Kaluaa Gulch, Makaleha Valley, Ekahanui Gulch, Pahole 
Gulch, Keaau Valley, Kahanahaiki Valley, Kaaawa Gulch, Waianae Kai, 
Palikea Gulch, Manuwai Gulch, Mohiakea Gulch, Kauhiuhi, Mikilua, and 
Lualualei (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Flueggea neowawraea occurs on gulch slopes or ridge crests, or near 
streams, in dry or mesic forest at elevations of 323 to 1,006 m (1,059 
to 3,300 ft). Associated native plant species include Alyxia 
oliviformis, Antidesma platyphyllum, Antidesma pulvinatum, Bobea sp., 
Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce multiformis, Charpentiera sp., 
Claoxylon sandwicensis, Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros sandwicense, 
Erythrina sandwicensis, Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus arnottianus, 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Morinda trimera (noni), Myoporum sandwicense, 
Myrsine sp., Nestegis sandwicensis, Pipturus albidus, Pisonia 
sandwicensis, Pisonia umbellifera, Pittosporum sp., Pleomele sp., 
Psydrax odorata, Pteralyxia sp., Rauvolfia sandwicensis, Sapindus 
oahuensis, and Streblus pendulina (Hayden 1999; HINHP Database 2001).
    The primary threat to the continued existence of Flueggea 
neowawraea on Oahu is the black twig borer, which has affected all 
known Flueggea neowawraea plants. Other major threats include habitat 
degradation by feral pigs and goats; competition with the nonnative 
plant species Ageratina riparia, Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Ficus macrophylla, Ficus microcarpa, 
Grevillea robusta, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Melinis 
minutiflora, Paspalum conjugatum, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium spp., 
Rivina sp., Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona 
ciliata; fire; predation by the Chinese rose beetle; the small 
occurrence size with its limited gene pool and depressed reproductive 
vigor, compounded by a requirement for cross-pollination because the 
species is dioecious; potential impacts from military activities; and 
predation of the fruit by rats (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999).

[[Page 35974]]

Gouania meyenii (NCN)
    Gouania meyenii, a member of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae) and 
a short-lived perennial, is an erect to spreading shrub. It is 
distinguished from the two other Hawaiian members of its genus by its 
lack of tendrils on flowering branches, the lack of teeth on the 
leaves, and the hairiness of the fruits (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Gouania meyenii flowers from March to May. Seed capsules develop in 
about six to eight weeks. Plants appear to live about 10 to 18 years in 
the wild. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Gouania meyenii was known from central and southern 
areas of Oahu's Waianae Mountains, from Kamaileunu Ridge to Honouliuli 
and from Diamond Head. Currently, this species is found on Oahu and 
Kauai. On Oahu, it is found on Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge on State, 
private, city, and county lands. The 4 known occurrences on Oahu 
contain an estimated 63 individuals (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; 
Wagner et al. 1999).
    Gouania meyenii typically grows on moderate to steep slopes in dry 
shrubland or mesic lowland forest at elevations of 17 to 930 m (56 to 
3,050 ft). Associated native plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, 
Bidens sp., Canavalia sp., Carex meyenii, Chamaesyce sp., Charpentiera 
sp., Diospyros sandwicensis, Diospyros sp., Dodonaea viscosa, 
Dryopteris unidentata, Dubautia sherffiana, Eragrostis sp., Hedyotis 
sp., Hibiscus sp., Lysimachia sp., Melicope sp., Myrsine sp. (kolea), 
Nestegis sandwicensis, Pisonia sp., Psychotria sp., Psydrax odorata, 
Sapindus oahuensis, Schiedea sp., Senna gaudichaudii, Sida fallax, or 
Sophora chrysophylla (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Gouania meyenii on Oahu are competition from 
the nonnative plant species Grevillea robusta, Kalanchoe pinnata, 
Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis minutiflora, Oplismenus 
hirtellus, Pimenta dioica, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, and 
Schinus terebinthifolius; fire; habitat degradation by feral pigs and 
goats; and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events and/or 
reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of remaining 
occurrences and individuals (HINHP Database 2001).
Gouania vitifolia (NCN)
    Gouania vitifolia, a short-lived member of the buckthorn family 
(Rhamnaceae), is a climbing shrub or woody vine with tendrils. The 
species is the only Hawaiian member of the genus with tendrils and 
toothed leaf margins (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Gouania vitifolia flowers from March to May. Seed capsules develop 
in about six to eight weeks. Plants appear to live about 10 to 18 years 
in the wild. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Gouania vitifolia was known from Maui, the island of 
Hawaii, and the northwestern portion of the Waianae Mountains in 
Makaleha, Keaau, and Waianae Kai Valleys on Oahu. Currently, this 
species is extant on Oahu and Hawaii. It is known from 2 occurrences on 
Oahu on State and private lands, located at Waianae Kai and Keaau 
Valley, totaling 44 individuals (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Wagner 
et al. 1999).
    Gouania vitifolia typically grows on the sides of ridges and 
gulches in dry to mesic forests at elevations of 39 to 978 m (128 to 
3,208 ft). Associated native plant species include Bidens sp., Carex 
meyenii, Chamaesyce sp., Diospyros sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, 
Erythrina sandwicensis, Hedyotis sp., Hibiscus arnottianus, Melicope 
sp., Nestegis sandwicensis, Pipturus albidus, Psychotria sp., or Urera 
glabra (Service 1998b).
    The major threats to Gouania vitifolia are competition from the 
nonnative plant species Aleurites moluccana, Buddleia asiatica, 
Cordyline fruticosa, Hyptis pectinata, Lantana camara, Leucaena 
leucocephala, Melinis minutiflora, Oplismenus hirtellus, Panicum sp. 
(panic grass), Passiflora edulis, Passiflora ligularis, Passiflora 
suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Rubus argutus, Schinus terebinthifolius 
and Toona ciliata; habitat destruction by feral pigs; and a threat of 
random extinction and reduced reproductive vigor due to the small 
number of extant individuals (HINHP Database 2001; 59 FR 32932).
Hedyotis coriacea (Kioele)
    Hedyotis coriacea, a short-lived member of the coffee family 
(Rubiaceae), is a small shrub with leathery leaves that are generally 
elliptic to oblong in shape. This species is distinguished from others 
of the genus by its small, triangular calyx lobes that do not enlarge 
in fruit, by capsules that are longer than wide, and by flower buds 
that are square in cross-section (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Hedyotis coriacea. 
Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown (Service 1997).
    Historically, Hedyotis coriacea was known from the Waianae and 
Koolau Mountains on Oahu and the island of Hawaii. Currently, this 
species is extant on Maui and Hawaii. This species was last collected 
on Oahu in the 1800s (HINHP Database 2001).
    Hedyotis coriacea is found on steep, rocky slopes in dry to mesic 
Dodonaea viscosa dominated shrublands or forests at elevations of 57 to 
836 m (187 to 2,742 ft). Associated native species include Alyxia 
oliviformis, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, or Metrosideros polymorpha 
(HINHP Database 2001; 57 FR 20772).
    Nothing is known of the threats to Hedyotis coriacea on Oahu 
because the species was last collected there in the 1800s (Service 
1997; 57 FR 20772).
Hesperomannia arborescens (NCN)
    Hesperomannia arborescens, a long-lived member of the aster family 
(Asteraceae), is a small shrubby tree that usually stands 1.5 to 5 m (5 
to 16 ft) tall. This member of an endemic Hawaiian genus differs from 
other Hesperomannia species in having the following combination of 
characteristics: Erect to ascending flower heads, thick flower head 
stalks, and usually hairless and relatively narrow leaves (Wagner et 
al. 1999).
    This species has been observed in flower from April through June 
and fruit during March and June. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1998b; 59 FR 14482).
    Hesperomannia arborescens was formerly known from Molokai, Lanai, 
and scattered occurrences throughout the Koolau Mountains, Oahu, from 
Koolauloa and Pupukea at its northern extreme to Konahuanui at the 
southern end. This species is now known from Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. 
On Oahu, there are 36 occurrences containing between 86 and 93 
individuals on private, city, county, State, and Federal lands at a few 
disjunct locations upslope of Kahuku, Laie, and Malaekahana; along 
Poamoho Trail above Poamoho Stream; along Waikane-Schofield Trail near 
the ridge summit; and at Kipapa Gulch, on Halawa Ridge, Waimanalo-Niu 
divide, Kainawaanui, Kaukonahua Gulch, Maakua-Kaipapau

[[Page 35975]]

Ridge, Kapakahi Gulch, Halemano-Opaeula Ridge, Kawailoa Trail, 
Kaimananui Gulch, and upper Palolo Valley to Niu Valley (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b).
    Hesperomannia arborescens on Oahu is found in association with 
Acacia koa, Antidesma platyphyllum, Bobea elatior, Broussaisia arguta, 
Cheirodendron sp., Cibotium sp., Coprosma sp., Dicranopteris linearis, 
Dubautia sp., Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus arnottianus, Labordia 
sessilis (kamakahala), Machaerina angustifolia, Melicope sp., 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine sp., Nestegis sandwicensis, Perottetia 
sandwicensis, Pipturus sp., Psychotria mariniana, Scaevola 
gaudichaudiana, Scaevola glabra (ohe naupaka), Syzygium sandwicensis, 
Tetraplasandra oahuensis, and Wikstroemia sp. It typically grows on 
steep slopes, ridge tops, and gulches in lowland wet forests and 
occasionally in shrublands between 110 and 1,147 m (361 and 3,762 ft) 
in elevation (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; Wagner et al. 1999).
    The major threats to Hesperomannia arborescens are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs and goats; competition with the nonnative 
plant species Axonopus fissifolius, Clidemia hirta, Leptospermum 
scoparium, and Psidium cattleianum; fire; impact by humans; and a risk 
of extinction due to random environmental events or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to this species' limited numbers (HINHP Database 
2001; 59 FR 14482)
Hesperomannia arbuscula (NCN)
    Hesperomannia arbuscula, a long-lived perennial member of the aster 
family (Asteraceae), is a small shrubby tree, 2 to 3.3 m (7 to 11 ft) 
tall. This species can be distinguished from other members of the genus 
by the erect flower heads and the leaves, usually hairy beneath, which 
are one to two times as long as wide (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Hesperomannia arbuscula usually flowers in the spring depending on 
precipitation. Seeds mature in about six weeks and trees live for about 
10 to 15 years. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Hesperomannia arbuscula was known from the central 
and southern Waianae Mountains, from Makaleha to Puu Kanehoa on Oahu, 
and from West Maui. This species is currently known to be extant on the 
Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge and in Kaluaa and Kapuna Gulches on Oahu and 
on West Maui. The 6 known occurrences on Oahu contain between 90 and 92 
individuals on State, private, city, and county lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Hesperomannia arbuscula on Oahu typically grows on slopes and 
ridges in dry to wet forest dominated by Acacia koa and Metrosideros 
polymorpha at elevations of 370 to 1,053 m (1,214 to 3,454 ft). 
Associated native species include Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma sp., 
Bidens sp., Bobea elatior, the endangered Cyanea longiflora, Diospyros 
hillebrandii, Freycinetia arborea, Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus sp., 
Psychotria sp., and Syzygium sandwicensis (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1998b; Wagner et al. 1999).
    The major threats to Hesperomannia arbuscula on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs; competition from the nonnative plant species 
Clidemia hirta, Lantana camara, Psidium cattleianum, Rubus argutus, and 
Schinus terebinthifolius; trampling by humans; and a risk of extinction 
from naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due 
to the small number of remaining occurrences and individuals (HINHP 
Database 2001; 56 FR 55770).
Hibiscus brackenridgei (Mao hau hele)
    Hibiscus brackenridgei, a short-lived perennial member of the 
mallow family (Malvaceae), is a sprawling to erect shrub or small tree. 
This species differs from other members of the genus in having the 
following combination of characteristics: Yellow petals, a calyx 
consisting of triangular lobes with raised veins and a single midrib, 
bracts attached below the calyx, and thin stipules that fall off, 
leaving an elliptical scar.
    Three subspecies of Hibiscus brackenridgei are now recognized: 
brackenridgei, molokaiana, and mokuleianus. When we listed this species 
in 1994, only two subspecies, brackenridgei and mokuleianus, were 
recognized. Subsequently we became aware of Wilson's (1993) taxonomic 
treatment of this group, in which H. brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana was 
recognized as distinct from H. brackenridgei ssp. brackenridgei. 
Wilson's (1993) treatment is cited in the supplement in the revised 
edition of the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii as the basis 
for recognizing H. brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana. We will address this 
name change in a future Federal Register notice (Bates 1999; HINHP 
Database 2000; Wagner et al. 1999; Wilson 1993).
    Hibiscus brackenridgei is known to flower continuously from early 
February through late May, and intermittently at other times of year. 
Intermittent flowering may possibly be related to day length. Little 
else is known about the life history of this plant. Little else is 
known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal 
agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting 
factors (Service 1999).
    This species was historically known from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii. Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. 
mokuleianus is currently known from Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii; it 
may possibly occur on Kauai. On Oahu, there are a total of fewer than 
206 individual plants in 5 occurrences at Kaumokunui, Kawaiu, Palikea, 
Kihakapu, and Kaimuhole Gulches on State and private lands. Hibiscus 
brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana is currently known from Oahu. There are a 
total of five individual plants in one occurrence in Makua Valley on 
land under Federal jurisdiction (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Joel 
Lau, pers. comm., 2001).
    Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus on Oahu occurs on slopes, 
cliffs, and arid ledges in lowland dry forest and shrubland from 24 to 
490 m (79 to 1,607 ft) in elevation. Associated native plant species 
include Bidens amplectans (kookoolau), Chamaesyce sp., Diospyros 
hillebrandii, Dodonaea viscosa, Doryopteris sp., Erythrina 
sandwicensis, Heteropogon contortus, Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. 
molokaiana, Lepidium bidentatum, Melanthera remyi, Pleomele halapepe, 
Psydrax odorata, Reynoldsia sandwicensis, Sida fallax, or Waltheria 
indica. Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana occurs in dry shrublands 
between 23 and 580 m (75 to 1,902 ft) elevation. Associated native 
plant species include Dodonaea viscosa, Doryopteris sp., Heteropogon 
contortus, Sida fallax, and Waltheria indica (GDSI Database 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threats to Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus on 
Oahu are habitat degradation and possible predation by pigs, goats, 
cattle, and rats; competition with the nonnative plant species Ageratum 
conyzoides (maile honohono), Aleurites moluccana, Caesalpinia 
decapetala, Coffea arabica, Grevillea robusta, Hyptis pectinata, 
Leucaena leucocephala, Melia azedarach, Neonotonia wightii (NCN), 
Panicum maximum, Passiflora edulis, Passiflora suberosa, Schinus 
terebinthifolius, Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree),

[[Page 35976]]

Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata; road construction; fire; and 
susceptibility to extinction caused by random environmental events or 
reduced reproductive vigor due to a limited number of occurrences and 
individuals. The primary threats to Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. 
molokaiana are habitat degradation and possible predation by pigs and 
goats; competition with the nonnative plant species Ageratum 
conyzoides, Leucaena leucocephala, and Panicum maximum; fire; predation 
by the Chinese rose beetle; and susceptibility to extinction caused by 
random environmental events or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
single occurrence and limited number of individuals (HINHP Database 
2001; 59 FR 56333).
Isodendrion laurifolium (Aupaka)
    Isodendrion laurifolium, a short-lived perennial member of the 
violet family (Violaceae), is a slender, erect shrub with few branches. 
The species is distinguished from others in the genus by its leathery, 
oblong-elliptic, narrowly elliptic, lance-shaped leaves (Wagner et al. 
1999).
    Little is known about the flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors of this species (Service 1999).
    Historically, Isodendrion laurifolium was known from Kauai and the 
Waianae and Koolau mountains of Oahu. Currently, this species is found 
on Kauai and Oahu. On Oahu, there are a total of between 22 and 23 
individuals found in 5 occurrences on State, private, city, and county 
lands in Makaha in the Waianae Mountains, East Makaleha Valley, Waianae 
Kai, Kaawa Gulch, and Kaumokunui Gulch (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 
2001).
    Isodendrion laurifolium on Oahu is usually found between 90 and 959 
m (295 and 3,146 ft) elevation on gulch slopes, in ravines, and on 
ridges in diverse mesic or dry forest dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Eugenia reinwardtiana, or Diospyros sandwicensis with one 
or more of the following associated native plant species: Acacia koa, 
Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma platyphyllum, Antidesma pulvinatum, Carex 
wahuensis, Charpentiera tomentosa (papala), Doodia sp., Dryopteris 
unidentata, Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus arnottianus, Nestegis 
sandwicensis, Pisonia sp., Pouteria sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, 
Rauvolfia sandwicensis, Sapindus sp. (soapberry), Smilax melastomifolia 
(hoi kuahiwi), or Xylosma hawaiiense (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1999).
    The primary threats to Isodendrion laurifolium on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral goats and pigs; competition with the nonnative 
plant species Aleurites moluccana, Cordyline fruticosa, Grevillea 
robusta, Psidium cattleianum, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Toona 
ciliata; and a potential threat from military activities (HINHP 
Database 2001; 61 FR 53108).
Isodendrion longifolium (Aupaka)
    Isodendrion longifolium, a member of the violet family (Violaceae), 
is a slender, erect shrub. The hairless, leathery, lance-shaped leaves 
distinguish this species from others in the genus (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Little is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, 
seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors of this species (Service 1999).
    Historically and currently, Isodendrion longifolium is known from 
scattered locations on Kauai and the Waianae Mountains on Oahu. There 
is a total of 30 individual plants on Oahu in 7 occurrences on Federal, 
State, and private lands in Palikea Gulch, Kaawa Gulch, Makaua Gulch, 
and Kaukonahua Stream (EDA Database 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Isodendrion longifolium on Oahu is found on steep slopes and stream 
banks in mixed mesic or lowland wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis forest, usually between 363 and 964 m (1,191 and 
3,162 ft) elevation. Associated native plant species include Acacia 
koa, Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma sp., Bobea brevipes (ahakea lau 
lii), Carex sp., Cyanea sp. (haha), Cyrtandra sp., Hedyotis terminalis, 
Isachne pallens (NCN), Melicope sp., Peperomia sp., Perrottetia 
sandwicensis, Pittosporum sp., Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria sp., 
Psydrax odorata, Selaginella arbuscula, or Syzygium sandwicensis (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1999).
    The major threats to Isodendrion longifolium on Oahu are habitat 
degradation or destruction by feral goats and pigs; competition with 
the nonnative plants Ageratina riparia, Clidemia hirta, Oplismenus 
hirtellus, Paspalum conjugatum, Psidium cattleianum, and Thelypteris 
parasitica; and a risk of extinction from naturally occurring events 
due to the small number of occurrences and individuals. The Palikea 
Gulch occurrence is also potentially threatened by fire (HINHP Database 
2001; 61 FR 53108).
Isodendrion pyrifolium (wahine noho kula)
    Isodendrion pyrifolium, a short-lived perennial member of the 
violet family (Violaceae), is a small, branched shrub. The species is 
distinguished from others in the genus by its smaller, green-yellow 
flowers and by its hairy stipules and leaf veins (Wagner et al. 1999).
    During periods of drought, this species will drop all but the 
newest leaves. After sufficient rains, the plants produce flowers with 
seeds ripening one to two months later. Little else is known about its 
flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
(Service 1996c).
    Isodendrion pyrifolium was known historically from Oahu's central 
Waianae mountains, Maui, Hawaii, Niihau, Molokai, and Lanai. Currently, 
this species is found only on the island of Hawaii. This species was 
last collected on Oahu in the late 1800s (HINHP Database 2001).
    Isodendrion pyrifolium was found on Oahu on bare rocky hills and in 
wooded ravines in dry shrublands at low elevations from 363 to 964 m 
(1,191 to 3,162 ft) (HINHP Database 2001; Wagner et al. 1999).
    Nothing is known of the threats to Isodendrion pyrifolium on Oahu 
because it was last collected there in the 1800s.
Lobelia niihauensis (NCN)
    Lobelia niihauensis, a short-lived perennial member of the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae), is a small, branched shrub. This 
species is distinguished from others in the genus by its leaves lacking 
or nearly lacking leaf stalks, the width of the leaf, and length of the 
magenta-colored flowers (56 FR 55770).
    Lobelia niihauensis flowers in late summer and early fall. Fruits 
mature four to six weeks later. Plants are known to live as long as 20 
years. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Lobelia niihauensis was known from the Waianae 
Mountains of Oahu (Uluhulu Gulch to Nanakuli Valley), Kauai, and 
Niihau. It is now known to be extant only on Kauai and Oahu. On Oahu, 
this species remains on Ohikilolo Ridge, Kaimokuiki-Manuwai Ridge, 
Kamaileunu Ridge, Mt. Kaala, Makaha-Waianae Kai, Makua Military 
Reservation, Nanakuli, South Mohiakea Gulch, east of Puu Kalena, 
Kahanahaiki

[[Page 35977]]

Valley, between Puu Hapapa and Puu Kanehoa, Puu Kailio, between 
Kolekole Pass and Puu Hapapa, North of Palikea, Puu Kaua-Kauhiuhi-
Pahoa-Halona subdistricts, and Lualualei Naval Magazine in 40 
occurrences containing between 362 and 397 individual plants on 
Federal, State, city, and county lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; 
HINHP Database 2001).
    Lobelia niihauensis on Oahu typically grows on exposed mesic or dry 
cliffs and ledges, at elevations from 339 to 926 m (1,112 to 3,037 ft). 
Associated native plant species include Artemisia sp., Bidens sp., 
Carex meyenii, Dodonaea viscosa, Doryopteris sp., Eragrostis sp., 
Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Lipochaeta tenuis, Osteomeles 
anthyllidifolia, Plectranthus parviflorus, Schiedea mannii, or Sida 
fallax (HINHP Database 2001; 56 FR 55770).
    On Oahu, the major threats to Lobelia niihauensis are habitat 
degradation and predation by feral goats, rats, and slugs; fire; 
potential impacts from military activities; and competition from the 
nonnative plant species Acacia confusa, Ageratina riparia, Erigeron 
karvinskianus, Ficus microcarpa, Grevillea robusta, Kalanchoe pinnata, 
Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis minutiflora, Melinis 
repens, and Schinus terebinthifolius (HINHP Database 2001; 56 FR 
55770).
Lysimachia filifolia (NCN)
    Lysimachia filifolia, a short-lived perennial member of the 
primrose family (Primulaceae), is a small shrub 15 to 50 cm (0.5 to 1.6 
ft) tall. This species is distinguished from other members of the genus 
by its leaf shape and width, calyx lobe shape, and corolla length 
(Service 1995b; Wagner et al. 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Lysimachia filifolia. 
Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown (Service 1995b).
    Historically, Lysimachia filifolia was known only from Kauai. This 
species is now known from Oahu and Kauai. On Oahu, there is one 
occurrence containing a total of 50 individuals, on the slopes of 
Waiahole Valley in the Koolau Mountains on State land (GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    On Oahu, Lysimachia filifolia typically grows on mossy banks at the 
base of cliff faces within the spray zone of waterfalls or along 
streams in lowland wet forests at elevations of 65 to 798 m (213 to 
2,617 ft). Associated plants include mosses, ferns, liverworts, and 
Pilea peploides (NCN) (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1995b; Wagner et 
al. 1999).
    The major threat to Lysimachia filifolia on Oahu is competition 
with the nonnative plant species Ageratina riparia, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Cordyline fruticosa, Pluchea sp. (sourbush), and 
Schefflera actinophylla. Additionally, individuals of the species are 
vulnerable to rock slides. Because only one occurrence of Lysimachia 
filifolia exists on each of only two islands, the species is threatened 
by extinction due to naturally caused events (HINHP Database 2001; 59 
FR 09304).
Mariscus pennatiformis (NCN)
    Mariscus pennatiformis, a member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae), 
is a short-lived perennial plant with a woody root system covered with 
brown scales. This species differs from other members of the genus by 
its three-sided, slightly concave, smooth stems; the length and number 
of spikelets; the leaf width; and the length and diameter of stems. The 
two subspecies (Mariscus pennatiformis ssp. pennatiformis and Mariscus 
pennatiformis ssp. bryanii) are distinguished by the length and width 
of spikelets, shape and length of fruits, and color, length, and width 
of glumes.
    Subsequent to the final rule listing this species in 1994, we 
became aware of Tucker's (1994) treatment of this genus reclassifying 
it to Cyperus. Tucker's (1994) treatment is cited in the supplement in 
the revised edition of the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii as 
the basis for recognizing Mariscus as Cyperus. We will address this 
name change in a future Federal Register notice (Service 1999; Wagner 
et al. 1999).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown for Mariscus pennatiformis ssp. pennatiformis (Service 
1999).
    Historically, Mariscus pennatiformis was known from Kauai, Oahu 
(Waianae Mountains on a ridge above Makaha Valley), East Maui, the 
island of Hawaii, and Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian 
Islands. Mariscus pennatiformis ssp. bryanii is known from Laysan. Only 
one occurrence of Mariscus pennatiformis ssp. pennatiformis has been 
seen in the last 70 years on the main Hawaiian islands, in Keanae 
Valley on Maui in the 1970s (HINHP Database 2001).
    Mariscus pennatiformis typically grows in mesic and wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha forest and Metrosideros polymorpha-Acacia koa 
forest at elevations between 424 and 1,032 m (1,391 and 3,385 ft). The 
associated native plant species on Oahu are unknown (J. Lau, in litt. 
2001).
    No threat information is available for Mariscus pennatiformis on 
Oahu.
Marsilea villosa (Ihiihi)
    Marsilea villosa, a short-lived perennial member of the marsilea 
family (Marsileaceae), is an aquatic to semiaquatic fern similar in 
appearance to a four-leaved clover that requires periodic flooding to 
complete its life cycle. The species is the only member of the genus 
native to Hawaii and is closely related to Marsilea vestita of the 
western coast of the United States (Service 1996a).
    Sexual reproduction of Marsilea villosa is initiated through the 
production of a hard sporocarp (a structure in or on which spores are 
produced) borne on the rhizome of a leaf pair node. The young sporocarp 
is covered with rust-colored hairs that are lost as the sporocarp 
matures. The sporocarp will mature only if the soil dries below 
threshold levels for leaf growth. The sporocarp remains in the soil for 
an extended period of time and must be scarified before it will open. 
It is not known how the sporocarp is scarified in Marsilea villosa, but 
bacterial action is thought to erode the wall of the sporocarp to the 
point that water can be absorbed and force the sporocarp to open, as in 
other Marsilea species (Service 1996a).
    Marsilea villosa was historically known from Oahu, Molokai, and 
Niihau. Currently, it is found on Oahu and Molokai. There are five 
occurrences on Oahu with an unknown number of individuals at Koko Head, 
on Lualualei Naval Reservation, and at Kealakipapa on Federal, city, 
county, and private lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1996a).
    Marsilea villosa typically grows in cinder craters, vernal pools 
surrounded by lowland dry forest vegetation, mud flats, or lowland 
grasslands at elevations between 424 and 1,032 m (1,391 and 3,385 ft). 
Associated native plant species include Sida fallax (HINHP Database 
2001).
    The main reason for the decline of Marsilea villosa on Oahu is 
habitat destruction and the destruction of natural hydrology; many of 
the areas where it formerly occurred are now sugar cane fields, 
industrial parks, housing developments, and pastures. The greatest 
immediate threats to the survival of this species are encroachment and 
competition from naturalized, nonnative plants such as

[[Page 35978]]

Bidens pilosa, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass), Panicum maximum, and 
Prosopis pallida (kiawe); habitat disturbance by off-road vehicles or 
by grazing cattle; continued development and habitat degradation; fire; 
small occurrence size; and fragmentation, trampling, and other impacts 
from humans and introduced mammals (HINHP Database 2001; 57 FR 27863).
Melicope pallida (Alani)
    Melicope pallida, a long-lived perennial member of the citrus 
family (Rutaceae), is a tree with grayish white hairs and black, 
resinous new growth. The species differs from other members of the 
genus by the resinous new growth, leaves folded and in clusters of 
three, and fruits with separate carpels (Stone et al. 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Melicope pallida. 
Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown (Service 1995b).
    Melicope pallida is currently and historically known from Kauai and 
Oahu. On Oahu, it is currently known from the Waianae Mountains within 
TNCH's privately owned Honouliuli Preserve on State and private lands. 
There is a single occurrence with a single individual (GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    Melicope pallida usually grows on steep rock faces in lowland dry 
or mesic forests at elevations of 234 to 841 m (768 to 2,758 ft). 
Associated native plant species include the endangered Abutilon 
sandwicense, Acacia koa, Alyxia oliviformis, Bobea elatior, Cibotium 
sp., Dryopteris sp. (NCN), Metrosideros polymorpha, Pipturus albidus, 
Psychotria mariniana, Sapindus oahuensis, Syzygium sandwicensis, 
Tetraplasandra sp., Wikstroemia oahuensis, or Xylosma hawaiiense (HINHP 
Database 2001; 59 FR 09304).
    The major threat to Melicope pallida on Oahu is competition from 
nonnative plants, especially Andropogon virginicus, Clidemia hirta, 
Psidium cattleianum, Pterolepis glomerata, and Toona ciliata. A 
potential threat to M. pallida is the black twig borer, which is known 
to occur in areas where this species grows and to feed on members of 
the genus Melicope. Additional threats to M. pallida are fire, habitat 
degradation by feral pigs, and a high risk of extinction due to 
naturally caused events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
solitary existing individual on Oahu (HINHP Database 2001; 59 FR 
09304).
Nototrichium humile (Kului)
    Nototrichium humile, a short-lived perennial member of the amaranth 
family (Amaranthaceae), is an upright to trailing shrub with branched 
stems to 1.5 m (5 ft) long. This species is distinguished from the only 
other species in the genus by the size and hairiness of its 
inflorescence (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Nototrichium humile is found on and at the base of rock cliffs and 
talus slopes in areas in partial shade. Plants have been observed 
flowering after heavy rain, but flowering is generally heaviest in the 
spring and summer. Fruits mature a few weeks after flowering. In 
cultivation, this species is known to live for more than a decade 
(Service 1998b). Little else is known about its flowering cycles, 
pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors.
    Historically and currently, Nototrichium humile is known from Oahu 
and Maui. Currently, on Oahu, it is found in Kapuhi Gulch, Pahole 
Gulch, Kealia, Kahanahaiki, Kaluakauila Gulch, along Makua-Keaau Ridge 
to Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge, and Nanakuli, where it occurs on Federal, 
State, city, county, and private lands. There are a total of 25 
occurrences containing between 775 and 995 individuals on Oahu (EDA 
Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Nototrichium humile typically grows at elevations of 185 to 806 m 
(607 to 2,644 ft) on cliff faces, gulches, stream banks, or steep 
slopes in dry or mesic forests often dominated by Sapindus oahuensis or 
Diospyros sandwicensis. Associated native species include the 
endangered species Abutilon sandwicense, Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma 
pulvinatum, Artemisia australis, Bidens cervicata (kookoolau), 
Canavalia sp., Carex wahuensis, Charpentiera sp., Dodonaea viscosa, 
Elaeocarpus bifidus, Erythrina sandwicensis, Eugenia reinwartiana, 
Hibiscus sp., Melanthera tenuis, Metrosideros polymorpha, Myoporum 
sandwicense, Myrsine lanaiensis, Nestegis sandwicensis, Peperomia sp., 
Pisonia umbellifera, Pleomele sp., Pouteria sandwicensis, Psydrax 
odorata, Rauvolfia sandwicensis, Reynoldsia sandwicensis, Sicyos sp., 
Stenogyne sp., Streblus pendulinus, or Syzygium sandwicensis, (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
    On Oahu, the major threats to Nototrichium humile are habitat 
degradation by feral goats and pigs; potential impacts of military 
activities; competition from the nonnative plant species Adiantum 
hispidulum, Ageratina adenophora, Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Buddleia asiatica, Caesalpinia decapetala, Coffea 
arabica, Cordyline fruticosa, Ficus microphylla, Grevillea robusta, 
Hyptis pectinata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Leucaena 
leucocephala, Melia azedarach, Melinis minutiflora, Montanoa 
hibiscifolia, Oplismenus hirtellus, Panicum maximum, Passiflora 
suberosa, Pimenta dioica, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, Rivina 
humilis, Schefflera actinophylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Spathodea 
campanulata, Syzygium cumini, Triumfetta semitriloba (Sacramento bur), 
and Toona ciliata; road building and maintenance; and fire (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
Peucedanum sandwicense (Makou)
    Peucedanum sandwicense, a short-lived perennial and a member of the 
parsley family (Apiaceae), is a parsley-scented, sprawling herb. Hollow 
stems arise from a short, vertical, perennial stem with several fleshy 
roots. This species is the only member of the genus on the Hawaiian 
Islands (Constance and Affolter 1999).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown for this species (Service 1995b).
    Historically and currently, Peucedanum sandwicense is known from 
Molokai, Maui, and Kauai. Discoveries in 1990 extended the known 
distribution of this species to Oahu. On Oahu, there are a total of 4 
occurrences containing 51 individual plants on State, city, and county 
lands in Keaau Valley, Puu Kawiwi, Waianae Kai, and Kamaileunu Ridge 
(GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Peucedanum sandwicense grows on cliffs, slopes, and ridges in 
Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forest between 395 and 977 m 
(1,296 and 3,205 ft) elevation and is associated with native species 
such as Artemisia australis, Carex meyenii, Dianella sandwicensis, 
Dodonaea viscosa, Eragrostis sp., Lepidium bidentatum var. o-waihiense, 
Melanthera integrifolia (nehe), Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, Peperomia 
remyi (alaala wai nui), Pittosporum halophilum (hoawa), Plechranthus 
parviflorus, Plumbago zeylanica, Portulaca lutea (ihi), Reynoldsia 
sandwicensis, Santalum ellipticum (iliahialoe), Scaevola sericea 
(naupaka kahakai), Schiedea globosa (NCN), Senna gaudichaudii, and Sida

[[Page 35979]]

fallax (Constance and Affolter 1999; HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1995b).
    Threats to Peucedanum sandwicense on Oahu are habitat degradation 
by feral goats and pigs and competition with the nonnative plant 
species Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Melinis minutiflora, and 
Schinus terebinthifolius (HINHP Database 2001).
Phlegmariurus nutans (Wawaeiole)
    Phlegmariurus nutans is an erect or pendulous herbaceous epiphyte 
in the clubmoss family (Lycopodiaceae). This species can be 
distinguished from others of the genus in Hawaii by its epiphytic 
habit, simple or forking fruiting spikes, and larger and stiffer leaves 
(59 FR 14482).
    This species has been observed fertile, with spores, in May and 
December. No other information is available on reproductive cycles, 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, or 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Phlegmariurus nutans was known from the island of 
Kauai and from scattered locations in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu, 
bounded by Kaluanui Valley to the north, Paalaa to the west, and Mount 
Tantalus to the south. This species is now known only from Oahu in 3 
occurrences containing seven individual plants on Federal and State 
lands in Kaukonahua Gulch, Kahana, and Kaipapau Gulch (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Phlegmariurus nutans on Oahu grows on tree trunks, usually on open 
ridges, forested slopes, and cliffs in Metrosideros polymorpha-
dominated wet forests and shrublands and occasionally mesic forests 
between 227 and 846 m (745 and 2,775 ft) in elevation. Associated 
native plant species include Antidesma platyphyllum, Broussaisia 
arguta, Cyrtandra laxiflora, Dicranopteris linearis, Elaphoglossum sp. 
(ekaha), Hedyotis terminalis, Hibiscus sp., Machaerina angustifolia, 
Psychotria mariniana, Syzygium sandwicensis, or Wikstroemia oahuensis 
(HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threat to Phlegmariurus nutans on Oahu is 
susceptibility to extinction from naturally caused events and decreased 
reproductive vigor because of the small number of remaining individuals 
and limited distribution of the species. Additional threats to 
Phlegmariurus nutans are habitat degradation by feral pigs; floods; and 
the nonnative plants Clidemia hirta, Paspalum conjugatum, Psidium 
cattleianum, and Sacciolepis indica (HINHP Database 2001).
Phyllostegia mollis (NCN)
    Phyllostegia mollis, a short-lived member of the mint family 
(Lamiaceae), grows as a nearly erect, densely hairy, nonaromatic, 
perennial herb. A suite of technical characteristics concerning the 
kind and amount of hair, the number of flowers in a cluster, and 
details of the various plant parts separate this species from other 
members of the genus (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Individual Phyllostegia mollis plants live for approximately five 
years. The species is known to flower in late winter and spring. Little 
else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed 
dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental requirements, and 
limiting factors (Service 1998b).
    Historically, Phyllostegia mollis was known from Molokai, Maui, and 
Oahu from the central and southern Waianae Mountains, Mt. Kaala to 
Honouliuli, and Makiki in the Koolau Mountains. Currently, this species 
is only known from Oahu and Maui. On Oahu, this species remains only in 
Kaluaa Gulch, Palawai Gulch, Puu Kumakalii, Mohiakea Gulch, Huliwai 
Gulch, Waieli Gulch, and Pualii Gulch on Federal and private lands. The 
5 occurrences contain between 85 and 105 individuals (EDA Database 
2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Phyllostegia mollis typically grows on steep slopes and in gulches 
in diverse mesic to wet forests at elevations of 519 to 928 m (1,702 to 
3,044 ft). Associated native plant species include Acacia koa, Alyxia 
oliviformis, Antidesma platyphyllum, Carex meyenii, Chamaesyce 
multiformis, Claoxylon sandwicense, Diospyros hillebrandii, Dryopteris 
unidentata, Metrosideros polymorpha, Myrsine sp., Pipturus alba, 
Pisonia umbellifera, Pouteria sandwicensis, Psychotria hathewayi, or 
Urera glabra (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Phyllostegia mollis are competition from the 
nonnative plant species Ageratina adenophora, Blechnum appendiculatum, 
Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Heliocarpus popayanensis, 
Kalanchoe pinnata, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium cattleianum, Rubus 
rosifolius, and Schinus terebinthifolius; rockslides; habitat 
degradation and predation by feral pigs and goats; and the small number 
of extant occurrences, which makes the species vulnerable to extinction 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor (HINHP Database 2001).
Phyllostegia parviflora (NCN)
    Phyllostegia parviflora, a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
is a perennial herb. The species is distinguished from others of the 
genus by the shape of the leaves and the length of the leaf stalks and 
lower corolla. The varieties of this species are differentiated by 
hairs on the inflorescence and leaves and by the branching of the 
inflorescence.
    At the time of listing of this species in 1996, only two varieties 
were recognized, Phyllostegia parviflora var. glabriuscula and P. 
parviflora var. parviflora. Subsequently we became aware of Wagner et 
al.'s (1999) taxonomic treatment of this group in which P. parviflora 
var. lydgatei was recognized. This treatment is cited in the supplement 
in the revised edition of the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii 
(Wagner et al. 1999) as the basis for recognizing P. parviflora var. 
lydgatei. This name change will be addressed in a future Federal 
Register notice.
    Historically, Phyllostegia parviflora was known from the islands of 
Oahu, Hawaii, and Maui. This species is now known only from six 
occurrences on Oahu. Phyllostegia parviflora var. glabriuscula was only 
known from the island of Hawaii on private land and has not been 
observed since the 1800s. Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora is 
now known from only 30 plants on the east side of Puu Pauao, on State 
and Federal lands. Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei is known from 
only four plants in North Pualii Gulch on private land (GDSI 2001; 
HINHP Database 2001).
    Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei is typically found on 
moderate to steep slopes in mesic forest from 555 to 881 m (1,820 to 
2,890 ft) elevation. Native vegetation associated with Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. lydgatei includes Antidesma platyphyllum, Chamaesyce 
multiformis, Claoxylon sandwicense, Coprosma foliosa, Dryopteris 
unidentata, Myrsine lessertiana, Pipturus albidus, Pouteria 
sandwicensis, Selaginella arbuscula, or Xylosma hawaiiense. 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora is typically found in 
Metrosideros polymorpha mixed lowland wet forest from 232 to 867 m (761 
to 2,844 ft) elevation. Native vegetation associated with Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. parviflora includes Antidesma sp., Broussaisia arguta, 
Cheirodendron sp., Cibotium sp., Cyrtandra sp., Dicranopteris linearis, 
Melicope sp., Phyllostegia glabra (NCN), Pipturus sp., Pritchardia sp., 
Syzygium sandwicensis, Tetraplasandra sp., or

[[Page 35980]]

Touchardia latifolia (HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei are 
habitat degradation and/or destruction by feral pigs; landslides or 
rockslides; competition with the nonnative plant species Ageratina 
adenophora, Christella parasitica, Passiflora suberosa, Psidium 
cattleianum, Rivina humilis, Rubus rosifolius, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; and a risk of extinction and/or reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the small number of remaining individuals and occurrences. 
The major threats to Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora on Oahu 
are competition with the nonnative plant species Ageratina sp. and 
Clidemia hirta; and extinction and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to 
the small number of remaining individuals in each respective occurrence 
(HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi)
    Plantago princeps, a short-lived member of the plantain family 
(Plantaginaceae), is a small shrub or robust perennial herb. This 
species differs from other native members of the genus in Hawaii by its 
large branched stems, flowers at nearly right angles to the axis of the 
flower cluster, and fruits that break open at a point two-thirds from 
the base. The four varieties, vars. anomala, laxiflora, longibracteata, 
and princeps, are distinguished by the branching and pubescence of the 
stems; the size, pubescence, and venation of the leaves; the density of 
the inflorescence; and the orientation of the flowers (Wagner et al. 
1999).
    Individuals have been observed in fruit from April through 
September. Little else is known about its flowering cycles, pollination 
vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific environmental 
requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1999).
    Plantago princeps was historically found on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, 
Hawaii, and Maui. It is no longer extant on the island of Hawaii. 
Plantago princeps var. longibracteata was known from Kauai and Oahu, 
but there are currently no remaining Oahu populations. The 11 extant 
occurrences of var. princeps on Oahu consist of between 130 and 180 
individuals on Federal, State, city, county, and private lands at 
Palawai Gulch, Ekahanui Gulch, Nanakuli-Lualualei Ridge, Makua-Makaha 
Ridge, Mohiakea Gulch, and Pahole Gulch (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; 
HINHP Database 2001).
    On Oahu, Plantago princeps var. longibracteata was typically found 
on the sides of waterfalls and wet rock faces between 64 and 835 m (210 
and 2,739 ft) elevation. Associated native plant species included 
Bidens sp., Coprosma granadensis (makole), Eugenia sp., Lobelia 
gaudichaudii (NCN), Metrosideros rugosa, or Scaevola glabra. Plantago 
princeps var. princeps is typically found on slopes and ledges in 
Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forests and shrublands between 
110 and 1,064 m (361 to 3,490 ft) elevation. Associated native plant 
species include Artemisia australis, Bidens sp., Chamaesyce sp., 
Dubautia plantaginea, Eragrostis sp., Lysimachia sp., Pilea peploides, 
and Viola sp. (pamakani) (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threats to Plantago princeps var. longibracteata on 
Oahu were predation and habitat degradation by feral pigs and goats and 
competition with various nonnative plant species. The primary threats 
to Plantago princeps var. princeps are rockslides and competition with 
the nonnative plant species Erigeron karvinskianus, Melinis 
minutiflora, and Schinus terebinthifolius (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1999; 59 FR 56333).
Platanthera holochila (NCN)
    Platanthera holochila, a short-lived perennial member of the orchid 
family (Orchidaceae), is an erect, deciduous herb. The stems arise from 
underground tubers, the pale green leaves are lance-to egg-shaped, and 
the greenish-yellow flowers occur in open spikes. This is the only 
species of this genus that occurs on the Hawaiian Islands (Wagner et 
al. 1999). It is distinguished from other Hawaiian orchids by its 
underground tubers that lack roots at the nodes or pseudobulbs and by 
the shape and length of its dorsal sepal.
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown for this species (Service 1999).
    Historically, Platanthera holochila was known from Maui, Oahu, 
Molokai, and Kauai. Currently, it is extant on Kauai, Molokai, and 
Maui. This species was last collected on Oahu in 1938 in the area from 
Puu Kainapuaa to Kawainui-Kaipapau summit ridge and Kipapa Gulch (HINHP 
Database 2001).
    On Oahu, Platanthera holochila was found in Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis wet forest or M. polymorpha mixed 
shrubland between 447 and 867 m (1,466 and 2,844 ft) elevation. 
Associated native plant species included Broussaisia arguta, Cibotium 
sp., Clermontia sp. (oha wai), Coprosma sp., Dubautia sp., Gahnia sp., 
Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Luzula hawaiiensis (wood rush), Lycopodiella 
cernua, Lythrum maritimum (pukamole), Polypodium pellucidum (ae), 
Sadleria sp., Scaevola sp., Vaccinium reticulatum, and Wikstroemia sp. 
(akia) (Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
    The major threats to Platanthera holochila are habitat degradation 
and destruction by ungulates such as cattle and feral pigs, predation 
by slugs, competition with alien plants, over collection, and the small 
number of occurrences and individuals, which make the species highly 
vulnerable to extinction from random environmental events and reduced 
reproductive vigor (Service 1999).
Pteris lidgatei (NCN)
    Pteris lidgatei, a short-lived member of the maidenhair fern family 
(Adiantaceae), is a coarse perennial herb, 0.5 to 1 m (1.6 to 3.3 ft) 
tall. It can be distinguished from other species of Pteris on the 
Hawaiian Islands by the texture of its fronds and the tendency of the 
sori along the leaf margins to be broken into short segments instead of 
being fused into continuous marginal sori (Wagner 1949; Wagner and 
Wagner 1992).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown for this species (Service 1998a).
    Historically, Pteris lidgatei was found on Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. 
Currently, this species is known from Oahu and Maui. Nine occurrences 
with approximately 13 individuals occur on Oahu on Federal, State, and 
private lands Kaluanui, Kawainui drainage, Kaukonahua Gulch, Kawai Iki 
Stream, Waimano Stream, and Waimano Gulch (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 
2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Pteris lidgatei on Oahu grows on steep stream banks and cliffs 
around 75 m (246 ft) elevation in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis forest with Asplenium sp. (NCN), Broussaisia 
arguta, Cibotium chamissoi, Cyrtandra sp., Dicranopteris linearis, 
Diplopterygium pinnatum, Doodia lyonii (NCN), Dryopteris sandwicensis, 
Elaphoglossum crassifolium (ekaha), Isachne pallens, Machaerina 
angustifolia, Sadleria squarrosa, Selaginella arbuscula, or Sphenomeris 
chinensis (palaa) (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt. 2001).
    The primary threats to Pteris lidgatei on Oahu are competition with 
the nonnative plant species Ageratina riparia, Christella parasitica, 
Clidemia hirta, Paspalum conjugatum, Psidium cattleianum, Pterolepis 
glomerata, and

[[Page 35981]]

Sacciolepis indica; habitat destruction by feral pigs; and a risk of 
extinction from naturally occurring events and/or reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the small number of remaining individuals (HINHP Database 
2001).
Sanicula purpurea (NCN)
    Sanicula purpurea, a short-lived member of the parsley family 
(Apiaceae), is a stout herb, 8 to 36 cm (3 to 14 in) tall, arising from 
a massive perennial stem. This species is distinguished from others in 
the genus by the number of flowers per cluster and by the color of the 
petals (Constance and Affolter 1999).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors of 
Sanicula purpurea are unknown (Service 1999).
    Historically and currently, Sanicula purpurea is known from Oahu 
and Maui. On Oahu, 5 occurrences totaling approximately 21 individuals 
are currently known from Kaukonahua-Kahana divide, Helemano-Punaluu 
divide, the summit between Aiea and Waimano, and North Kaukonahue-
Punaluu on Federal, State, and private lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 
2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Sanicula purpurea on Oahu typically grows in open Metrosideros 
polymorpha mixed montane bogs and windswept shrublands within the cloud 
zone between 415 and 959 m (1,361 and 3,146 ft) elevation. Associated 
native plant species include Bidens sp., Cheirodendron sp., 
Dicanthelium koolauense, Gahnia beechyi, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, 
Lycopodium sp., Machaerina angustifolia, Plantago pachyphylla (laukahi 
kuahiwi), Sadleria pallida, or Vaccinium sp. (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, 
in litt. 2001).
    The major threats to Sanicula purpurea on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral pigs, a risk of extinction due to random 
environmental events and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small 
number of existing occurrences, and competition with the nonnative 
plant species Axonopus fissifolius and Clidemia hirta (HINHP Database 
2001; Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
Schiedea hookeri (NCN)
    Schiedea hookeri, a member of the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), is 
a sprawling or clumped, long-lived, perennial herb. This species is 
distinguished from others in this endemic Hawaiian genus by its open, 
hairy, and sometimes sticky inflorescence and by the size of the 
capsules (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Based on field and greenhouse observations, Schiedea hookeri has 
bisexual flowers. Mature fruits have been observed in June and August. 
A series of experimental self-pollinations, within-population crosses, 
and crosses among populations has demonstrated that S. hookeri 
experiences moderately strong inbreeding depression. These results 
indicate that reductions in population size could result in expression 
of inbreeding depression among progeny, with potentially deleterious 
consequences for the long-term persistence of this species. Schiedea 
hookeri appears to be an out-crossing species. Under greenhouse 
conditions, flowers do not set seed unless hand-pollinated. In the 
field, the species is presumed to be pollinated by insects, although 
none have been observed (a related species, S. lydgatei on Molokai, is 
apparently pollinated by native, night-flying moths). Individuals of S. 
hookeri appear to be long-lived, but there is no evidence of 
reproduction from seed under field conditions. Seedlings of Schiedea 
species occurring in mesic or wet sites are apparently consumed by 
introduced slugs and snails. In contrast, Schiedea occurring in dry 
areas produce abundant seedlings following winter rains, presumably 
because the drier sites have fewer nonnative predators. Schiedea 
hookeri differs considerably through its range in potential for clonal 
growth. Plants from Kaluakauila Gulch are upright and show little 
potential for clonal spread. In contrast, clonal growth has been 
detected for individuals at Kaluaa Gulch, where the growth form is 
decumbent and plants apparently root at the nodes (HINHP Database 2001; 
Service 1999; Weller and Sakai, unpublished data). No further 
information is available on flowering cycles, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, or limiting factors.
    Historically, Schiedea hookeri was known from the Waianae Mountains 
of Oahu and a single fragmentary collection from Maui that may 
represent a different species. Currently, this species is known from 17 
occurrences on Oahu containing between 328 and 378 individuals in East 
Makaleha, Makaha-Waianae Kai Ridge, Kaluakauila Gulch, between 
Kalaulula and Kanewai Streams, Kaluaa Gulch, north of Puu Ku Makalii, 
Waianae Kai, Makua-Makaha Ridge, between Kolekole Pass and Puu Hapapa, 
southwest of Puu Kaua, Palikea Gulch, Makaha, Kamaileunu Ridge, and 
Kahanahaiki on Federal, State, city, county, and private lands (EDA 
Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999).
    Schiedea hookeri is usually found on slopes, cliffs and cliff 
bases, rock walls, and ledges in diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, 
often dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha, Diospyros sandwicensis, or 
Diospyros hillebrandii, and at elevations between 208 and 978 m (682 
and 3,208 ft). Associated plant species include Acacia koa, Alyxia 
oliviformis, Antidesma pulvinatum, Artemisia australis, Bidens torta, 
Carex meyenii, Carex wahuensis, Charpentiera tomentosa, Dodonaea 
viscosa, Elaeocarpus bifidus, Eragrostis grandis, Hibiscus sp., 
Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Melanthera tenuis, Pisonia sandwicensis, 
Pouteria sandwicensis, Psydrax odorata, Sida fallax, or Stenogyne sp. 
(Service 1999).
    The primary threats to Schiedea hookeri are habitat degradation 
and/or destruction by feral goats and pigs; competition with the 
nonnative plant species Adiantum hispidulum, Ageratina adenophora, 
Ageratina riparia, Aleurites moluccana, Blechnum appendiculatum, 
Christella parasitica, Clidemia hirta, Cordyline fruticosa, Grevillea 
robusta, Heliocarpus popayanensis, Hyptis pectinata, Kalanchoe pinnata, 
Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Melinis minutiflora, Panicum maximum, 
Passiflora suberosa, Pimenta dioica, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium 
guajava, Schinus terebinthifolius, Syzygium cumini, and Toona ciliata; 
and predation by introduced slugs and snails. The Kaluakauila Gulch 
occurrence is also potentially threatened by fire and military 
activities (Service 1999).
Schiedea nuttallii (NCN)
    Schiedea nuttallii, a long-lived perennial member of the pink 
family (Caryophyllaceae), is a generally hairless, erect subshrub. This 
species is distinguished from others in this endemic Hawaiian genus by 
its habit, length of the stem internodes, length of the inflorescence, 
number of flowers per inflorescence, and smaller leaves, flowers, and 
seeds (Wagner et al. 1999).
    Flowers and fruits of Schiedea nuttallii are abundant in the wet 
season but can be found throughout the year. Plants located close to 
the Makua rim on Oahu have been under observation for 10 years, and 
they appear to be long-lived. Based on field and greenhouse 
observations, the species has bisexual flowers. Schiedea nuttallii 
appears to be an out-crossing species. Under greenhouse conditions, 
plants fail to set seed unless hand-pollinated, suggesting that this 
species requires insects for pollination. Seedlings of Schiedea

[[Page 35982]]

occurring in mesic or wet sites are apparently consumed by introduced 
slugs and snails. In contrast, Schiedea occurring in dry areas produce 
abundant seedlings following winter rains, presumably because there are 
fewer nonnative predators in drier sites. Other information about 
reproductive cycles, longevity, specific environmental requirements, 
and limiting factors is unknown (Service 1999).
    Historically Schiedea nuttallii was known from scattered locations 
on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. Currently, it occurs on Kauai, Oahu, 
and Molokai. On Oahu, 7 occurrences with 49 individuals are found on 
Pahole-Makua Ridge, Pahole-Kahanahaiki Ridge, Ekahanui Gulch, 
Kahanahaiki Valley, and Pahole Gulch, on Federal, State, and private 
lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1999).
    Schiedea nuttallii on Oahu typically grows on steep rock walls and 
forested slopes in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic 
forest and Metrosideros polymorpha-Dodonaea viscosa forest at 
elevations between 436 and 1,185 m (1,430 and 3,887 ft). Associated 
native plant species include Alyxia oliviformis, Antidesma 
platyphyllum, Bidens torta, Cibotium chamissoi, Coprosma sp., the 
endangered Cyanea longiflora, Hedyotis terminalis, Ilex anomala, 
Machaerina sp., Peperomia sp., Perrottetia sandwicensis, Pipturus sp., 
or Psydrax odorata (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt., 2001).
    Schiedea nuttalii on Oahu is seriously threatened by competition 
with the nonnative plant species Andropogon virginicus, Clidemia hirta, 
Grevillea robusta, Melinis minutiflora, Paspalum conjugatum, and 
Psidium cattleianum; predation by the black twig borer, slugs, and 
snails; habitat degradation by feral pigs; and a risk of extinction 
from naturally occurring events (e.g., landslides) and/or reduced 
reproductive vigor due to the small number of individuals (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1999; 61 FR 53108).
Sesbania tomentosa (Ohai)
    Sesbania tomentosa, a short-lived perennial member of the pea 
family (Fabaceae), is typically a sprawling shrub but may also be a 
small tree. Each compound leaf consists of 18 to 38 oblong to elliptic 
leaflets that are usually sparsely to densely covered with silky hairs. 
The flowers are a salmon color tinged with yellow, orange-red, scarlet, 
or, rarely, pure yellow. Sesbania tomentosa is the only endemic 
Hawaiian species in the genus, differing from the naturalized S. sesban 
by the color of the flowers, the longer petals and calyx, and the 
number of seeds per pod (Geesink et al. 1999).
    The pollination biology of Sesbania tomentosa has been studied by 
David Hopper, University of Hawaii. His findings suggest that although 
many insects visit Sesbania flowers, the majority of successful 
pollination is accomplished by native bees of the genus Hylaeus and 
that occurrences at Kaena Point on Oahu are probably pollinator-
limited. Flowering at Kaena Point is highest during the winter-spring 
rains and gradually declines throughout the rest of the year. Other 
aspects of this plant's life history are unknown (Service 1999).
    Currently, Sesbania tomentosa occurs on six of the eight main 
Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Maui, and Hawaii) 
and in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Necker). It is no 
longer extant on Niihau and Lanai. On Oahu, Sesbania tomentosa is known 
from 3 occurrences of 54 to 55 wild and approximately 200 outplanted 
individuals on State-owned land within the Kaena Point NAR and from 
Keawaula on State and private lands (GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001; 
Service 1999; 59 FR 56333).
    On Oahu, Sesbania tomentosa is found on cliff faces, broken basalt, 
and sand dunes with rock outcrops in Scaevola sericea coastal dry 
shrubland and Sporobolus virginicus (aki aki) mixed grasslands between 
sea level and 152 m (0 and 499 ft) elevation. Associated native plant 
species include Heliotropium anomalum (ahinahina), Jacquemontia 
ovalifolia ssp. sandwicensis, Melanthera sp., Myoporum sandwicense, or 
Sida fallax (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1999).
    The primary threats to Sesbania tomentosa on Oahu are competition 
with the nonnative plant species Lantana camara and Leucaena 
leucocephala; lack of adequate pollination; seed predation by rats, 
mice, and, potentially, nonnative insects; fire; trampling by hikers, 
motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles; and a risk of extinction from 
naturally occurring events (e.g. tsunami) and/or reduced reproductive 
vigor due to the small number of occurrences and individuals (HINHP 
Database 2001; Service 1999; 59 FR 56333).
Silene lanceolata (NCN)
    Silene lanceolata, a member of the pink family, is an upright, 
short-lived perennial with stems 15 to 50 cm (6 to 20 in) long, which 
are woody at the base. The flowers are white with deeply-lobed, clawed 
petals. This species is distinguished from other Hawaiian members of 
the genus by its erect stem, terminal inflorescence, and length of the 
calyx, clawed petals, and carpophore (ovary structure) (Wagner et al. 
1999).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
for Silene lanceolata are unknown (Service1996d).
    The historical range of Silene lanceolata includes five Hawaiian 
Islands: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii. Silene lanceolata is 
presently extant on Molokai, Oahu, and Hawaii. On Oahu, there are 4 
occurrences with 62 individuals located in Koiahi Gulch and Waianae Kai 
on Federal and State lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP 
Database 2001).
    On Oahu, Silene lanceolata grows on cliff faces and ledges of 
gullies in dry to mesic shrubland and cliff communities at elevations 
of about 351 to 978 m (1,151 to 3,208 ft). Associated native plant 
species include Artemisia australis, Bidens sp., Carex sp., Chamaesyce 
sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Lysimachia sp., Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, 
Schiedea mannii, or the endangered Tetramolopium filiforme (HINHP 
Database 2001).
    The threats to Silene lanceolata on Oahu are habitat destruction by 
feral goats and pigs; wildfires; and competition with the nonnative 
plant species Ageratina riparia, Erigeron karvinskianus, Lantana 
camara, Melinis minutiflora, Melinis repens, and Schinus 
terebinthifolius (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1996d; 57 FR 46325).
Solanum sandwicense (Popolo aiakeakua)
    Solanum sandwicense, a member of the nightshade family 
(Solanaceae), is a large sprawling shrub. The younger branches are more 
densely hairy than older branches, and the oval leaves usually have up 
to four lobes along the margins. This short-lived perennial species 
differs from other members of the genus by having dense hairs on young 
plant parts, a greater height, and lacking prickles (Symon 1999).
    Little is known about the life history of Solanum sandwicense. 
Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors 
are unknown (Service 1995b).
    Historically, Solanum sandwicense was known from both Oahu and 
Kauai. This species was last seen on Oahu in 2000. Currently, this 
species is only

[[Page 35983]]

known from Kauai (GDSI Database 2001; HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1995b; 59 FR 09304; 65 FR 66808; J. Yoshioka, TNCH, pers. comm., 2000).
    Solanum sandwicense was found on Oahu on talus slopes and in 
streambeds in open, sunny areas at elevations between 131 and 1,006 m 
(430 and 3,300 ft). Associated native plant species included Pisonia 
sp. or Psychotria sp. (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1995b; 59 FR 
09304).
    The major threats to occurrences of Solanum sandwicense on Oahu 
were habitat degradation by feral pigs; competition with the nonnative 
plant species Passiflora suberosa, Psidium sp., and Schinus 
terebinthifolius; fire; landslides; and a risk of extinction from 
naturally occurring events and reduced reproductive vigor due to the 
small number of existing individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 
1995b; 59 FR 09304).
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (NCN)
    Spermolepis hawaiiensis, a member of the parsley family (Apiaceae), 
is a slender annual herb with few branches. Its leaves are dissected 
into narrow, lance-shaped divisions. Spermolepis hawaiiensis is the 
only member of the genus native to Hawaii. It is distinguished from 
other native members of the family by being a nonsucculent annual with 
an umbrella-shaped inflorescence (Constance and Affolter 1999).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors of 
this species are unknown (Service 1999).
    Historically, Spermolepis hawaiiensis was known from Kauai, Oahu, 
Lanai, and the island of Hawaii. It is currently known from Molokai and 
Maui as well as the above four islands. On Oahu, there are 6 known 
occurrences totaling between 110 and 910 individuals, on Makua-Keaau 
Ridge and near the entrance of Diamond Head on State, Federal, city, 
and county lands (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP Database 2001).
    Spermolepis hawaiiensis on Oahu typically grows on steep to 
vertical cliffs or at the base of cliffs and ridges in coastal dry 
cliff vegetation at elevations of 25 to 839 m (82 to 2,752 ft). 
Associated native plant species include Artemisia australis, Bidens 
sp., Dodonaea viscosa, Doryopteris sp., Heteropogon contortus, Santalum 
ellipticum, or Waltheria indica (HINHP Database 2001; EDA, in litt., 
2001).
    The primary threats to Spermolepis hawaiiensis on Oahu are habitat 
degradation by feral goats; competition with nonnative plant species 
such as Lantana camara, Melinis minutiflora, and various grasses; and 
habitat destruction and death of plants due to erosion, landslides, and 
rock slides resulting from natural weathering (HINHP Database 2001; 
Service 1999; 59 FR 56333).
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (NCN)
    Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, a short-lived perennial 
member of the aster family (Asteraceae), is an erect shrub 12 to 36 cm 
(4.7 to 14 in) tall, branching near the ends of the stems. Leaves are 
lance-shaped and wider at the leaf tip. This taxon can be distinguished 
from the other extant species on Oahu by its bisexual disk flowers and 
its inflorescence of 6 to 12 heads (Lowrey 1999).
    Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum produces flowers and fruit 
from April through July. Little else is known about its flowering 
cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, longevity, specific 
environmental requirements, and limiting factors (Service 1995b; 59 FR 
09304).
    Historically, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum was known from 
Lanai and nearly the entire length of the Waianae Mountains, from Makua 
Valley to Cachexia Ridge, on Oahu. It is now known only from Oahu. A 
total of 5 occurrences of approximately 15 individual plants are 
currently known from Federal, State, and private lands on Mauna Kapu, 
Ekahanui-Lualualei summit, Waianae Kai, and Puu Hapapa. TNCH has 
outplanted three individuals in a fenced exclosure within Honouliuli 
Preserve. These plants have since died, yet two healthy individuals 
have sprouted near the exclosure (EDA Database 2001; GDSI 2001; HINHP 
2001; Lowrey 1999; Service 1998b; 56 FR 55770).
    Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum typically grows on grassy 
ridge tops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry forests at elevations of 
330 to 1,157 m (1,082 to 3,795 ft). Associated native species include 
Bidens sp., Carex wahuensis, Eragrostis sp., or Metrosideros polymorpha 
(HINHP Database 2001).
    The major threats to Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum on Oahu 
are competition from the nonnative plant species Andropogon virginicus, 
Melinis minutiflora, and Schinus terebinthifolius; habitat degradation 
and predation by feral goats and pigs; fire; and a risk of extinction 
and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of 
occurrences and individuals (HINHP Database 2001; Service 1998b; 56 FR 
55770).
Vigna o-wahuensis (NCN)
    Vigna o-wahuensis, a member of the pea family (Fabaceae), is a 
slender, twining, short-lived perennial herb with fuzzy stems. Each 
leaf is made up of three leaflets that vary in shape from round to 
linear. This species differs from others in the genus by its thin 
yellowish petals, sparsely hairy calyx, and thin pods that may or may 
not be slightly inflated (Geesink et al. 1999).
    Flowering cycles, pollination vectors, seed dispersal agents, 
longevity, specific environmental requirements, and limiting factors of 
this species are unknown (Service 1999).
    Historically, Vigna o-wahuensis was known from Niihau, Oahu, 
Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui, and the island of Hawaii. Currently, 
V. o-wahuensis is known from the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, 
Maui, and Hawaii. There are no currently known occurrences on Oahu. The 
last collection on Oahu was made in 1938 on the Mokulua Islets and 
North Islet (HINHP Database 2001).
    Vigna o-wahuensis on Oahu occurred on open dry fossil reef, 
climbing over shrubs and grasses on limestone deposit, and on fairly 
steep slopes from sea level to 609 m (0 to 1,998 ft) in elevation. The 
associated native plant species on Oahu are unknown (HINHP Database 
2001).
    Nothing is known of the threats for Vigna o-wahuensis on Oahu 
(Service 1999).
    A summary of occurrences and landownership for the 101 plant 
species reported from the island of Oahu is given in Table 1.

[[Page 35984]]



     Table 1.--Summary of Existing Occurrences on Oahu, and Landownership for 101 Species Reported From Oahu
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Number of          Landownership/Jurisdiction
                         Species                             current   -----------------------------------------
                                                           occurrences     Federal        State        Private
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abutilon sandwicense.....................................           30       X 2, 6             X             X
 Adenophorus periens.....................................            0
Alectryon macrococcus....................................           82    X 1, 2, 6             X             X
 Alsinidendron obovatum..................................            6        X \1\             X
Alsinidendron trinerve...................................           13        X \2\             X
 Bonamia menziesii.......................................           18       X 1, 6             X             X
Cenchrus agrimonioides...................................            7       X 1, 2             X             X
Centaurium sebaeoides....................................            2  ............            X             X
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana.....................           15        X \1\             X
Chamaesye deppeana.......................................            1  ............            X   ............
Chamaesyce herbstii......................................            4  ............            X             X
Chamaesyce kuwaleana.....................................            5        X \6\             X
Chamaesyce rockii........................................           20    X 2, 3, 8             X             X
Colubrina oppositifolia..................................            5  ............            X             X
Ctenitis squamigera......................................            8       X 1, 2             X             X
Cyanea acuminata.........................................           20    X 2, 3, 8             X             X
Cyanea crispa............................................           11        X \3\             X             X
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana........................            7        X \2\             X             X
Cyanea grimesiana ssp.obatae.............................            8  ............            X             X
Cyanea humboltiana.......................................            9       X 3, 8             X             X
Cyanea koolauensis.......................................           42  X 2, 3, 4, 8            X             X
Cyanea longiflora........................................            4  ............            X             X
Cyanea pinnatifida.......................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Cyanea st.-johnii........................................            7         X\3\             X             X
Cyanea superba...........................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Cyanea truncata..........................................            2  ............            X             X
Cyperus trachysanthos....................................            6        X \7\             X   ............
Cyrtandra crenata........................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Cyrtandra dentata........................................           11       X 1, 3             X   ............
Cyrtandra polyantha......................................            1  ............            X             X
Cyrtandra subumbellata...................................            5       X 2, 8             X             X
Cyrtandra viridiflora....................................           23       X 3, 8             X             X
Delissea subcorata.......................................           21       X 1, 2             X             X
Diellia erecta...........................................            1  ............            X             X
Diellia falcata..........................................           30    X 1, 2, 6             X             X
Diellia unisora..........................................            4  ............            X             X
Diplazium molokaiense....................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Dubautia herbstobatae....................................           12        X \1\             X   ............
Eragrostis fosbergii.....................................            4        X \2\             X   ............
Eugenia koolauensis......................................           12       X 3, 4             X             X
Euphorbia haeleeleana....................................            8        X \1\             X             X
Flueggea neowawraea......................................           23    X 1, 2, 6             X             X
Gardenia mannii..........................................           49  X 2, 3, 4, 8            X             X
Gouania meyenii..........................................            4  ............            X             X
Gouania vitifolia........................................            2  ............            X             X
Hedyotis coriacea........................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Hedyotis degeneri........................................            4        X \1\             X   ............
Hedyotis parvula.........................................            7       X 1, 6             X   ............
Hesperomannia arborescens................................           36    X 3, 4, 8             X             X
Hesperomannia arbuscula..................................            6  ............            X             X
Hibiscus brackenridgei...................................            6       X 1, 6             X             X
Isodendrion laurifolium..................................            5  ............            X             X
Isodendrion longifolium..................................            7        X \2\             X             X
Isodendrion pyrifolium...................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Labordia cyrtandrae......................................            9  ............            X             X
Lepidium arbuscula.......................................           12    X 1, 2, 6             X   ............
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla.......................            4       X 2, 6             X   ............
Lipochaeta tenuifolia....................................           41    X 1, 2, 6             X   ............
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis....................            5    X 2, 3, 8             X             X
Lobelia monostachya......................................            1  ............            X             X
Lobelia niihauensis......................................           40    X 1, 2, 6             X   ............
Lobelia oahuensis........................................           12  X  1, 2, 3,             X             X
                                                                                  8
Lysimachia filifolia.....................................            1  ............            X   ............
Mariscus pennatiformis...................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Marsilea villosa.........................................            5        X \6\             X             X
Melicope lydgatei........................................           18        X \3\             X             X
Melicope pallida.........................................            1  ............            X             X
Melicope saint-johnii....................................            6        X \6\   ............            X
Myrsine juddii...........................................            3        X \3\             X   ............

[[Page 35985]]


Neraudia angulata........................................           27    X 1, 2, 6             X
Nototrichium humile......................................           25    X 1, 2, 6             X             X
Peucedanum sandwicense...................................            4  ............            X   ............
Phlegmariurus nutans.....................................            3    X 2, 3, 8             X   ............
Phyllostegia hirsuta.....................................           26  X 2, 3, 6, 8            X             X
Phyllostegia kaalaensis..................................            7  ............            X             X
Phyllostegia mollis......................................            5        X \2\             X
Phyllostegia parviflora..................................            6        X \3\             X             X
Plantago princeps........................................           11   X 1, 2, 3,             X             X
                                                                               6, 8
Platanthera holochila....................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Pritchardia kaalae.......................................            6       X 1, 2             X   ............
Pteris lidgatei..........................................            9    X 2, 3, 8             X             X
Sanicula mariversa.......................................            4       X 1, 6             X
Sanicula purpurea........................................            5    X 2, 3, 8             X             X
Schiedea hookeri.........................................           17    X 1, 2, 6             X             X
Schiedea kaalae..........................................            7  ............            X             X
Schiedea kealiae.........................................            4        X \5\             X             X
Schiedea nuttallii.......................................            7       X 1, 2             X             X
Sesbania tomentosa.......................................            3  ............            X             X
Silene lanceolata........................................            4        X \1\             X   ............
Silene perlmanii.........................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Solanum sandwicense......................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Spermolepis hawaiiensis..................................            6        X \1\             X   ............
Stenogyne kanehoana......................................            1  ............  ............            X
Tetramolopium filiforme..................................           21      X \1,6\             X   ............
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum...................            5       X 2, 6             X             X
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa................................           30  X 2, 3, 4, 8            X             X
Trematolobelia singularis................................            3  ............            X             X
Urera kaalae.............................................           12       X 2, 6             X             X
Vigna o-wahuensis........................................            0  ............  ............  ............
Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana...................           15    X 1, 2, 6             X   ............
Viola oahuensis..........................................           18    X 2, 3, 8             X            X
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Makua Military Reservation
\2\ Schofield Barracks Military Reservation/Schofield Barracks East Range
\3\ Kawailoa Training Area
\4\ Kahuku Training Area
\5\ Dillingham Military Reservation
\6\ Naval Magazine Pearl Harbor Lualualei Branch and Naval Computer and Telecommunication Area Master Station
  Pacific Transmitting Facility at Lualualei
\7\ Hawaii Army National Guard
\8\ Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge

Previous Federal Action

    On May 28, 2002, we published the court-ordered proposed critical 
habitat designations for the 101 plant species from Oahu (67 FR 37108). 
In that proposed rule (beginning on page 37147), we included a detailed 
summary of the previous Federal actions completed prior to publication 
of the proposal. We now provide updated information on the actions that 
we have completed since the proposed critical habitat designation. In 
Table 2, we list the final critical habitat designations or 
nondesignations previously completed for 41 of the 101 plant species 
from Oahu, which also occur on other islands.

Table 2.--Summary of Previous Final Critical Habitat Actions for the 101
                         Plant Species From Oahu
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Final critical habitat designation or
                                               nondesignation
             Species              --------------------------------------
                                       Date(s)        Federal Register
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adenophorus periens..............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         05/18/03  68 FR 12982
Alectryon macrococcus............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Bonamia menziesii................        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Cenchrus agrimonioides...........        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Centaurium sebaeoides............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982

[[Page 35986]]


                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Colubrina oppositifolia..........        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Ctenitis squamigera..............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Cyperus trachysanthos............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Diellia erecta...................        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Diplazium molokaiense............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Eugenia koolauensis..............        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
Euphorbia haeleeleana............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Flueggea neowawraea..............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Gouania meyenii..................        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Gouania vitifolia................        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Hedyotis coriacea................        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Hesperomannia arborescens........        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
Hesperomannia arbuscula..........        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Hibiscus brackenridgei...........        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Isodendrion laurifolium..........        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Isodendrion longifolium..........        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Isodendrion pyrifolium...........        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Lobelia niihauensis..............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Lysimachia filifolia.............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Mariscus pennatiformis...........        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
                                         05/22/03  68 FR 25934
Melicope pallida.................        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Nototrichium humile..............        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Peucedanum sandwicense...........        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Phlegmariurus nutans.............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Phyllostegia mollis..............        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Plantago princeps................        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Platanthera holochila............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Pteris lidgatei..................        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Sanicula purpurea................        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Schiedea nuttallii...............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
Sesbania tomentosa...............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
                                         05/22/03  68 FR 28054
Silene lanceolata................        03/18/03  68 FR 12982
Solanum sandwicense..............        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
Spermolepis hawaiiensis..........        02/27/03  68 FR 9116
                                         03/18/03  68 FR 12982
                                         05/14/03  68 FR 25934
Vigna o-wahuensis................        05/14/03  68 FR 25934
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 35987]]

    For many of 101 plant species from Oahu, the issue of whether 
critical habitat would be prudent was discussed in previous proposals 
and incorporated into the May 28 proposal (see 65 FR 79192; 65 FR 
83158; 67 FR 3939; 67 FR 15856; 67 FR 9806; 67 FR 16492; 67 FR 36968; 
67 FR 37108). In the May 28, 2002 proposed rule, we proposed that 
critical habitat designation was not prudent for Cyrtandra crenata 
because it had not been seen recently in the wild, and no genetic 
material of the species was known to exist. We also proposed that 
critical habitat designation was not prudent for Pritchardia kaalae, 
because it would likely increase the threat from vandalism or 
collection of the species. Critical habitat for the remaining 99 
(Abutilon sandwicense, Adenophorus periens, Alectryon macrococcus, 
Alsinidendron obovatum, Alsinidendron trinerve, Bonamia menziesii, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea humboltiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea 
longiflora, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea superba, 
Cyanea truncata, Cyperus trachysanthos, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra 
polyantha, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hedyotis coriacea, Hedyotis 
degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hesperomannia 
arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, 
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia monostachya, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Mariscus 
pennatiformis, Marsilea villosa, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope pallida, 
Melicope saint-johnii, Myrsine juddii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Pelea lydgatei, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phlegmariurus nutans, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, 
Phyllostegia parviflora, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, 
Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula mariversa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea 
hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea kealiae, Schiedea nuttallii, 
Sesbania tomentosa, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum 
sandwicense, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Urera kaalae, 
Vigna o-wahuensis, Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and Viola 
oahuensis) of the 101 plant species was proposed on approximately 
45,067 ha (111,364 ac) of land on the island of Oahu (67 FR 37108).
    The publication of the proposed rule opened a 60-day public comment 
period, which closed on July 29, 2002. On July 11, 2002, we submitted 
joint stipulations to the U.S. District Court with Earthjustice 
requesting extension of the court orders for the final rules to 
designate critical habitat for plants from Lanai (December 30, 2002), 
Kauai and Niihau (January 31, 2003), Molokai (February 28, 2003), Maui 
and Kahoolawe (April 18, 2003), Oahu (April 30, 2003), the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands (April 30, 2003), and the island of Hawaii (May 30, 
2003), citing the need to conduct additional review of the proposals, 
address comments received during the public comment periods, and 
conduct a series of public workshops on the proposals. The joint 
stipulations were approved and ordered by the court on July 12, 2002. 
On August 26, 2002, we published a notice (67 FR 54766) reopening the 
public comment period until September 30, 2002, on the proposal to 
designate critical habitat for plants from Oahu. On October 10, 2002, 
we published a notice (67 FR 63066) announcing the reopening of the 
comment period until November 30, 2002 and announcing a public hearing. 
On October 15, 2002, we held a public information meeting at the McCoy 
Pavilion, Honolulu, Oahu. On October 17, 2002, we held a public 
information meeting at Nanakuli High School, Nanakuli, Oahu. On 
November 19, 2002, we held a public hearing at the Ala Moana Hotel, 
Honolulu, Oahu. On December 26, 2002, we published a notice (67 FR 
78763) announcing the availability of the draft economic analysis and 
reopening the comment period until January 27, 2003.
    In the final rule designating critical habitat for plants on Lanai, 
published in the Federal Register on January 9, 2003 (68 FR 1220), we 
indicated that critical habitat was prudent for the following 17 multi-
island species that also occur on Oahu: Adenophorus periens, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Centaurium sebaeoides, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyperus trachysanthos, 
Diellia erecta, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Sesbania tomentosa, 
Silene lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, and Vigna o-wahuensis. In the final rule designating 
critical habitat for plants on Kauai and Niihau, published on February 
27, 2003 (68 FR 9116), we indicated that critical habitat was prudent 
for the following 16 multi-island species that are also found on Oahu: 
Alectryon macrococcus, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Gouania meyenii, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion longifolium, 
Lobelia niihauensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Mariscus pennatiformis, 
Melicope pallida, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phlegmariurus nutans, 
Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Schiedea nuttallii, and 
Solanum sandwicense. In the final rule designating critical habitat for 
plants on Molokai (68 FR 12982), we indicated that critical habitat was 
prudent for the following four multi-island species that are also found 
on Oahu: Eugenia koolauensis, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Marsilea villosa, 
Phyllostegia mollis, and Pteris lidgatei. In the final rule designating 
critical habitat for plants on Maui and Kahoolawe, published on May 14, 
2003 (68 FR 25934) we indicated that critical habitat was prudent for 
the following eight multi-island species that are also found on Oahu: 
Colubrina oppositifolia, Gouania vitifolia, Hedyotis coriacea, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Nototrichium humile, 
Phyllostegia parviflora, Sanicula purpurea, and Schiedea hookeri. In 
the final rule designating critical habitat for plants in the 
Northwestern Hawaiian Island, published on May 22, 2003 (68 FR 28054) 
we indicated that critical habitat was prudent for the following two 
multi-island species that are also found on Oahu: Mariscus 
pennatiformis and Sesbania tomentosa.

Summary of Comments and Recommendations

    We received a total of seven oral and 694 written comments during 
the four comment periods. These included responses from 7 State 
offices, 13 local agencies, and 36 private organizations or 
individuals. Of the written comments, we received approximately 638 
letters by electronic mail or coupon/postcard that stated general 
support for the proposed critical habitat

[[Page 35988]]

designations but that did not provide substantive comments. Of the 
other 56 comments, 12 supported the proposed designation, 31 were 
opposed to it, and 13 provided information or declined to oppose or 
support the designation. We reviewed all comments received for 
substantive issues and new information regarding critical habitat and 
the Oahu plants. Similar comments were grouped into six general issues 
relating specifically to the proposed critical habitat designations and 
the draft economic analysis on the proposed determinations. These are 
addressed in the following summary.

Peer Review

    In accordance with our policy published on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 
34270), we solicited independent opinions from 17 knowledgeable 
individuals with expertise in one or several fields, including 
familiarity with the species, the geographic region, or the principles 
of conservation biology. We received comments from eight. All eight 
generally supported our methodology and conclusion, but none expressed 
a position for or against the designation of critical habitat. Comments 
received from the peer reviewers are summarized in the following 
section and were considered in developing the final rule.

Issue 1: Biological Justification and Methodology

    (1) Comment: One commenter stated that the proposal designates 
areas that are not essential to the species.
    Our Response: In accordance with our policy on peer review 
published on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we solicited the expert 
opinions of appropriate and independent specialists regarding the 
proposed rule. The purpose of this peer review was to ensure that our 
method of designating critical habitat for Oahu plants was based on 
scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analysis. The comments of 
the peer reviewers were taken into consideration in the development of 
this final designation. The majority of our peer reviewers support our 
methodology. Changes in this final rule that decrease the boundaries of 
some units are based on additional information received during the 
public comment periods. The changes in boundaries reflected in this 
final rule are based on additional information regarding the lack of 
primary constituent elements or additional information regarding the 
degradation of some of the proposed critical habitat areas and low 
probability of restoration that affect the areas' essentiality to the 
species. Areas that were inadvertently included in the proposed unit 
and found to be nonessential have also been removed from the final 
designation.
    (2) Comment: One commenter stated that the broad brush of primary 
constituent elements has resulted in the proposed designation of large 
amounts of State land with little companion scientific effort to 
identify limiting factors or management actions needed. Another 
commenter stated that the critical habitat designations are based on 
guesswork.
    Our Response: The Act requires us to use the best scientific and 
commercial information available in undertaking species listing and 
recovery actions, including the designation of critical habitat as set 
forth in this rule. In this final rule, we concluded that some areas 
were not essential for the conservation of the Oahu plant species, 
based on newly available information concerning status of the species 
in specific areas and level of habitat degradation. Several of the 
units proposed as critical habitat have been excluded because they are 
not essential for the conservation of the species. These excluded units 
are nonessential because either they lack the species' primary 
constituent elements or other habitat exists for these species that has 
more primary constituent elements and/or is less degraded. See the 
``Summary of Changes from the Revised Proposed Rule'' section.
    The magnitude of additional research and investigations required to 
determine limiting factors and specific management actions needed for 
each species at each location is beyond the scope of critical habitat 
designation. The Act requires us to designate critical habitat on the 
basis of the best scientific and commercial data available. Based on 
the information available at the time the proposal was prepared and 
taking into consideration additional information received during the 
public comment periods on the proposal and draft economic analysis, we 
believe we have designated scientifically appropriate areas for the 
conservation of these species.
    (3) Comment: The Army requested exclusion of grass-dominated 
portions of Makua Military Reservation and exclusion of grass-dominated 
habitat and forested areas dominated by nonnative plants (e.g. 
Eucalyptus sp. and Schinus terebinthifolius) at Schofield Barracks.
    Our Response: These areas were excluded from the final critical 
habitat designation because they do not contain the primary constituent 
elements necessary for the conservation of the Oahu plant species.
    (4) Comment: One commenter did not believe that the Service has 
demonstrated that designating this large an area, absent any active 
management by the Federal government, can lead to the recovery of the 
identified species.
    Our Response: We agree that active management is a necessary part 
of achieving recovery for these species and that the ultimate purpose 
of critical habitat is to contribute to the conservation of listed 
species. This can be best be achieved by cooperation between the 
Service and other partners. A critical habitat designation alone will 
not lead to the recovery of these species. Recovery of the species will 
require the cooperation of Federal and non-Federal land managers to 
manage lands in a manner that is compatible with species' recovery. We 
have numerous programs for assisting landowners with management for the 
conservation of these species.
    (5) Comment: One peer reviewer indicated that the general goal of 
establishing at least 8 to 10 viable populations for each species may 
not apply to some rare, localized island endemics that likely never had 
8 to 10 populations throughout their evolutionary history.
    Our Response: Fewer than eight populations are being designated for 
some very restricted species for which adequate habitat does not exist, 
and which were likely always rare, since they are very narrow endemics 
(Alsinidendron trinerve, Chamescyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Cyanea 
pinnatifida, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Lipochaeta 
tenuifolia, Lobelia monostachya, Melicope saint-johnii, Sanicula 
mariversa, Schiedea kealiae, Silene perlmanii, Stenogyne 
kanehoana,Tetramolopium filiforme, and Trematalobelia singularis). The 
recovery plan for some more well understood species may also have 
different recovery objectives (Marsilea villosa), and the designation 
reflects these differences. However, in general, the recovery 
objectives found in recovery plans for these species state that 8 to 10 
viable populations are required for recovery of each species. 
Establishing and conserving 8 to 10 viable populations on one or more 
islands within the historic range of the species will provide each 
species with a reasonable expectation of persistence and eventual 
recovery, even with the

[[Page 35989]]

high potential that one or more of these populations will be eliminated 
by normal or random adverse events, such as fires and nonnative plant 
invasions (Hawaii and Pacific Plant Recovery Committee (HPPRCC) 1994; 
Luijten et al. 2000; Mangel and Tier 1994; Pimm et al. 1998; Stacey and 
Taper 1992). We conclude that designation of adequate suitable habitat 
for 8 to 10 populations as critical habitat is essential to give most 
species a reasonable likelihood of long-term survival and recovery, 
based on currently available information. Each recovery plan states 
that these recovery goals will be revised as more specific information 
becomes available for each species.
    (6) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that we should be wary of 
making propagation or reintroduction decisions based on the 
preservation of interpopulational genetic diversity. Observed or 
measurable genetic diversity is always at neutral loci, which gives 
absolutely no indication of differences in relative fitness. Another 
peer reviewer asked if the consequences of small, isolated populations 
on genetic drift or inbreeding have been addressed, e.g., through 
occasional gene flow.
    Our Response: Many of the species have been reduced to such low 
numbers that the recovery plans identify propagation and reintroduction 
as a key step. While we do not have direct evidence for most species to 
indicate that reduced reproductive vigor or inbreeding are problems, we 
believe they should be considered, based on current conservation 
biology theory and practice. This is particularly important to consider 
when developing a propagation and reintroduction program, to ensure 
that recovery efforts do not cause or exacerbate genetic issues. While 
measures of genetic diversity do not directly measure relative fitness, 
it is reasonable to assume that the two are correlated. The issue of 
gene flow and genetic drift will be addressed through research actions 
identified as needed in the recovery plans.
    (7) Comment: The proposal failed to contain the total of 
historically known listed plants, and therefore failed to propose 
critical habitat for all listed plants Statewide. About 10 percent of 
the historically known listed endangered plant species from the 
Hawaiian Islands are missing from the proposals. The following Oahu 
plants are listed as endangered, but not included in proposed critical 
habitat designations: Abutilon menziesii, Achyranthes splendens var. 
rotundata, Caesalpinia kavaiensis, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, Panicum fauriei var. carteri, Scaevola coriacea, and 
Scheidea adamantis. It is unclear why critical habitat was not 
discussed with respect to Abutilon menziesii, Achyranthes splendens 
var. rotundata, Caesalpinia kavaiensis, Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. 
skottsbergii, and Gardenia brighamii. For example, the recovery plan 
for G. brighamii specifically calls for the establishment of three 
populations on Oahu. This is a serious concern since the proposed rule 
states ``the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes critical habitat 
for 99 of the 101 plant species known historically from the island of 
Oahu that are listed under the ESA.'' This statement is incorrect. The 
above-mentioned species are found on Oahu, they are listed under the 
ESA, and they are not addressed in the proposed rule.
    Our Response: We have corrected the statement cited above in this 
final rule. The following species were not part of the 1998 court order 
and subsequent stipulations, and therefore were not included in this 
rulemaking: Abutilon menziesii, Achyranthes rotundata (currently 
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata), Euphorbia skottsbergii var. 
kalaeloana, Gardenia brighamii, Mezoneuron kavaiense (currently 
Caesalpinia kavaiensis), Scaevola coriacea, and Scheidea adamantis. 
Critical habitat for these species will be considered if funding and 
resources become available. In addition, critical habitat has already 
been designated for Panicum carteri (currently Panicum fauriei var. 
carteri) on the island of Mokolii (48 FR 46328).
    (8) Comment: One peer reviewer expressed concern that the Service 
may remove areas from designation if the landowner provides sufficient 
assurance that the land is adequately managed for a particular species. 
The Service cannot lawfully exclude areas from critical habitat based 
on a finding that they are adequately managed or protected. Critical 
habitat should be determined independent of the management situation. 
Another peer reviewer stated that none of the lands should be excluded 
from proposed critical habitat because of their existing land 
management.
    Our Response: In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) of the Act and 
regulations at 50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas to propose as 
critical habitat, we are required to base critical habitat 
determinations on the best scientific and commercial data available and 
to consider those physical and biological features (primary constituent 
elements) that are essential to the conservation of the species and 
that may require special management considerations or protection. If an 
area is covered by a plan that meets our management criteria, we 
believe it does not constitute critical habitat as defined by the Act 
because the primary constituent elements found there are not considered 
to be in need of special management or protection. For a detailed 
explanation of this evaluation see the ``Analysis of Managed Lands 
Under Section 3(5)(A)'' section below. However, to the extent that 
special management considerations and protection may be required for 
any of these areas and they, therefore, would meet the definition of 
critical habitat according to section 3(5)(A)(i), they are also 
properly excluded from designation under section 4(b)(2) of the Act 
(see Analysis of Impacts under Section 4(b)(2)).
    (9) Comment: One peer reviewer and many commenters stated that 
focusing conservation efforts on the most pristine, least degraded 
sites is a logical, efficient, and cost-effective strategy whenever 
possible. Unfortunately, for many of the listed plant species, there is 
simply not enough suitable habitat remaining. Another peer reviewer 
stated that, in general, as much habitat should be protected as 
possible. Many peer reviewers were optimistic about the potential for 
degraded areas to be restored. One peer reviewer commented that 
populations could be established in the most degraded habitat if 
sufficient funds and person hours are dedicated toward follow-up 
maintenance after restoration. Another commenter stated that there is 
only a nominal possibility that the endangered native plants would 
survive in highly degraded areas and areas dominated by nonnative 
plants that are proposed as critical habitat. Yet another commenter 
stated that designations in degraded habitats are unrealistic and could 
waste resources on impractical restoration efforts. The commenter went 
on to suggest that low elevation areas may not be adequately 
represented; therefore it is important that the proposal not be trimmed 
back in any lower elevation areas. Another peer reviewer stated that 
the Service should designate lowland areas for potential future 
restoration and population recovery efforts.
    Our Response: We agree that recovery of a species is more likely in 
designated critical habitat in the least degraded areas containing the 
primary constituent elements. To this end, several units have been 
excluded for some species, as sufficient numbers of alternative 
critical habitat units are available in less degraded areas. However, 
for some species, especially those only known from low elevation areas, 
only degraded

[[Page 35990]]

habitat remains. Therefore, some units still contain degraded habitat, 
but we believe that these areas can be restored if the landowner is 
supportive and resources are made available.
    (10) Comment: One peer reviewer questioned why some areas 
designated as essential habitat by the HPPRCC are not included in the 
proposed critical habitat.
    Our Response: In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) of the Act and 
regulations at 50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas to propose as 
critical habitat, we are required to use the best scientific and 
commercial data available and to consider those physical and biological 
features (primary constituent elements) that are essential to the 
conservation of the species and that may require special management 
considerations or protection. The HPPRCC used a different set of 
criteria to select the areas they deemed to be essential plant habitat. 
They selected habitat for all endangered, threatened, proposed, and 
candidate species. Some of these species were not included in the 
selection of critical habitat. Therefore, the essential plant habitat 
and critical habitat areas will not completely overlap.
    (11) Comment: One peer reviewer recommended additional 
consultations with academic and professional experts. Some reviewers 
stated that no assessment of the quality of any of the data sources is 
provided, and no information is given as to how data sources of varying 
qualities were weighted in making delineations of critical habitat or 
how decisions were made as to what to rely on in the absence of 
rigorous assessments of relative quality. These commenters agreed with 
the Service's statement that ``lack of detailed scientific data makes 
it impossible for us to develop a quantitative model.'' Lack of 
knowledge means that the proposed critical habitat designation is based 
only on the general habitat features of the areas in which the plants 
currently occur. While this approach may be expedient, it has resulted 
in designations based on best-guess estimations, rather than on science 
or the realities of plant recovery. The Service needs to give greater 
weight to scientific or commercial data that is empirical and has been 
field tested or verified, and the Service needs to allow peer review by 
a panel of unbiased scientists. One reviewer stated that the scientific 
basis for critical habitat designation is weak. Other commenters felt 
that the data on which the proposed critical habitat is based are 30 
years old and may need updating.
    Our Response: In an expansion of our policy on peer review 
published on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we solicited the expert 
opinions of 19 appropriate and independent specialists regarding the 
proposed rule. The purpose of this peer review was to ensure that our 
methodology for designation of critical habitat for Oahu plants was 
based on scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analysis. The 
comments of the peer reviewers were taken into consideration in the 
development of this final designation. The majority of peer reviewers 
support our methodology. We also met with field botanists from the 
Hawaii Natural Heritage Program, the Department of Land and Natural 
Resources, the Hawaii Army National Guard, and the Department of the 
Army. All data and information on species status received in 
preparation of this rule were weighted equally and considered to come 
from reliable sources. Where discrepancies existed between different 
data sources, the most current data were used.
    New information indicated that some of the areas identified as 
essential habitat in the ``Recovery Plan for Multi Island Plants'' 
(USFWS 1999) do not contain the primary constituent elements necessary 
for the conservation of any of the 99 plant species included in this 
final designation. The essential plant habitat maps take into 
consideration all listed endangered plants on Oahu, as well as species 
of concern. We agree that additional time would be beneficial for the 
preparation of these final rules and the collection of more scientific 
information, but we are required under the court-approved stipulation 
to finalize this designation by April 30, 2003, using the best 
information currently available. If provided with new information, we 
may propose revisions in the critical habitat designation in the 
future.
    (12) Comment: Some reviewers commented that deletion of significant 
portions of any of the proposed critical habitat units is likely to 
prevent the recovery of, and lead to the extinction of, listed species. 
Smaller units present real management challenges and may be so small 
that their ecological integrity and the viability of listed plants 
cannot be maintained.
    Our Response: In this final rule, we concluded that many areas were 
not essential for the conservation of the Oahu plant species, based on 
information received during the public comment periods concerning the 
status of the species in specific areas and degree of habitat 
degradation. Several units or portions of units proposed as critical 
habitat have been excluded because they are not essential for the 
conservation of the species. These excluded units or portions of units 
are not essential because they either lack the species' primary 
constituent elements or other areas exist that provide for the 
conservation of the species. See the ``Summary of Changes from the 
Proposed Rule'' section.
    We realize that smaller areas will most likely require more 
management to maintain the plant populations and their habitat, but in 
many cases they are the only areas with the primary constituent 
elements needed by each species. We concur with the importance of 
protecting the ecosystems on which these species depend, as stated in 
purpose of the Act (section 2(b)), and of managing areas large enough 
to maintain and expand populations. We considered the importance of 
this, as well as the location of primary constituent elements, when 
delineating the boundaries of critical habitat for these final 
designations of critical habitat. We included areas that provide the 
biological and other processes essential for the conservation of the 
species. We acknowledge the potential negative impacts of edge effects 
on small habitat fragments. However, these species' primary constituent 
elements are found only within the areas that were designated critical 
habitat, and expanding the designated critical habitats would add areas 
that lack the primary constituent elements. All of the changes from the 
proposed critical habitat are based on the best available information 
and information received during comment periods and are based on 
biological issues, not political or social issues. If new information 
becomes available indicating that the existing critical habitat 
designations are not essential for the conservation of the species and/
or that other areas are, we may propose new designations for those 
species at that time.
    (13) Comment: A peer reviewer stated that the absence of native 
pollinators may demographically doom populations of facultative and 
obligate out-crossing species. The same peer reviewer commented that 
relationships among breeding systems (out-crossing or selfing), 
effective population size, levels of genetic exchange, and spatial 
distribution need to be considered.
    Our Response: We agree; however, this information is unknown for 
the majority of the 99 plant species on Oahu for which we are 
designating critical habitat. If new information becomes available, we 
will reevaluate critical habitat based on the new information for that 
species at that time.

[[Page 35991]]

Issue 2: Effects of Designation

    (14) Comment: A strongly preferred approach is to encourage the 
establishment of voluntary partnerships with landowners to bring about 
the desired species conservation.
    Our Response: We realize that designation of critical habitat alone 
will not achieve recovery. Many threatened and endangered species occur 
on private lands and we recognize the importance of conservation 
actions by private landowners. Cooperation from private landowners is 
an important element of our conservation efforts, and we have had 
considerable success in developing partnerships with large and small 
landowners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations for 
conservation activities on Oahu, elsewhere in the State of Hawaii, and 
throughout the Nation. We also recognize the importance of partnerships 
with other Federal and State agencies and land managers.
    We administer several programs aimed at providing incentives for 
landowners to conserve endangered and threatened species on their 
lands; one of these incentives is the Endangered Species Landowner 
Incentive Program, which was first funded by Congress in fiscal year 
1999. Under this program, we provide technical assistance and funding 
to landowners for carrying out conservation actions on their lands. In 
the first year alone, 145 proposals totaling $21.1 million competed for 
$5 million in grant money. Additional information on our landowner 
incentive programs may be found on our Web site (http://endangered.fws.gov/landowner/index.html
). In addition, we have excluded 
areas under 4(b)(2) of the Act from the final designation of critical 
habitat on several islands because landowners have developed voluntary 
partnerships to manage the resources on their lands. We believe that 
the benefits of excluding these areas outweigh the benefits of 
including these areas in a final critical habitat designation.
    (15) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that it is both prudent and 
necessary to designate critical habitat for these rare species. This 
provides the needed long-term management stability that allows 
government agencies and private organizations to cooperate and 
concentrate on recovery efforts. It may provide additional incentives 
for securing funding to research and recover populations. Designation 
of critical habitat also provides for additional protection of habitat 
that is unoccupied by a particular species, therefore allowing for 
future reintroduction of the species. In the absence of critical 
habitat protection, much of the currently unoccupied habitat will 
continue to be destroyed by nonnative plants and animals, urban sprawl, 
and other development. On the other hand, one commenter stated that if 
site-specific locality information will have to be published in the 
final rule for every species, then the potential harm (from trespassing 
and theft of the species) far outweighs any potential benefit from 
designating critical habitat. Another commenter failed to see how 
imposing the proposed designation of critical habitat on privately 
owned, privately managed lands with no Federal nexus can lead to the 
recovery of the identified species.
    Our Response: See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION above.
    (16) Comment: One commenter stated that all species should be 
offered protection, but they cannot support protection for some and not 
for others. They are concerned about the nonnative animals, whose fate 
would be decided by agencies that consider them invasive and kill them. 
The current interpretation of critical habitat allows the Federal 
government and its partners to utilize any methodology they wish in 
dealing with feral animals with impunity, although such methods may be 
cruel and environmentally unsound.
    Our Response: The designation of critical habitat does not give the 
Federal government and its partners the authority to utilize any 
methodology they wish in dealing with feral animals. Any potential 
animal control program would be subject to all applicable State, 
Federal, and local laws. Also, critical habitat does not allow or 
enable the Federal government to control feral animals on non-Federal 
land. Such decisions will still be made by the landowner and are not 
regulated by critical habitat.
    (17) Comment: The designation of critical habitat in areas actively 
used by the 25th Infantry Division (Light Infantry) for national 
defense purposes will adversely affect the Army's ability to carry out 
its essential mission. Training is essential to maintain specific 
proficiencies that are critical to wartime performance. Designating the 
proposed areas as critical habitat would have a negative effect on the 
Army's ability to carry out its national defense mission as well as to 
undergo the proposed transformation of its forces in the State of 
Hawaii. Designations of critical habitat will negatively impact the 
missions of the United States Marine Corps units who rely on the Army 
lands for their training. The skills learned at Makua and Schofield 
Barracks are critical to our Marines' ability to perform all manner of 
combat operations, because the natural and physical attributes of the 
training areas mirror battlefield conditions found in other nations in 
the Pacific region and are found nowhere else in the United States. The 
Army has a comprehensive conservation program that provides better 
accountability and management of endangered plant species than the 
speculative benefit of critical habitat. The Army's natural resource 
programs provide sufficient management of rare plants, negating the 
need for critical habitat designation. For example, the Makua 
Implementation Plan details the actions required to stabilize 28 plant 
taxa and the Oahu tree snail. Further, the Army has worked with the 
Service to develop Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans 
(INRMPs) for its installations on Oahu.
    Our Response: We have removed Makua Military Reservation, Schofield 
Barracks, Schofield Barracks East Range, Kahuku Training Area, Kawailoa 
Training Area, and Dillingham Military Reservation from final critical 
habitat designation because the benefits of excluding these lands under 
3(5)(A) and 4(b)(2) outweigh the benefits of including these lands in a 
final designation (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): 
Other Impacts)''. We agree that the Army has implemented a 
comprehensive program of endangered species management on its lands 
under the INRMP process and appreciate the amount of financial and 
manpower resources they have provided for this effort. Army cooperation 
and support will be required to prevent the extinction and promote the 
recovery of all of the listed species on this island due to the need to 
implement proactive conservation actions such as ungulate management, 
weed control, fire suppression, and plant propagation.
    (18) Comment: One landowner was concerned that their past 
cooperative efforts were not considered in this designation. In 
particular, this landowner had conveyed to the Service the southern 
portion of the Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge. In conveying the 
southern portion of the refuge to the Service, the landowner understood 
that a primary motivation for and purpose of the conveyance was to 
protect the native forest and certain native plant species therein, and 
therefore, the parties worked together to include certain lands in the 
conveyance. By its proposed rules, the Service appears to ignore or 
fails to consider this process, with the result being that the 
conveyance is treated as if it occurred in a vacuum.
    Our Response: As summarized in the ``Summary of Changes to the 
Proposed

[[Page 35992]]

Rule'' section, the lands referred to in this comment were excluded 
from critical habitat designation because the primary constituent 
elements for the plant species proposed in this area are not present 
(former Oahu L unit).
    (19) Comment: The draft economic analysis states that if a 
landowner needs a Federal permit or receives Federal funding for a 
specific activity, the Federal agency issuing the permit or dispersing 
the funds would consult with the Service to determine how the action 
may affect the designated critical habitat. The commenter questioned 
what is meant by the term ``consult.'' The nature of the consultation 
could result in control over whether the Federal government conducts 
its proposed action on those lands or not, thereby controlling the land 
to the extent that the private landowner could or could not do business 
with the Federal government. What would the consultation result in when 
a proposed Federal action is benign compared to the activities not 
affected by critical habitat designation, such as, grazing, farming, 
hunting, or recreational use?
    Our Response: Under section 7 of the Act, all Federal agencies must 
consult with the Service to insure that any action that they authorize, 
fund, or carry out is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence 
of any endangered or threatened species or result in the destruction or 
adverse modification of critical habitat. If the Service finds that the 
proposed actions are likely to jeopardize the continued existence of an 
endangered or threatened species or result in destruction or adverse 
modification of critical habitat, we suggest reasonable and prudent 
alternatives that would allow the Federal agency to implement their 
proposed action without such adverse consequences.
    Every consultation is unique, and it is impossible to comment on 
what the results of a future consultation will be without details of 
the proposed activity and the status of the species and its critical 
habitat at the time of the consultation. However, the consultation is 
focused on the direct and indirect effects of the proposed Federal 
action on the species or critical habitat and on effects of activities 
that be interrelated or interdependent. If the effects of the action, 
when added to the environmental baseline in the project area, would not 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat or jeopardize the species, 
the project could proceed without modification.

Issue 3: Site-Specific Biological Comments

    (20) Comment: One landowner stated that, based on the methodology 
used and the fact that many areas are not occupied by any listed 
species in the 7,500 acres in units I and M that they own, and which 
are either within the agricultural district and in agricultural use or 
which are in the conservation district and developed for and in active 
use for telecommunications, these lands should be excluded.
    Our Response: Based on comments received from field experts, these 
areas were removed from the final critical habitat designation because 
either they do not contain the primary constituent elements necessary 
for the conservation of these species or there are less degraded areas 
on Oahu that provide habitat essential for the conservation of these 
species.
    (21) Comment: One landowner indicated that the boundary of a 
particular proposed critical habitat area runs through a small 
eucalyptus grove that is used quite extensively for educational 
purposes. By moving the boundary line in this location as requested in 
a map supplied by the landowner, there would be no impact upon existing 
operations (cattle ranching or otherwise).
    Our Response: This area was removed from the final critical habitat 
designation because it does not contain the primary constituent 
elements necessary for the conservation of the species in this area.
    (22) Comment: Two commenters were unclear how water source and 
distribution facilities in Unit L and other units in which the Waiahole 
Ditch is included will be affected if additional irrigation water is 
allocated for delivery to the central Oahu isthmus. They also expressed 
concern that routine ditch operations and maintenance may become 
problematic, especially if a section 7 consultation becomes necessary. 
Another commenter stated that the proposed rule identifies the 
alteration of watersheds and water diversion as activities that could 
trigger section 7 consultation if there is Federal involvement. If the 
ability to divert or take water from these sources or systems is 
restricted or limited, the impact would affect all lands served by such 
water sources or systems. In some cases, these water systems are very 
extensive and therefore the impacts could be quite substantial and far-
reaching.
    Our Response: Water infrastructure, including ditch irrigation 
systems, are considered manmade features and therefore are not critical 
habitat. As such, their operation and maintenance are not likely to be 
subject to the critical habitat provisions of section 7 because these 
features and structures normally do not affect critical habitat.
    (23) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that Unit L could be 
potentially expanded to include valley corridors linking the unit at 
its northern end to lowland/coastal habitats, thus allowing for an 
elevational gradient to be protected. These areas include the Hauula 
Beach Park area and the Kawailoa area. Similarly, a corridor linking 
Unit L with Unit O would also provide additional protected potential 
habitat. Extending Unit L at its extreme southeastern tip to include 
remaining ridge top habitat and possibly providing an elevational 
corridor with Unit X may also prove beneficial.
    Our Response: We believe that the area we have designated meets the 
recovery goals of 8 to 10 populations for these 99 plant species. Areas 
outside of the designated critical habitat may be important for the 
conservation of the species; however, at this time, we do not believe 
that they are essential to the conservation of these species.
    (24) Comment: The Navy believes that the designation of critical 
habitat is redundant and subjects their Federal installations to 
unnecessary burdens when applied to species whose protection is 
addressed and managed under an installation's INRMP. Naval Magazine 
Pearl Harbor is the largest ammunition storage and ordnance operation 
in Hawaii. Consistent with this mission, large areas of land and water 
are constrained by the need for safety buffers. Naval Computer and 
Telecommunication Area Master Station Pacific (NCTAMS PAC) is the 
largest communications station in the world, and its mission is to 
provide communications for command and control to all naval commands 
ashore and afloat in the Pacific and to a wide variety of Army, Marine 
Corps, Coast Guard, and Air Force commands. The existing and future 
national defense operations to be conducted in these areas may present 
incompatibilities with species preservation.
    Our Response: We have reviewed the 2001 INRMP for Navy lands on 
Oahu. It is currently not adequate to outweigh the benefit of including 
these areas in a final designation (See ``Analysis of Impacts Under 
Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts''). It does not include specific 
information on the conservation of the listed species found on Navy 
lands or information about conservation of unoccupied habitat for 
species historically known from the area. As far as we are aware, this 
INRMP has not yet

[[Page 35993]]

been updated to address management needs of these species. We look 
forward to working with the Navy in developing management for these 
areas that is compatible with species recovery.
    We have removed some portions of the units on Navy lands, based on 
additional information received during the comment periods and visits 
to the base. We determined these areas to be nonessential because of 
the lack of primary constituent elements or because there are other 
places for these species that have more primary constituent elements 
and/or are less degraded. See the ``Summary of Changes from the 
Proposed Rule'' section for the justification for each unit's changes.


Issue 4: Species-Specific Biological Comments

    (25) Comment: There are only three occurrences of the identified 
species on Damon Estate's land, all three located in the very back of 
Moanalua Valley, nearly 1.5 miles from the makai (directional term in 
the Hawaiian language that means towards the ocean) boundary of the 
proposed critical habitat designation. The landowner does not believe 
that the Service has established that these reported occurrences, some 
of them decades old, justify the designation of nearly 1,500 acres, 
much of which is highly altered from its original native vegetation.
    Our Response: This area is currently occupied by eight species 
(Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea humboltiana, Gardenia 
mannii, Lobelia oahuensis, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, and Viola oahuensis) and contains habitat essential to the 
conservation of seven species (Cyanea crispa, Cyanea humboltiana, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, 
Trematolobelia singularis, and Viola oahuensis). Therefore, we could 
not remove this area from final critical habitat designation. Although 
this area is highly altered, information provided by botanists both in 
compiling the proposed rule and during the public periods indicates 
that the area contains the habitat elements essential for the 
conservation of the above mentioned plant species. This area is located 
within the following critical habitat units: Oahu 20--Cyanea crispa--b, 
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--d, Oahu 20--Lobelia oahuensis--a, Oahu 
20--Sanicula purpurea--a, Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--b, Oahu 
20--Trematolobelia singularis--b, and Oahu 20--Viola oahuensis--a.
    (26) Comment: Two commenters stated that failure to designate 
critical habitat for Cyrtandra crenata, as long as this species remains 
on the endangered species list, denies it the habitat protection that 
Congress intended. The Service's conclusion in 67 FR 37155 that 
Cyrtandra crenata would not benefit from critical habitat designation 
is based on a faulty interpretation of the Endangered Species Act to 
designate critical habitat ``to the maximum extent prudent.'' Another 
commenter added that given the vast areas on Oahu yet to be surveyed or 
inventoried, there is no valid basis for the Service to assume that 
Cyrtandra crenata is extinct. The mere fact that this plant has not 
been seen on Oahu recently does not justify the Service's refusal to 
protect its critical habitat, as it is common for field biologists to 
rediscover plant species that have not been seen for decades. The 
recent discovery of Asplenium fragile var. insulare (on Maui) and 
Phyllostegia waimeae (on Kauai) are cases in point. Several other 
commenters stated that the final rule should extend critical habitat 
protection to Cyrtandra crenata.
    Our Response: At the present time, we do not believe it would be 
beneficial to designate critical habitat for this species. It was last 
observed in the wild in 1947, and we do not know of any genetic 
material in cultivation. In addition, we are unable to identify the 
physical and biological features essential for the conservation of this 
species or any exact location in the wild essential to the conservation 
of this species. Until the species is rediscovered, we are unable to 
identify habitat that is essential to its conservation due to lack of 
information in the historical record. Therefore, no change is made to 
our not prudent determination here. If this species is rediscovered, we 
may propose critical habitat for the species at that time.
    (27) Comment: Several commenters stated that the final rule should 
extend critical habitat protection to the loulu palm, Pritchardia 
kaalae. As recently as 1999, the Service found that proposed live-fire 
training at Makua Military Reservation threatened Pritchardia kaalae 
with extinction. This species needs critical habitat protection from 
military and other threats if it is to have any chance of increasing 
its numbers and range from the six populations remaining in the wild. 
In contrast, the Service's claim that designation, which would identify 
primarily unoccupied habitat and increase threats to the species, is 
pure speculation.
    Our Response: Since the listings of the three Pritchardia species 
on Kauai and Niihau as endangered, and prior to our proposed rules for 
the designation of critical habitat, we received information verifying 
vandalism and collection threats to Pritchardia throughout the Hawaiian 
Islands. This information is included in the proposed rules. No 
additional information was provided during the comment periods 
demonstrating that the threats to the Pritchardia species on any 
Hawaiian Island from vandalism or collection would not be increased if 
critical habitat was designated. We still believe that the benefits of 
designating critical habitat do not outweigh the potential threats from 
vandalism and collection of any species of Pritchardia. Makua Military 
Reservation has been removed from critical habitat designation under 
4(b)(2) of the Act because the benefits of excluding the area outweigh 
the benefits of including the area in the final designation (See 
``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
    (28) Comment: In the Federal Register notice of May 28, 2002 (FR 
37108), Table 1 indicates that it includes 101 plants. In fact, the 
table appears to include 102 plants. Should Colubrina squamigera be 
included? It is neither a listed species nor a candidate species.
    Our Response: Table 1 should contain 101 plant species from the 
island of Oahu listed under the Act for which critical habitat 
designations are being proposed. The inclusion of Colubrina squamigera 
was the result of a typographical error. No such plant species is 
historically or currently known.
    (29) Comment: Coastal habitats may not be well represented in 
proposed critical habitat. For example, there are few sand dune areas 
with seasonal pools included in the critical habitat proposal, which 
will limit the ability to establish multiple populations of several 
species.
    Our Response: The final critical habitat designations published for 
all Hawaiian Islands except the island of Hawaii, the critical habitat 
proposed for the island of Hawaii, and habitat located within 
adequately managed lands provide the habitat necessary for the 
conservation of 8 to 10 populations of each of the coastal plant 
species in this rule. Although habitat outside of these areas may be 
important for the recovery of one or more of these species, it is not 
essential to their conservation. The best existing habitat for 8 to 10 
populations of each of the coastal plant species has been captured in 
the final critical habitat designation.
    (30) Comment: One peer reviewer proposes expanding the critical 
habitat designation to include more (or all) of the conservation 
district lands in the southeastern Koolau Mountains for the benefit of 
the southern Koolau endemic species, Cyanea grimesiana, Lipochaeta 
lobata, and Trematolobelia singularis.

[[Page 35994]]

    Our Response: Although we agree that this habitat may be important 
to the recovery of these species, it has not been identified as 
essential to the conservation of these species. The Service has 
identified habitat for 8 populations of Cyanea grimesiana elsewhere on 
Oahu and habitat for 10 populations of Lipochaeta lobata. In addition, 
the Service identified enough habitat for six populations of 
Trematolobelia singularis. Although this does not reach the goal of 8 
to 10 populations listed in the recovery plan for this species, the 
Service did not have sufficient information on the habitat suggested by 
the commenter to determine that it is essential to the conservation of 
the species.
    (31) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that any and all suitable 
habitat in the geographic ranges of the following species should be 
protected because of potential seed banks and impending climatic 
changes that could render existing sites unsuitable: Alsinidendron 
trinerve, Dubautia herbstobatae, Hedyotis degeneri var. degeneri, and 
Scheidea kealiae.
    Our Response: We have designated all habitat considered to be 
essential for the conservation of Alsinidendron trinerve (habitat for 
seven populations), Dubautia herbstobatae (habitat for six 
populations), Hedyotis degeneri var. degeneri (habitat for nine 
populations), and Schiedea kealiae (habitat for four populations). The 
only areas not included in the final designation of critical habitat 
for these species were those areas that do not contain the primary 
constituent elements necessary for the conservation of these species.

Issue 5: Mapping and Primary Constituent Elements

    (32) Comment: The State Department of Transportation (DOT) stated 
that the proposed designations near State routes would restrict the 
design, maintenance, and construction of highways. In particular, Units 
A and I may impact Route 93 (Farrington Highway), Unit L may impact 
Interstate Highway H-3, and Unit W may impact Route 72 (Kalanianaole 
Highway). The DOT recommends that buffer zones on each side of the 
State highway right-of-way should be excluded from critical habitat. 
The buffer zones should be based on topography and be a minimum of 100 
feet in width. The map of proposed critical habitat units that shows 
Interstate Highway H-3 ending in the middle of Unit L should be 
corrected.
    Our Response: The DOT's comments did not identify any planned 
widening or other significant improvement project within these units. 
Rather, their concerns focused on the impact to routine repair and 
maintenance. Operation and maintenance of existing manmade features and 
structures adjacent to critical habitat are not likely to affect 
critical habitat and therefore are not likely to be subject to section 
7 consultation. Because the areas identified in the proposed rule are 
essential to the conservation of several of the plant species on Oahu, 
they are included within the final designation. The land area located 
over the Interstate Highway H-3 tunnel is essential for the 
conservation of 7 of the 99 Oahu plant species (Cyanea crispa, Cyanea 
st.-johnii, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Sanicula purpurea, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Viola oahuensis) and is included in the 
final designated critical habitat.
    (33) Comment: Several commenters suggested that roads and trails be 
excluded from critical habitat.
    Our Response: Existing manmade features and structures within the 
boundaries of the mapped units, such as buildings; roads; aqueducts and 
other water system features, including but not limited to pumping 
stations, irrigation ditches, pipelines, siphons, tunnels, water tanks, 
gaging stations, intakes, reservoirs, diversions, flumes, and wells; 
existing trails; campgrounds and their immediate surrounding landscaped 
area; scenic lookouts; remote helicopter landing sites; existing 
fences; telecommunications equipment towers and associated structures 
and electrical power transmission lines and distribution and 
communication facilities and regularly maintained associated rights-of-
way and access ways; radars; telemetry antennas; missile launch sites; 
arboreta and gardens, heiau (indigenous places of worship or shrines) 
and other archaeological sites; airports; other paved areas; and lawns 
and other rural residential landscaped areas do not contain, and are 
not likely to develop, primary constituent elements and are 
specifically excluded from designation under this rule. Therefore, 
unless a Federal action related to such features or structures 
indirectly affects nearby habitat containing the primary constituent 
elements, operation and maintenance of such features or structures 
generally would not be impacted by the designation of critical habitat.
    (34) Comment: One commenter expressed concern over proposed 
critical habitat designation of approximately 800 acres of land in Unit 
I, which has been in cultivation for over 50 years.
    Our Response: This area was removed from the final designation 
because it does not contain the primary constituent elements necessary 
for the recovery of any of the 99 plant species on Oahu.
    (35) Comment: The configuration of units will be difficult to 
identify on the ground and will have irregular boundaries. These 
boundaries will complicate management and increase the risk of 
fragmentation and edge effects on populations within units.
    Our Response: We realize that these areas have irregular 
boundaries, but in many cases they are the only areas with the primary 
constituent elements needed for each species. We included areas that 
provide the biological and other processes that are essential for the 
conservation of the species. We acknowledge the potential negative 
impacts of edge effects on small habitat fragments. However, these 
species' primary constituent elements are found only within the areas 
that were designated as critical habitat, and making them larger would 
add areas that lack the primary constituent elements and that are not 
essential to conservation of the species. All of the changes in 
critical habitat from the proposal are based on the best available 
information received during comment periods. If new information becomes 
available indicating the existing critical habitat designations are not 
essential for the conservation of the species or that other areas are, 
we may propose new designations for those species at that time.
    (36) Comment: One commenter believed that the Service considered 
most of the key elements required for assigning areas crucial for the 
persistence of plant species; however, one element that appears to have 
been overlooked and that requires serious consideration in designating 
critical habitat is the presence of appropriate pollinators for species 
that do not self-pollinate, or feasible and sustainable alternatives to 
key pollinators that may be absent.
    Our Response: We agree; however, this information is unknown for 
the majority of these plant species. As new information becomes 
available, we may reevaluate the critical habitat designations as 
necessary.
    (37) Comment: One commenter stated that it appears that a portion 
of unit M is in the Urban District.
    Our Response: This area was removed from the final designation 
because it does not contain the primary constituent elements necessary 
for the conservation of Sesbania tomentosa or Centaurium sebaeoides.

[[Page 35995]]

    (38) Comment: The large scale maps of the designated critical 
habitat make it impossible to determine the exact boundaries of the 
critical habitat. This, in turn, makes it impossible to be precise in 
commenting on economic impacts.
    Our Response: The maps in the Federal Register provide the general 
location and shape of critical habitat and are provided for reference 
purposes to guide Federal agencies and other interested parties in 
locating the general boundaries of the critical habitat; the maps do 
not constitute the definition of the boundaries of a critical habitat 
(50 CFR 17.94). The legal descriptions are the definition of the 
boundaries of critical habitat, are readily plotted, are transferable 
to a variety of mapping formats, and were made available electronically 
upon request for use with GIS programs. Unit boundaries were defined by 
giving the coordinates in UTM Zone 5 with units in meters using North 
American Datum of 1983 (NAD83). These coordinates can be used to 
determine boundaries with some accuracy. At the public hearing, the 
maps were expanded to wall-size to assist the public in better 
understanding the proposed critical habitat. These larger scale maps 
were also provided to individuals upon request. Furthermore, we 
provided direct assistance in response to written or telephone 
questions with regard to mapping and landownership within the proposed 
critical habitat.

Issue 6: Policy and Regulations

    (39) Comment: Two commenters stated that the Service's suggestion 
that current management efforts can render otherwise ``critical'' 
habitat no longer ``critical'' illegally reads into section 3(5) of the 
Act an additional, unstated requirement that habitat cannot be 
``critical'' unless the Service finds it needs more management or 
protection than it currently receives.
    Our Response: Please refer to the response to comment 8.
    (40) Comment: The proposal violated the commerce clause and exceeds 
the constitutional limits of the Service's delegated authority. The 
listed species are not interstate; they exist only in Hawaii and do not 
cross State lines.
    Our Response: The Federal government has the authority under the 
Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution to apply the protections of 
the Act to species that occur within a single State. A number of court 
cases have specifically addressed this issue. The National Association 
of Homebuilders v. Babbitt, 130 F. 3d 1041 (D.C. Cir. 1997), cert. 
denied, 1185 S.Ct, 2340 (1998), involved a challenge to application of 
Act's prohibitions to protect the listed Delhi Sands flower-loving fly 
(Rhaphiomidas terminatus abdominalis). As with the species at issue 
here, the Delhi Sands flower-loving fly is endemic to only one State. 
The court held that application of the ESA to this fly was a proper 
exercise of Commerce Clause power because it prevented loss of 
biodiversity and destructive interstate competition. Similar 
conclusions have been reached in other cases, see Gibbs v. Babbitt, No. 
99-1218 (4th Cir. 2000) and Rancho Viejo v. Norton, No. 01-5373 (D.C. 
Cir. 2003).
    (41) Comment: One commenter disagreed with the Service's approach 
of proposing critical habitat designations in advance of any economic 
analysis. Another commenter stated that economic analysis must be 
completed before critical habitat can be prudently designated.
    Our Response: We agree that the economic analysis must be completed 
before critical habitat can be designated, and we do so in all cases, 
including this regulation. The Service must first decide upon a 
specific area, or set of areas, to propose as critical habitat before 
the economic analysis of the proposal can begin. In cases such as this 
rulemaking, where we are under a court-ordered deadline to make a 
decision by a fixed date, we frequently issue the critical habitat 
proposal for public comment while the economic analysis is still being 
prepared, so as to maximize the time available for the public to review 
and comment on the proposal. When the economic analysis is prepared, it 
is also issued for public comment. The critical habitat proposal and 
the economic analysis are then revised as appropriate based on 
information received during the public comment period, and the economic 
and other relevant impacts of the proposal are evaluated, along with 
the available biological information, in making the final critical 
habitat determination.
    (42) Comment: One commenter stated that the Service must exclude an 
area from critical habitat if that area is not ``essential'' to 
conservation of the species and if the cost-benefit analysis indicates 
that it is better to exclude the area. Absent proper completion of the 
procedure for designation of critical habitat outside the geographic 
area currently occupied by the species, when such areas are essential 
for the conservation of the species, ``there is no evidence that 
Congress intended to allow the USFWS to regulate any parcel of land 
that is merely capable of supporting a protected species'' (Arizona 
Cattle Growers Association v. USFWS, 273 F. 3d 1229 (9th Cir. 2001)).
    Our Response: As explained in the Methods section of the proposed 
rule (67 FR 37108) and this final rule, and in accordance with the Act 
and regulations (section 4(b)(2) and 50 CFR 424.12), we used the best 
scientific information available to determine areas that are essential 
for the conservation of these 99 Oahu plant species, not simply those 
areas that are capable of supporting the species. This information 
included the known locations; site-specific species information from 
the HINHP database and our own rare plant database; species information 
from the Center for Plant Conservation's (CPC) rare plant monitoring 
database housed at the University of Hawaii's Lyon Arboretum; island-
wide Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages (e.g., vegetation, 
soils, annual rainfall, elevation contours, land ownership); the final 
listing rules for these 99 species; discussions with botanical experts; 
recommendations from the HPPRCC; and public comments (Service 1994, 
1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999; 
HPPRCC 1998; HINHP Database 2000, CPC in litt. 1999; J. Lau et al., 
pers. comm., 2001). The cost of designating these areas as critical 
habitat was determined in the draft economic analysis and the addendum 
to the draft economic analysis. Neither the draft economic analysis nor 
the addendum found that the financial benefit of excluding these areas 
was so great that it outweighs the non-financial benefit of including 
these areas in a final critical habitat designation.
    (43) Comment: The draft economic analysis concedes that State law 
protects ``habitats'' of endangered species and therefore protects 
federally designated critical habitat, including unoccupied habitat. 
Thus, designation is not necessary because State law already protects 
the habitat. In addition, Federal environmental impact analyses provide 
additional protection for federally listed species.
    Our Response: As discussed above in ``Previous Federal Action,'' we 
were ordered by U.S. District Court (Haw.) to publish proposed and 
final critical habitat designations or nondesignations for 255 Hawaiian 
plant species (Conservation Council for Hawaii v. Babbitt, 1998, 1999, 
2000). In addition, under section 4(a)(3) of the Act, we are required 
to designate critical habitat for a species at the time it is federally 
listed as an endangered or threatened species, and on the basis of the 
best scientific data available and after taking into consideration the 
economic impact, and

[[Page 35996]]

any other relevant impact, of specifying an area as critical habitat 
(section 4(b)(2)). Further, see response to comment 42.

Issue 7: Economic Issues

    (44) Comment: The Army believes that the direct and indirect costs 
and the anticipated costs of project modification, as they relate to 
military activities, are not adequately considered.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Section 3.q. of the DEA presented 
estimates of section 7 costs associated with activities in 10 separate 
areas on Oahu that are under the control of the U.S. military. During 
public comment, the U.S. Army stated that the cost-estimates for 
consultations and for possible project modifications on their 
installations were too low. The addendum revisits the sections of the 
analysis addressing Army installations and provides revised cost-
estimates based upon further discussions with the Service and 
additional information gathered since completion of the DEA, including 
the Oahu Training Areas Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan 
2002-2006 (OTA INRMP).
    However, based on the considerations given in ``Analysis of Impacts 
Under Section 4(b)(2)'' and consistent with the direction provided in 
this section of the Act, we have determined that the benefits of 
excluding lands under jurisdiction of the U.S. Army on Oahu outweigh 
the benefits of including them as critical habitat for 76 species of 
listed plants. Therefore, these lands have been excluded from the 
critical habitat designations in this final rulemaking.
    (45) Comment: The DEA does not indicate that the designation of 
critical habitat will generate any ``new'' money. It does show that 
increased regulation due to designation of critical habitat will 
increase economic risks, drive down profits, and drive away potential 
investors, thereby reducing ``new'' money entering Hawaii.
    Our Response: The DEA states that a portion of the expenditures on 
conservation management by the Service, NRCS, and the military could be 
``new'' money. Based on State multipliers, each additional $1 million 
of new money spent in Hawaii would generate approximately $1.8 million 
in direct and indirect sales in Hawaii and would support approximately 
22 direct and indirect jobs in Hawaii (DEA, Chapter VI, Section 7.f.).
    Regarding development projects and ``new'' investment money that 
could be lost, the DEA noted in Chapter VI, Section 4.h. that: ``Over 
the next 10 years, the number of affected (development) projects is 
expected to be small because most of the proposed critical habitat 
units are: (1) In mountainous areas that are unsuitable for development 
due to difficult access and terrain, and (2) within the State 
Conservation District where land-use controls severely limit 
development.'' The development projects that were addressed in Chapter 
VI of the DEA included: (1) Communications facilities (Sections 3.e. 
and 4.d.), (2) residential development (Section 3.o.), and (3) a 
private landfill (Sections 3.p. and 4.e.). The intended designation 
does not include the large communications complexes at Palehua and Koko 
Head, urban land suitable for residential development, or the site for 
the proposed landfill. Only a few of the smaller communications 
complexes remain in the intended designation. Because of the small 
footprints of communications towers and for other reasons, the analysis 
does not anticipate costly project modifications (Section 3.p.). Thus, 
the analysis anticipates no significant loss of ``new'' money.
    (46) Comment: The DEA argues that because critical habitat is 
mandated by law, it must therefore have economic value. The alleged 
benefits of species preservation are not economic at all.
    Our Response: As noted in Chapter VI, Section 6.a. of the DEA, 
``[m]any economic studies have demonstrated benefits associated with 
the conservation and recovery of endangered and threatened species and 
their ecosystems.
    The DEA continues, ``However, the additional economic benefits of 
conservation and recovery that would be attributable to the designation 
of critical habitat are difficult to estimate because of the scarcity 
of (1) scientific studies on the magnitude of the recovery and 
ecosystem changes resulting from the critical habitat designation, and 
(2) economic studies on the per-unit value of many of the changes. * * 
* And while some economic studies have been done on the per-unit value 
of some of these changes, studies have not been done for most.''
    The DEA concludes, ``As a result, it is not possible, given the 
information that is currently available, to estimate the value of many 
of the benefits that could be ascribed to critical habitat 
designation.''
    (47) Comment: The DEA dismisses the ``worst-case'' impacts and does 
not consider the major adverse impacts from secondary effects or 
indirect costs. Indirect costs are not considered in the bottom line 
analysis of the cost of designating critical habitat.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Section 4 of the DEA and Section 5 of the 
Addendum discuss various indirect costs that can result from the 
critical habitat designation. These indirect costs are not ``worst-
case'' estimates. Instead, most of them are conditioned upon actions 
and decisions by the State, the county, investors, etc. Because 
critical habitat has a limited history in Hawaii, and other States have 
environmental laws that differ from Hawaii's laws, uncertainty exists 
regarding the outcome of these actions and decisions.
    Also, these indirect impacts are not dismissed. Rather, they 
receive the same importance that direct costs receive. The reason the 
indirect costs are not summed is that many of them should be weighted 
by the probability of occurrence, but information is not available to 
determine these probabilities beyond a subjective estimate. As 
indicated in the DEA, several of the probabilities are ``small.'' In 
the case of property values, a loss is expected, but uncertainty exists 
over the magnitude of this loss.
    (48) Comment: One commenter stated that the DEA lacks a thorough 
benefits analysis. Multiple commenters stated that the DEA ignored the 
benefit of keeping other native species off the endangered species 
list, of maintaining water quality and quantity, of promoting ground 
water recharge, and of preventing siltation of the marine environment, 
thus protecting coral reefs. Another commenter noted that additional 
benefits of critical habitat include combating global warming, 
providing recreational opportunities, attracting ecotourism, and 
preserving Hawaii's natural heritage. Although the DEA makes general 
observations of the benefits associated with designating critical 
habitat, it makes no attempt to quantify these acknowledged benefits. 
The Service must use the tools available, such as a University of 
Hawaii Secretariat for Conservation Biology study that estimated the 
value of ecosystem services, to determine the benefits of critical 
habitat. On the other hand, one commenter stated that the DEA 
overestimates economic benefits, and many of the alleged benefits are 
entirely speculative, unquantifiable, or lack any commercial value.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Sections 6 and 7 of the DEA discussed 
potential direct and indirect benefits that can result from the 
proposed designation, including those addressed in the above comment. 
However, the DEA also indicated that these benefits are not quantified 
due to lack of information on the value of the environmental benefits 
that would be attributable specifically to

[[Page 35997]]

the critical habitat designations (i.e., the benefits over and above 
those that will occur due to other existing protections, and over and 
above the benefits from other conservation projects). Specifically, 
there is a lack of (1) scientific studies regarding ecosystem changes 
due to critical habitat, and (2) economic studies on the per-unit value 
of many of the changes.
    The 1999 analysis by University of Hawaii (UH) economists on the 
total value of environmental services provided by Oahu's Koolau 
Mountains was in fact used in the DEA as a resource document for 
concepts, for identifying documents that report the original research 
on certain subjects, and for illustrating the economic value of an 
assumed incremental increase in environmental services.
    However, as noted in the DEA, estimating the total value of the 
ecosystem services provided by the Koolau Mountains is a difficult 
task, requiring some assumptions that are open to challenge, including 
estimates of the magnitude of the environmental services provided by 
the Koolau Mountains and estimates of the per-unit value of each 
service. Also, the UH study does not address all of the benefits of the 
Koolau Mountains or any of the benefits of the Waianae Mountains.
    More to the point, the UH study has limited applicability for 
valuing the benefits of the intended designation for the 99 Oahu plant 
species. Since the purpose of the UH study was to estimate the total 
value of environmental benefits provided by the entire Koolau Mountains 
on the island of Oahu, it does not address the value of the more 
limited benefits provided by the intended critical habitat for the 99 
Oahu plant species. Specifically, the UH study provides no estimates of 
the changes in biological and/or environmental conditions resulting 
from changes in land management due to critical habitat designation.
    In any case, the DEA reported that the value of the ecosystem 
services provided by the Koolaus is very large. Since the intended 
designation covers nearly all of the Koolau Mountains, as well as parts 
of the Waianae Mountains, and since some project modifications can 
affect large portions of the mountains, even a very small percentage 
improvement to ecosystem services can translate into large economic 
benefits.
    In summary, the discussion presented in the DEA on the biological 
and environmental benefits of critical habitat designation provides an 
overview of potential benefits, but we did not intend for it to provide 
a complete quantitative analysis of the benefits. Instead, we believe 
that the benefits of critical habitat designation are best expressed in 
biological terms that can be weighed against the expected cost impacts 
of the rulemaking.
    (49) Comment: Treating ``better siting of projects by developers so 
as to avoid costly project delays'' as an economic benefit is circular. 
The costly project delays result from regulations. They could be 
avoided by not imposing the regulations in the first place.
    Our Response: As noted in Chapter VI, Section 6.c. of the DEA, the 
benefit applies to proposed units or portions of units that the Service 
regards as occupied. Even without critical habitat, developers must 
consult with the Service on projects that have Federal involvement and 
that affect listed species. By knowing the critical habitat boundaries, 
and if developers have the flexibility, they can site projects outside 
the boundaries, thereby avoiding certain issues related to threatened 
and endangered species. But even if there is no flexibility in siting a 
project, it can still be helpful to developers to know the boundaries 
of a critical habitat unit. If a project is located outside the unit 
boundaries, then the developer can proceed with project planning with 
less risk of facing issues related to critical habitat. On the other 
hand, if a project is located inside a critical habitat boundary and 
there is Federal involvement, then the developer and action agency 
could enter into informal consultations with the Service before 
proceeding with detailed site plans. Since the discussion applies only 
to areas that are occupied and would be subject to regulation with or 
without critical habitat, the logic for the benefit to developers is 
not circular.
    (50) Comment: The DEA fails to adequately address the economic 
value represented by the time, money, and energy that the people of 
Hawaii invest in the conservation of native Hawaiian plants, including 
the ethnobotanical value of these plants to the culture of native 
Hawaiians.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Sections 6 and 7 of the DEA discussed the 
benefits of critical habitat. While the time, money and energy that the 
people of Hawaii invest in the conservation of native plants could 
function as an indicator for residents' ``willingness to pay'' to 
protect these species, this information has not been gathered or 
analyzed comprehensively, and, given the scope of the economic 
analysis, no primary economic research was conducted. Moreover, as 
noted in the DEA, even if this information were available, the economic 
value of these benefits attributable to critical habitat designation 
would still be difficult to estimate because of the scarcity of (1) 
scientific studies on the magnitude of the recovery and ecosystem 
changes resulting from the critical habitat designation, and (2) 
economic studies on the per-unit value of many of the changes.
    (51) Comment: The analysis used in the DEA for Oahu is not 
consistent with the analysis used in the DEA for the island of Hawaii. 
The Service should use a consistent methodology in all of its economic 
analyses.
    Our Response: This specific comment objected to differences in the 
methodology used to estimate direct economic costs related to Army 
activities and the fact that the estimated costs were much lower for 
Oahu. The economic analysis for both Oahu and the Big Island (island of 
Hawaii) used the same methodology. But the direct costs were lower for 
Oahu because of: (1) Differences in the extent of the overlap between 
the proposed designations and the Army installations on Oahu versus the 
installation on the Big Island; (2) differences in the planned military 
uses of land in the proposed designations; and (3) differences in 
information available to the analysts regarding project modifications. 
The addendum revisits the direct costs associated with Army activities 
and revises them based on updated information.
    (52) Comment: One private landowner states that designated critical 
habitat affects over half of his land holdings and will result in 
impacts to land value, extraordinary levels of governance, and long-
term economic impacts.
    Our Response: For grazing land in critical habitat, the DEA 
addressed the possible direct section 7 costs for ranching activities 
(DEA, Chapter VI, Section 3.h), the indirect impacts of critical 
habitat on State and county development approvals (DEA, Chapter VI, 
Section 4.h.), and the possible loss of property value (DEA, Chapter 
VI, Section 4.i). Because the intended critical habitat would cover 
less grazing land than the proposed critical habitat, the addendum 
revisited the possible direct section 7 costs on ranching activities 
and the potential loss of property value (Sections 4.e and 5.g, 
respectively). For about 2,070 acres of privately owned agricultural 
land in the intended critical habitat, the analysis found that the loss 
in property value would be a small to moderate fraction of $18.6 
million.
    (53) Comment: The DEA ignores the topic of subsistence gathering.

[[Page 35998]]

    Our Response: The DEA did not address the potential indirect impact 
of the proposed critical habitat designation on subsistence activities 
for three reasons. First, subsistence activity is less extensive, and 
less important economically, on Oahu than it is on the other islands. 
This reflects the fact that Oahu has a comparatively large and diverse 
economy. Second, much of the subsistence hunting that does take place 
on Oahu is also recreational hunting, which is addressed in the DEA. 
Third, the DEA did not expect critical habitat to affect subsistence 
activities and the subsistence lifestyle.
    Nevertheless, in response to the comment, the addendum addresses 
subsistence activities. The analysis found that it is unlikely that new 
or additional restrictions on access and prohibitions on subsistence 
will result from critical habitat designation. This assessment is 
partly based on the Hawaii State Constitution, which protects 
traditional subsistence activities. The analysis estimates that it is 
more likely that restrictions (if any) will occur in small, localized 
areas that have significant biological importance, i.e., areas 
containing populations of the plants. However, because of the strong 
stewardship and conservation values associated with those who practice 
subsistence activities, combined with the cultural tradition of 
protecting environmentally sensitive areas, subsistence activities are 
likely to be consistent with any conservation restrictions in localized 
areas. Thus, the analysis anticipates no significant impact on 
subsistence activities as a result of the intended designation.
    (54) Comment: Several commenters stated the following: The DEA 
fails to consider economic impacts of critical habitat that result 
through interaction with State law, specifically Hawaii's Land Use Law. 
Critical habitat could result in downzoning under State law. Hawaii 
Revised Statutes (HRS) Sec.  205-2(e) states that conservation 
districts shall include areas necessary for conserving endangered 
species. HRS Sec.  195D-5.1 states that DLNR shall initiate amendments 
in order to include the habitat of rare species. Even if DLNR does not 
act, the Land Use Commission (LUC) might initiate such changes, or they 
might be forced by citizen lawsuits. Areas for endangered species are 
placed in the protected subzone with the most severe restrictions. 
While existing uses can be grandfathered in, downzoning will prevent 
landowners from being able to shift uses in the future, reduce market 
value, and make the land unmortgageable. Although the Service 
acknowledges that there could be substantial indirect costs relating to 
redistricting of land to the Conservation District, several 
commentators disagreed with the characterization of these costs as 
unlikely. The DEA fails to consider additional third-party lawsuits to 
force redistricting of lands into the conservation district.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Section 4.g. of the DEA and Section 5.e. 
of the addendum discuss possible costs associated with redistricting 
land in critical habitat. Most of the land in the urban district and 
much of the land in the agricultural district initially proposed for 
designation are removed in the intended designation. As indicated in 
Section 5.e. of the addendum, the intended designation includes (1) 
approximately 3,319 acres of agricultural land, of which 2,070 acres 
are privately owned; and (2) approximately 0.6 acre of urban land, of 
which about 0.2 acre is privately owned. Under a worst-case scenario, 
where all land in the agricultural district is redistricted to 
Conservation, the reduction in land values would be approximately $18.6 
million.
    As discussed more fully in Chapter VI, Section 4.g. of the DEA and 
Section 5.e. of the addendum, agency-initiated and court-ordered 
redistricting of some of the privately owned land is reasonably 
foreseeable (moderate to high probability). Further, this analysis 
judges the probability that all of the parcels will be redistricted to 
be very low to low. Tables ES-1 and VI-3 in the DEA characterized the 
risk of redistricting all of the parcels in the proposed designation as 
``undetermined,'' not as ``unlikely.'' To more accurately reflect the 
analysis, this analysis changes the probability to ``very low to low.'' 
But even if land is not redistricted, the DEA and the addendum noted 
that the State may seek agreements with landowners to protect the 
habitats of listed species in order to retain existing district 
designations.
    The DEA recognized that a real or perceived risk of redistricting 
can cause a loss of land value that continues until the uncertainty is 
resolved by (1) the passage of time that reveals the extent of 
redistricting due to critical habitat, or (2) possibly a State court 
decision on issues raised by critical habitat designation. Over the 
long-term, a permanent loss of land value (if any) would depend on how 
the uncertainty is resolved.
    (55) Comment: The Service has failed to mention the Federal court 
ruling on the New Mexico Cattlegrowers Association v. U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, which requires consideration of the impact of listing 
as well as the impact of designating an area as critical habitat.
    Our Response: The DEA and the addendum considered the economic 
impacts of section 7 consultations related to critical habitat even if 
they are attributable coextensively to the listed status of the 
species. In addition, the DEA and the addendum examined the indirect 
costs of critical habitat designation, e.g., the relationship between 
critical habitat designation and a State or local statute.
    (56) Comment: Any activity that could degrade critical habitat, 
including activities that are not subject to section 7 consultation, 
could be seen as an ``injury'' to (and therefore, under State law, a 
``taking'' of) an endangered plant species under the State of Hawaii's 
endangered species law (Chapter 195D). It is important that this 
receive due consideration in evaluating the proposed critical habitat 
designations (for example, in completing the economic analysis) and 
that the Service explain to what extent it has considered the potential 
interplay between the Federal Endangered Species Act and Hawaii's 
endangered species laws.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Sections 4.b. and 4.f of the DEA and 
Section 5.d. of the addendum discuss possible indirect costs resulting 
from the interplay of the Federal Endangered Species Act and Hawaii 
State law (e.g., court-ordered mandates to manage private lands for 
conservation of the plants or to reduce game-mammal populations that 
harm plants or their habitats). Both the DEA and the addendum 
considered the economic impacts of section 7 consultations related to 
critical habitat even if they are attributable coextensively to the 
listed status of the species. In addition, the DEA and the addendum 
examined any indirect costs of critical habitat designation. However, 
the impacts are not attributable to critical habitat designation when 
the listing of a species prompts action at the State or local level. 
Take prohibitions under Hawaii law are purely attributable to a listing 
decision and do not occur as a result of critical habitat designations. 
There are no take prohibitions associated with the plants' critical 
habitat.
    (57) Comment: Several commenters stated the following: The Service 
did not adequately address the takings of private property as a result 
of designating critical habitat for endangered plants on Oahu. If the 
proposed designation of critical habitat precipitates conversion of 
agricultural lands to conservation land that has no economically 
beneficial use, then the


[[Continued on page 35999]]


From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
]                         
 
[[pp. 35999-36048]] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Designations 
or Nondesignations of Critical Habitat for 101 Plant Species From the 
Island of Oahu, HI

[[Continued from page 35998]]

[[Page 35999]]

Federal and State governments will have taken private property.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Section 4.g. of the DEA and Section 5.e. 
of the addendum address costs involved in redistricting lands from the 
Agricultural District to the Conservation District. About 3,319 acres 
of the intended designation are in the agricultural district, 2,070 
acres of which are privately owned. In the event that all of these 
lands are redistricted to the conservation district, the loss in land 
value would be approximately $18.6 million.
    However, as discussed more fully in Chapter VI, Section 4.g. of the 
DEA and Section 5.e. of the addendum, agency-initiated and court-
ordered redistricting of some of the privately owned land is reasonably 
foreseeable (moderate to high probability). But more to the point, any 
redistricting of land to Conservation, and any corresponding loss of 
economically beneficial use, would be decided by the LUC and the 
courts, not the Service, based on an array of State statutory factors. 
As such, the Federal government would not have taken private property.
    (58) Comment: Several commenters stated the following: While the 
Service has stated that critical habitat affects only activities that 
require Federal permits or funding, and does not require landowners to 
carry out special management or restrict use of their land, this fails 
to address the breadth of Federal activities that affect private 
property in Hawaii and the extent to which private landowners are 
required to obtain Federal approval before they can use their property. 
These requirements also extend to State agencies requiring Federal 
funds or approvals.
    Our Response: As discussed in Chapter V, Section 2.b. of the DEA, 
not every single project, land use, and activity that has a Federal 
involvement has historically been subject to section 7 consultation 
with the Service (e.g., a federally guaranteed mortgage). Thus, the 
analysis was confined to those projects, land uses, and activities that 
are, in practice, likely to be subject to consultation. The analysis 
based this assessment on a review of past consultations, current 
practices, and the professional judgments of Service staff and other 
Federal agency staff.
    (59) Comment: Several commenters stated the following: The impact 
of the proposed designations under State law is potentially more 
extensive than under Federal law since the Act contains at least 
general criteria for determining when alteration of critical habitat 
constitutes ``destruction or adverse modification.'' The lack of 
analogous provisions under State law lends itself to a much broader 
interpretation of what activities might be considered injurious to the 
species (and therefore prohibited). One commenter asked if, to the 
extent that the Service has considered the potential interplay between 
the Act and State statutes, whether the Service is aware of any 
circumstances where similar issues have been raised under other State 
conservation statutes when critical habitat was designated. Another 
commenter noted, however, that because Hawaii's land use laws are 
uniquely onerous, precedent from other States is of little value. The 
current wave of proposals to designate critical habitat are the first 
time that the Act has been applied to significant areas of private land 
in Hawaii. Consequently, even prior experience in Hawaii is of little 
relevance.
    Our Response: The DEA and the addendum discuss costs resulting from 
the interplay of the Endangered Species Act and Hawaii State law in the 
sections on Indirect Costs. The uncertainties regarding the occurrence 
of many indirect costs and their magnitudes reflect the lack of 
extensive experience in Hawaii with critical habitat.
    (60) Comment: Several commenters stated the following: The DEA 
fails to consider economic impacts of critical habitat that result 
through interaction with State law, specifically Hawaii's Environmental 
Impact Statement Law. HRS Sec.  343-5 applies to any use of 
conservation land, and a full Environmental Impact Statement is 
required if any of the significance criteria listed in Hawaii 
Administrative Rule 11-200-12 apply. One of these criteria is that an 
action is significant if it ``substantially affects a rare, threatened 
or endangered species or its habitat.'' This will result in costly 
procedural requirements and delays. However, the DEA does not 
acknowledge that any impact on endangered species habitat will be 
deemed to be ``significant.'' In addition, multiple commenters stated 
that the DEA fails to evaluate the practical effect critical habitat 
designation will have on development. Special Management Area permits 
administered by the City & County of Honolulu, as required by Hawaii's 
Coastal Zone Management Act, will be harder to obtain, will result in 
delays, will cause a decline in property values, and might make it 
impossible to develop. This economic impact disappears because the 
DEA's bottom line erroneously counts only so-called ``direct'' costs of 
consultation. The Service has taken the position in other States that 
it has a right to intervene in local land use proceedings if they 
affect endangered species on private property, as evidenced by the 
Service's petition to the local zoning board in Arizona to postpone 
approval of a rezoning petition pending a survey to determine the 
extent to which an endangered plant was present on the property even 
though no Federal approval was being sought. That the Service does not 
address these activities in the DEA is a fundamental error of the 
analysis.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Section 4.h. of the DEA discussed 
additional State and county environmental review that would be required 
for projects in critical habitat. However, as mentioned in the 
addendum, even with the added State and county environmental review, 
the intended designation will have little or no practical effect on 
residential, resort, commercial, or industrial development because the 
analysis anticipates that no such development will occur in the 
intended critical habitat. Reasons for this are: (1) Most of the 
intended critical habitat is in mountainous areas that are unsuitable 
for development due to difficult access and terrain; (2) approximately 
96 percent of the intended designation is in the State Conservation 
District where existing land-use controls severely limit development; 
(3) almost all of the remaining agricultural land in the intended 
designation is in areas that are not subject to development pressure 
because of steep slopes and little or no nearby infrastructure; (4) the 
small amount of land in the urban district (0.6 acre) is on steep 
slopes that cannot support development; and (5) all of the land 
intended for critical habitat designation that is in the Special 
Management Area is also within the conservation district.
    (61) Comment: Several commenters stated the following: The DEA 
fails to consider economic impacts of critical habitat that result 
through interaction with State law, specifically the State Water Code. 
HRS Sec.  174C-2 states that ``adequate provision shall be made for 
protection of fish and wildlife''. HRS Sec.  174C-71 instructs the 
Commission of Water Resource Management to establish an instream use 
protection program to protect fish and wildlife. Since landowners might 
depend on water pumped from other watersheds, these effects can be far-
reaching. It is impossible to tell from the descriptions in the 
proposal whether any water diversions will have to be reduced as a 
result of listing and critical habitat designation. It is unfair to 
dismiss costly but vital sources of energy and inexpensive irrigation 
water while maintaining the highest level of effort to

[[Page 36000]]

protect primary constituent elements for species that do not physically 
reside in the area but might somehow be transported. If the critical 
habitat proposal would require reducing water diversions from any 
stream, the Service should investigate whether that would take anyone's 
vested water rights. The Service has an obligation to thoroughly 
investigate this issue and refrain from designating critical habitat 
until it has determined whether its actions will affect water use. At 
minimum, portions of specific parcels that include water sources or 
water systems should be removed.
    Our Response: Existing irrigation ditch systems and potable water 
systems are manmade features that to not contain the primary 
constituent elements for the plants. Because the Service does not 
include these manmade features in critical habitat designations, the 
intended designation will not affect the operation and maintenance of 
irrigation and potable water systems (DEA, Chapter II, Section 4).
    Regarding new stream diversions, Chapter VI, Section 3.j. of the 
DEA stated that it is highly unlikely that new or expanded ditch 
systems would be proposed or approved within the proposed designation 
because it would directly or indirectly reduce stream flow, which is a 
major environmental concern. But if a stream diversion were to be 
proposed, critical habitat designation might result in an expanded 
biological assessment, project delays, project modifications, and an 
increased probability of denial (DEA, Chapter VI, Section 4.f.). 
Activities that alter watershed characteristics in ways that would 
appreciably reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, dynamic 
wetland or other vegetative communities may directly or indirectly 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Such activities may 
include water diversion or impoundment, excess groundwater pumping, 
manipulation of vegetation such as timber harvesting, residential and 
commercial development, and grazing of livestock that degrades 
watershed values. However, without more specific information on the 
scope and location of a future (and currently unplanned) stream 
diversion project, it is not possible to estimate the potential 
indirect costs.
    (62) Comment: Any water diversion in, or upstream of, critical 
habitat will be challenged by people who oppose all diversions on 
principle. They will contend that diverting water from endangered 
plants risk driving them to extinction. Opponents of diversions could 
use the critical habitat designations to invent a colorable argument 
sufficient to delay and confuse water use decisions.
    Our Response: See the response to the previous comment (61).
    (63) Comment: The DEA fails to recognize that the indirect costs to 
private landowners to investigate the implications of critical habitat 
on their lands are sunk costs associated with the designation process.
    Our Response: Chapter VI, Section 4.k. of the DEA indicated that 
landowners might want to learn how the designation may affect (1) the 
use of their land (either through restrictions or new obligations), and 
(2) the value of their land. The cost-estimate to investigate the 
implications of critical habitat was $80,000 to $400,000.
    Section 5.g of the addendum revised the estimate to reflect the 
reduction in the number of potentially affected landowners as a result 
of the intended modifications to the critical habitat. The revised 
estimate ranges between $26,500 and $227,500. For completeness, the 
estimate includes expenditures made during the designation process 
(i.e., sunk costs) and expenditures that will be made after the final 
designation.

Summary of Changes From the Proposed Rule

    Based on a review of public comments received on the proposed 
determinations of critical habitat, we have reevaluated our proposed 
designations and included several changes to the final designations of 
critical habitat. These changes include the following:
    (1) We published 303 single species critical habitat units for 99 
plant species on the island of Oahu. As proposed, units were identified 
for multiple species. Delineation of critical habitat for each 
individual species will assist landowners, Federal agencies, and the 
Service in focusing and streamlining section 7 consultations.
    (2) We changed the scientific names for the following species 
associated with the listed species found in the ``SUPPLEMENTARY 
INFORMATION: Discussion of the Plant Taxa'' section: Athyrium 
sandwichianum changed to Diplazium sandwichianum for Alsinidendron 
trinerve, Cyanea acuminata, and Diellia falcata; Athyrium arnottii 
changed to Diplazium arnottii for Schiedea kaaclae; Blechnum 
occidentale changed to Blechnum appendiculatum in the discussions of 
Alectryon macrococcus, Alsinidendron obovatum, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea pinnatifida, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia 
falcata, Diellia unisora, Flueggea neowawraea, Hedyotis degeneri, 
Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Lysimachia filifolia, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Schiedea kaalae, and Schiedea hookeri; Bryophyllum 
sp. changed to Kalanchoe sp. for Lipochaeta tenuifolia; Glycine wightii 
changed to Neonotonia wightii for Hibiscus brackenridgei; Lipochaeta 
sp. changed to Melanthera sp. for Sesbania tomentosa; Lipochaeta 
integrifolia changed to Melanthera integrifolia for Peucedanum 
sandwicense; Lipochaeta remyi changed to Melanthera remyi in the 
discussions of Hibiscus brackenridgei and Schiedea kealiae; Lipochaeta 
tenuis changed to Melanthera tenuis in the discussions of Lipochaeta 
lobata var. leptophylla, Nototrichium humile, and Schiedea hookeri; 
Lycopodium sp. changed to Lycopodium cernua for Lobelia oahuensis; 
Lycopodium cernuum changed to Lycopodium cernua for Platanthera 
holochila; Morinda sandwicensis changed to Morinda trimera for Flueggea 
neowawraea; Myrica faya changed to Morella faya in the discussions of 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Hedyotis parvula, Melicope saint-johnii, 
Schiedea kaalae, Silene perlmanii, Urera kaalae, and Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana; Phymatosorus scolopendria changed to 
Phymatosorus grossus for Diellia erecta; Pluchea symphytifolia changed 
to Pluchea carolinensis for Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana; 
Setaria gracilis changed to Setaria parviflora for Labordia cyrtandrae; 
Styphelia tameiameiae changed to Leptecophylla tameiameiae in the 
discussions of Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agriminiodes, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Hedyotis coriacea, Hedyotis degeneri, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lobelia niihauensis, Platanthera holochila, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea 
hookeri, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana; Thelypteris 
cyatheoides changed to Christella cyatheoides in the discussion of 
Cyanea crispa; Thelypteris parasitica changed to Christella parasitica 
in the discussions of Alectryon macrococcus, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora, Pteris lidgatei, Schiedea 
kaalae, Schiedea hookeri, and Urera kaalae; Thelypteris sandwicensis 
changed to Dryopteris sandwicensis in the discussions of Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyrtandra

[[Page 36001]]

subumbellata, and Pteris lidgatei; and Sphenomeris chusana changed to 
Sphenomeris chinensis for Pteris lidgatei.
    (3) In order to avoid confusion regarding the number of location 
occurrences for each species (that do not necessarily each represent a 
viable population) and the number of recovery populations (8 to 10 with 
100, 300, or 500 reproducing individuals), we changed the word 
``population'' to ``occurrence'' where appropriate and updated the 
number of occurrences and/or individuals for the following species 
found in the ``SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion of the Plant 
Taxa'' section and ``Table 1.--Summary of existing occurrences on Oahu, 
and landownership for 101 species reported from Oahu'': Abutilon 
sandwicense changed from 16 populations to 30 occurrences; Alectryon 
macrococcus changed from 34 populations to 82 occurrences; 
Alsinidendron obovatum changed from 5 populations to 6 occurrences; 
Alsinidendron trinerve changed from 3 populations to 13 occurrences; 
Bonamia menziesii changed from 16 populations to 18 occurrences; 
Cenchrus agrimonioides changed from 8 populations to 7 occurrences; 
Centaurium sebaeoides changed from 3 populations to 2 occurrences; 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana changed from 13 populations to 15 
occurrences; Chamaesyce kuwaleana changed from 4 populations to 5 
occurrences; Chamaesyce rockii changed from 16 populations to 20 
occurrences; Ctenitis squamigera changed from 4 populations to 8 
occurrences; Cyanea acuminata changed from 22 populations to 20 
occurrences; Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana changed from 6 
populations to 7 occurrences; Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae changed 
from 6 populations to 8 occurrences; Cyanea humboltiana changed from 8 
populations to 9 occurrences; Cyanea koolauensis changed from 25 
populations to 42 occurrences; Cyanea st.-johnii changed from 6 
populations to 7 occurrences; Cyrtandra dentata changed from 8 
populations to 11 occurrences; Cyrtandra subumbellata changed from 2 
populations to 5 occurrences; Cyrtandra viridiflora changed from 8 
populations to 23 occurrences; Delissea subcordata changed from 18 
populations to 21 occurrences; Diellia falcata changed from 29 
populations to 30 occurrences; Dubautia herbstobatae changed from 4 
populations to 12 occurrences; Eugenia koolauensis changed from 10 
populations to 12 occurrences; Euphorbia haeleeleana changed from 6 
populations to 8 occurrences; Flueggea neowawraea changed from 19 
populations to 23 occurrences; Gardenia mannii changed from 31 
populations to 49 occurrences; Gouania meyenii changed from 3 
populations to 4 occurrences; Hedyotis degeneri changed from 5 
populations to 4 occurrences; Hedyotis parvula changed from 5 
populations to 7 occurrences; Hesperomannia arborescens changed from 23 
populations to 36 occurrences; Isodendrion longifolium changed from 4 
populations to 7 occurrences; Lepidium arbuscula changed from 10 
populations to 12 occurrences; Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla 
changed from 5 populations to 4 occurrences; Lipochaeta tenuifolia 
changed from 12 populations to 41 occurrences; Lobelia gaudichaudii 
ssp. koolauensis changed from 4 populations to 5 occurrences; Lobelia 
niihauensis changed from 21 populations to 40 occurrences; Lobelia 
oahuensis changed from 10 populations to 12 occurrences; Marsilea 
villosa changed from 4 populations to 5 occurrences; Melicope lydgatei 
changed from 4 populations to 18 occurrences; Melicope saint-johnii 
changed from 5 populations to 6 occurrences; Neraudia angulata changed 
from 5 populations to 27 occurrences; Nototrichium humile changed from 
21 populations to 25 occurrences; Phlegmariurus nutans changed from 5 
populations to 3 occurrences; Phyllostegia hirsuta changed from 23 
populations to 26 occurrences; Phyllostegia kaalaensis changed from 4 
populations to 7 occurrences; Phyllostegia mollis changed from 8 
populations to 5 occurrences; Phyllostegia parviflora changed from 2 
populations to 6 occurrences; Plantago princeps changed from 6 
populations to 11 occurrences; Pteris lidgatei changed from 5 
populations to 9 occurrences; Sanicula purpurea changed from 4 
populations to 5 occurrences; Schiedea kaalae changed from 8 
populations to 7 occurrences; Schiedea nuttallii changed from 5 
populations to 7 occurrences; Silene lanceolata changed from 2 
populations to 4 occurrences; Spermolepis hawaiiensis changed from 2 
populations to 6 occurrences; Tetramolopium filiforme changed from 6 
populations to 21 occurrences; Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum 
changed from 4 populations to 5 occurrences; Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa 
changed from 20 populations to 30 occurrences; Urera kaalae changed 
from 11 populations to 12 occurrences; Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana changed from 5 populations to 15 occurrences; and Viola 
oahuensis changed from 9 populations to 18 occurrences.
    (4) We revised the list of excluded, manmade features in the 
``Criteria Used to Identify Critical Habitat'' and Sec.  17.99(i) to 
include additional features based on information received during the 
public comment periods. We added other water system features including 
but not limited to pumping stations, irrigation ditches, pipelines, 
siphons, tunnels, water tanks, gaging stations, intakes, reservoirs, 
diversions, flumes, and wells to aquaducts; existing trails; 
campgrounds and their immediate surrounding landscaped area; scenic 
lookouts; remote helicopter landing sites; existing fences; towers and 
associated structures to telecommunications equipment; other 
archaelogical sites to heiaus (indigenous places of worship or 
shrines); and electrical power transmission lines and distribution and 
communication facilities and regularly maintained associated rights-of-
way and access ways.
    (5) We made revisions to the unit boundaries based on information 
supplied by commenters, as well as information gained from field visits 
to some of the sites, that indicated that the primary constituent 
elements were not present in certain portions of the proposed unit, 
that certain changes in land use had occurred on lands within the 
proposed critical habitat that would preclude those areas from 
supporting the primary constituent elements, or that the areas were not 
essential to the conservation of the species in question.
    (6) Based on information received during the public comment 
periods, we updated the elevation ranges in Sec.  17.99(j) ``Plants on 
the island of Oahu: Constituent elements''.
    (7) All Army lands were excluded under 3(5)(A) and 4(b)(2) of the 
Act because we believe the benefit of excluding these lands outweigh 
the benefits of including these lands in the final designation (See 
``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
    A brief summary of the modifications made to each unit is given 
below (see also Figure 1).
BILLING CODE 4310-55-U

[[Page 36002]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR17JN03.000

Oahu A

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for 65 species: Abutilon 
sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, Alsinidendron obovatum, 
Alsinidendron trinerve, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, 
Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce 
herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea 
superba, Cyperus trachysanthos, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, 
Diellia falcata,

[[Page 36003]]

Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Eugenia koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hedyotis degeneri, 
Hedyotis parvula, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hesperomannia arbuscula, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, 
Lobelia niihauensis, Mariscus pennatiformis, Melicope pallida, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, Plantago 
princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, 
Schiedea kealiae, Schiedea nuttallii, Sesbania tomentosa, Silene 
lanceolata, Solanum sandwicense, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Stenogyne 
kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum, Urera kaalae, Vigna o-wahuense, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana.
    We excluded the proposed critical habitat on Army lands at Makua 
Military Reservation for Alsinidendron obovatum, Diellia falcata, 
Dubautia herbstobatae, Flueggea neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Hedyotis 
parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum 
sandwicense, Schiedea hookeri, Silene lanceolata, Tetramolopium 
filiforme, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and at Schofield 
Barracks for Alsinidendron trinerve, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea 
grimesiana ssp. obatae, Gardenia mannii, Labordia cyrtandrae, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia mollis, Solanum sandwicense, 
Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, Urera kaalae, and Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana because the benefits of excluding 
these areas outweigh the benefits of including these areas as critical 
habitat (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other 
Impacts'').
    In addition, modifications were made to this unit to exclude areas 
that do not contain the primary constituent elements of Alectryon 
macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hesperomannia 
arborescens, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Lobelia niihauensis, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Plantago princeps, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
nuttallii, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and Vigna o-wahuense, all multi-
island species. In order to meet the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations within the historical range of each of these 21 species, 
locations on other islands have been designated as critical habitat 
(i.e., locations on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and/or Kahoolawe), other 
locations on Oahu are being designated as critical habitat in this 
rule; and/or other locations have been proposed for designation on the 
island of Hawaii. In addition, some essential areas were excluded under 
4(b)(2) because active management of the area by the landowner 
outweighed the benefits of including that area as critical habitat. 
Modifications were also made to this unit to exclude areas that do not 
contain the primary constituent elements of Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alsinidendron obovatum, Chamaesyce herbstii, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea superba, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea 
subcordata, Diellia falcata, Gardenia mannii, Hedyotis parvula, 
Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Neraudia angulata, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Schiedea kealiae, Tetramolopium filiforme, and Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, all Oahu-endemic species. In order to 
meet the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations within the historical 
range of each of these 20 species, other locations on Oahu are either 
being designated as critical habitat in this rule, or areas were 
excluded under 4(b)(2) in this rule because active management of the 
area by the landowner outweighed the benefits of including that area as 
critical habitat.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following 29 Oahu-
endemic species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Cyanea acuminata and Eragrostis fosbergii; two 
populations of Diellia falcata, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Schiedea kaalae, Tetramolopium filiforme, and 
Urera kaalae; three populations of Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and 
Cyrtandra dentata; four populations of Alsinidendron trinerve, 
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Delissea subcordata, Dubautia 
herbstobatae, Hedyotis parvula, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Sanicula mariversa, and Schiedea 
kealiae; five populations of Chamaesyce herbstii, Cyanea longiflora, 
and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana; six populations of 
Alsinidendron obovatum, Cyanea superba, and Neraudia angulata; seven 
populations of Abutilon sandwicense; and nine populations of Hedyotis 
degeneri and Phyllostegia kaalaensis.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following 33 multi-
island species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyperus trachysanthos, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Eugenia koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Lobelia niihauensis, Peucedanum sandwicense, Plantago 
princeps, Sesbania tomentosa, Silene lanceolata, Solanum sandwicense, 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis, and Vigna o-wahuense; three populations of 
Colubrina oppositifolia, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion longifolium, Melicope pallida, and 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum; four populations of Mariscus 
pennatiformis and Schiedea nuttallii; five populations of Cenchrus 
agrimonioides, Isodendrion laurifolium, Nototrichium humile, and 
Schiedea hookeri; and six populations of Gouania vitifolia.
    These modifications resulted in the reduction from 8,503 ha (21,013 
ac) to 3,921 ha (9,689 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 4--Abutilon 
sandwicense--a, Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--b, Oahu 4--Abutilon 
sandwicense--c, Oahu 4--Alectryon macrococcus--a, Oahu 4--Alsinidendron 
obovatum--a, Oahu 4--Alsinidendron obovatum--b, Oahu 4--Alsinidendron 
trinerve--a, Oahu 4--Bonamia menziesii--c, Oahu 4--Cenchrus 
agrimonioides--a, Oahu 4--Cenchrus agrimonioides--b, Oahu 1--Centaurium 
sebaeoides--a, Oahu 1--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--a, Oahu 
4--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--c, Oahu 5--Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana--d, Oahu 4--Chamaesyce herbstii--a, Oahu 4--
Colubrina oppositifolia--a, Oahu 15--Ctenitis squamigera--a, Oahu 4--
Cyanea acuminata--a, Oahu 4--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--a, Oahu 4--
Cyanea longiflora--a, Oahu 4--Cyanea longiflora--b, Oahu 4--Cyanea 
superba--a, Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--b, Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--c, Oahu 
1--Cyperus trachysanthos--a, Oahu 4--Cyrtandra dentata--a, Oahu 4--
Delissea subcordata--a, Oahu 4--Diellia falcata--a, Oahu 4--Diellia 
falcata--b, Oahu 4--Diplazium molokaiense--a,

[[Page 36004]]

Oahu 4--Dubautia herbstobatae--a, Oahu 4--Dubautia herbstobatae--b, 
Oahu 7--Dubautia herbstobatae--c, Oahu 4--Eragrostis fosbergii--a, Oahu 
4--Eugenia koolauensis--a, Oahu 4--Euphorbia haeleeleana--b, Oahu 4--
Flueggea neowawraea--a, Oahu 4--Gouania meyenii--a, Oahu 4--Gouania 
meyenii--b, Oahu 5--Gouania vitifolia--c, Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--d, 
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--e, Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--f, Oahu 4--
Gouania vitifolia--g, Oahu 8--Gouania vitifolia--h, Oahu 4--Hedyotis 
degeneri--a, Oahu 4--Hedyotis degeneri--b, Oahu 4--Hedyotis parvula--a, 
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arborescens--a, Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arbuscula--
a, Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arbuscula--b, Oahu 1--Hibiscus brackenridgei--
a, Oahu 4--Hibiscus brackenridgei--b, Oahu 5--Hibiscus brackenridgei--
c, Oahu 4--Isodendrion laurifolium--a, Oahu 4--Isodendrion 
laurifolium--b, Oahu 4--Isodendrion longifolium--a, Oahu 5--Isodendrion 
pyrifolium--a, Oahu 4--Labordia cyrtandrae--a, Oahu 4--Lepidium 
arbuscula--a, Oahu 4--Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla--a, Oahu 4--
Lipochaeta tenuifolia--c, Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--d, Oahu 4--
Lipochaeta tenuifolia--e, Oahu 4--Lobelia niihauensisa, Oahu 4--
Mariscus pennatiformis--a, Oahu 4--Mariscus pennatiformis--b, Oahu 4--
Melicope pallida--a, Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--b, Oahu 4--Neraudia 
angulata--c, Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--d, Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--
e, Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--b, Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--c, Oahu 
4--Nototrichium humile--d, Oahu 4--Peucedanum sandwicense--a, Oahu 4--
Phyllostegia hirsuta--a, Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--a, Oahu 4--
Phyllostegia kaalaensis--b, Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--c, Oahu 
4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--d, Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--e, Oahu 
Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--a, Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--b, Oahu 4--
Sanicula mariversa--a, Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--b, Oahu 4--Sanicula 
mariversa--c, Oahu 6--Sanicula mariversa--d, Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--
b, Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--c, Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--d, Oahu 4--
Schiedea kaalae--a, Oahu 1--Schiedea kealiae--a, Oahu 4--Schiedea 
nuttallii--a, Oahu 1--Sesbania tomentosa--a, Oahu 4--Silene 
lanceolata--a, Oahu 4--Solanum sandwicense--a, Oahu 5--Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis--a, Oahu 4--Tetramolopium filiforme--a, Oahu 4--
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--a, Oahu 4--Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--b, Oahu 4--Urera kaalae--a, Oahu 4--Urera 
kaalae--b, Oahu 1--Vigna o-wahuensis--a, Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana 
ssp. chamissoniana--a, Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--
b, and Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--c.

Oahu B

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for seven species: 
Bonamia menziesii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Neraudia angulata, and 
Nototrichium humile. We excluded the proposed critical habitat for 
Euphorbia haeleeleana, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, 
and Nototrichium humile, all multi-island species. This area is not 
essential for the conservation of these four species because it lacks 
one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion 
of associated native species than other areas we consider to be 
essential to their conservation, and is less likely to contain the 
primary constituent elements long-term because it is not currently 
managed for conservation of these species. In addition, there are 10 
other locations in historical ranges of these four species on Oahu and 
other islands that provide habitat for these species and that are 
either designated as critical habitat in this rule on Oahu, have been 
previously designated on Kauai, Molokai, and/or Maui, are found in 
areas on Oahu or other islands that are excluded under 4(b)(2) of the 
Act because active management of the area by the landowner outweighed 
the benefits of including that area as critical habitat, or have been 
proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii.
    We excluded the proposed critical habitat for Neraudia angulata, a 
species endemic to Oahu. This area is not essential for the 
conservation of Neraudia angulata because it lacks one or more of the 
primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion of associated 
native species than other areas we consider to be essential to the 
conservation of N. angulata, and is less likely to contain the primary 
constituent elements long-term because it is not currently managed for 
conservation of this species. In addition, there are 10 other locations 
in its historical range on Oahu that provide habitat for this species 
and that are either designated as critical habitat in this rule or are 
found in areas excluded under 4(b)(2) of the Act (Makua Military 
Reservation) because active management of the unit by the landowner 
outweighed the benefits of including it as critical habitat.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following multi-
island species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Bonamia menziesii and Gouania vitifolia.
    These modifications resulted in the reduction from 34 ha (83 ac) to 
23 ha (58 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 2--Bonamia menziesii--a and 
Oahu 2--Gouania vitifolia--a.

Oahu C

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for one species: Bonamia 
menziesii, a multi-island species. This area is not essential for the 
conservation of Bonamia menziesii because it lacks one or more of the 
primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion of associated 
native species than other areas we consider to be essential to the 
conservation of B. menziesii, and is less likely to contain the primary 
constituent elements long-term because it is not currently managed for 
conservation of this species. In addition, there are 10 other locations 
in its historical range on Oahu and other islands that provide habitat 
for this species and that are either designated as critical habitat in 
this rule, are found in an area managed for the species on Lanai, have 
been designated on Kauai or Maui, or have been proposed for designation 
on the island of Hawaii. Exclusion of this area from critical habitat 
for Bonamia menziesii resulted in the complete removal of this unit (14 
ha (35 ac)) from the final designation.

Oahu D

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for nine species: 
Bonamia menziesii, Chamesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Euphorbia 
haeleeleana, Gouania vitifolia, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
pyrifolium, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, and Schiedea 
hookeri. We excluded the proposed critical habitat for Hibiscus 
brackenridgei and Isodendrion pyrifolium, both multi-island species. 
This area is not essential for the conservation of Hibiscus 
brackenridgei and Isodendrion pyrifolium because it lacks one or more 
of the primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion of 
associated native species than other areas we consider to be essential 
to the two species' conservation, and is less likely to contain the 
primary constituent elements long-term because it is not currently 
managed for conservation of these species. In addition, there are 10

[[Page 36005]]

other locations for Isodendrion pyrifolium and at least 9 other 
locations for Hibiscus brackenridgei in their historical ranges on Oahu 
and other islands that provide habitat for these species and that are 
either designated as critical habitat in this rule, are found in an 
area managed for the species on Lanai, have been designated on Molokai 
and Maui, or have been proposed for designation on the island of 
Hawaii.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following Oahu 
endemic species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Chamesyce celastroides var. kaenana and Neraudia 
angulata. The area designated as critical habitat for the following 
multi-island species provides habitat within their historical ranges 
for one population each of Bonamia menziesii, Euphorbia haeleeleana, 
Gouania vitifolia, Nototrichium humile, and Schiedea hookeri.
    These modifications resulted in the reduction from 110 ha (271 ac) 
to 67 ha (164 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 3--Bonamia menziesii--b, 
Oahu 3--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--b, Oahu 3--Euphorbia 
haeleeleana--a, Oahu 3--Gouania vitifolia--b, Oahu 3--Neraudia 
angulata--a, Oahu 3--Nototrichium humile--a, and Oahu 3--Schiedea 
hookeri--a.

Oahu E

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for one species: 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana. Modifications were made to this unit to exclude 
small areas that do not contain the primary constituent elements of C. 
kuwaleana. The area designated as critical habitat for C. kuwaleana 
provides habitat within its historical range for one population. These 
modifications resulted in the slight reduction from 94 ha (38 ac) to 93 
ha (37 ac). The unit was renamed Oahu 12--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--c.

Oahu F

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana and Isodendrion pyrifolium. We excluded the 
proposed critical habitat for I. pyrifolium, a multi-island species. 
This area is not essential for the conservation of this species because 
it lacks one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower 
proportion of associated native species than other areas we consider to 
be essential to the conservation of Isodendrion pyrifolium, and is less 
likely to contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it 
is not currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, 
there are 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and other 
islands that provide habitat for this species and that are either 
designated as critical habitat in this rule, are found in an area 
managed for the species on Lanai, have been designated on Molokai and 
Maui, or have been proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii. 
The area designated as critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana 
provides habitat within its historical range for one population. This 
modification resulted in the reduction from 81 ha (200 ac) to 53 ha 
(131 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 11--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--b.

Oahu G

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Tetramolopium filiforme and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana. We 
excluded the proposed critical habitat for Tetramolopium filiforme on 
Army lands at Schofield Barracks because the benefits of excluding this 
area outweigh the benefits of including this area (see ``Analysis of 
Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts''). The area designated as 
critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana provides 
habitat within its historical range for one population. This 
modification resulted in the reduction from 16 ha (40 ac) to 6 ha (15 
ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 10--Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana--d.

Oahu H

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana. The area designated as critical habitat for Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana provides habitat within its historical range for one 
population. No modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, 
which was renamed Oahu 9--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--a.

Oahu I

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for 42 species: Abutilon 
sandwicense, Alectryon macrococcus, Alsinidendron obovatum, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyrtandra 
dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, 
Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Hedyotis 
coriacea, Hedyotis parvula, Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta 
lobata var. leptophylla, Lobelia niihauensis, Melicope pallida, 
Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora, 
Plantago princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, 
Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Urera 
kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana. We excluded the 
proposed critical habitat on Army lands at Schofield Barracks for 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Gardenia mannii, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia mollis, Solanum sandwicense, Stenogyne kanehoana, Urera 
kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana because the benefits 
of excluding this area outweigh the benefits of including this area 
(see ``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts''). We 
also excluded the proposed critical habitat for Cyrtandra dentata, 
Flueggea neowawraea, and Hibiscus brackenridgei. This area is not 
essential for the conservation of these three species because it lacks 
one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion 
of associated native species than other areas we consider to be 
essential to the conservation of these three species, and is less 
likely to contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it 
is not currently managed for conservation of these species. In 
addition, there are at least 8 other locations for Cyrtandra dentata, 
and at least 10 other locations for Flueggea neowawraea and Hibiscus 
brackenridgei, in their historical ranges on Oahu and other islands 
that provide habitat for these species and that are either designated 
as critical habitat in this rule; are found on lands managed for the 
species on Lanai or Oahu's Army lands; have been designated on Kauai, 
Molokai, and Maui; or have been proposed for designation on the island 
of Hawaii.
    Modifications were made to this unit to exclude areas that do not 
contain the primary constituent elements for Alectryon macrococcus, 
Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, and Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, all multi-island species. In order to meet the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations within the historical range of each of 
these 21 species, other locations either have been designated as 
critical habitat on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and/or Kahoolawe; were 
excluded under 4(b)(2) on one or more of the Hawaiian islands because 
active management of an area by the landowner outweighed the benefits 
of including that area as critical habitat;

[[Page 36006]]

are being designated as critical habitat in this rule; and/or have been 
proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii. Modifications were 
also made to this unit to exclude areas that do not contain the primary 
constituent elements for Abutilon sandwicense, Chamaesyce herbstii, 
Cyanea pinnatifida, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, Melicope saint-
johnii, Neraudia angulata, Phyllostegia hirsuta, and Urera kaalae, all 
Oahu-endemic species. In order to meet the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations within the historical range of each of these 20 species, 
other locations on Oahu are either being designated as critical habitat 
in this rule or were excluded under 4(b)(2) in this rule because active 
management of an area by the landowner outweighed the benefits of 
including that area as critical habitat.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following 24 Oahu-
endemic species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Alsinidendron obovatum, Neraudia angulata, and 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis; two populations each of Chamaesyce herbstii, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Sanicula 
mariversa, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana; three 
populations each of Abutilon sandwicense, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
obatae, Hedyotis parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, Melicope saint-johnii, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, and Stenogyne kanehoana; four populations each of 
Cyanea pinnatifida, Delissea subcordata, Schiedea kaalae, and Urera 
kaalae; six populations each of Diellia unisora and Silene perlmanii; 
seven populations of Diellia falcata; and eight populations of 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following 15 multi-
island species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Hedyotis 
coriacea, Lobelia niihauensis, and Plantago princeps; two populations 
each of Hesperomannia arbuscula, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Schiedea 
hookeri, Schiedea nuttallii, and Solanum sandwicense; three populations 
each of Cenchrus agrimonioides, Melicope pallida, Phyllostegia mollis, 
and Phyllostegia parviflora; and five populations of Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum.
    This modification resulted in the reduction from 5,109 ha (12,623 
ac) to 1,917 ha (4,736 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 15--Abutilon 
sandwicense--d, Oahu 15--Abutilon sandwicense--e, Oahu 17--Abutilon 
sandwicense--f, Oahu 15--Alectryon macrococcus--b, Oahu 15--
Alsinidendron obovatum--c, Oahu 17--Bonamia menziesii--d, Oahu 15--
Cenchrus agrimonioides--c, Oahu 15--Cenchrus agrimonioides--d, Oahu 
15--Chamaesyce herbstii--b, Oahu 15--Chamaesyce herbstii--c, Oahu 15--
Chamaesyce kuwaleana--d, Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--b, 
Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--c, Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae--d, Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--a, Oahu 15--Cyanea 
pinnatifida--b, Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--c, Oahu 15--Delissea 
subcordata--b, Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--c, Oahu 15--Delissea 
subcordata--d, Oahu 15--Diellia falcata--c, Oahu 15--Diellia falcata--
d, Oahu 15--Diellia unisora--a, Oahu 15--Gardenia mannii--a, Oahu 15--
Gouania meyenii--c, Oahu 15--Hedyotis coriacea--a, Oahu 4--Hedyotis 
parvula--b, Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--c, Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--d, 
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--c, Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--
d, Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--e, Oahu 16--Isodendrion 
pyrifolium--b, Oahu 17--Isodendrion pyrifolium--c, Oahu 15--Lepidium 
arbuscula--b, Oahu 15--Lepidium arbuscula--c, Oahu 15--Lipochaeta 
lobata var. leptophylla--b, Oahu 17--Lobelia niihauensis--b, Oahu 15--
Melicope pallida--b, Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--c, Oahu 15--Melicope 
pallida--d, Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--e, Oahu 15--Melicope saint-
johnii--a, Oahu 15--Melicope saint-johnii--b, Oahu 15--Neraudia 
angulata--f, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia hirsuta--b, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia 
hirsuta--c, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--f, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia 
mollis--a, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia mollis--b, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia 
parviflora--a, Oahu 15--Phyllostegia parviflora--b, Oahu 15--
Phyllostegia parviflora--c, Oahu 15--Plantago princeps--c, Oahu 15--
Sanicula mariversa--e, Oahu 15--Sanicula mariversa--f, Oahu 15--
Schiedea hookeri--e, Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--f, Oahu 15--Schiedea 
hookeri--g, Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--b, Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--c, 
Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--d, Oahu 15--Schiedea nuttallii--b, Oahu 15--
Schiedea nuttallii--c, Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--a, Oahu 15--Silene 
perlmanii--b, Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--c, Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--
d, Oahu 15--Solanum sandwicense--b, Oahu 15--Solanum sandwicense--c, 
Oahu 15--Stenogyne kanehoana--a, Oahu 15--Stenogyne kanehoana--c, Oahu 
15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--c, Oahu 15--Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--d, Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum--e, Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--f, Oahu 
15--Urera kaalae--c, Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--d, Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--
e, Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--f, Oahu 10--Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana--e, and Oahu 15--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--
f.

Oahu J

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for Marsilea villosa. 
The area designated as critical habitat for Marsilea villosa provides 
habitat within its historical range for one population. No 
modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, which was renamed 
Oahu 13--Marsilea villosa--a.

Oahu K

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for Marsilea villosa. 
The area designated as critical habitat for Marsilea villosa provides 
habitat within its historical range for one population. No 
modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, which was renamed 
Oahu 14--Marsilea villosa--b.

Oahu L

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for 45 species: 
Adenophorus periens, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, 
Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea humboltiana, 
Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea 
superba, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Delissea subcordata, 
Diellia erecta, Eugenia koolauensis, Gardenia mannii, Hedyotis 
coriacea, Hesperomannia arborescens, Isodendrion laurifolium, 
Isodendrion longifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis, Lobelia monostachya, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia 
filifolia, Melicope lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, Phlegmariurus nutans, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia parviflora, Plantago princeps, 
Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea 
kaalae, Solanum sandwicense, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia 
singularis, and Viola oahuensis. We excluded the proposed critical 
habitat on Army lands

[[Page 36007]]

at Schofield Barracks East Range for Cyanea acuminata, Cyrtandra 
viridiflora, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Myrsine 
juddii, Phlegmariurus nutans, and Viola oahuensis; at Kahuku Training 
Area for Cyanea longiflora and Eugenia koolauensis; and at Kawailoa 
Training Area for Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea humboltiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea 
longiflora, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra 
viridiflora, Gardenia mannii, Hesperomannia arborescens, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Melicope lydgatei, 
Myrsine juddii, Phlegmariurus nutans, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Pteris 
lidgatei, Sanicula purpurea, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, and Viola 
oahuensis because the benefits of excluding this area outweigh the 
benefits of including this area (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under 
Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts''). We excluded the proposed critical 
habitat for Solanum sandwicense, a multi-island species. This area is 
not essential for the conservation of this species, because it lacks 
one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion 
of associated native species than other areas we consider to be 
essential to the conservation of S. sandwicense, and is less likely to 
contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it is not 
currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, there 
are 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and Kauai that 
provide habitat for this species, which are either designated as 
critical habitat in this rule, in an area excluded under 4(b)(2) of the 
Act because active management of the area by the landowner outweighed 
the benefits of including that area as critical habitat (Schofield 
Barracks), or have been designated on Kauai.
    Modifications were made to this unit to exclude areas that do not 
contain the primary constituent elements essential to the conservation 
of Adenophorus periens, Bonamia menziesii, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana, Diellia erecta, Eugenia koolauensis, and Hesperomannia 
arborescens, all multi-island species. In order to meet the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations within the historical range of each of 
these six species, other locations either have been designated as 
critical habitat on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and/or Kahoolawe; were 
excluded under 4(b)(2) on Oahu, Lanai, and Maui because active 
management of an area by the landowner outweighed the benefits of 
including that area as critical habitat; are being designated as 
critical habitat in this rule; and/or have been proposed for 
designation on the island of Hawaii. Modifications were also made to 
this unit to exclude areas that do not contain the primary constituent 
elements essential to the conservation of Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea 
acuminata, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea humboltiana, Cyanea koolauensis, 
Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea truncata, Cyrtandra 
polyantha, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Delissea 
subcordata, Gardenia mannii, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lobelia monostachya, 
Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope lydgatei, Phyllostegia hirsuta, and Viola 
oahuensis, all island-endemic species. In order to meet the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations within the historical range of each of 
these 19 species, other locations on Oahu are either being designated 
as critical habitat in this rule or were excluded under 4(b)(2) in this 
rule because active management of an area by the landowner outweighed 
the benefits of including that area as critical habitat.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following 27 Oahu-
endemic species provides habitat within their historical ranges for two 
populations each of Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce 
deppeana, Cyanea superba, Delissea subcordata, Gardenia mannii, and 
Phyllostegia hirsuta; three populations each of Cyanea longiflora, and 
Schiedea kaalae; four populations of Cyanea acuminata; five populations 
each of Chamaesyce rockii, Cyrtandra polyantha, and Cyrtandra 
viridiflora; six populations each of Labordia cyrtandrae, Melicope 
lydgatei, Myrsine juddii, and Trematolobelia singularis; seven 
populations each of Cyanea crispa, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyrtandra 
subumbellata, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia 
monostachya, and Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa; eight populations of Cyanea 
humboltiana; nine populations each of Cyanea st.-johnii and Cyanea 
truncata; and 10 populations each of Lobelia oahuensis and Viola 
oahuensis.
    The area designated as critical habitat for the following 16 multi-
island species provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population each of Adenophorus periens, Bonamia menziesii, Diellia 
erecta, Hedyotis coriacea, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion 
longifolium, and Plantago princeps; two populations each of 
Hesperomannia orborescens and Platanthera holochila; three populations 
each of Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana and Pteris lidgatei; four 
populations each of Eugenia koolauensis and Sanicula puprurea; five 
populations of Phlegmariurus nutans; and six populations each of 
Lysimachia filifolia and Phyllostegia parviflora.
    This modification resulted in the reduction from 30,068 ha (74,301 
ac) to 15,727 ha (38,863 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 20--
Adenophorus periens--a, Oahu 35--Bonamia menziesii--e, Oahu 35--
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--e, Oahu 20--Chamaesyce deppeana--
a, Oahu 25--Chamaesyce deppeana--b, Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--a, Oahu 
20--Chamaesyce rockii--b, Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--c, Oahu 20--
Cyanea acuminata--b, Oahu 20--Cyanea crispa--a, Oahu 20--Cyanea 
crispa--b, Oahu 35--Cyanea crispa--c, Oahu 20--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana--a, Oahu 35--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana--b, Oahu 19--
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana--c, Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--a, 
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--b, Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--c, Oahu 
20--Cyanea humboltiana--d, Oahu 35--Cyanea humboltiana--e, Oahu 20--
Cyanea koolauensis--a, Oahu 20--Cyanea koolauensis--b, Oahu 35--Cyanea 
koolauensis--c, Oahu 35--Cyanea koolauensis--d, Oahu 19--Cyanea 
longiflora--c, Oahu 20--Cyanea st.-johnii--a, Oahu 35--Cyanea st.-
johnii--b, Oahu 35--Cyanea superba--d, Oahu 20--Cyanea truncata--a, 
Oahu 35--Cyrtandra polyantha--a, Oahu 20--Cyrtandra subumbellata--a, 
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra subumbellata--b, Oahu 20--Cyrtandra viridiflora--a, 
Oahu 35--Delissea subcordata--e, Oahu 35--Delissea subcordata--f, Oahu 
35--Diellia erecta--a, Oahu 19--Eugenia koolauensis--b, Oahu 20--
Eugenia koolauensis--c, Oahu 20--Gardenia mannii--b, Oahu 20--Gardenia 
mannii--c, Oahu 35--Hedyotis coriacea--b, Oahu 20--Hesperomannia 
arborescens--b, Oahu 35--Isodendrion laurifolium--c, Oahu 20--
Isodendrion longifolium--b, Oahu 20--Labordia cyrtandrae--b, Oahu 20--
Labordia cyrtandrae--c, Oahu 20--Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis--a, Oahu 30--Lobelia monostachya--a, Oahu 32--Lobelia 
monostachya--b, Oahu 33--Lobelia monostachya--c, Oahu 25--Lobelia 
monostachya--d, Oahu 20--Lobelia oahuensis--a, Oahu 35--Lobelia 
oahuensis--b, Oahu 20--Lysimachia filifolia--a, Oahu 20--Melicope 
lydgatei--a, Oahu 20--Myrsine juddii--a, Oahu 20--Phlegmariurus 
nutans--a, Oahu 20--Phyllostegia hirsuta--d, Oahu 20--Phyllostegia 
parviflora--d, Oahu 20--Plantago princeps--d, Oahu 20--

[[Page 36008]]

Plantago princeps--e, Oahu 20--Platanthera holochila--a, Oahu 20--
Platanthera holochila--b, Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--a, Oahu 20--Pteris 
lidgatei--b, Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--c, Oahu 20--Sanicula purpurea--
a, Oahu 20--Schiedea kaalae--e, Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--a, 
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--b, Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra 
gymnocarpa--c, Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--d, Oahu 35--
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--e, Oahu 35--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--f, 
Oahu 20--Trematolobelia singularis--a, Oahu 20--Trematolobelia 
singularis--b, Oahu 34--Trematolobelia singularis--c, Oahu 35--
Trematolobelia singularis--d, Oahu 35--Trematolobelia singularis--e, 
Oahu 20--Viola oahuensis--a, and Oahu 20--Viola oahuensis--b.

Oahu M

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa. 
We excluded the proposed critical habitat for this multi-island 
species. This area is not essential for the conservation of S. 
tomentosa because it lacks one or more of the primary constituent 
elements, has a lower proportion of associated native species than 
other areas we consider to be essential to the conservation of S. 
tomentosa, and is less likely to contain the primary constituent 
elements long-term because it is not currently managed for conservation 
of this species. In addition, there are at least 10 other locations in 
its historical range on Oahu and other islands that provide habitat for 
this species, which are either designated as critical habitat in this 
rule; have been designated on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or have been proposed for designation on 
the island of Hawaii. Exclusion of this unit from critical habitat for 
Sesbania tomentosa resulted in the removal of this 100 ha (246 ac) unit 
from the final designation.

Oahu N

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Centaurium sebaeoides and Sesbania tomentosa. We excluded the proposed 
critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides, a multi-island species. 
This area is not essential for the conservation of this species because 
it lacks one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower 
proportion of associated native species than other areas we consider to 
be essential to the conservation of C. sebaeoides, and is less likely 
to contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it is not 
currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, there 
are at least 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and 
other islands that provide habitat for this species, which are either 
designated as critical habitat in this rule; have been designated on 
Kauai, Molokai, and Maui; or are found in an area managed for the 
species on Lanai. The area designated as critical habitat for Sesbania 
tomentosa provides habitat within its historical range for one 
population. The exclusion of Centaurium sebaeoides did not result in a 
change to the acreage of this unit, which was renamed Oahu 18--Sesbania 
tomentosa--b.

Oahu O

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for three species: 
Cyanea crispa, Cyanea truncata, and Schiedea kaalae. Modifications were 
made to this unit to exclude areas that do not contain the primary 
constituent elements essential to the conservation of Cyanea crispa and 
Cyanea truncata, both endemic to Oahu. The area designated as critical 
habitat for the three Oahu-endemic species provides habitat within 
their historical ranges for one population each of Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea truncata, and Schiedea kaalae. In order to meet the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations within the historical range of each of 
these three species, other locations on Oahu are being designated as 
critical habitat in this rule. Modifications to this unit resulted in 
the reduction from 431 ha (1,066 ac) to 312 ha (772 ac). This unit was 
renamed Oahu 21--Cyanea crispa--c, Oahu 21--Cyanea truncata--b, and 
Oahu 21--Schiedea kaalae--f.

Oahu P

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa. 
We excluded the proposed critical habitat for this multi-island 
species. This area is not essential for the conservation of S. 
tomentosa because it lacks one or more of the primary constituent 
elements, has a lower proportion of associated native species than 
other areas we consider to be essential to the conservation of Sesbania 
tomentosa, and is less likely to contain the primary constituent 
elements long-term because it is not currently managed for conservation 
of this species. In addition, there are at least 10 other locations in 
its historical range on Oahu and other islands that provide habitat for 
this species which are either designated as critical habitat in this 
rule; have been designated on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui, and the 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or have been proposed for designation on 
the island of Hawaii. Exclusion of this unit from critical habitat for 
Sesbania tomentosa resulted in the removal of this entire unit (2 ha (3 
ac)) from the final designation.

Oahu Q

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana and Sesbania tomentosa. We excluded the proposed 
critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa, a multi-island species. This 
area is not essential for the conservation of this species because it 
lacks one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower 
proportion of associated native species than other areas we consider to 
be essential to the conservation of S. tomentosa, and is less likely to 
contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it is not 
currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, there 
are at least 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and 
other islands that provide habitat for this species, which are either 
designated as critical habitat in this rule; have been designated on 
Kauai, Molokai, and Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or 
have been proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii. The area 
designated as critical habitat for the Oahu-endemic, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, provides habitat within its historical range for one 
population. No modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, 
which was renamed Oahu 22--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--e.

Oahu R

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana and Sesbania tomentosa. We excluded the proposed 
critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa, a multi-island species. This 
area is not essential for the conservation of this species because it 
lacks one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower 
proportion of associated native species than other areas we consider to 
be essential to the conservation of S. tomentosa, and is less likely to 
contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it is not 
currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, there 
are at least 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and 
other islands that provide habitat for this species, which are either 
designated as critical habitat in this rule; have been designated on 
Kauai, Molokai, and Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or 
have been proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii. The area 
designated as critical habitat for the Oahu-endemic, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, provides

[[Page 36009]]

habitat within its historical range for one population. No 
modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, which was renamed 
Oahu 23--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--f.

Oahu S

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Sesbania tomentosa and Vigna o-wahuensis. We excluded the proposed 
critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa, a multi-island species. This 
area is not essential for the conservation of this species because it 
lacks one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower 
proportion of associated native species than other areas we consider to 
be essential to the conservation of S. tomentosa, and is less likely to 
contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it is not 
currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, there 
are at least 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and 
other islands that provide habitat for this species which are either 
designated as critical habitat in this rule; have been designated on 
Kauai, Molokai, and Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or 
have been proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii. The area 
designated as critical habitat for the multi-island species, Vigna o-
wahuensis, provides habitat within its historical range for one 
population. No modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, 
which renamed Oahu 24--Vigna o-wahuensis--b.

Oahu T

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two species: 
Sesbania tomentosa and Vigna o-wahuensis. We excluded the proposed 
critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa, a multi-island species. This 
area is not essential for the conservation of this species because it 
lacks one or more of the primary constituent elements, has a lower 
proportion of associated native species than other areas we consider to 
be essential to the conservation of S. tomentosa, and is less likely to 
contain the primary constituent elements long-term because it is not 
currently managed for conservation of this species. In addition, there 
are at least 10 other locations in its historical range on Oahu and 
other islands that provide habitat for this species which are either 
designated as critical habitat in this rule; have been designated on 
Kauai, Molokai, and Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or 
have been proposed for designation on the island of Hawaii. The area 
designated as critical habitat for the multi-island species, Vigna o-
wahuensis, provides habitat within its historical range for one 
population. No modifications were made to the acreage of this unit, 
which was renamed Oahu 25--Vigna o-wahuensis--c.

Oahu U

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for three species: 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Sesbania tomentosa, and Vigna o-wahuense. We 
excluded the proposed critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa, a multi-
island species. This area is not essential for the conservation of this 
species because it lacks one or more of the primary constituent 
elements, has a lower proportion of associated native species than 
other areas we consider to be essential to the conservation of S. 
tomentosa, and is less likely to contain the primary constituent 
elements long-term because it is not currently managed for conservation 
of this species. In addition, there are at least 10 other locations in 
its historical range on Oahu and other islands that provide habitat for 
this species which are either designated as critical habitat in this 
rule; have been designated on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui, and the 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or have been proposed for designation on 
the island of Hawaii. The area designated as critical habitat for the 
multi-island species, Vigna o-wahuensis, and Oahu endemic, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, provides habitat within their historical ranges for one 
population of each. No modifications were made to the acreage of this 
unit, which was renamed Oahu 26--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--g and Oahu 26--
Vigna o-wahuensis--d.

Oahu V

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for one species: 
Sesbania tomentosa. We excluded the proposed critical habitat for 
Sesbania tomentosa, a multi-island species. This area is not essential 
for the conservation of this species because it lacks one or more of 
the primary constituent elements, has a lower proportion of associated 
native species than other areas we consider to be essential to the 
conservation of S. tomentosa, and is less likely to contain the primary 
constituent elements long-term because it is not currently managed for 
conservation of this species. In addition, there are at least 10 other 
locations in its historical range on Oahu and other islands that 
provide habitat for this species which are either designated as 
critical habitat in this rule; have been designated on Kauai, Molokai, 
and Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; or have been proposed 
for designation on the island of Hawaii. Exclusion of this unit from 
critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa resulted in the removal of this 
entire unit (4 ha (10 ac)) from the final designation.

Oahu W

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for three species: 
Centaurium sebaeoides, Cyperus trachysanthos, and Marsilea villosa. 
Modifications were made to this unit to exclude areas that do not 
contain the primary constituent elements essential to the conservation 
of Centaurium sebaeoides, a multi-island species. The area designated 
as critical habitat for the three multi-island species, Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Cyperus trachysanthos, and Marsilea villosa, provides 
habitat within their historical ranges for one population of each. 
Modifications to this unit resulted in the reduction from 340 ha (840 
ac) to 43 ha (106 ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 27--Centaurium 
sebaeoides--b, Oahu 28--Cyperus trachysanthos--b, Oahu 29--Cyperus 
trachysnthos--c, Oahu 28--Marsilea villosa--c, and Oahu 29--Marsilea 
villosa--d.

Oahu X1

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two multi-island 
species: Gouania meyenii and Spermolepis hawaiiensis. Modifications 
were made to this unit to exclude areas that do not contain the primary 
constituent elements essential to the conservation of Gouania meyenii 
and Spermolepis hawaiiensis. The area designated as critical habitat 
for Gouania meyenii and Spermolepis hawaiiensis provides habitat within 
their historical ranges for one population of each. These modifications 
resulted in the reduction from 117 ha (290 ac) to 116 ha (286 ac). This 
unit was renamed Oahu 31--Gouania meyenii--d and Oahu 31--Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis--b.

Oahu X2

    This unit was proposed as critical habitat for two multi-island 
species: Cyperus trachysanthos and Marsilea villosa. Modifications were 
made to this unit to exclude small areas that do not contain the 
primary constituent elements essential to the conservation of Cyperus 
trachysanthos and Marsilea villosa. The area designated as critical 
habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos and Marsilea villosa provides habitat 
within their historical ranges for one population of each. This 
modification resulted in the reduction from 8 ha (21 ac) to 6 ha (15 
ac). This unit was renamed Oahu 36--Cyperus trachysanthos--d and Oahu 
36--Marsilea villosa--e.

[[Page 36010]]

Critical Habitat

    Critical habitat is defined in section 3 of the Act as--(i) the 
specific areas within the geographic area occupied by a species, at the 
time it is listed in accordance with the Act, on which are found those 
physical or biological features (I) essential to the conservation of 
the species and (II) that may require special management considerations 
or protection; and, (ii) specific areas outside the geographic area 
occupied by a species at the time it is listed, upon a determination 
that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species. 
``Conservation,'' as defined by the Act, means the use of all methods 
and procedures that are necessary to bring an endangered or a 
threatened species to the point at which listing under the Act is no 
longer necessary.
    Critical habitat receives protection under section 7 of the Act 
through the prohibition against destruction or adverse modification of 
critical habitat with regard to actions carried out, funded, or 
authorized by a Federal agency. Section 7 also requires conferences on 
Federal actions that are likely to result in the destruction or adverse 
modification of proposed critical habitat. In our regulations at 50 CFR 
402.02, we define destruction or adverse modification as ``* * * a 
direct or indirect alteration that appreciably diminishes the value of 
critical habitat for both the survival and recovery of a listed 
species. Such alterations include, but are not limited to, alterations 
adversely modifying any of those physical or biological features that 
were the basis for determining the habitat to be critical.'' The 
relationship between a species' survival and its recovery has been a 
source of confusion for some in the past. We believe that a species' 
ability to recover depends on its ability to survive into the future 
when its recovery can be achieved; thus, the concepts of long-term 
survival and recovery are intricately linked. However, in the March 15, 
2001, decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth 
Circuit (Sierra Club v. Fish and Wildlife Service et al., 245 F.3d 434) 
regarding a not prudent finding, the court found our definition of 
destruction or adverse modification as currently contained in 50 CFR 
402.02 to be invalid. In response to this decision, we are reviewing 
the regulatory definition of adverse modification in relation to the 
conservation of species.
    In order to be included in a critical habitat designation, areas 
within the geographical range of the species at the time of listing 
must contain the physical or biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species or, for an area outside the geographical 
area occupied by the species at the time of listing, the area itself 
must be essential to the conservation of the species (16 U.S.C. 
1532(5)(A)).
    Section 4 requires that we designate critical habitat for a 
species, to the extent such habitat is determinable, at the time of 
listing. When we designate critical habitat at the time of listing or 
under short court-ordered deadlines, we may not have sufficient 
information to identify all the areas essential for the conservation of 
the species, or we may inadvertently include areas that later will be 
shown to be nonessential. Nevertheless, we are required to designate 
those areas we know to be critical habitat, using the best information 
available to us.
    Within the geographic areas occupied by the species, we will 
designate only areas that have features and habitat characteristics 
that are necessary to sustain the species. If the information available 
at the time of designation does not show that an area provides 
essential life cycle needs of the species, then the area should not be 
included in the critical habitat designation.
    Our regulations state that ``The Secretary shall designate as 
critical habitat areas outside the geographical area presently occupied 
by a species only when a designation limited to its present range would 
be inadequate to ensure the conservation of the species' (50 CFR 
424.12(e)). Accordingly, when the best available scientific and 
commercial data do not demonstrate that the conservation needs of the 
species require designation of critical habitat outside of occupied 
areas, we will not designate critical habitat in areas outside the 
geographic area occupied by the species.
    Our Policy on Information Standards Under the Endangered Species 
Act, published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271), 
provides criteria, establishes procedures, and provides guidance to 
ensure that our decisions represent the best scientific and commercial 
data available. It requires our biologists, to the extent consistent 
with the Act and with the use of the best scientific and commercial 
data available, to use primary and original sources of information as 
the basis for recommendations to designate critical habitat. When 
determining which areas are critical habitat, a primary source of 
information should be the listing package for the species. Additional 
information may be obtained from recovery plans, articles in peer-
reviewed journals, conservation plans developed by States and counties, 
scientific status surveys and studies, and biological assessments or 
other unpublished materials.
    It is important to clearly understand that critical habitat 
designations do not signal that habitat outside the designation is 
unimportant or may not be required for recovery. Areas outside the 
critical habitat designation will continue to be subject to 
conservation actions that may be implemented under section 7(a)(1) and 
to the regulatory protections afforded by the Act's 7(a)(2) jeopardy 
standard and section 9 prohibitions, as determined on the basis of the 
best available information at the time of the action. We specifically 
anticipate that federally funded or assisted projects affecting listed 
species outside their designated critical habitat areas may still 
result in jeopardy findings in some cases. Similarly, critical habitat 
designations made on the basis of the best available information at the 
time of designation will not control the direction and substance of 
future recovery plans, habitat conservation plans, or other species 
conservation planning efforts if new information available to these 
planning efforts calls for a different outcome. Furthermore, we 
recognize that designation of critical habitat may not include all of 
the habitat areas that may be determined to be necessary for the 
recovery of the species.

A. Prudency

    Designation of critical habitat is not prudent when one or both of 
the following situations exist: (i) The species is threatened by taking 
or other human activity, and identification of critical habitat can be 
expected to increase the degree of such threat to the species; or (ii) 
such designation of critical habitat would not be beneficial to the 
species (50 CFR 424.12(a)(1)).
    To determine whether critical habitat would be prudent for each 
species, we analyzed the potential threats and benefits for each 
species in accordance with the court's order. One species, Cyrtandra 
crenata, a Oahu endemic species, is no longer extant in the wild. 
Cyrtandra crenata was last seen in the wild in 1947 (HINHP Database 
2001). In addition, this species is not known to be in storage or under 
propagation. Under these circumstances, we have determined that 
designation of critical habitat for Cyrtandra crenata is not prudent 
because such designation would be of no benefit to this species. If 
this species is relocated, we may revise this final determination to 
incorporate or address new information

[[Page 36011]]

as it becomes available (See 16 U.S.C. 1532(5)(B); 50 CFR 424.13(f)).
    Due to low numbers of individuals and/or populations and their 
inherent immobility, the other 100 plant species could be vulnerable to 
unrestricted collection, vandalism, or disturbance. We examined the 
evidence currently available for each of these species and found 
specific evidence of vandalism, disturbance, and/or the threat of 
unrestricted collection for one species of Pritchardia, the native 
palm. At the time of listing, we determined that designation of 
critical habitat was not prudent for Pritchardia kaalae because it 
would increase the degree of threat from vandalism or collecting and 
would provide no benefit (61 FR 53108). Since then, we have received 
information on the commercial trade in palms conducted through the 
Internet (Grant Canterbury, Service, in litt. 2000). Several nurseries 
advertise and sell seedlings and young plants, including 13 species of 
Hawaiian Pritchardia. Seven of these species are federally protected, 
including Pritchardia kaalae. In light of this information, we believe 
that designation of critical habitat would likely increase the threat 
from vandalism or collection to this species of Pritchardia on Oahu. 
These plants are easy to identify, and they are attractive to 
collectors of rare palms, either for their personal use or to trade or 
sell for personal gain (Johnson 1996). We believe that the evidence 
shows that Pritchardia kaalae may be attractive to such collectors. The 
final listing rule for this species contained only general information 
on its distribution, but the publication of precise maps and 
descriptions of critical habitat in the Federal Register would make 
Pritchardia kaalae more vulnerable to incidents of vandalism or 
collection and, therefore, contribute to its decline and make recovery 
more difficult (61 FR 53089).
    For Pritchardia kaalae, we believe that the benefits of designating 
critical habitat do not outweigh the potential increased threats from 
vandalism or collection. Given all of the above considerations, we 
determine that designation of critical habitat for Pritchardia kaalae 
is not prudent.
    In the final rule designating critical habitat for plants on Lanai, 
published on January 9, 2003 (68 FR 1220), we explained why we believe 
that critical habitat was prudent for the following 17 multi-island 
species that also occur on Oahu: Adenophorus periens, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Centaurium sebaeoides, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyperus trachysanthos, 
Diellia erecta, Diplazium molokaiense, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Sesbania tomentosa, 
Silene lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Tetramolopium lepidotum 
ssp. lepidotum, and Vigna o-wahuensis. In the final rule designating 
critical habitat for plants on Kauai and Niihau, published on February 
27, 2003 (68 FR 9116), we explained why that critical habitat was 
prudent for the following 16 multi-island species that are also found 
on Oahu: Alectryon macrococcus, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Gouania meyenii, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Lobelia niihauensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Mariscus 
pennatiformis, Melicope pallida, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phlegmariurus 
nutans, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Schiedea nuttallii, 
and Solanum sandwicense. In the final rule designating critical habitat 
for plants on Molokai, published on March 19, 2003 (68 FR 12982), we 
indicated why that critical habitat was prudent for the following four 
multi-island species that are also found on Oahu: Eugenia koolauensis, 
Marsilea villosa, Phyllostegia mollis, and Pteris lidgatei. In the 
final rule designating critical habitat for plants on Maui and 
Kahoolawe, published on May 14, 2003 (68 FR 25934) we indicated why we 
believe that critical habitat was prudent for the following eight 
multi-island species that are also found on Oahu: Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Gouania vitifolia, Hedyotis coriacea, Hesperomannia 
arbuscula, Nototrichium humile, Phyllostegia parviflora, Sanicula 
purpurea, and Schiedea hookeri.
    We examined the potential threats and benefits for the other 54 
taxa and have not, at this time, found specific evidence of taking, 
vandalism, collection, or trade of these taxa or of similarly situated 
species. Consequently, while we remain concerned that these activities 
could potentially threaten these 54 plant species in the future, 
consistent with applicable regulations (50 CFR 424.12(a)(1)(i)) and the 
court's discussion of these regulations, we do not find that any of 
these species are currently threatened by taking or other human 
activity. None of these threats would be exacerbated by the designation 
of critical habitat.
    In the absence of finding that critical habitat would increase 
threats to a species, if there are any benefits to critical habitat 
designation, then a prudent finding is warranted. The potential 
benefits of designation of critical habitat for these 54 species 
include: (1) Triggering section 7 consultation in new areas where it 
would not otherwise occur because, for example, it is or has become 
unoccupied or the occupancy is in question; (2) focusing conservation 
activities on the most essential areas; (3) providing educational 
benefits to State or county governments or private entities; and 4) 
preventing people from causing inadvertent harm to the species.
    In the case of these 54 species, there would be some benefits to 
critical habitat. The primary regulatory effect of critical habitat is 
the section 7 requirement that Federal agencies refrain from taking any 
action that is likely to destroy or adversely affect critical habitat. 
Thirty-seven of these species are reported on or near Federal lands 
(see Table 1), where actions are subject to section 7 consultation. 
Although a majority of the species considered in this rule are located 
exclusively on non-Federal lands with limited Federal activities, there 
could be Federal actions affecting these lands in the future. While a 
critical habitat designation for habitat currently occupied by these 
species would not likely change the section 7 consultation outcome, 
since an action that destroys or adversely modifies such critical 
habitat would also be likely to result in jeopardy to the species, 
there may be instances where section 7 consultation would be triggered 
only if critical habitat were designated. There would also be some 
educational or informational benefits to the designation of critical 
habitat. Benefits of designation would include the notification of land 
owners, land managers, and the general public of the importance of 
protecting the habitat of these species and dissemination of 
information regarding their essential habitat requirements.
    Therefore, designation of critical habitat is prudent for these 54 
plant species: Abutilon sandwicense, Alsinidendron obovatum, 
Alsinidendron trinerve, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, 
Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, 
Chamaesyce rockii, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae, Cyanea humboltiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea longiflora, 
Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea superba, Cyanea truncata, 
Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra subumbellata, 
Cyrtandra viridiflora, Delissea subcordata, Diellia falcata, Diellia 
unisora, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii,

[[Page 36012]]

Gardenia mannii, Hedyotis degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia 
monostachya, Lobelia oahuensis, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope saint-
johnii, Myrsine juddii, Neraudia angulata, Phyllostegia hirsuta, 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea 
kealiae, Silene perlmanii, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium 
filiforme, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Urera 
kaalae, Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and Viola oahuensis 
because the potential benefits of critical habitat designation outweigh 
the potential threats.

B. Methods

    As required by the Act and regulations (section 4(b)(2) and 50 CFR 
424.12), we used the best scientific information available to determine 
areas that contain the physical and biological features that are 
essential for the conservation of Abutilon sandwicense, Adenophorus 
periens, Alectryon macrococcus, Alsinidendron obovatum, Alsinidendron 
trinerve, Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Centaurium 
sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce deppeana, 
Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Chamaesyce rockii, Colubrina 
oppositifolia, Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea crispa, 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, 
Cyanea humboltiana, Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea 
pinnatifida, Cyanea st.-johnii, Cyanea superba, Cyanea truncata, 
Cyperus trachysanthos, Cyrtandra dentata, Cyrtandra polyantha, 
Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, Delissea subcordata, 
Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, Diplazium 
molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, Eugenia 
koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, Gardenia 
mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hedyotis coriacea, Hedyotis 
degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Hesperomannia arborescens, Hesperomannia 
arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion laurifolium, Isodendrion 
longifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Labordia cyrtandrae, Lepidium 
arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, 
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia monostachya, Lobelia 
niihauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia filifolia, Mariscus 
pennatiformis, Marsilea villosa, Melicope lydgatei, Melicope pallida, 
Melicope saint-johnii, Myrsine juddii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium 
humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phlegmariurus nutans, Phyllostegia 
hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia mollis, Phyllostegia 
parviflora, Plantago princeps, Platanthera holochila, Pteris lidgatei, 
Sanicula mariversa, Sanicula purpurea, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
kaalae, Schiedea kealiae, Schiedea nuttallii, Sesbania tomentosa, 
Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, Solanum sandwicense, Spermolepis 
hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, Tetramolopium filiforme, 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, 
Trematolobelia singularis, Urera kaalae, Vigna o-wahuensis, Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and Viola oahuensis. This information 
included the known locations; site-specific species information from 
the HINHP database and our own rare plant database; species information 
from the Center for Plant Conservation's (CPC's) rare plant monitoring 
database housed at the University of Hawaii's Lyon Arboretum; island-
wide Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages (e.g., vegetation, 
soils, annual rainfall, elevation contours, landownership); the final 
listing rules for these 99 species; the May 28, 2002, proposal; 
information received during the public comment periods and public 
hearings; recent biological surveys and reports; our recovery plans for 
these species; discussions with botanical experts; and recommendations 
from the Hawaii and Pacific Plant Recovery Coordinating Committee 
(HPPRCC) (see also the discussion below) (CPC in litt. 1999; GDSI 2000; 
HINHP Database 2000; HPPRCC 1998; Service 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 
1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999; 67 FR 37108).
    In 1994, the HPPRCC initiated an effort to identify and map habitat 
it believed to be important for the recovery of 282 endangered and 
threatened Hawaiian plant species. The HPPRCC identified these areas on 
most of the islands in the Hawaiian chain, and in 1999, we published 
them in our Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (Service 1999). 
The HPPRCC expects there will be subsequent efforts to further refine 
the locations of important habitat areas and that new survey 
information or research may also lead to additional refinement of 
identifying and mapping of habitat important for the recovery of these 
species.
    The HPPRCC identified essential habitat areas for all listed, 
proposed, and candidate plants and evaluated species of concern to 
determine if essential habitat areas would provide for their habitat 
needs. However, the HPPRCC's mapping of habitat is distinct from the 
regulatory designation of critical habitat as defined by the Act. More 
data have been collected since the recommendations made by the HPPRCC 
in 1998. Much of the area that was identified by the HPPRCC as 
inadequately surveyed has now been surveyed to some degree. New 
location data for many species have been gathered. Also, the HPPRCC 
identified areas as essential based on species clusters (areas that 
included listed species as well as candidate species and species of 
concern), while we have only delineated areas that are essential for 
the conservation of the 99 listed species at issue. As a result, the 
critical habitat designations in this rule include not only some 
habitat that was identified as essential in the 1998 recommendations 
but also habitat that was not identified as essential in those 
recommendations.

C. Primary Constituent Elements

    In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) of the Act and regulations at 
50 CFR 424.12, in determining which areas to propose as critical 
habitat, we are required to base critical habitat determinations on the 
best scientific and commercial data available and to consider those 
physical and biological features (primary constituent elements) that 
are essential to the conservation of the species. These features 
include, but are not limited to: Space for individual and population 
growth, and for normal behavior; food, water, air, light, minerals, or 
other nutritional or physiological requirements; cover or shelter; 
sites for breeding, reproduction, or rearing of offspring, germination, 
or seed dispersal; and habitats that are protected from disturbance or 
are representative of the historic geographical and ecological 
distributions of a species.
    Much of what is known about the specific physical and biological 
requirements of Abutilon sandwicense, Adenophorus periens, Alectryon 
macrococcus, Alsinidendron obovatum, Alsinidendron trinerve, Bonamia 
menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce 
celastroides var. kaenana, Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce herbstii, 
Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Chamaesyce rockii, Colubrina oppositifolia, 
Ctenitis squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae, Cyanea humboltiana, 
Cyanea koolauensis, Cyanea longiflora, Cyanea pinnatifida, Cyanea st.-
johnii, Cyanea

[[Page 36013]]

superba, Cyanea truncata, Cyperus trachysanthos, Cyrtandra dentata, 
Cyrtandra polyantha, Cyrtandra subumbellata, Cyrtandra viridiflora, 
Delissea subcordata, Diellia erecta, Diellia falcata, Diellia unisora, 
Diplazium molokaiense, Dubautia herbstobatae, Eragrostis fosbergii, 
Eugenia koolauensis, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea neowawraea, 
Gardenia mannii, Gouania meyenii, Gouania vitifolia, Hedyotis coriacea, 
Hedyotis degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Hesperomannia arborescens, 
Hesperomannia arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Isodendrion 
laurifolium, Isodendrion longifolium, Isodendrion pyrifolium, Labordia 
cyrtandrae, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, 
Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis, Lobelia 
monostachya, Lobelia niihauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Lysimachia 
filifolia, Mariscus pennatiformis, Marsilea villosa, Melicope lydgatei, 
Melicope pallida, Melicope saint-johnii, Myrsine juddii, Neraudia 
angulata, Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phlegmariurus 
nutans, Phyllostegia hirsuta, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, Phyllostegia 
mollis, Phyllostegia parviflora, Plantago princeps, Platanthera 
holochila, Pteris lidgatei, Sanicula mariversa, Sanicula purpurea, 
Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea kaalae, Schiedea kealiae, Schiedea 
nuttallii, Sesbania tomentosa, Silene lanceolata, Silene perlmanii, 
Solanum sandwicense, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Stenogyne kanehoana, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum, 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Trematolobelia singularis, Urera kaalae, 
Vigna o-wahuensis, Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, and Viola 
oahuensis is described in the ``Background'' section of this final 
rule.
    All areas designated as critical habitat are within the historical 
range of the 99 species at issue and contain one or more of the 
physical or biological features (primary constituent elements) 
essential for the conservation of the species.
    As described in the discussions for each of the 99 species for 
which we are designating critical habitat, we are defining the primary 
constituent elements on the basis of the habitat features of the areas 
from which the plant species are reported, as described by the type of 
plant community (e.g., mesic Metrosideros polymorpha forest), 
associated native plant species, locale information (e.g., steep rocky 
cliffs, talus slopes, gulches, stream banks), and elevation. The 
habitat features provide the ecological components required by the 
plant. The type of plant community and associated native plant species 
indicate specific microclimate (localized climatic) conditions, 
retention and availability of water in the soil, soil microorganism 
community, and nutrient cycling and availability. The locale indicates 
information on soil type, elevation, rainfall regime, and temperature. 
Elevation indicates information on daily and seasonal temperature and 
sun intensity. Therefore, the descriptions of the physical elements of 
the locations of each of these species, including habitat type, plant 
communities associated with the species, location, and elevation, as 
described in the ``SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion of the Plant 
Taxa'' section above, constitute the primary constituent elements for 
these species on the island of Oahu.

D. Criteria Used To Identify Critical Habitat

    The lack of detailed scientific data on the life history of these 
plant species makes it impossible for us to develop a robust 
quantitative model (e.g., population viability analysis (National 
Research Council 1995)) to identify the optimal number, size, and 
location of critical habitat units to achieve recovery (Beissinger and 
Westphal 1998; Burgman et al. 2001; Ginzburg et al. 1990; Karieva and 
Wennergren 1995; Menges 1990; Murphy et al. 1990; Taylor 1995). 
However, based on the best information available at this time, 
including information on which the listing of and recovery plans for 
these species were based, we have concluded that the current size and 
distribution of the extant populations are not sufficient to expect a 
reasonable probability of long-term survival and recovery of these 
plant species.
    For each of these species, the overall recovery strategy outlined 
in the approved recovery plans includes: (1) Stabilization of existing 
wild populations, (2) protection and management of habitat, (3) 
enhancement of existing small populations and reestablishment of new 
populations within historic range, and (4) research on species biology 
and ecology (Service 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 
1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999). Thus, the long-term recovery of these 
species is dependent upon the protection of existing population sites 
and suitable unoccupied habitat within their historic range.
    The overall recovery goal stated in the recovery plans for each of 
these species includes the establishment of 8 to 10 populations with a 
minimum of 100 mature, reproducing individuals per population for long-
lived perennials; 300 mature, reproducing individuals per population 
for short-lived perennials; and 500 mature, reproducing individuals per 
population for the annual. (Please note that there are some specific 
exceptions to this general recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
species that are believed to be very narrowly distributed.) To be 
considered recovered, the populations of a multi-island species should 
be distributed among the islands of its known historic range (Service 
1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 
1999). A population, for the purposes of this discussion and as defined 
in the recovery plans for these species, is a unit in which the 
individuals could be regularly cross-pollinated and influenced by the 
same small-scale events (such as landslides), and which contains a 
minimum of 100, 300, or 500 mature, reproducing individuals, depending 
on whether the species is a long-lived perennial, short-lived 
perennial, or annual.
    Marsilea villosa, a short-lived perennial aquatic fern, was 
historically known from six populations on three different islands, 
Molokai, Oahu, and Niihau. This species is now extant only on Oahu and 
Molokai. Delisting objectives for this species include protection and 
stabilization of at least six (rather than 8 to 10) geographically 
distinct, self-sustaining populations (either three on Oahu and three 
on Molokai or three on Oahu, two on Molokai, and one on Niihau), stable 
or increasing population sizes, no active management needed, and self-
maintenance of each population through two successive floods resulting 
in sexual reproduction. Delisting objectives for Marsilea villosa do 
not include a specific number of mature individuals per population 
because of its clonal nature, as it is extremely difficult to 
distinguish between individuals in clonal plant species (Service 
1996a).
    By adopting the specific recovery objectives enumerated above, the 
adverse effects of genetic inbreeding and random environmental events 
and catastrophes, such as landslides, hurricanes or tsunamis, which 
could destroy a large percentage of a species at any one time, may be 
reduced (Menges 1990; Podolsky 2001). These recovery objectives were 
initially developed by the HPPRCC and are found in all of the recovery 
plans for these species. While they are expected to be further refined 
as more information on the population biology of each species becomes 
available, the justification for these objectives is found in the 
current conservation biology

[[Page 36014]]

literature addressing the conservation of rare and endangered plants 
and animals (Beissinger and Westphal 1998; Burgman et al. 2001; Falk et 
al.1996; Ginzburg et al. 1990; Hendrix and Kyhl 2000; Karieva and 
Wennergren 1995; Luijten et al. 2000; Meffe and Carroll 1996; Menges 
1990; Murphy et al.1990; Podolsky 2001; Quintana-Ascencio and Menges 
1996; Taylor 1995; Tear et al. 1995; Wolf and Harrison 2001). The 
overall goal of recovery in the short-term is a successful population 
that can carry on basic life history processes, such as establishment, 
reproduction, and dispersal, at a level where the probability of 
extinction is low. In the long-term, the species and its populations 
should be at a reduced risk of extinction and be adaptable to 
environmental change through evolution and migration.
    Many aspects of a species' life history are typically considered to 
determine guidelines for its interim stability and recovery, including 
longevity, breeding system, growth form, fecundity, ramet (a plant that 
is an independent member of a clone) production, survivorship, seed 
longevity, environmental variation, and successional stage of the 
habitat. Hawaiian species are poorly studied, and the only one of these 
characteristics that can be uniformly applied to all Hawaiian plant 
species is longevity (i.e., long-lived perennial, short-lived 
perennial, and annual). In general, long-lived woody perennial species 
would be expected to be viable at population levels of 50 to 250 
individuals per population, while short-lived perennial species would 
be viable at population levels of 1,500 to 2,500 individuals or more 
per population. These population numbers were refined for Hawaiian 
plant species by the HPPRCC (1994) due to the restricted distribution 
of suitable habitat typical of Hawaiian plants and the likelihood of 
smaller genetic diversity of several species that evolved from a single 
introduction. For recovery of Hawaiian plants, the HPPRCC recommended a 
general recovery guideline of 100 mature, reproducing individuals per 
population for long-lived perennial species; 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals per population for short-lived perennial species; and 500 
mature, reproducing individuals per population for annual species.
    The HPPRCC also recommended the conservation and establishment of 8 
to 10 populations to address the numerous risks to the long-term 
survival and conservation of Hawaiian plant species. Although absent 
the detailed information inherent to the types of population viability 
analysis models described above (Burgman et al. 2001), this approach 
employs two widely recognized and scientifically accepted goals for 
promoting viable populations of listed species--(1) creation or 
maintenance of multiple populations so that a single or series of 
catastrophic events cannot destroy the entire listed species (Luijten 
et al. 2000; Menges 1990; Quintana-Ascencio and Menges 1996); and (2) 
increasing the size of each population in the respective critical 
habitat units to a level where the threats of genetic, demographic, and 
normal environmental uncertainties are diminished (Hendrix and Kyhl 
2000; Luijten et al. 2000; Meffe and Carroll 1996; Podolsky 2001; 
Service 1997; Tear et al. 1995; Wolf and Harrison 2001). In general, 
the larger the number of populations and the larger the size of each 
population, the lower the probability of extinction (Meffe and Carroll 
1996; Raup 1991). This basic conservation principle of redundancy 
applies to Hawaiian plant species. By maintaining 8 to 10 viable 
populations in several critical habitat units, the threats represented 
by a fluctuating environment are alleviated and the species has a 
greater likelihood of achieving long-term survival and recovery. 
Conversely, loss of one or more of the plant populations within any 
critical habitat unit could result in an increase in the risk that the 
entire listed species may not survive and recover.
    Due to the reduced size of suitable habitat areas for these 
Hawaiian plant species, they are now more susceptible to the variations 
and weather fluctuations affecting quality and quantity of available 
habitat, as well as direct pressure from hundreds of species of 
nonnative plants and animals. Establishing and conserving 8 to 10 
viable populations on one or more islands within the historic range of 
the species will provide each species with a reasonable expectation of 
persistence and eventual recovery, even with the high potential that 
one or more of these populations will be eliminated by normal or random 
adverse events, such as the hurricanes that occurred in 1982 and 1992 
on Kauai, fires, and nonnative plant invasions (HPPRCC 1998; Luijten et 
al. 2000; Mangel and Tier 1994; Pimm et al. 1998; Stacey and Taper 
1992). We conclude that designation of adequate suitable habitat for 8 
to 10 populations as critical habitat is essential to give the species 
a reasonable likelihood of long-term survival and conservation, based 
on currently available information.
    In summary, the long-term survival and conservation of Hawaiian 
plant species requires the designation of critical habitat units on one 
or more of the Hawaiian islands with suitable habitat for 8 to 10 
populations of each plant species. Some of this habitat is currently 
not known to be occupied by these species. To recover the species, it 
is essential to conserve suitable habitat in these unoccupied units, 
which in turn will allow for the establishment of additional 
populations through natural recruitment or managed reintroductions. 
Establishment of these additional populations will increase the 
likelihood that the species will survive and recover in the face of 
normal and stochastic events (e.g., hurricanes, fire, and nonnative 
species introductions) (Mangel and Tier 1994; Pimm et al. 1998; Stacey 
and Taper 1992).
    In this rule, we have defined the primary constituent elements 
based on the general habitat features of the areas from which the 
plants are reported, such as the type of plant community, the 
associated native plant species, the physical location (e.g., steep 
rocky cliffs, talus slopes, stream banks), and elevation. The areas we 
are designating as critical habitat provide some or all of the habitat 
components essential for the conservation of the 99 plant species as 
discussed in the individual unit descriptions.
    Our approach to delineating critical habitat units was applied in 
the following manner:
    1. Critical habitat was proposed and has been designated on an 
island by island basis for ease of understanding for landowners and the 
public, for ease of conducting the public hearing process, and for ease 
of conducting public outreach. In Hawaii, landowners and the public are 
most interested and affected by issues centered on the island on which 
they reside.
    2. We focused on designating units representative of the known 
current and historical geographic and elevational range of each 
species; and
    3. We designed critical habitat units to allow for expansion of 
existing wild populations and reestablishment of wild populations 
within the historic range, as recommended by the recovery plans for 
each species.
    The proposed critical habitat units were delineated by creating 
rough units for each species by screen digitizing polygons (map units) 
using ArcView (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.), a 
computer GIS program. We created polygons by overlaying current and 
historic plant location points onto digital topographic maps of each of 
the islands.
    We then evaluated the resulting shape files (delineating historic 
elevational range and potentially suitable habitat). We refined 
elevation ranges, and we

[[Page 36015]]

avoided areas identified as not suitable for a particular species 
(i.e., not containing the primary constituent elements). We then 
considered the resulting shape files for each species to define all 
suitable habitat on the island, including occupied and unoccupied 
habitat.
    We further evaluated these shape files of suitable habitat. We used 
several factors to delineate the proposed critical habitat units from 
these land areas. We reviewed the recovery objectives, as described 
above and in recovery plans for each of the species, to determine if 
the number of populations and population size requirements needed for 
conservation would be available within the suitable habitat units 
identified as containing the appropriate primary constituent elements 
for each species. If more than the area needed for the number of 
recovery populations was identified as potentially suitable, only those 
areas within the least disturbed suitable habitat were included as 
proposed critical habitat. A population for this purpose is defined as 
a discrete aggregation of individuals located a sufficient distance 
from a neighboring aggregation such that the two are not affected by 
the same small-scale events and are not believed to be consistently 
cross-pollinated. In the absence of more specific information 
indicating the appropriate distance to assure limited cross-
pollination, we are using a distance of 1,000 m (3,280 ft) based on our 
review of current literature on gene flow (Barret and Kohn 1991; 
Fenster and Dudash 1994; Havens 1998; Schierup and Christiansen 1996). 
We further refined the resulting critical habitat units by using 
satellite imagery and parcel data to eliminate areas that did not 
contain the appropriate vegetation or associated native plant species, 
as well as features such as cultivated agriculture fields, housing 
developments, and other areas that are unlikely to contribute to the 
conservation of one or more of the 99 plant species for which critical 
habitat was proposed on May 28, 2002. We used geographic features 
(ridge lines, valleys, streams, coastlines, etc.) or manmade features 
(roads or obvious land use) that created an obvious boundary for a unit 
as unit area boundaries.
    Following publication of the proposed critical habitat rules, some 
of which were revised, for 255 Hawaiian plants (67 FR 3940, 67 FR 9806, 
67 FR 15856, 67 FR 16492, 67 FR 34522, 67 FR 36968, 67 FR 37108), we 
reevaluated proposed critical habitat. State-wide, for each species 
using the applicable recovery guidelines (generally 8 to 10 populations 
with a minimum of 100 mature, reproducing individuals per population 
for long-lived perennial species; 300 mature, reproducing individuals 
per population for short-lived perennial species; and 500 mature, 
reproducing individuals per population for annual species) to determine 
if we had inadvertently proposed for designation too much or too little 
habitat to meet the essential recovery goals (HINHP Database 2000, 
2001; Wagner et al. 1990, 1999).
    Based on comments and information we received during the comment 
periods, we assessed the proposed critical habitat in order to 
ascertain which areas contained the highest quality habitat, had the 
highest likelihood of species conservation, were geographically 
distributed within the species' historical range, and were located a 
sufficient distance from each other such that populations of a single 
species are unlikely to be impacted by a single catastrophic event. We 
ranked areas of the proposed critical habitat by the quality of the 
primary constituent elements (e.g., intact native plant communities, 
predominance of associated native plants versus nonnative plants), 
potential as a conservation area (e.g., whether the land is zoned for 
conservation or whether the landowner is already participating in plant 
conservation actions), and current or expected management of known 
threats (e.g., ungulate control; weed control; nonnative insect, slug, 
and snail control). Of these most essential areas, we selected adequate 
area to provide for 8 to 10 populations distributed among the islands 
of each species' historical range.
    Areas that contain high quality primary constituent elements and 
conservation potential (e.g., are zoned for conservation and have 
ongoing or expected threat abatement actions) were ranked the most 
essential. This ranking process also included determining which 
habitats were representative of the historic geographical and 
ecological distributions of the species (see ``Primary Constituent 
Elements''). Of the proposed critical habitat for a species, areas that 
were not ranked most essential and that may provide habitat for 
populations above the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations were 
determined not essential for the conservation of the species and were 
excluded from the final designation. Areas that were excluded because 
the benefits of exclusion outweigh the benefits of inclusion under 
4(b)(2) of the Act are included in the total count of habitat for 8 to 
10 populations.
    In selecting areas of designated critical habitat, we made an 
effort to avoid developed areas, such as towns and other similar lands, 
that are unlikely to contribute to the conservation of the 99 species. 
However, the minimum mapping unit that we used to approximate our 
delineation of critical habitat for these species did not allow us to 
exclude all such developed areas from the maps. Existing manmade 
features and structures within the boundaries of the mapped areas, such 
as buildings; roads; aqueducts and other water system features, 
including, but not limited to pumping stations, irrigation ditches, 
pipelines, siphons, tunnels, water tanks, gaging stations, intakes, 
reservoirs, diversions, flumes, and wells; existing trails; campgrounds 
and their immediate surrounding landscaped area; scenic overlooks; 
remote helicopter landing sites; existing fences; telecommunications 
towers and associated structures and equipment; electrical power 
transmission lines and distribution, and communication facilities and 
regularly maintained associated rights-of-way and access ways; radars; 
telemetry antennas; missile launch sites; arboreta and gardens; heiau 
(indigenous places of worship or shrines) and other archaeological 
sites; airports; other paved areas; lawns and other rural residential 
landscaped areas do not contain one or more of the primary constituent 
elements and are therefore excluded from critical habitat designation 
under the terms of this regulation. Federal actions limited to those 
areas would not trigger a section 7 consultation unless they affect the 
species or primary constituent elements in adjacent critical habitat.
    In summary, for these species, we utilized the approved recovery 
plan guidance to identify appropriately sized land units containing 
essential occupied and unoccupied habitat. Based on the best available 
information, we believe these areas constitute the essential habitat on 
Oahu to provide for the recovery of these 99 species.
    The critical habitat areas described below constitute our best 
assessment of the physical and biological features needed for the 
conservation and special management needs of the 99 plant species, and 
are based on the best scientific and commercial information available 
(as described above). We publish this final rule acknowledging that we 
have incomplete information regarding many of the primary biological 
and physical requirements for these species. However, both the Act and 
the relevant court orders require us

[[Page 36016]]

to proceed with designation at this time based on the best information 
available. As new information accrues, we may consider reevaluating the 
boundaries of areas that warrant critical habitat designation.

Descriptions of Critical Habitat Units

    The approximate areas of proposed critical habitat by landownership 
or jurisdiction are shown in Table 3. The approximate final critical 
habitat area (ha (ac)), essential area, and excluded area, are shown in 
Table 4.

Table 3.--Approximate Critical Habitat Designated Area by Unit and Landownership or Jurisdiction, Oahu, City and
                                         County of Honolulu, Hawaii \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Unit name                 State/local           Private             Federal              Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--a.  453 ha (1,120 ac).  151 ha (372 ac)...  ..................  604 ha (1,492 ac)
Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--b.  26 ha (65 ac).....  ..................  ..................  26 ha (65 ac)
Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--c.  41 ha (102 ac)....  ..................  ..................  41 ha (102 ac)
Oahu 15--Abutilon sandwicense--d  ..................  ..................  49 ha (121 ac)....  49 ha (121 ac)
Oahu 15--Abutilon sandwicense--e  1 ha (2 ac).......  ..................  32 ha (80 ac).....  33 ha (81 ac)
Oahu 17--Abutilon sandwicense--f  30 ha (74 ac).....  ..................  ..................  30 ha (74 ac)
Oahu 20--Adenophorus periens--a.  606 ha (1,500 ac).  105 ha (259 ac)...  ..................  711 ha (1,759 ac)
Oahu 4--Alectryon macrococcus--a  23 ha (58 ac).....  ..................  ..................  23 ha (58 ac)
Oahu 15--Alectryon macrococcus--  ..................  112 ha (278 ac)...  ..................  112 ha (278 ac)
 b.
Oahu 4--Alsinidendron obovatum--  176 ha (436 ac)...  ..................  ..................  176 ha (436 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Alsinidendron obovatum--  25 ha (62 ac).....  ..................  ..................  25 ha (62 ac)
 b.
Oahu 15--Alsinidendron obovatum-- 1 ha (2 ac).......  31 ha (75 ac).....  ..................  32 ha (76 ac)
 c.
Oahu 4--Alsinidendron trinerve--  60 ha (149 ac)....  ..................  ..................  60 ha (149 ac)
 a.
Oahu 2--Bonamia menziesii--a....  21 ha (51 ac).....  ..................  ..................  21 ha (51 ac)
Oahu 3--Bonamia menziesii--b....  42 ha (104 ac)....  ..................  ..................  42 ha (104 ac)
Oahu 4--Bonamia menziesii--c....  3 ha (8 ac).......  91 ha (225 ac)....  ..................  94 ha (233 ac)
Oahu 17--Bonamia menziesii--d...  77 ha (191 ac)....  ..................  ..................  77 ha (191 ac)
Oahu 35--Bonamia menziesii--e...  121 ha (300 ac)...  253 ha (624 ac)...  ..................  374 ha (924 ac)
Oahu 4--Cenchrus agrimonioides--  529 ha (1,306 ac).  ..................  ..................  529 ha (1,306 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Cenchrus agrimonioides--  40 ha (99 ac).....  ..................  ..................  40 ha (99 ac)
 b.
Oahu 15--Cenchrus agrimonioides-- ..................  200 ha (495 ac)...  ..................  200 ha (495 ac)
 c.
Oahu 15--Cenchrus agrimonioides-- ..................  117 ha (290 ac)...  ..................  117 ha (290 ac)
 d.
Oahu 1--Centaurium sebaeoides--a  61 ha (149 ac)....  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  61 ha (149 ac)
Oahu 27--Centaurium sebaeoides--  30 ha (74 ac).....  ..................  ..................  30 ha (74 ac)
 b.
Oahu 1--Chamaesyce celastroides   233 ha (571 ac)...  ..................  ..................  233 ha (571 ac)
 var. kaenana--a.
Oahu 3--Chamaesyce celastroides   4 ha (11 ac)......  ..................  ..................  4 ha (11 ac)
 var. kaenana--b.
Oahu 4--Chamaesyce celastroides   43 ha (107 ac)....  ..................  ..................  43 ha (107 ac)
 var. kaenana--c.
Oahu 5--Chamaesyce celastroides   32 ha (80 ac).....  4 ha (9 ac).......  ..................  36 ha (89 ac)
 var. kaenana--d.
Oahu 35--Chamaesyce celastroides  1 ha (2 ac).......  237 ha (585 ac)...  ..................  238 ha (587 ac)
 var. kaenana--e.
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce deppeana--a.  3 ha (8 ac).......  14 ha (33 ac).....  ..................  17 ha (41 ac)
Oahu 35--Chamaesyce deppeana--b.  16 ha (40 ac).....  2 ha (6 ac).......  ..................  18 ha (46 ac)
Oahu 4--Chamaesyce herbstii--a..  429 ha (1,059 ac).  ..................  ..................  429 ha (1,059 ac)
Oahu 15--Chamaesyce herbstii--b.  ..................  47 ha (116 ac)....  ..................  47 ha (116 ac)
Oahu 15--Chamaesyce herbstii--c.  ..................  21 ha (53 ac).....  ..................  21 ha (53 ac)
Oahu 9--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--a.  ..................  ..................   27 ha (68 ac)....  27 ha (68 ac)
Oahu 11--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--b  19 ha (47 ac).....  ..................  34 ha (83 ac).....  53 ha (130 ac)
Oahu 12--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--c  37 ha (92 ac).....  ..................  ..................  37 ha (92 ac)
Oahu 15--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--d  117 ha (288 ac)...  67 ha (166 ac)....  ..................  184 ha (454 ac)
Oahu 22--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--e  1 ha (3 ac).......  ..................  ..................  1 ha (3 ac)
Oahu 23--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--f  6 ha (15 ac)......  ..................  ..................  6 ha (15 ac)
Oahu 26--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--g  26 ha (63 ac).....  ..................  ..................  26 ha (63 ac)
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--a...  612 ha (1,512 ac).  214 ha (527 ac)...  ..................  826 ha (2,039 ac)
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--b...  8 ha (20 ac)......  25 ha (63 ac).....  164 ha (405 ac)...  197 ha (488 ac)
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--c...  85 ha (210 ac)....  173 ha (429 ac)...  ..................  258 ha (639 ac)
Oahu 4--Colubrina oppositifolia-- 766 ha (1,894 ac).  16 ha (41 ac).....  ..................  782 ha (1,935 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Ctenitis squamigera--a..  120 ha (297 ac)...  ..................  ..................  120 ha (297 ac)
Oahu 4--Cyanea acuminata--a.....  82 ha (205 ac)....  ..................  ..................  82 ha (205 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea acuminata--b....  916 ha (2,260 ac).  1,022 ha (2,525     585 ha (1,446 ac).  2,522 ha (6,231
                                                       ac).                                    ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea crispa--a.......  958 ha (2,367 ac).  873 ha (2,158 ac).  ..................  1,831 ha (4,525
                                                                                               ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea crispa--b.......  597 ha (1,475 ac).  3,243 ha (8,010     20 ha (49 ac).....  3,860 ha (9,534c)
                                                       ha).
Oahu 21--Cyanea crispa--c.......  114 ha (282 ac)...  188 ha (465 ac)...  ..................  302 ha (747 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea crispa--d.......  1,041 ha (2,573     295 ha (728 ac)...  ..................  1,336 ha (3,301
                                   ac).                                                        ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea grimesiana ssp.   342 ha (845 ac)...  2,292 ha (5,661     ..................  2,634 ha (6,506
 grimesiana--a.                                        ac).                                    ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea grimesiana ssp.   149 ha (367 ac)...  181 ha (447 ac)...  ..................  330 ha (814 ac)
 grimesiana--b.
Oahu 4--Cyanea grimesiana ssp.    523 ha (1,289 ac).  ..................  ..................  523 ha (1,289 ac)
 obatae--a.
Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp.   1 ha (1 ac).......  184 ha (454 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  185 ha (455 ac)
 obatae--b.

[[Page 36017]]



Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp.   ..................  34 ha (84 ac).....  ..................  34 ha (84 ac)
 obatae--c.
Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp.   <1 ha (1 ac)......  83 ha (204 ac)....  ..................  83 ha (205 ac)
 obatae--d.
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--a..  398 ha (982 ac)...  105 ha (259 ac)...  ..................  503 ha (1,241 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--b..  24 ha (61 ac).....  103 ha (254 ac)...  ..................  127 ha (315 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--c..  88 ha (219 ac)....  212 ha (522 ac)...  ..................  300 ha (741 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--d..  20 ha (48 ac).....  137 ha (340 ac)...  3 ha (5 ac).......  160 ha (393 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea humboltiana--e..  493 ha (1,221 ac).  45 ha (110 ac)....  ..................  538 ha (1,331 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea koolauensis--a..  94 ha (233 ac)....  374 ha (924 ac)...  ..................  468 ha (1,157 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea koolauensis--b..  68 ha (170 ac)....  254 ha (629 ac)...  ..................  322 ha (799 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea koolauensis--c..  209 ha (517 ac)...  ..................  ..................  209 ha (517 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea koolauensis--d..  181 ha (448 ac)...  131 ha (322 ac)...  ..................  312 ha (770 ac)
Oahu 4--Cyanea longiflora--a....  362 ha (894 ac)...  ..................  ..................  362 ha (894 ac)
Oahu 4--Cyanea longiflora--b....  61 ha (150 ac)....  ..................  ..................  61 ha (150 ac)
Oahu 19--Cyanea longiflora--c...  243 ha (602 ac)...  81 ha (199 ac)....  ..................  324 ha (801 ac)
Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--a..  ..................  154 ha (380 ac)...  ..................  154 ha (380 ac)
Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--b..  ..................  42 ha (104 ac)....  ..................  42 ha (104 ac)
Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--c..  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  129 ha (318 ac)...  ..................  129 ha (318 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea st.-johnii--a...  240 ha (593 ac)...  414 ha (1,023 ac).  43 ha (107 ac)....  697 ha (1,723 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea st.-johnii--b...  123 ha (305 ha)...  12 ha (29 ac).....  ..................  135 ha (334 ac)
Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--a.......  303 ha (747 ac)...  ..................  ..................  303 ha (747 ac)
Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--b.......  115 ha (286 ac)...  ..................  ..................  115 ha (286 ac)
Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--c.......  183 ha (453 ac)...  1 ha (3 ac).......  ..................  184 ha (456 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyanea superba--d......  170 ha (420 ac)...  111 ha (277 ac)...  ..................  281 ha (697 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyanea truncata--a.....  900 ha (2,226 ac).  1,129 ha (2,793     ..................  2,029 ha (5,019
                                                       ac).                                    ac)
Oahu 21--Cyanea truncata--b.....  59 ha (146 ac)....  151 ha (374 ac)...  ..................  210 ha (520 ac)
Oahu 1--Cyperus trachysanthos--a  78 ha (194 ac)....  ..................  ..................  78 ha (194 ac)
Oahu 28--Cyperus trachysanthos--  8 ha (20 ac)......  ..................  ..................  8 ha (20 ac)
 b.
Oahu 29--Cyperus trachysanthos--  4 ha (10 ac)......  ..................  ..................  4 ha (10 ac)
 c.
Oahu 36--Cyperus trachysanthos--  5 ha (13 ac)......  ..................  ..................  5 ha (13 ac)
 d.
Oahu 4--Cyrtandra dentata--a....  307 ha (758 ac)...  ..................  ..................  307 ha (758 ac)
Oahu 35--Cyrtandra polyantha--a.  112 ha (277 ac)...  78 ha (192 ac)....  ..................  190 ha (469 ac)
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra subumbellata-- 589 ha (1,455 ac).  240 ha (593 ac)...  ..................  829 ha (2,048 ac)
 a.
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra subumbellata-- ..................  ..................  67 ha (167 ac)....  67 ha (167 ac)
 b.
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra viridiflora--  505 ha (1,247 ac).  206 ha (509 ac)...  71 ha (176 ac)....  782 ha (1,932 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Delissea subcordata--a..  762 ha (1,879 ac).  2 ha (6 ac).......  ..................  764 ha (1,885 ac)
Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--b.  ..................  220 ha (545 ac)...  ..................  220 ha (545 ac)
Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--c.  ..................  32 ha (78 ac).....  ..................  32 ha (78 ac)
Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--d.  ..................  81 ha (200 ac)....  ..................  81 ha (200 ac)
Oahu 35--Delissea subcordata--e.  88 ha (217 ac)....  204 ha (504 ac)...  ..................  292 ha (721 ac)
Oahu 35--Delissea subcordata--f.  1 ha (3 ac).......  128 ha (314 ac)...  ..................  129 ha (317 ac)
Oahu 35--Diellia erecta--a......  173 ha (430 ac)...  120 ha (301 ac)...  ..................  293 ha (731 ha)
Oahu 4--Diellia falcata--a......  59 ha (148 ac)....  ..................  ..................  59 ha (148 ac)
Oahu 4--Diellia falcata--b......  22 ha (54 ac).....  ..................  ..................  22 ha (54 ac)
Oahu 15--Diellia falcata--c.....  23 ha (58 ac).....  314 ha (776 ac)...  4 ha (10 ac)......  341 ha (844 ac)
Oahu 15--Diellia falcata--d.....  7 ha (17 ac)......  170 ha (419 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  178 ha (437 ac)
Oahu 15--Diellia unisora--a.....  68 ha (167 ac)....  253 ha (626 ac)...  41 ha (101 ac)....  362 ha (894 ac)
Oahu 4--Diplazium molokaiense--a  139 ha (340 ac)...  ..................  ..................  139 ha (340 ac)
Oahu 4--Dubautia herbstobatae--a  12 ha (29 ac).....  ..................  ..................  12 ha (29 ac)
Oahu 4--Dubautia herbstobatae--b  76 ha (191 ac)....  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  ..................  76 ha (191 ac)
Oahu 7--Dubautia herbstobatae--c  3 ha (7 ac).......  ..................  ..................  3 ha (7 ac)
Oahu 4--Eragrostis fosbergii--a.  81 ha (199 ac)....  ..................  ..................  81 ha (199 ac)
Oahu 4--Eugenia koolauensis--a..  114 ha (280 ac)...  ..................  ..................  114 ha (280 ac)
Oahu 19--Eugenia koolauensis--b.  38 ha (94 ac).....  111 ha (275 ac)...  ..................  149 ha (369 ac)
Oahu 20--Eugenia koolauensis--c.  71 ha (176 ac)....  51 ha (127 ac)....  ..................  122 ha (303 ac)
Oahu 3--Euphorbia haeleeleana--a  14 ha (38 ac).....  ..................  ..................  14 ha (38 ac)
Oahu 4--Euphorbia haeleeleana--b  94 ha (233 ac)....  262 ha (648 ac)...  ..................  356 ha (881 ac)
Oahu 4--Flueggea neowawraea--a..  845 ha (2,087 ac).  ..................  ..................  845 ha (2,087 ac)
Oahu 15--Gardenia mannii--a.....  ..................  266 ha (658 ac)...  ..................  266 ha (658 ac)
Oahu 20--Gardenia mannii--b.....  ..................  206 ha (510 ac)...  ..................  206 ha (510 ac)
Oahu 20--Gardenia mannii--c.....  ..................  ..................  1,311 ha (3,239     1,311 ha (3,239
                                                                           ac).                ac)
Oahu 4--Gouania meyenii--a......  47 ha (118 ac)....  ..................  ..................  47 ha (118 ac)
Oahu 4--Gouania meyenii--b......  39 ha (96 ac).....  ..................  ..................  39 ha (96 ac)
Oahu 15--Gouania meyenii--c.....  2 ha (6 ac).......  206 ha (509 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  208 ha (515 ac)
Oahu 31--Gouania meyenii--d.....  116 ha (286 ac)...  ..................  ..................  116 ha (286 ac)
Oahu 2--Gouania vitifolia--a....  20 ha (49 ac).....  ..................  ..................  20 ha (49 ac)
Oahu 3--Gouania vitifolia--b....  48 ha (120 ac)....  ..................  ..................  48 ha(120 ac)
Oahu 5--Gouania vitifolia--c....  176 ha (434 ac)...  20 ha (48 ac).....  ..................  196 ha (482 ac)
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--d....  85 ha (208 ac)....  ..................  ..................  85 ha (208 ac)
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--e....  102 ha (252 ac)...  ..................  ..................  102 ha (252 ac)

[[Page 36018]]


Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--f....  27 ha (67 ac).....  ..................  ..................  27 ha (67 ac)
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--g....  17 ha (42 ac).....  <1 ha (1 ac)......  ..................  17 ha (43 ac)
Oahu 8--Gouania vitifolia--h....  41 ha (101 ac)....  23 ha (57 ac).....  ..................  64 ha (158 ac)
Oahu 15--Hedyotis coriacea--a...  ..................  185 ha (458 ac)...  ..................  185 ha (458 ac)
Oahu 35--Hedyotis coriacea--b...  9 ha (22 ac)......  155 ha (382 ac)...  ..................  164 ha (404 ac)
Oahu 4--Hedyotis degeneri--a....  917 ha (2,265 ac).  ..................  ..................  917 ha (2,265 ac)
Oahu 4--Hedyotis degeneri--b....  12 ha (29 ac).....  ..................  ..................  12 ha (29 ac)
Oahu 4--Hedyotis parvula--a.....  387 ha (956 ac)...  ..................  ..................  387 ha (956 ac)
Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--b....  ..................  ..................  8 ha (19 ac)......  8 ha (19 ac)
Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--c....  42 ha (105 ac)....  22 ha (54 ac).....  31 ha (77 ac).....  95 ha (236 ac)
Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--d....  20 ha (48 ac).....  ..................  30 ha (74 ac).....  50 ha (122 ac)
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia             122 ha (301 ac)...  3 ha (7 ac).......  ..................  125 ha (308 ac)
 arborescens--a.
Oahu 20--Hesperomannia            405 ha (1,001 ac).  184 ha (455 ac)...  ..................  589 ha (1,456 ac)
 arborescens--b.
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arbuscula-- 597 ha (1,472 ac).  ..................  ..................  597 ha (1,472 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arbuscula-- 32 ha (78 ac).....  ..................  ..................  32 ha (78 ac)
 b.
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia            2 ha (4 ac).......  161 ha (398 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  163 ha (402 ac)
 arbuscula--c.
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia            2 ha (4 ac).......  23 ha (56 ac).....  ..................  25 ha (60 ac)
 arbuscula--d.
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia            3 ha (5 ac).......  67 ha (167 ac)....  ..................  70 ha (172 ac)
 arbuscula--e.
Oahu 1--Hibiscus brackenridgei--  20 ha (49 ac).....  58 ha (144 ac)....  ..................  78 ha (193 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Hibiscus brackenridgei--  75 ha (185 ac)....  485 ha (1,200 ac).  ..................  560 ha (1,385 ac)
 b.
Oahu 5--Hibiscus brackenridgei--  23 ha (56 ac).....  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  ..................  23 ha (56 ac)
 c.
Oahu 4--Isodendrion laurifolium-- 616 ha (1,524 )...  ..................  ..................  616 ha (1,524 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Isodendrion laurifolium-- 62 ha (154 ac)....  ..................  ..................  62 ha (154 ac)
 b.
Oahu 35--Isodendrion              109 ha (270 ac)...  168 ha (414 ac)...  ..................  277 ha (684 ac)
 laurifolium--c.
Oahu 4--Isodendrion longifolium-- 529 ha (1,306 ac).  23 ha (57 ac).....  ..................  552 ha (1,363 ac)
 a.
Oahu 20--Isodendrion              ..................  ..................  162 ha (399 ac)...  162 ha (399 ac)
 longifolium--b.
Oahu 5--Isodendrion pyrifolium--  29 ha (71 ac).....  1 ha (3 ac).......  ..................  30 ha (74 ac)
 a.
Oahu 16--Isodendrion pyrifolium-- 129 ha (317 ac)...  1 ha (1 ac).......  ..................  130 ha (318 ac)
 b.
Oahu 17--Isodendrion pyrifolium-- 73 ha (181 ac)....  ..................  ..................  73 ha (181 ac)
 c.
Oahu 4--Labordia cyrtandrae--a..  161 ha (397 ac)...  ..................  ..................  161 ha (397 ac)
Oahu 20--Labordia cyrtandrae--b.  472 ha (1,168 ac).  123 ha (305 ac)...  ..................  595 ha (1,473 ac)
Oahu 20--Labordia cyrtandrae--c.  205 ha (508 ac)...  412 ha (1,017 ac).  ..................  617 ha (1,525 ac)
Oahu 4--Lepidium arbuscula--a...  330 ha (813 ac)...  ..................  ..................  330 ha (813 ac)
Oahu 15--Lepidium arbuscula--b..  38 ha (94 ac).....  6 ha (16 ac)......  74 ha (183 ac)....  118 ha (293 ac)
Oahu 15--Lepidium arbuscula--c..  38 ha (93 ac).....  ..................  61 ha (151 ha)....  99 ha (244 ac)
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta lobata var.    139 ha (345 ac)...  ..................  ..................  139 ha (345 ac)
 leptophylla--a.
Oahu 15--Lipochaeta lobata var.   207 ha (514 ac)...  53 ha (131 ac)....  274 ha (676 ac)...  534 ha (1,321 ac)
 leptophylla--b.
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--a  23 ha (57 ac).....  ..................  ..................  23 ha (57 ac)
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--b  66 ha (167 ac)....  ..................  ..................  66 ha (167 ac)
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--c  118 ha (292 ac)...  ..................  ..................  118 ha (292 ac)
Oahu 20--Lobelia guadichaudii     371 ha (915 ac)...  458 ha (1,132 ac).  97 ha (241 ac)....  926 ha (2,288 ac)
 ssp. koolauensis--a.
Oahu 30--Lobelia monostachya--a.  48 ha (118 ac)....  11 ha (32 ac).....  ..................  59 ha (150 ac)
Oahu 22--Lobelia monostachya--b.  1 ha 2 (ac).......  46 ha (113 ac)....  ..................  47 ha (115 ac)
Oahu 33--Lobelia monostachya--c.  70 ha (173 ac)....  <1 ha (1 ac)......  ..................  70 ha (174 ac)
Oahu 35--Lobelia monostachya--d.  123 ha (303 ac)...  367 ha (906 ac)...  3 ha (8 ac).......  493 ha (1,217 ac)
Oahu 4--Lobelia niihauensis--a..  44 ha (108 ac)....  ..................  ..................  44 ha (108 ac)
Oahu 17--Lobelia niihauensis--b.  41 ha (102 ac)....  ..................  ..................  41 ha (102 ac)
Oahu 20--Lobelia oahuensis--a...  204 ha (504 ac)...  240 ha (593 ac)...  46 ha (114 ac)....  490 ha (1,211 ac)
Oahu 35--Lobelia oahuensis--b...  139 ha (342 ac)...  13 ha (32 ac).....  ..................  152 ha (374 ac)
Oahu 20--Lysimachia filifolia--a  992 ha (2,450 ac).  512 ha (1,263 ac).  8 ha (21 ac)......  1,512 ha (3,734
                                                                                               ac)
Oahu 4--Mariscus pennatiformis--  166 ha (410 ac)...  ..................  ..................  166 ha (410 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Mariscus pennatiformis--  171 ha (421 ac)...  ..................  ..................  171 ha (421 ac)
 b.
Oahu 13--Marsilea villosa--a....  ..................  ..................  10 ha (25 ac).....  10 ha (25 ac)
Oahu 14--Marsilea villosa--b....  ..................  ..................  7 ha (18 ac)......  7 ha (18 ac)
Oahu 28--Marsilea villosa--c....  7 ha (18 ac)......  ..................  ..................  7 ha (18 ac)
Oahu 29--Marsilea villosa--d....  5 ha (11 ac)......  ..................  ..................  5 ha (11 ac)
Oahu 36--Marsilea villosa--e....  6 ha (14 ac)......  ..................  ..................  6 ha (14 ac)
Oahu 20--Melicope lydgatei--a...  351 ha (864 ac)...  2,613 ha (6,458     535 ha (1,323 ac).  3,499 ha (8,645
                                                       ac).                                    ac)
Oahu 4--Melicope pallida--a.....   846 ha (2,089 ac)  9 ha (21 ac)......  ..................  855 ha (2,110 ac)
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--b....  ..................  174 ha (431 ac)...  ..................  174 ha (431 ac)
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--c....  2 ha (5 ac).......  ..................  27 ha (66 ac).....  29 ha (71 ac)
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--d....  10 ha (25 ac).....  ..................  10 ha (26 ac).....  20 ha (51 ac)
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--e....  ..................   243 ha (602 ac)..  ..................   243 ha (602 ac)
Oahu 15--Melicope saint-johnii--  2 ha (6 ac).......  242 ha (598 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  244 ha (604 ac)
 a.
Oahu 15--Melicope saint-johnii--  28 ha (69 ac).....  149 ha (368 ac)...  37 ha (92 ac).....  214 ha (529 ac)
 b.
Oahu 20--Myrsine juddii--a......  386 ha (954 ac)...  291 ha (719 ac)...  273 ha (674 ac)...  950 ha (2,347 ac)
Oahu 3--Neraudia angulata--a....  39 ha (97 ac).....  ..................  ..................  39 ha (97 ac)
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--b....  83 ha (205 ac)....  7 ha (17 ac)......  ..................  90 ha (222 ac)

[[Page 36019]]


Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--c....  298 ha (736 ac)...  ..................  ..................  298 ha (736 ac)
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--d....  33 ha (81 ac).....  ..................  ..................  33 ha (81 ac)
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--e....  40 ha (98 ac).....  ..................  ..................  40 ha (98 ac)
Oahu 15--Neraudia angulata--f...  17 ha (44 ac).....  ..................  66 ha (163 ac)....  83 ha (207 ac)
Oahu 3--Nototrichium humile--a..  20 ha (51 ac).....  ..................  ..................  20 ha (51 ac)
Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--b..  168 ha (416 ac)...  61 ha (152 ac)....  ..................  229 ha (568 ac)
Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--c..  55 ha (138 ac)....  181 ha (448 ac)...  ..................  236 ha (586 ac)
Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--d..  30 ha (75 ac).....  ..................  ..................  30 ha (75 ac)
Oahu 4--Peucedanum sandwicense--  76 ha (186 ac)....  ..................  ..................  76 ha (186 ac)
 a.
Oahu 20--Phlegmariurus nutans--a  713 ha (1,762 ac).  514 ha (1,269 ac).  398 ha (983 ac)...  1,625 ha (4,014
                                                                                               ac)
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia hirsuta--a.  113 ha (282 ac)...  ..................  ..................  113 ha (282 ac)
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia hirsuta--b  1 ha (2 ac).......  130 ha (322 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  131 ha (324 ac)
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia hirsuta--c  ..................  69 ha (171 ac)....  ..................  69 ha (171 ac)
Oahu 20--Phyllostegia hirsuta--d  719 ha (1,777 ac).  285 ha (706 ac)...  ..................  1,004 ha (2,483
                                                                                               ac)
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis-- 57 ha (141 ac)....  ..................  ..................  57 ha (141 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis-- 589 ha (1,456 ac).  ..................  ..................  589 ha (1,456 ac)
 b.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis-- 119 ha (295 ac)...  3 ha (9 ac).......  ..................  122 ha (304 ac)
 c.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis-- 28 ha (69 ac).....  ..................  ..................  28 ha (69 ac)
 d.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis-- 16 ha (39 ac).....  ..................  ..................  16 ha (39 ac)
 e.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia             ..................  30 ha (74 ac).....  ..................  30 ha (74 ac)
 kaalaensis--f.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia mollis--a.  ..................  152 ha (376 ac)...  ..................  152 ha (376 ac)
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia mollis--b.  ..................  85 ha (210 ac)....  ..................  85 ha (210 ac)
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia             ..................  70 ha (173 ac)....  ..................  70 ha (173 ac)
 parviflora--a.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia             ..................  21 ha (51 ac).....  ..................  21 ha (51 ac)
 parviflora--b.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia             ..................  69 ha (171 ac)....  ..................  69 ha (171 ac)
 parviflora--c.
Oahu 20--Phyllostegia             806 ha (1,992 ac).  436 ha (1,078 ac).  188 ha (463 ac)...  1,430 ha (3,533
 parviflora--d.                                                                                ac)
Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--a....  15 ha (37 ac).....  ..................  ..................  15 ha (37 ac)
Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--b....  52 ha (131 ac)....  ..................  ..................  52 ha (131 ac)
Oahu 15--Plantago princeps--c...  ..................  63 ha (157 ac)....  ..................  63 ha (157 ac)
Oahu 20--Plantago princeps--d...  99 ha (246 ac)....  733 ha (1,810 ac).  160 ha (394 ac)...  992 ha (2,450 ac)
Oahu 20--Plantago princeps--e...  194 ha (477 ac)...  103 ha (252 ac)...  ..................  297 ha (729 ac)
Oahu 20--Platanthera holochila--  ..................  35 ha (86 ac).....  ..................  35 ha (86 ac)
 a.
Oahu 20--Platanthera holochila--  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  4 ha (9 ac).......  161 ha (397 ac)...  165 ha (407 ac)
 b.
Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--a.....  847 ha (2,091 ac).  386 ha (953 ac)...  ..................  1,233 ha (3,044
                                                                                               ac)
Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--b.....  153 ha (377 ac)...  25 ha (61 ac).....  111 ha (273 ac)...  289 ha (711 ac)
Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--c.....  267 ha (660 ac)...  577 ha (1,424 ac).  ..................  844 ha (2,084 ac)
Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--a...  7 ha (17 ac)......  ..................  ..................   7 ha (17 ac)
Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--b...  6 ha (15 ac)......  ..................  ..................  6 ha (15 ac)
Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--c...  25 ha (61 ac).....  ..................  ..................  25 ha (61 ac)
Oahu 6--Sanicula mariversa--d...  3 ha (8 ac).......  ..................  ..................  3 ha (8 ac)
Oahu 15--Sanicula mariversa--e..  ..................  14 ha (34 ac).....  ..................  14 ha (34 ac)
Oahu 15--Sanicula mariversa--f..  19 ha (46 ac).....  20 ha (49 ac).....  ..................  39 ha (95 ac)
Oahu 20--Sanicula purpurea--a...  366 ha (903 ac)...  289 ha (715 ac)...  46 ha (114 ac)....  701 ha (1,732 ac)
Oahu 3--Schiedea hookeri--a.....  22 ha (56 ac).....  ..................  ..................  22 ha (56 ac)
Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--b.....  710 ha (1,755 ac).  ..................  ..................  710 ha (1,755 ac)
Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--c.....  248 ha (612 ac)...  ..................  ..................  248 ha (612 ac)
Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--d.....  31 ha (78 ac).....  ..................  ..................  31 ha (78 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--e....  ..................  ..................  14 ha (34 ac).....  14 ha (34 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--f....  ..................  10 ha (25 ac).....  ..................  10 ha (25 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--g....  33 ha (81 ac).....  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  50 ha (123 ac)....  83 ha (204 ac)
Oahu 4--Schiedea kaalae--a......  426 ha (1,051 ac).  ..................  ..................  426 ha (1,051 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--b.....  ..................  134 ha (331 ac)...  ..................  134 ha (331 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--c.....  ..................  22 ha (53 ac).....  ..................  22 ha (53 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--d.....  ..................  39 ha (97 ac).....  ..................  39 ha (97 ac)
Oahu 20--Schiedea kaalae--e.....  371 ha (915 ac)...  8 ha (19 ac)......  ..................  379 ha (934 ac)
Oahu 21--Schiedea kaalae--f.....  6 ha (15 ac)......  99 ha (245 ac)....  ..................  105 ha (260 ac)
Oahu 1--Schiedea kealiae--a.....  145 ha (357 ac)...  49 ha (121 ac)....  ..................  194 ha (478 ac)
Oahu 4--Schiedea nuttallii--a...  527 ha (1,304 ac).  ..................  ..................  527 ha (1,304 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea nuttallii--b..  1 ha (1 ac).......  140 ha (346 ac)...  ..................  141 ha (347 ac)
Oahu 15--Schiedea nuttallii--c..  ..................  41 ha (102 ac)....  ..................  41 ha (102 ac)
Oahu 1--Sesbania tomentosa--a...  101 ha (250 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  101 ha (250 ac)
Oahu 18--Sesbania tomentosa--b..  5 ha (12 ac)......  ..................  ..................  5 ha (12 ac)
Oahu 4--Silene lanceolata--a....  113 ha (281 ac)...  ..................  ..................  113 ha (281 ac)
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--a....  29 ha (73 ac).....  ..................  36 ha (89 ac).....  65 ha (162 ac)
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--b....  ..................  5 ha (12 ac)......  ..................  5 ha (12 ac)
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--c....  18 ha (46 ac).....  ..................  31 ha (78 ac).....  49 ha (124 ac)
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--d....  ..................  52 ha (130 ac)....  ..................  52 ha (130 ac)
Oahu 4--Solanum sandwicense--a..  104 ha (258 ac)...  ..................  ..................  104 ha (258 ac)
Oahu 15--Solanum sandwicense--b.  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  146 ha (361 ac)...  ..................  146 ha (361 ac)
Oahu 15--Solanum sandwicense--c.  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  78 ha (192 ac)....  ..................  78 ha (192 ac)
Oahu 5--Spermolepis hawaiiensis-- 20 ha (51 ac).....  1 ha (2 ac).......  ..................  21 ha (53 ac)
 a.

[[Page 36020]]


Oahu 31--Spermolepis              116 ha (286 ac)...  ..................  ..................  116 ha (286 ac)
 hawaiiensis--b.
Oahu 15--Stenogyne kanehoana--a.  1 ha (2 ac).......  138 ha (342 ac)...  1 ha (3 ac).......  140 ha (347 ac)
Oahu 15--Stenogyne kanehoana--b.  1 ha (2 ac).......  42 ha (105 ac)....  ..................  43 ha (107 ac)
Oahu 4--Tetramolopium filiforme-- 111 ha (273 ac)...  ..................  ..................  111 ha (273 ac)
 a.
Oahu 4--Tetramolopium lepidotum   167 ha (413 ac)...  ..................  ..................  167 ha (413 ac)
 ssp. lepidotum--a.
Oahu 4--Tetramolopium lepidotum   23 ha (56 ac).....  ..................  ..................  23 ha (56 ac)
 ssp. lepidotum--b.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum  ..................  ..................  11 ha (28 ac).....  11 ha (28 ac)
 ssp. lepidotum--c.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum  34 ha (84 ac).....  12 ha (29 ac).....  48 ha (120 ac)....  94 ha (233 ac)
 ssp. lepidotum--d.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum  <1 ha (1 ac)......  1 ha (2 ac).......  ..................  1 ha (3 ac)
 ssp. lepidotum--e.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum  37 ha (92 ac).....  182 ha (450 ac)...  40 ha (99 ac).....  259 ha (641 ac)
 ssp. lepidotum--f.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra           454 ha (1,122 ac).  3 ha (7 ac).......  ..................  457 ha (1,129 ac)
 gymnocarpa--a.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra           71 ha (175 ac)....  32 ha (79 ac).....  132 ha (327 ac)...  235 ha (581 ac)
 gymnocarpa--b.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra           119 ha (295 ac)...  292 ha (723 ac)...  ..................  411 ha (1,018 ac)
 gymnocarpa--c.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra           121 ha (299 ac)...  231 ha (571 ac)...  10 ha (24 ac).....  362 ha (894 ac)
 gymnocarpa--d.
Oahu 35--Tetraplasandra           152 ha (377 ac)...  ..................  ..................  152 ha (377 ac)
 gymnocarpa--e.
Oahu 35--Tetraplasnadra           131 ha (323 ac)...  82 ha (205 ac)....  ..................  213 ha (528 ac)
 gymnocarpa--f.
Oahu 20--Trematolobelia           58 ha (147 ac)....  27 ha (69 ac).....  1 ha (3 ac).......  86 ha (219 ac)
 singularis--a.
Oahu 20--Trematolobelia           1 ha (3 ac).......  9 ha (22 ac)......  <1 ha (1 ac)......  10 ha (26 ac)
 singularis--b.
Oahu 34--Trematolobelia           <1 ha (1 ac)......  2 ha (4 ac).......  ..................  2 ha (5 ac)
 singularis--c.
Oahu 35--Trematolobelia           13 ha (33 ac).....  ..................  ..................  13 ha (33 ac)
 singularis--d.
Oahu 35--Trematolobelia           23 ha (56 ac).....  3 ha (8 ac).......  ..................  26 ha (64 ac)
 singularis--e.
Oahu 4--Urera kaalae--a.........  53 ha (133 ac)....  ..................  ..................  53 ha (133 ac)
Oahu 4--Urera kaalae--b.........  17 ha (43 ac).....  ..................  ..................  17 ha (43 ac)
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--c........  ..................  224 ha (555 ac)...  <1 ha (<1 ac).....  224 ha (555 ac)
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--d........  ..................  35 ha (87 ac).....  ..................  35 ha (87 ac)
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--e........  13 ha (31 ac).....  ..................  38 ha (94 ac).....  51 ha (125 ac)
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--f........  2 ha (5 ac).......  80 ha (197 ac)....  ..................  82 ha (202 ac)
Oahu 1--Vigna o-wahuensis--a....  180 ha (447 ac)...  ..................  ..................  180 ha (447 ac)
Oahu 24--Vigna o-wahuensis--b...  4 ha (12 ac)......  ..................  ..................  4 ha (12 ac)
Oahu 25--Vigna o-wahuensis--c...  4 ha (9 ac).......  ..................  ..................  4 ha (9 ac)
Oahu 26--Vigna o-wahuensis--d...  26 ha (63 ac).....  ..................  ..................  26 ha (63 ac)
Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp.  199 ha (491 ac)...  ..................  ..................  199 ha (491 ac)
 chamissoniana--a.
Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp.  10 ha (25 ac).....  ..................  ..................  10 ha (25 ac)
 chamissoniana--b.
Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp.  22 ha (55 ac).....  ..................  ..................  22 ha (55 ac)
 chamissoniana--c.
Oahu 10--Viola chamissoniana      ..................  ..................  6 ha (15 ac)......  6 ha (15 ac)
 ssp. chamissoniana--d.
Oahu15--Viola chamissoniana ssp.  ..................  ..................  13 ha (31 ac).....  13 ha (31 ac)
 chamissoniana--e.
Oahu 15--Viola chamissoniana      ..................  11 ha (28 ac).....  18 ha (44 ac).....  29 ha (72 ac)
 ssp. chamissoniana--f.
Oahu 20--Viola oahuensis--a.....  402 ha (994 ac)...  373 ha (923 ac)...  125 ha (308 ac)...  900 ha (2,225 ac)
Oahu 35--Viola oahuensis--b.....  74 ha (186 ac)....  ..................  ..................  74 ha (186 ac)
                                 ---------------------
    Grand Total *...............  9,035 ha (22,326    10,985 ha (27,143   2,254 ha (5,571     2,274 ha (55,040
                                   ac).                ac).                ac).                ac)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\Area differences due to digital mapping discrepancies between TMK data (GDSI 2000) and USGS coastline, or
  differences due to rounding.
* Totals take into consideration overlapping individual species units.


 Table 4.--Approximate Final Critical Habitat Area (ha (ac)), Essential
                         Area, and Excluded Area
------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Area considered essential.................  33,179 ha
                                            81,987 ac
Area not included because of species        10,905 ha
 management or protection/Area excluded     26,946 ac
 under4(b)(2).
Final Critical Habitat....................  22,274 ha
                                            55,040 ac
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Critical habitat includes habitat for these 99 species primarily in 
the upland portions of Oahu, as well as some coastal and off-shore 
lands. Lands designated as critical habitat have been divided into a 
total of 304 units. A brief description of each unit is presented 
below.
Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense and is 604 
ha (1,492 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala NAR) and 
private land, containing a portion of Dupont Trail. This unit provides 
habitat for 5 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Abutilon sandwicense and is currently occupied by 
56 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the

[[Page 36021]]

expansion of the present population, which is currently considered 
nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes or gulches in dry to mesic lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense and is 26 ha 
(65 ac) on State land. This unit contains no named natural features. 
This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Abutilon 
sandwicense and is currently occupied by 40 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes or gulches in dry to mesic lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Abutilon sandwicense--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense and is 41 ha 
(102 ac) on State land. This unit contains no named natural features. 
This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Abutilon 
sandwicense and is currently occupied by 4 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes or gulches in dry to mesic lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Abutilon sandwicense--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense and is 49 ha 
(121 ac) on Federal land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Abutilon sandwicense and is currently 
occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep slopes or gulches in dry to 
mesic lowland forest. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Abutilon sandwicense--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense and is 33 ha 
(81 ac) on State and Federal land (Lualualei Naval Reservation). This 
unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Abutilon sandwicense and is 
currently occupied by 7 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep slopes or gulches in dry 
to mesic lowland forest. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 17--Abutilon sandwicense--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Abutilon sandwicense and is 30 ha 
(74 ac) on State land (Nanakuli Forest Reserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Abutilon sandwicense and is currently 
occupied by 115 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep slopes or gulches in dry to 
mesic lowland forest. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Adenophorus periens--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Adenophorus periens and is 711 ha 
(1,759 ac) on State (Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Hauula Forest Reserve, 
Sacred Falls State Park , and Kahana Valley State Park) and private 
land. This unit contains portions of the Summit Trail and Puu Pauao 
Summit. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Adenophorus 
periens and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
essential to the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, tree trunks in Metrosideros polymorpha or Metrosideros rugosa wet 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui for this species in order to 
avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Alectryon macrococcus--a
    This is critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus and is 23 ha (58 
ac) on State land. This unit contains no named natural features. This 
unit provides habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Alectryon macrococcus and is 
currently occupied by 78 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is essential for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, slopes, ridges, or gulches 
within mesic lowland forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, 
Molokai, and Maui for

[[Page 36022]]

this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed 
by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Alectryon macrococcus--b
    This is critical habitat for Alectryon macrococcus and is 112 ha 
(278 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Alectryon macrococcus and is currently occupied by 83 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
essential for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, slopes, ridges, or gulches within mesic lowland forests. This unit 
provides for one population within this multi-island species' 
historical range on Oahu that is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated on Oahu and other islands for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Alsinidendron obovatum--a
    This is critical habitat for Alsinidendron obovatum and is 176 ha 
(436 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole NAR). This 
unit provides habitat for five populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Alsinidendron obovatum and is 
currently occupied by 3 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, ridges and slopes in lowland 
diverse mesic forest dominated by Acacia koa and Metrosideros 
polymorpha. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Alsinidendron obovatum--b
    This is critical habitat for Alsinidendron obovatum and is 25 ha 
(62 ac) on State land (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve). This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Alsinidendron obovatum and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, ridges and slopes in lowland diverse 
mesic forest dominated by Acacia koa and Metrosideros polymorpha. 
Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to 
reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this 
unit is geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Alsinidendron obovatum--c
    This is critical habitat for Alsinidendron obovatum and is 32 ha 
(76 ac) on Federal and State land (Nanakuli Forest Reserve), containing 
a portion of Palikea Summit. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Alsinidendron obovatum and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, ridges and slopes in lowland diverse 
mesic forest dominated by Acacia koa and Metrosideros polymorpha. 
Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to 
reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this 
unit is geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Alsinidendron trinerve--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Alsinidedron trinerve and is 60 
ha (149 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve, Waianae Kai Forest 
Reserve, and Kaala NAR), containing a portion of Kaala Summit. This 
unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Alsinidedron trinerve and is 
currently occupied by 10 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, slopes in wet forest or the 
wetter portions of diverse mesic forest dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha or Ilex anomala and Metrosideros polymorpha montane wet 
forest. We do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach 
the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species. However, we 
have identified habitat for an additional three populations on Army 
lands at Schofield Barracks Military Reservation (see ``Analysis of 
Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
Oahu 2--Bonamia menziesii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii and is 21 ha 
(51 ac) on State land (Kaena Point State Park). This unit, in 
combination with unit Oahu 3--Bonamia menziesii--b, provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Bonamia menziesii and is currently occupied by 4 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, steep slopes or level ground in dry or mesic forest in open 
or closed canopy. This unit, together with unit Oahu 3--Bonamia 
menziesii--b, is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai and Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 3--Bonamia menziesii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii and is 42 ha 
(104 ac) on State land (Kaena Point State Park and Kuaokala Forest 
Reserve). This unit, in combination with unit Oahu 2--Bonamia 
menziesii--a, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature,

[[Page 36023]]

reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Bonamia menziesii 
and is currently occupied by 18 individuals. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep slopes or level ground 
in dry or mesic forest in open or closed canopy. This unit, together 
with units Oahu 2--Bonamia menziesii--a, is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai and 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Bonamia menziesii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii and is 94 ha 
(233 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve) and private land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Bonamia menziesii and is currently occupied by 5 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, steep slopes or level ground in dry or mesic forest in open or 
closed canopy. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai and Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 17--Bonamia menziesii--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii and is 77 ha 
(191 ac) on State land (Nanakuli Forest Reserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Bonamia menziesii and is currently occupied 
by one individual. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep slopes or level ground in dry or 
mesic forest in open or closed canopy. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 35--Bonamia menziesii--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Bonamia menziesii and is 374 ha 
(924 ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) and private land. 
This unit contains a portion of Kulepiamoa Ridge and Laulaupoe Gulch. 
This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Bonamia menziesii 
and is currently occupied by 5 individuals. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep slopes or level ground 
in dry or mesic forest in open or closed canopy. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cenchrus agrimonioides--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cenchrus agrimonioides and is 529 
ha (1,306 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve, and Pahole and 
Kaala NAR). This unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cenchrus 
agrimonioides and is currently occupied by 3 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, dry 
ridges or upper slopes or ridges in lowland mixed mesic forest. It 
provides habitat for the westernmost range of the species. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 4--Cenchrus agrimonioides--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cenchrus agrimonioides and is 40 
ha (99 ac) on State land (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve). This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cenchrus agrimonioides and is 
currently occupied by 9 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, dry ridges or upper slopes or 
ridges in lowland mixed mesic forest. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cenchrus agrimonioides--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cenchrus agrimonioides and is 200 
ha (495 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Cenchrus agrimonioides and is currently 
occupied by 45 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, dry ridges or upper slopes or ridges 
in lowland mixed mesic forest. It provides habitat for the westernmost 
range of the species. This unit is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cenchrus agrimonioides--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cenchrus agrimonioides and is 117 
ha (290 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Cenchrus agrimonioides

[[Page 36024]]

and is currently occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, dry ridges or upper slopes or 
ridges in lowland mixed mesic forest. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 1--Centaurium sebaeoides--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides and is 61 
ha (149 ac) on State (Kaena Point NAR), private, and Federal land. This 
unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Centaurium sebaeoides and is currently occupied by one 
plant. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, volcanic or clay soils or cliffs in arid coastal areas or 
on coral plains. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui 
for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 27--Centaurium sebaeoides--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Centaurium sebaeoides and is 30 
ha (74 ac) on State land, containing a portion of the eastern flank of 
Koko Head Crater. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Centaurium 
sebaeoides and is currently occupied by one individual. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, 
volcanic or clay soils or cliffs in arid coastal areas or on coral 
plains. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 1--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana and is 233 ha (571 ac) on State land (Kaena Point State Park). 
This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce celastroides and is 
currently occupied by 543 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, windward talus slopes, leeward 
rocky cliffs, open grassy slopes, or vegetated cliff faces in coastal 
dry shrubland. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other four 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 3--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana and is 4 ha (11 ac) on State land (Kaena Point State Park and 
Kuaokala Forest Reserve). This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Chamaesyce celastroides and is currently occupied by one individual. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, windward talus slopes, leeward rocky cliffs, open grassy slopes, or 
vegetated cliff faces in coastal dry shrubland. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other four units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana and is 43 ha (107 ac) on State land (Waianae Kai Forest 
Reserve). This unit contains no named natural features. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce celastroides and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, windward 
talus slopes, leeward rocky cliffs, open grassy slopes, or vegetated 
cliff faces in coastal dry shrubland. Although we do not believe that 
enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other four units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 5--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana and is 36 ha (89 ac) on State and private land, containing a 
portion of Ohikilolo Ridge. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Chamaesyce celastroides and is currently occupied by 2 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, windward talus slopes, leeward rocky cliffs, open grassy 
slopes, on vegetated cliff faces in coastal dry shrubland. Although we 
do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the 
recovery goal of 8 to 10

[[Page 36025]]

populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other four units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana and is 238 ha (587 ac) on State and private land. This unit 
contains a portion of Hawaii Loa Ridge, Kupaua Valley, Kuleplamoa 
Ridge, and Pia Valley. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Chamaesyce celastroides and is currently unoccupied. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, windward talus slopes, leeward rocky 
cliffs, open grassy slopes, or vegetated cliff faces in coastal dry 
shrubland. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other four 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce deppeana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce deppeana and is 17 ha 
(41 ac) on State and private land, containing a portion of the Wilson 
Tunnel. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce 
deppeana and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, windward-facing ridge crests, cliff faces, and mixed native cliffs. 
Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to 
reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this 
unit is geographically separated from the other unit designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Chamaesyce deppeana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce deppeana and is 18 ha 
(46 ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) and private land, 
containing a portion of Nuuanu Pali. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Chamaesyce deppeana and is currently occupied by 50 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, windward-facing ridge crests, 
cliff faces, and mixed native cliffs. Although we do not believe that 
enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed 
by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Chamaesyce herbstii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce herbstii and is 429 ha 
(1,059 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole NAR). This 
unit provides habitat for 5 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce herbstii and is 
currently occupied by 60 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, shaded gulch bottoms and 
slopes in mesic Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forests or 
diverse mesic forests. Although we do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Chamaesyce herbstii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce herbstii and is 47 ha 
(116 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce herbstii and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, shaded gulch bottoms and 
slopes in mesic Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forests or 
diverse mesic forests. Although we do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Chamaesyce herbstii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce herbstii and is 21 ha 
(53 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce herbstii and is currently occupied 
by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, shaded gulch bottoms and slopes in 
mesic Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forests or diverse 
mesic forests. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 9--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 27 ha 
(53 ac) on Federal land (Lualualei Naval Reservation), containing a 
portion of Mauna Kuwale. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Chamaesyce

[[Page 36026]]

kuwaleana and is currently occupied by one individual. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, thin 
guano soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; dry or 
mesic rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other six units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 11--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 53 ha 
(130 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and State land 
(Waianae Kai Forest Reserve), containing a portion of Kauaopuu Summit. 
This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, thin guano soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; 
dry or mesic rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other six units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 12--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 37 ha 
(92 ac) on State land, containing a portion of Puu Kailio. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, thin guano 
soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; dry or mesic 
rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. Although we do not believe 
that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 
10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other six units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 184 
ha (454 ac) on State and private land, containing a portion of Puu 
Heleakala. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, thin guano soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; 
dry or mesic rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other six units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 22--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 1 ha 
(3 ac) on State land (Moku Manu Island State Seabird Sanctuary). This 
unit, in combination with unit Oahu 23--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--f, 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, thin guano 
soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; dry or mesic 
rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. This unit, together with 
unit 23--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--f, provides for one population within 
this island-endemic species' historical range on Oahu. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other six units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 23--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 6 ha 
(15 ac) on State land (Moku Manu Island State Seabird Sanctuary). This 
unit, in combination with unit Oahu 22--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--e, 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, thin guano 
soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; dry or mesic 
rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. This unit, together with 
unit 22--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--e, provides for one population within 
this island-endemic species' historical range on Oahu. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species., this unit is 
geographically separated from the other six units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 26--Chamaesyce kuwaleana--g
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is 26 ha 
(63 ac) on State land (Manana Island State Seabird Sanctuary), 
containing a portion of Manana Island. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Chamaesyce kuwaleana and is currently unoccupied. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports habitat that is necessary for the

[[Page 36027]]

establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, thin guano 
soil on basaltic rock; arid, exposed volcanic cliffs; dry or mesic 
rocky ridges; or sparsely vegetated slopes. Although we do not believe 
that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 
10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other six units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce rockii and is 826 ha 
(2,039 ac) on Federal (Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge), private, 
and State land (Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, Kahana Valley State Park, and Ewa Forest Reserve). 
This unit contains a portion of Puu Kainapuaa, Koolau Summit Trail, Puu 
Pauao, and Puu Kaaumakua. This unit provides habitat for 3 populations 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Chamaesyce rockii and is currently occupied by 563 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present populations. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, gulch slopes, gulch bottoms, and ridge 
crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis forest and 
shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the other two 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce rockii and is 197 ha 
(487 ac) on private and State land (Kahana Valley State Park), 
containing Puu Kaaumakua. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Chamaesyce rockii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, gulch slopes, gulch bottoms, and ridge crests in wet Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis forest and shrubland. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Chamaesyce rockii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Chamaesyce rockii and is 258 ha 
(639 ac) on State (Ewa Forest Reserve) and private land, containing a 
portion of Eleao Summit. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Chamaesyce rockii and is currently occupied by one individual. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, gulch slopes, gulch bottoms, and ridge crests in wet Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis forest and shrubland. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Colubrina oppositifolia--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Colubrina oppositifolia and is 
782 ha (1,935 ac) on private and State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve 
and Kaala and Pahole NARs), containing a portion of Dupont Trail. This 
unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived Colubrina oppositifolia and is currently 
occupied by 53 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, lowland dry or mesic forests dominated 
by Diospyros sandwicensis. It provides habitat for the westernmost 
range of the species. This unit provides is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated on Maui for this species in order to 
avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Ctenitis squamigera--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Ctenitis squamigera and is 120 ha 
(297 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala NAR), 
containing a portion of Dupont Trail. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Colubrina oppositifolia and is currently occupied by 12 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, gentle to steep slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha-Diospyros 
sandwicensis mesic forest or diverse mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated on Kauai, 
Maui, and Molokai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea acuminata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata and is 82 ha 
(205 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve, Kaala NAR, and Waianae 
Kai Forest Reserve). This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea 
acuminata and is currently occupied by 20 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, slopes, 
ridges, or stream banks in Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris 
linearis or Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha wet or mesic forest or 
shrubland, or Diospyros sandwicensis-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland 
mesic forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other unit 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in 
order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.

[[Page 36028]]

Oahu 20--Cyanea acuminata--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea acuminata and is 2,522 ha 
(6,231 ac) on private and State land (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, Kahana Valley State Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, 
and Waiahole Forest Reserve). This unit contains a portion of Castle 
Trail, Koolau Summit Trail, Puu Pauao, Puu Kaaumakua, Kipapa Trail, and 
Eleao Summit. This unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea 
acuminata and is currently occupied by 30 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, slopes, 
ridges, or stream banks in Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris 
linearis or Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha wet or mesic forest or 
shrubland, or Diospyros sandwicensis-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland 
mesic forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other unit 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in 
order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea crispa--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea crispa and is 1,831 ha 
(4,525 ac) on private and State land (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, and Kaipapau Forest Reserve). This unit contains 
Sacred Falls and a portion of Castle Trail. This unit provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Cyanea crispa and is currently occupied by 11 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, slopes, moist gullies, or stream banks in open mesic 
forests or closed wet forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other three units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea crispa--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea crispa and is 3,860 ha 
(9,529 ac) on private, Federal, and State land (Waiahole Forest 
Reserve, Kaneohe Forest Reserve, Keaiwa Heiau State Recreation Area, 
and Fort Shafter). This unit contains a portion of Aiea Loop Trail, 
Halawa Trail, Luluku Tunnel, Puu Kahuauli, Puu Kawipoo, Puu 
Keahiakahoe, and Puu Uau. This unit provides habitat for 3 populations 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Cyanea crispa and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, slopes, moist gullies, or stream banks in open mesic forests or 
closed wet forests. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other three units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 21--Cyanea crispa--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea crispa and is 302 ha (747 
ac) on private and State land (Kahana Valley State Park), containing a 
portion of Hidden Valley. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Cyanea crispa and is currently occupied by 13 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, slopes, 
moist gullies, or stream banks in open mesic forests or closed wet 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other three 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea crispa--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea crispa and is 1,336 ha 
(3,301 ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest 
Reserve). This unit contains a portion of Kaau Crater, Kainawaaunui 
Summit, Konahuanui Summit, Manoa Falls, Manoa Tunnel, Mount Olympus, 
Palikea Summit, Puu Lanipo, and Waaloa Spring. This unit provides 
habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Cyanea crispa and is currently occupied by 27 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, slopes, moist gullies, or stream banks in open mesic 
forests or closed wet forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other three units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana 
and is 2,634 ha (6,506 ac) on State (Ewa Forest Reserve and Keaiwa 
Heiau State Recreation Area) and private land. This unit contains a 
portion of Aiea Loop Trail, Puu Kawipoo, Puu Uau, and Waimano Trail. 
This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea grimesiana ssp. 
grimesiana and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, rocky or steep slopes of stream banks in mesic forest often 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or Metrosideros polymorpha and 
Acacia koa. It provides habitat for the westernmost range of the 
species. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and Maui for this species 
in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana 
and is 330 ha (814 ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed 
Forest Reserve). This unit contains no named natural features. This 
unit provides habitat for

[[Page 36029]]

one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana and is currently 
occupied by 6 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, rocky or steep slopes of stream banks 
in mesic forest often dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or 
Metrosideros polymorpha and Acacia koa. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and 
is 523 ha (1,289 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole 
NAR). This unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae and is currently occupied by 4 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep, 
moist, shaded slopes in diverse mesic to wet lowland forests. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and 
is 185 ha (455 ac) on State, private, and Federal land (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation). This unit contains a portion of Puu Hapapa and Puu 
kanehoa. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea grimesiana 
ssp. obatae and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, steep, moist, shaded slopes in diverse mesic to wet lowland 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other three 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and 
is 34 ha (84 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and is currently occupied by 
three individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep, moist, shaded slopes in diverse 
mesic to wet lowland forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other three units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and 
is 83 ha (205 ac) on State and private land (Honouliuli Preserve), 
containing the Palikea Summit. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae and is currently occupied by 5 
plants. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, steep, moist, shaded slopes in diverse mesic to wet lowland 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other three 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea humboltiana and is 503 ha 
(1,241 ac) on private and State land (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, and Kaipapau Forest Reserve), containing a portion of 
the Koolau Summit Trail. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Cyanea humboltiana and is currently occupied by 9 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland 
shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the other four 

units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea humboltiana and is 127 ha 
(315 ac) on private and State land (Ewa Forest Reserve). This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea humboltiana and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other four units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.

[[Page 36030]]

Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea humboltiana and is 300 ha 
(741 ac) on private and State land (Waiahole Forest Reserve), 
containing a portion of Puu Kawipoo. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Cyanea humboltiana and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other four units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations 
from being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea humboltiana--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea humboltiana and is 160 ha 
(393 ac) on private, Federal, and State land (Kaneohe Forest Reserve), 
containing a portion of Puu Keahiakahoe. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Cyanea humboltiana and is currently occupied by one 
plant. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland 
shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the other four 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea humboltiana--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea humboltiana and is 538 ha 
(1,331 ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest 
Reserve). This unit contains a portion of Kainawaaunui Summit, 
Konahuanui Summit, Manoa Falls, Mount Olympus, Palikea Summit, and Puu 
Lanipo. This unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea humboltiana 
and is currently occupied by 21 individuals. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other four units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations 
from being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea koolauensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea koolauensis and is 468 ha 
(1,157 ac) on private and State land (Sacred Falls State Park, Kaipapau 
Forest Reserve, and Kahuku Forest Reserve). This unit contains a 
portion of Kawailoa Trail, Puu Kainapuaa, and Koolau Summit Trail. This 
unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea koolauensis and is 
currently occupied by 46 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, slopes, stream banks, and 
ridge crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
forest or shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other three units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea koolauensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea koolauensis and is 322 ha 
(799 ac) on private and State land (Ewa Forest Reserve and Waiahole 
Forest Reserve), containing a portion of Eleao Summit. This unit 
provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea koolauensis and is 
currently occupied by 4 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, slopes, stream banks, and 
ridge crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
forest or shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other three units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea koolauensis--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea koolauensis and is 209 ha 
(517 ac) on State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve). This unit 
contains a portion of Konahuanui Summit and Manoa Falls. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea koolauensis and is 
currently occupied by 10 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, slopes, stream banks, and 
ridge crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
forest or shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other three units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea koolauensis--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea koolauensis and is 312 ha 
(770 ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve). 
This unit contains a portion of Kaau Crater, Kainawaaunui Summit, 
Palikea Summit, and Puu Lanipo. This unit provides habitat for two 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Cyanea koolauensis and is currently occupied by seven 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, slopes, stream banks, and

[[Page 36031]]

ridge crests in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis 
forest or shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other three units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea longiflora--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea longiflora and is 362 ha 
(894 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole Kaala NARs). 
This unit contains a portion of Kamaohanui Summit. This unit provides 
habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Cyanea longiflora and is currently occupied by 3 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, steep slopes, bases of cliffs, or ridge crests in mesic 
Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea longiflora--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea longiflora and is 61 ha 
(150 ac) on State land (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Cyanea longiflora and is currently occupied 
by 15 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep slopes, bases of cliffs, or 
ridge crests in mesic Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland 
forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other two units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in 
order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 19--Cyanea longiflora--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea longiflora and is 324 ha 
(801 ac) on private and State land (Pupukea-Paumalu Forest Reserve). 
This unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea longiflora and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes, bases of cliffs, or ridge crests in mesic Acacia koa-
Metrosideros polymorpha lowland forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other two units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations 
from being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea pinnatifida and is 154 ha 
(380 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Cyanea pinnatifida and is currently unoccupied. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep, wet, rocky slopes in diverse 
mesic forest. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea pinnatifida and is 42 ha 
(104 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Cyanea pinnatifida and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep, wet, rocky slopes in 
diverse mesic forest. Although we do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Cyanea pinnatifida--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea pinnatifida and is 129 ha 
(318 ac) on State and private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea pinnatifida and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep, wet, 
rocky slopes in diverse mesic forest. Although we do not believe that 
enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other two units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea st.-johnii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea st.-johnii and is 697 ha 
(1,723 ac) on private, Federal (Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge), 
and State land (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park, Kahana 
Valley State Park, and Waiahole Forest Reserve). This unit contains a 
portion of Eleao Summit, Puu Kaaumakua Summit, and Puu Pauao Summit. 
This unit provides habitat for 6 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea st.-johnii and is 
currently occupied by 44 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, wet, windswept slopes and

[[Page 36032]]

ridges in Metrosideros polymorpha mixed lowland shrubland or 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other unit designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea st.-johnii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea st.-johnii and is 135 ha 
(334 ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve). 
This unit contains a portion of Kainawaaunui Summit, Konahuanui Summit, 
Mount Olympus, Palikea Summit, and Puu Lanipo Summit. This unit 
provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea st.-johnii and is 
currently occupied by 12 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, wet, windswept slopes and 
ridges in Metrosideros polymorpha mixed lowland shrubland or 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland shrubland. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other unit designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea superba and is 303 ha (747 
ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole NAR). This unit 
provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea superba and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, sloping 
terrain on well drained rocky substrate within mesic forest. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea superba and is 115 ha (286 
ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole NAR). This unit 
provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea superba and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, sloping 
terrain on well drained rocky substrate within mesic forest. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyanea superba--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea superba and is 184 ha (456 
ac) on private and State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala NAR). 
This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea superba and 
is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of 
the species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, sloping 
terrain on well drained rocky substrate within mesic forest. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Cyanea superba--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea superba and is 281 ha (697 
ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve). This 
unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea superba and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, sloping 
terrain on well drained rocky substrate within mesic forest. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyanea truncata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea truncata and is 2,029 ha 
(5,019 ac) on private and State land (Sacred Falls State Park, Kaipapau 
Forest Reserve, Hauula Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, and 
Waiahole Forest Reserve). This unit contains a portion of Castle Trail, 
Puu Pauao, Sacred Falls, Sacred Falls Trail, and Waiahole Ditch Tunnel. 
This unit provides habitat for 9 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyanea truncata and is 
currently occupied by one plant. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, windward slopes and stream 
banks in mesic to wet forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 21--Cyanea truncata--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyanea truncata and is 210 ha 
(520 ac) on private and State land (Kahana Valley State Park), 
containing a portion of Hidden Valley. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Cyanea truncata and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, windward slopes and stream banks in 
mesic to wet forests. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other unit designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species,

[[Page 36033]]

in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 1--Cyperus trachysanthos--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos and is 78 
ha (194 ac) on State land, containing a portion of Kaena Point. This 
unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyperus trachysanthos and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, seasonally 
wet sites (mud flats, wet clay soil, seasonal ponds, or wet cliff 
seeps) on seepy flats, coastal cliffs, or talus slopes. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Niihau for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 28--Cyperus trachysanthos--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos and is 8 ha 
(20 ac) on State land, containing a portion of Nonoula Crater. This 
unit, in combination with unit Oahu 29--Cyperus trachysanthos--c, 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyperus trachysanthos and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, seasonally 
wet sites (mud flats, wet clay soil, seasonal ponds, or wet cliff 
seeps) on seepy flats, coastal cliffs, or talus slopes. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Niihau for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 29--Cyperus trachysanthos--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos and is 4 ha 
(10 ac) on State land, containing a portion of Ihelhelauakea Crater. 
This unit, in combination with unit Oahu 28--Cyperus trachysanthos--b, 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyperus trachysanthos and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, seasonally 
wet sites (mud flats, wet clay soil, seasonal ponds, or wet cliff 
seeps) on seepy flats, coastal cliffs, or talus slopes. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Niihau for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 36--Cyperus trachysanthos--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyperus trachysanthos and is 5 ha 
(13 ac) on State land (Diamond Head State Park), containing a portion 
of Diamond Head. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyperus 
trachysanthos and is currently occupied by 40 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, 
seasonally wet sites (mud flats, wet clay soil, seasonal ponds, or wet 
cliff seeps) on seepy flats, coastal cliffs, or talus slopes. This unit 
is geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere 
on Oahu and on Kauai and Niihau for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Cyrtandra dentata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyrtandra dentata and is 307 ha 
(758 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole NAR. This 
unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyrtandra dentata and is 
currently occupied by 20 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, gulches, slopes, stream banks, 
or ravines in mesic or wet forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from Army lands at Kawailoa Training Area that provide 
habitat for five populations of this species, in order to avoid all 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): 
Other Impacts'').
Oahu 35--Cyrtandra polyantha--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyrtandra polyantha and is 190 ha 
(469 ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve 
and Kuliouou Forest Reserve), containing a portion of Puu o Kona. This 
unit provides habitat for 5 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Cyrtandra polyantha and is 
currently occupied by 3 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, ridges in Metrosideros 
polymorpha mesic or wet forests. We do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species.
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra subumbellata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyrtandra subumbellata and is 829 
ha (1,457 ac) on private and State land (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, 
and Ewa Forest Reserve), containing a portion of Castle Trail, Puu 
Kaaumakua, and Puu Pauao. This unit provides habitat for 6 populations 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Cyrtandra subumbellata and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, moist slopes or gulch bottoms in wet 
forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis-Acacia koa. Although we 
do not believe that enough

[[Page 36034]]

habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed 
by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra subumbellata--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyrtandra subumbellata and is 67 
ha (167 ac) on State land. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Cyrtandra subumbellata and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, moist slopes or gulch bottoms in wet 
forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis-Acacia koa. Although we 
do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the 
recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other unit designated as critical 
habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Cyrtandra viridiflora--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Cyrtandra viridiflora and is 782 
ha (1,932 ac) on private and State land (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, 
and Ewa Forest Reserve). This unit contains Puu Kaaumakua, Puu Pauao, 
and portions of the Koolau Summit Trail. This unit provides habitat for 
5 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Cyrtandra viridiflora and is currently occupied by 33 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, moist slopes or gulch bottoms in wet forest dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis-Acacia koa.
Oahu 4--Delissea subcordata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Delissea subcordata and is 764 ha 
(1,885 ac) on private and State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and 
Pahole and Kaala NARs). This unit contains no named natural features. 
This unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Delissea subcordata and is 
currently occupied by 4 plants. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, moderate to steep gulch slopes 
in mixed mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Delissea subcordata and is 220 ha 
(545 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit, in 
combination with unit Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--c, provides habitat 
for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Delissea subcordata and is currently occupied by 9 
plants. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, moderate to steep gulch slopes in mixed mesic forests. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Delissea subcordata and is 32 ha 
(78 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit, in 
combination with unit Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--b, provides habitat 
for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Delissea subcordata and is currently occupied by 3 
plants. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, moderate to steep gulch slopes in mixed mesic forests. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Delissea subcordata--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Delissea subcordata and is 81 ha 
(200 ac) on private land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Delissea subcordata and is currently occupied 
by 3 plants. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, moderate to steep gulch slopes in mixed mesic forests. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Delissea subcordata--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Delissea subcordata and is 292 ha 
(721 ac) on private and State land (Honouliuli Preserve), containing a 
portion of Mauumae Ridge. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Delissea subcordata and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it includes habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery. The habitat features contained in this unit 
that are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, 
moderate to steep gulch slopes in mixed mesic forests. This unit is 
geographically

[[Page 36035]]

separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations 
from being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Delissea subcordata--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Delissea subcordata and is 129 ha 
(317 ac) on State and private land. This unit contains a portion of 
Kulepiamoa Ridge, Pia Valley, and Kupaua Valley. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Delissea subcordata and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it includes habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, moderate to steep gulch slopes in 
mixed mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Diellia erecta--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Diellia erecta and is 293 ha (731 
ac) on private and State land (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve). This 
unit contains a portion of Kulepiamoa Ridge and Laulaupoe Gulch. This 
unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Diellia erecta and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, moderate to 
steep gulch slopes or sparsely vegetated rock faces in mesic forest. 
This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Diellia falcata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Diellia falcata and is 59 ha (148 
ac) on State land (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reserve). This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Diellia falcata and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, deep shade 
or open understory on moderate to moderately steep slopes and gulch 
bottoms in diverse mesic forest. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other three units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Diellia falcata--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Diellia falcata and is 22 ha (54 
ac) on State land (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reserve). This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Diellia falcata and is 
currently occupied by 20 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, deep shade or open understory 
on moderate to moderately steep slopes and gulch bottoms in diverse 
mesic forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other 
three units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Diellia falcata--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Diellia falcata and is 341 ha 
(844 ac) on State, Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), and private 
land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit contains a portion of Puu Hapapa, 
Puu Kanehoa, and Puu Kaua. This unit provides habitat for 4 populations 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Diellia falcata and is currently occupied by 297 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, deep 
shade or open understory on moderate to moderately steep slopes and 
gulch bottoms in diverse mesic forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other three units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations 
from being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Diellia falcata--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Diellia falcata and is 178 ha 
(437 ac) on State, Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), and private 
land (Honouliuli Preserve), containing a portion of Palikea Summit. 
This unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Diellia falcata and is 
currently occupied by 1,230 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and habitat that is necessary to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, deep shade or open understory 
on moderate to moderately steep slopes and gulch bottoms in diverse 
mesic forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other 
three units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Diellia unisora--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Diellia unisora and is 362 ha 
(894 ac) on State, Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), and private 
land (Honouliuli Preserve). This unit contains a portion of Palikea 
Summit, Laikea Trail, Pohakea Pass, Puu Kanehoa, and Puu Kaua. This 
unit provides habitat for 6 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Diellia unisora and is 
currently occupied by 697 plants. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, moderate to steep slopes or gulch bottoms in deep shade or 
open understory in mesic forest. We do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, but this unit is large enough that one naturally 
occurring

[[Page 36036]]

catastrophic event is unlikely to destroy habitat for all six 
populations.
Oahu 4--Diplazium molokaiense--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Diplazium molokaiense and is 139 
ha (340 ac) on State land (Mokuleia Forest Reserve, Kaala NAR, and 
Waianae Kai Forest Reserve). This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Diplazium molokaiense and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, steep, rocky, wooded gulch walls in 
wet forests. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Dubautia herbstobatae--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Dubautia herbstobatae and is 12 
ha (29 ac) on State land (Makua Keauu Forest Reserve). This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Dubautia herbstobatae and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, rock 
outcrops, ridges, moderate slopes, or vertical cliffs in dry or mesic 
shrubland. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event. In addition, this unit is geographically 
separated from Army lands at Makua Military Reservation that provide 
habitat for two populations of this species (see ``Analysis of Impacts 
Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
Oahu 4--Dubautia herbstobatae--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Dubautia herbstobatae and is 76 
ha (191 ac) on private and State land (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve), 
containing a portion of Puu Kawiwi Summit. This unit provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Dubautia herbstobatae and is currently unoccupied. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, rock outcrops, ridges, moderate 
slopes, or vertical cliffs in dry or mesic shrubland. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event. In addition, this unit is geographically separated 
from Army lands at Makua Military Reservation that provide habitat for 
two populations of this species (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under 
Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
Oahu 7--Dubautia herbstobatae--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Dubautia herbstobatae and is 3 ha 
(7 ac) on State land (Makua Keauu Forest Reserve). This unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Dubautia herbstobatae and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, rock outcrops, ridges, 
moderate slopes, or vertical cliffs in dry or mesic shrubland. Although 
we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the 
recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event. In addition, this unit is geographically separated 
from Army lands at Makua Military Reservation that provide habitat for 
two populations of this species (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under 
Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
Oahu 4--Eragrostis fosbergii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Eragrostis fosbergii and is 81 ha 
(199 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Eragrostis fosbergii and is currently occupied by 6 plants. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, ridge crests or moderate slopes in dry or mesic forests. We do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species.
Oahu 4--Eugenia koolauensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Eugenia koolauensis and is 114 ha 
(280 ac) on State land, containing a portion of Kaukonahua Stream. This 
unit provides habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Eugenia koolauensis and is 
currently occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, gentle to steep slopes or 
ridges in mesic or dry forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or 
Diospyros sp. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 19--Eugenia koolauensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Eugenia koolauensis and is 149 ha 
(369 ac) on private and State (Pupukea-Paumalu Forest Reserve) land, 
containing a portion of Mount Kawela. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived 
perennial Eugenia koolauensis and is currently occupied by 8 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes

[[Page 36037]]

habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, gentle to steep slopes or ridges in mesic or dry forests 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or Diospyros sp. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Molokai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 20--Eugenia koolauensis--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Eugenia koolauensis and is 122 ha 
(303 ac) on private and State (Hauula Forest Reserve) land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 2 
populations of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived 
perennial Eugenia koolauensis and is currently occupied by 2 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, gentle to steep slopes or ridges in mesic or dry forests 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorhpha or Diospyros sp. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Molokai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 3--Euphorbia haeleeleana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Euphorbia haeleeleana and is 14 
ha (38 ac) on State (Kaena State Park, Kuaokala Forest Reserve) land. 
This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Euphorbia haeleeleana and is currently 
occupied by 50 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. It provides 
habitat for the easternmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, dry forest dominated by Diospyros sp. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 4--Euphorbia haeleeleana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Euphorbia haeleeleana and is 356 
ha (881 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve) land. This 
unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 
3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Euphorbia haeleeleana and is currently occupied by 49 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
easternmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, dry forest dominated by Diospyros sp. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 4--Flueggea neowawraea--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Flueggea neowawraea and is 845 ha 
(2,087 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole and Kaala NARs) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the long-lived perennial Flueggea neowawraea and is currently occupied 
by 10 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, gulch slopes, ridge crests, or areas 
near streams in dry or mesic forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui 
for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Gardenia mannii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Gardenia mannii and is 266 ha 
(658 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing Honouliuli 
Contour Trail. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Gardenia 
mannii and is currently occupied by 4 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, 
moderate to moderately steep gulch slopes, ridge crests, gulch bottoms, 
and stream banks in mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other two units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations 
from being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event. 
This unit is also geographically separated from Army lands at Schofield 
Barracks and Kawailoa that provide habitat for six populations of this 
species.
Oahu 20--Gardenia mannii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Gardenia mannii and is 206 ha 
(510 ac) on private land, containing Kaluakauila Gulch. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Gardenia mannii and is 
currently occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, moderate to moderately steep 
gulch slopes, ridge crests, gulch bottoms, and stream banks in mesic or 
wet forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other two 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event. This unit is also 
geographically separated from Army lands at Schofield Barracks and 
Kawailoa that provide habitat for six populations of this species.

[[Page 36038]]

Oahu 20--Gardenia mannii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Gardenia mannii and is 1,311 ha 
(3,239 ac) on private land, containing a portion of Puu Kamana. This 
unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Gardenia mannii and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, moderate to 
moderately steep gulch slopes, ridge crests, gulch bottoms, and stream 
banks in mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other two units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event. This 
unit is also geographically separated from Army lands at Schofield 
Barracks and Kawailoa that provide habitat for six populations of this 
species.
Oahu 4--Gouania meyenii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania meyenii and is 47 ha (118 
ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Gouania meyenii and is currently occupied by 62 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the easternmost range of 
the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, moderate to 
steep slopes in dry shrubland or mesic lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other units designated on Oahu and 
Kauai as critical habitat for this multi-island species to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Gouania meyenii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania meyenii and is 39 ha (96 
ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Gouania meyenii and is currently occupied by 3 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the easternmost range of 
the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, moderate to 
steep slopes in dry shrubland or mesic lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other units designated on Oahu and 
Kauai as critical habitat for this multi-island species to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Gouania meyenii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania meyenii and is 208 ha 
(515 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and private 
(Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing a portion of Puu Hapapa and Puu 
Kanehoa. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Gouania meyenii 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. It provides habitat for the easternmost range of the 
species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are essential 
for this species include, but are not limited to, moderate to steep 
slopes in dry shrubland or mesic lowland forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other units designated on Oahu and 
Kauai as critical habitat for this multi-island species to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 31--Gouania meyenii--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania meyenii and is 116 ha 
(286 ac) on State (Diamond Head State Park) land, containing a portion 
of Kuilei Cliffs. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Gouania 
meyenii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. It provides habitat for the easternmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, 
moderate to steep slopes in dry shrubland or mesic lowland forest. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other units designated on 
Oahu and Kauai as critical habitat for this multi-island species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 2--Gouania vitifolia--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 20 ha 
(49 ac) on State (Kaena Point State Park and Kuaokala Forest Reserve) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit, along 
with Oahu 3--Gouania vitifolia--b, provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Gouania vitifolia and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. It provides habitat for the westernmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, sides 
of ridges or gulches in dry to mesic forests. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 3--Gouania vitifolia--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 48 ha 
(120 ac) on State (Kuaokala Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit, along with Oahu 2--Gouania 
vitifolia--a, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Gouania vitifolia 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, sides of 
ridges or gulches in dry to mesic forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and Maui 
for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being

[[Page 36039]]

destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 196 ha 
(482 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve) land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Gouania vitifolia and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, sides of ridges or gulches in dry to 
mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and Maui for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 85 ha 
(208 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Gouania vitifolia and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, sides of ridges or gulches in dry to 
mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and Maui for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 102 ha 
(252 ac) on State land in the Waianae Kai area. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Gouania vitifolia and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, sides of ridges or gulches in dry to mesic forests. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 4--Gouania vitifolia--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 27 ha 
(67 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Gouania vitifolia and is currently occupied by one 
individual. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, sides of ridges or gulches in dry to mesic forests. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 5--Gouania vitifolia--g
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 17 ha 
(43 ac) on private and State land in the Waianae Kai area. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Gouania vitifolia and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, sides of ridges or gulches in dry to 
mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and Maui for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 8--Gouania vitifolia--h
    This unit is critical habitat for Gouania vitifolia and is 64 ha 
(158 ac) on private and State (Makua Keaau Forest Reserve) land. This 
unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Gouania vitifolia and is currently occupied by 45 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, sides of ridges or gulches in dry to mesic forests. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hedyotis coriacea--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis coriacea and is 185 ha 
(458 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Hedyotis coriacea and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. It provides habitat for the westernmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep, 
rocky slopes in dry to mesic Dodonaea viscosa dominated shrublands or 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this species in order to 
avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Hedyotis coriacea--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis coriacea and is 164 ha 
(404 ac) on State and private land, containing a portion of Kulepiamoa 
Ridge. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Hedyotis coriacea 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports

[[Page 36040]]

habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. It provides 
habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, steep, rocky slopes in dry to mesic Dodonaea 
viscosa dominated shrublands or forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Hedyotis degeneri--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis degeneri and is 917 ha 
(2,265 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala and Pahole NARs) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for 8 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Hedyotis degeneri and is currently occupied by 
201 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, ridge crests in diverse mesic forest. 
This unit is geographically separated from the other unit designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event. In addition, this unit is extensive enough that one 
catastrophic event would be unlikely to affect habitat for all eight 
populations.
Oahu 4--Hedyotis degeneri--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis degeneri and is 12 ha 
(29 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Hedyotis degeneri and is currently occupied by 6 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, ridge crests in diverse mesic forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Hedyotis parvula--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis parvula and is 387 ha 
(956 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala NAR) land and 
contains a portion of Dupont Trail and Kamaohanui Summit. This unit 
provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Hedyotis parvula and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, cliff faces 
or their bases, rock outcrops, or ledges in mesic habitat. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis parvula and is 8 ha (19 
ac) on State land, containing a portion of Puu Hapapa. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Hedyotis parvula and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, cliff faces 
or their bases, rock outcrops, or ledges in mesic habitat. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis parvula and is 95 ha 
(236 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and private 
(Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing a portion of Puu Kaua and Puu 
Kanehoa. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Hedyotis parvula 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, cliff faces 
or their bases, rock outcrops, or ledges in mesic habitat. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hedyotis parvula--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Hedyotis parvula and is 50 ha 
(122 ac) on State and Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) land, 
containing a portion of Palikea Summit. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Hedyotis parvula and is currently occupied by 4 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, cliff faces or their bases, rock outcrops, or ledges in 
mesic habitat. This unit is geographically separated from the other 
three units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arborescens--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arborescens and is 
125 ha (308 ac) on private and State (Kaala NAR) land, containing a 
portion of Kamaohanui Summit. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived 
perennial Hesperomannia arborescens and is currently occupied by 5 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides

[[Page 36041]]

habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, steep slopes, ridge tops, or gulches in lowland wet 
forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Hesperomannia arborescens--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arborescens and is 
589 ha (1,456 ac) on private and State (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred 
Falls State Park, and Kaipapau Forest Reserve) land, containing a 
portion of Sacred Falls. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Hesperomannia arborescens and is currently occupied by 24 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the westernmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes, ridge tops, or gulches in lowland wet forests or shrublands. 
This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arbuscula--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arbuscula and is 
597 ha (1,472 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole and 
Kaala NARs) land. This unit contains no named natural features. This 
unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Hesperomannia arbuscula and is 
currently occupied by 13 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. It 
provides habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, slopes or ridges in dry to wet forest 
dominated by Acacia koa or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 4--Hesperomannia arbuscula--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arbuscula and is 32 
ha (78 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived 
perennial Hesperomannia arbuscula and is currently occupied by 70 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, slopes or ridges in dry to wet forest dominated by Acacia 
koa or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arbuscula and is 
163 ha (402 ac) on Federal, State, and private (Honouliuli Preserve) 
land, containing a portion of Puu Kanehoa. This unit provides habitat 
for one population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-
lived perennial Hesperomannia arbuscula and is currently occupied by 7 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, slopes or ridges in dry to wet forest dominated by Acacia 
koa or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arbuscula and is 25 
ha (60 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing 
a portion of Puu Kaua. This unit, in combination with Oahu 15--
Hesperomannia arbuscula--e, provides habitat for one population of 100 
mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Hesperomannia arbuscula and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. It provides 
habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, slopes or ridges in dry to wet forest dominated by 
Acacia koa or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Hesperomannia arbuscula and is 70 
ha (172 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing 
a portion of Palikea Summit and Palikea Trail. This unit, in 
combination with Oahu 15--Hesperomannia arbuscula--d, provides habitat 
for one population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-
lived perennial Hesperomannia arbuscula and is currently occupied by 12 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, slopes or ridges in dry to wet forest dominated by Acacia 
koa or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.

[[Page 36042]]

Oahu 1--Hibiscus brackenridgei--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Hibiscus brackenridgei and is 78 
ha (193 ac) on State and private land, containing a portion of Peacock 
Flat Trail. This unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Hibiscus 
brackenridgei and is currently occupied by 3 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the westernmost range of 
the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus include, but are 
not limited to, slopes, cliffs, or arid ledges in lowland dry forest or 
shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and Maui for this species 
in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Hibiscus brackenridgei--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Hibiscus brackenridgei and is 560 
ha (1,385 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve) land, 
containing a portion of Puu Iki. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Hibiscus brackenridgei and is currently occupied by 158 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. 
mokuleianus include, but are not limited to, slopes, cliffs, or arid 
ledges in lowland dry forest or shrubland. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Molokai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 5--Hibiscus brackenridgei--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Hibiscus brackenridgei and is 23 
ha (56 ac) on State and private land in the Waianae Kai area. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Hibiscus brackenridgei and is currently occupied by 4 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. molokaiana 
include, but are not limited to, dry shrublands. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Molokai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Isodendrion laurifolium--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion laurifolium and is 
616 ha (1,524 ac) on State (Mokuleai Forest Reserve and Pahole and 
Kaala NARs) land, containing a portion of Dupont Trail. This unit 
provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Isodendrion laurifolium and is 
currently occupied by 19 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, gulch slopes, ravines, or 
ridges in diverse mesic or dry forest dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Acacia koa, Eugenia reinwardtiana, or Diospyros 
sandwicensis. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Isodendrion laurifolium--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion laurifolium and is 62 
ha (154 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Isodendrion laurifolium and is currently occupied by 46 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, gulch slopes, ravines, or ridges in diverse mesic or dry 
forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha, Acacia koa, Eugenia 
reinwardtiana, or Diospyros sandwicensis. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Isodendrion laurifolium--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion laurifolium and is 
277 ha (684 ac) on private and State (Honolulu Watershed Forest 
Reserve) land, containing a portion of Laulaupoe Gulch. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Isodendrion laurifolium and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. It provides habitat for the easternmost range of the 
species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are essential 
for this species include, but are not limited to, gulch slopes, 
ravines, or ridges in diverse mesic or dry forest dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Acacia koa, Eugenia reinwardtiana, or 
Diospyros sandwicensis. This unit is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Isodendrion longifolium-a
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion longifolium and is 
552 ha (1,363 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and 
Kaala NAR) land, containing a portion of Dupont Trail. This unit 
provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Isodendrion longifolium and is 
currently occupied by 40 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently

[[Page 36043]]

considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes or stream banks in mixed mesic or lowland wet Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Isodendrion longifolium--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion longifolium and is 
162 ha (399 ac) on private land. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Isodendrion longifolium and is currently unoccupied. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. It provides 
habitat for the easternmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, steep slopes or stream banks in mixed mesic or 
lowland wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis forest. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 5--Isodendrion pyrifolium--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion pyrifolium and is 30 
ha (74 ac) on State and private land in the Waianae Kai area. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Isodendrion pyrifolium and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. It provides 
habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, bare, rocky hills or wooded ravines in dry 
shrublands. This unit provides is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and Maui 
for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 16--Isodendrion pyrifolium--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion pyrifolium and is 130 
ha (318 ac) on private and State (Nanakuli Forest Reserve) land. This 
unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Isodendrion pyrifolium and is currently unoccupied. 
This unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. It provides 
habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, bare, rocky hills or wooded ravines in dry 
shrublands. This unit provides is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and Maui 
for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 17--Isodendrion pyrifolium--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Isodendrion pyrifolium and is 73 
ha (181 ac) on State (Nanakuli Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Isodendrion pyrifolium and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. It provides 
habitat for the westernmost range of the species. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for this species include, but 
are not limited to, bare, rocky hills or wooded ravines in dry 
shrublands. This unit provides is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and Maui 
for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Labordia cyrtandrae--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Labordia cyrtandrae and is 161 ha 
(397 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve, Kaala NAR, and Waianae Kai 
Forest Reserve) land, containing a portion of Kamaohanui Summit. This 
unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Labordia cyrtandrae and is 
currently occupied by 17 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, shady gulches, slopes, or 
glens in mesic to wet forests and shrublands dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha, Diplopterygium pinnatum, and/or Acacia koa. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Labordia cyrtandrae--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Labordia cyrtandrae and is 595 ha 
(1,473 ac) on private and State (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls 
State Park, and Kaipapau Forest Reserve) land, containing a portion of 
the Koolau Summit Trail. This unit provides habitat for 4 populations 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Labordia cyrtandrae and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, shady gulches, slopes, or glens in mesic to wet forests and 
shrublands dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha, Diplopterygium 
pinnatum, and/or Acacia koa. This unit is geographically separated from 
the other two units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Labordia cyrtandrae--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Labordia cyrtandrae and is 617 ha 
(1,525 ac) on private and State (Waiahole Forest Reserve and Ewa Forest 
Reserve) land, containing a portion of Eleao, Nanaikaalaea, and 
Ulimakoli Summits. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Labordia 
cyrtandrae and is currently occupied by one individual. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an

[[Page 36044]]

extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, shady 
gulches, slopes, or glens in mesic to wet forests and shrublands 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha, Diplopterygium pinnatum, and/or 
Acacia koa. This unit is geographically separated from the other two 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, 
in order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Lepidium arbuscula--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lepidium arbuscula and is 330 ha 
(813 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land, containing a 
portion of Kamaileunu Ridge, Puu Kawiwi, and Puu Kepauala. This unit 
provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Lepidium arbuscula and is 
currently occupied by 51 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, exposed ridge tops and cliff 
faces in mesic and dry vegetation communities. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Lepidium arbuscula--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Lepidium arbuscula and is 118 ha 
(293 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and private 
(Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing a portion of Puu Kaua. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Lepidium arbuscula and is 
currently occupied by 150 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, exposed ridge tops and cliff 
faces in mesic and dry vegetation communities. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Lepidium arbuscula--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Lepidium arbuscula and is 99 ha 
(244 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and State land. This 
unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 
2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Lepidium arbuscula and is currently occupied by 613 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population. 
The habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, exposed ridge tops and cliff 
faces in mesic and dry vegetation communities. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other two units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla and is 139 ha (345 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest 
Reserve) land, containing a portion of Puu Kawiwi. This unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla and is 
currently occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, cliffs, ridges, or slopes in 
dry or mesic shrubland. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other unit designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Lipochaeta lobata var. 
leptophylla and is 534 ha (1,321 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation), State, and private (Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing 
a portion of Palikea Summit, Pohakea Pass, Puu Hapapa, Puu Kanehoa, and 
Puu Kaua. This unit provides habitat for 8 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Lipochaeta lobata 
var. leptophylla and is currently occupied by 144 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, cliffs, ridges, or slopes in dry or mesic shrubland. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other unit designated as critical 
habitat for this island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lipochaeta tenuifolia and is 23 
ha (57 ac) on State (Makua Keaau Forest Reserve) land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 2 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Lipochaeta tenuifolia and is currently occupied by 50 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, ridge tops or bluffs in open areas or protected pockets of 
dry to mesic forest or shrublands. Although we do not believe that 
enough critical habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 
8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other two units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event. In 
addition, this unit is separated from Army lands at Makua Military 
Reservation that provide

[[Page 36045]]

habitat for one population of this species.
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Lipochaeta tenuifolia and is 66 
ha (167 ac) on State (Kaala NAR) land. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Lipochaeta tenuifolia and is currently occupied by 100 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, ridge tops or bluffs in open areas or protected pockets of 
dry to mesic forest or shrublands. Although we do not believe that 
enough critical habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 
8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other two units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event. In 
addition, this unit is separated from Army lands at Makua Military 
Reservation that provide habitat for one population of this species.
Oahu 4--Lipochaeta tenuifolia--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Lipochaeta tenuifolia and is 118 
ha (292 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Lipochaeta tenuifolia and is 
currently occupied by 150 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, ridge tops or bluffs in open 
areas or protected pockets of dry to mesic forest or shrublands. 
Although we do not believe that enough critical habitat currently 
exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this 
species, this unit is geographically separated from the other two units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event. In addition, this unit is separated from 
Army lands at Makua Military Reservation that provide habitat for one 
population of this species.
Oahu 20--Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. 
koolauensis and is 926 ha (2,287 ac) on private and State (Oahu Forest 
National Wildlife Refuge, Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State 
Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, Ewa Forest 
Reserve, and Waiahole Forest Reserve) land, containing a portion of 
Eleao, Puu Kaaumakua, and Puu Pauao Summits, and the Koolau Summit 
Trail. This unit provides habitat for 7 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Lobelia 
gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis and is currently occupied by 247 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, moderate to steep slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha lowland 
wet shrublands or bogs. This unit is extensive and is geographically 
separated from Army lands at Kawailoa Training Area that provide 
habitat for two populations of this species (see ``Analysis of Impacts 
Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts''). It is therefore unlikely that 
all populations would be destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 30--Lobelia monostachya--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia monostachya and is 59 ha 
(150 ac) on private and State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) land. 
This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the long-lived perennial Lobelia monostachya and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep, sparsely vegetated 
cliffs in mesic shrubland. Although we do not believe that enough 
critical habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other three units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 32--Lobelia monostachya--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia monostachya and is 47 ha 
(115 ac) on private and State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) land, 
containing a portion of Kulepiamoa, Mauumae, and Wiliwilinui Ridges. 
This unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Lobelia monostachya and is 
currently occupied by 3 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep, sparsely vegetated 
cliffs in mesic shrubland. Although we do not believe that enough 
critical habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other three units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 33--Lobelia monostachya--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia monostachya and is 70 ha 
(174 ac) on private and State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve and 
Waahila Ridge State Park) land, containing a portion of Waahila Ridge. 
This unit provides habitat for one population of 100 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial Lobelia monostachya 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep, 
sparsely vegetated cliffs in mesic shrubland. Although we do not 
believe that enough critical habitat currently exists to reach the 
recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.

[[Page 36046]]

Oahu 35--Lobelia monostachya--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia monostachya and is 493 ha 
(1,217 ac) on private, Federal, and State (Honolulu Watershed Forest 
Reserve) land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit 
provides habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Lobelia monostachya and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep, 
sparsely vegetated cliffs in mesic shrubland. Although we do not 
believe that enough critical habitat currently exists to reach the 
recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Lobelia niihauensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia niihauensis and is 44 ha 
(108 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land, containing a 
portion of Puu Kawiwi. This unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Lobelia niihauensis and is currently occupied by 14 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the easternmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, exposed 
mesic or dry cliffs or ledges. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai for 
this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed 
by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 17--Lobelia niihauensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia niihauensis and is 41 ha 
(102 ac) on State (Nanakuli Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Lobelia niihauensis and is currently occupied by 37 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the easternmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, exposed 
mesic or dry cliffs or ledges. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai for 
this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed 
by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Lobelia oahuensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia oahuensis and is 493 ha 
(1,218 ac) on private, Federal, and State (Oahu Forest National 
Wildlife Refuge, Kahana Valley State Park, Ewa Forest Reserve, and 
Waiahole Forest Reserve) land, containing a portion of Puu Pauao, and 
Eleao, Puu Kaaumakua, Puu Kahuauli, and Puu Keahiakahoe Summits. This 
unit provides habitat for 7 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Lobelia oahuensis and is 
currently occupied by 13 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep slopes on summit cliffs 
in cloudswept wet forests or in lowland wet shrublands that are 
frequently exposed to heavy wind and rain. This unit is rather 
extensive and is geographically separated from the other unit 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species, in 
order to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Lobelia oahuensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Lobelia oahuensis and is 152 ha 
(374 ac) on private and State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve and 
Kuliouou Forest Reserve) land, containing a portion of Kaiawaaunui, 
Konahuanui, and Palike Summits, Mount Olympus, and Puu o Kona. This 
unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Lobelia oahuensis and is 
currently occupied by 38 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, steep slopes on summit cliffs 
in cloudswept wet forests or in lowland wet shrublands that are 
frequently exposed to heavy wind and rain. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species, in order to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Lysimachia filifolia--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Lysimachia filifolia and is 1,512 
ha (3,734 ac) on private, Federal, and State (Hauula Forest Reserve, 
Sacred Falls State Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State 
Park, Waiahole Forest Reserve, and Kaneohe Forest Reserve) land, 
containing a portion of Castle Trail, Keaahala Spring, Nanaikaalaea 
Summit, Nuuanu Pali, Puu Kaaumakua, Puu Kahuauli, Puu Keahiakahoe, Puu 
Pauao, Sacred Falls, Waiahole Ditch, and the Luluku Tunnels. This unit 
provides habitat for 6 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Lysimachia filifolia and is 
currently occupied by 160 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. It 
provides habitat for the easternmost range of the species. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, mossy banks at the base of cliff faces 
within the spray zone of waterfalls or along streams. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated on Kauai for 
this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed 
by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Mariscus pennatiformis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Mariscus pennatiformis and is 166 
ha (410 ac) on State (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reserve) land. 
This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Mariscus pennatiformis and is currently

[[Page 36047]]

unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, mesic and wet Metrosideros 
polymorpha forest and Metrosideros polymorpha-Acacia koa forest. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian 
Islands for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Mariscus pennatiformis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Mariscus pennatiformis and is 171 
ha (421 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Mariscus pennatiformis and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, mesic and wet Metrosideros polymorpha 
forest and Metrosideros polymorpha-Acacia koa forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai, Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 13--Marsilea villosa--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Marsilea villosa and is 10 ha (25 
ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of an unknown number of mature, reproducing individuals of 
the annual Marsilea villosa and is currently occupied by 50 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the 
westernmost range of the species. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, seasonal wetlands in cinder craters, vernal pools 
surrounded by lowland dry forest vegetation, mud flats, and lowland 
grasslands. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 14--Marsilea villosa--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Marsilea villosa and is 7 ha (18 
ac) on State (Lualualei Naval Reservation) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of an unknown number of mature, reproducing individuals of the annual 
Marsilea villosa and is currently occupied by one individual. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the westernmost range of 
the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, seasonal 
wetlands in cinder craters, vernal pools surrounded by lowland dry 
forest vegetation, mud flats, and lowland grasslands. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 28--Marsilea villosa--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Marsilea villosa and is 7 ha (18 
ac) on State land, containing a portion of the flanks of Koko Head 
Crater. This unit, in combination with unit Oahu 29--Marsilea villosa--
d, provides habitat for one population of an unknown number of mature, 
reproducing individuals of the annual Marsilea villosa and is currently 
occupied by 10 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation 
of the species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, seasonal wetlands in cinder craters, 
vernal pools surrounded by lowland dry forest vegetation, mud flats, 
and lowland grasslands. This unit is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 29--Marsilea villosa--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Marsilea villosa and is 5 ha (11 
ac) on State land, containing a portion of the flanks of Koko Head 
Crater. This unit, in combination with unit Oahu 28--Marsilea villosa--
c, provides habitat for one population of an unknown number of mature, 
reproducing individuals of the annual Marsilea villosa and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential for this 
species include, but are not limited to, seasonal wetlands in cinder 
craters, vernal pools surrounded by lowland dry forest vegetation, mud 
flats, and lowland grasslands. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 36--Marsilea villosa--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Marsilea villosa and is 6 ha (14 
ac) on State (Diamond Head State Park) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of an unknown number of mature, reproducing individuals of the annual 
Marsilea villosa and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, seasonal wetlands in cinder craters, vernal pools surrounded by 
lowland dry forest vegetation, mud flats, and lowland grasslands. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 20--Melicope lydgatei--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope lydgatei and is 3,499 ha 
(8,645 ac) on private and State (Ewa Forest Reserve and Keaiwa Heiau 
State Park) land, containing a portion of Puu Uau, and Aiea, Kipapa, 
and Waimano Trails.

[[Page 36048]]

This unit provides habitat for 6 populations of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Melicope lydgatei and is 
currently occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, ridges in mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from Army lands at Kawailoa Training Area that provide 
habitat for five populations of this species, in order to avoid all 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): 
Other Impacts'').
Oahu 4--Melicope pallida--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope pallida and is 855 ha 
(2,110 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala and 
Pahole NARs) land, containing a portion of Dupont Trail. This unit 
provides habitat for 3 populations of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Melicope pallida and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep rock 
faces in lowland dry or mesic forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope pallida and is 174 ha 
(431 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Melicope pallida and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. It provides habitat for the easternmost 
range of the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep 
rock faces in lowland dry or mesic forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope pallida and is 29 ha (71 
ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and State land. This unit 
contains no named natural features. This unit, in combination with unit 
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--d, provides habitat for one population of 
100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Melicope pallida and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, steep rock faces in lowland dry or mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope pallida and is 20 ha (51 
ac) on State and Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) land. This unit, 
in combination with unit Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--c, contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Melicope pallida and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, steep rock faces in lowland dry or mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 15--Melicope pallida--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope pallida and is 243 ha 
(602 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) land. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one population 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Melicope pallida and is currently occupied by one individual. This unit 
is essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. It provides habitat for the easternmost range of 
the species. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, steep rock 
faces in lowland dry or mesic forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Melicope saint-johnii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope saint-johnii and is 244 
ha (604 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and 
private (Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing a portion of Puu Hapapa, 
Puu Kanehoa, and Puu Kaua. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Melicope saint-johnii and is currently occupied by 4 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the conservation of the species because it 
supports an extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for this species include, but are not limited 
to, ridges or gulch bottoms in mesic forest. Although we do not believe 
that enough critical habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other unit designated as critical 
habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Melicope saint-johnii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Melicope saint-johnii and is 214 
ha (529 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State (Nanakuli 
Forest Reserve), and private (Honouliuli Preserve) land, containing a 
portion of Palikea Summit. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 100


[[Continued on page 36049]]


From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
]                         
 
[[pp. 36049-36098]] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Designations 
or Nondesignations of Critical Habitat for 101 Plant Species From the 
Island of Oahu, HI

[[Continued from page 36048]]

[[Page 36049]]

mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial Melicope 
saint-johnii and is currently occupied by 161 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the conservation of the species because it supports an 
extant colony of this species and includes habitat that is necessary 
for the expansion of the present population, which is currently 
considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, ridges 
or gulch bottoms in mesic forest. Although we do not believe that 
enough critical habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 
8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Myrsine juddii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Myrsine juddii and is 950 ha 
(2,347 ac) on private and State (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls 
State Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, and Ewa 
Forest Reserve) land, containing the Koolau Summit Trail. This unit 
provides habitat for 6 populations of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Myrsine juddii and is currently 
occupied by 5,000 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
conservation of the species because it supports an extant colony of 
this species and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population. The habitat features contained in this unit 
that are essential for this species include, but are not limited to, 
ridge crests or gulch slopes in wet forests or shrublands dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of Metrosideros polymorpha and 
Dicranopteris linearis. This unit is extensive and is geographically 
separated from Army lands at Kawailoa and Schofield Barracks that 
provide habitat for four populations of this species (see ``Analysis of 
Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts''). It is therefore 
unlikely that all populations would be destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 3--Neraudia angulata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Neraudia angulata and is 39 ha 
(97 ac) on State (Kaena Point State Park and Kuaokala Forest Reserve) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Neraudia angulata and is currently occupied 
by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for Neraudia 
angulata var. angulata include, but are not limited to, slopes, ledges, 
or gulches in lowland mesic or dry forest. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for Neraudia angulata var. 
dentata include, but are not limited to, cliffs, rock embankments, 
gulches, or slopes in mesic or dry forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species, and from habitat for three populations on 
Army lands at Makua Military Reservation, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Neraudia angulata and is 90 ha 
(222 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole NAR) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Neraudia angulata and is currently occupied 
by one individual. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for Neraudia 
angulata var. angulata include, but are not limited to, slopes, ledges, 
or gulches in lowland mesic or dry forest. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential for Neraudia angulata var. 
dentata include, but are not limited to, cliffs, rock embankments, 
gulches, or slopes in mesic or dry forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species and from habitat for three populations on 
Army lands at Makua Military Reservation, in order to avoid all 
recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Neraudia angulata and is 298 ha 
(736 ac) on State land in the Waianae Kai area. This unit contains no 
named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Neraudia angulata and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the conservation of the species because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential for Neraudia angulata var. angulata include, 
but are not limited to, slopes, ledges, or gulches in lowland mesic or 
dry forest. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for Neraudia angulata var. dentata include, but are not 
limited to, cliffs, rock embankments, gulches, or slopes in mesic or 
dry forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species 
and from habitat for three populations on Army lands at Makua Military 
Reservation, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Neraudia angulata and is 33 ha 
(81 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Neraudia angulata and is currently occupied by one 
individual. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for Neraudia angulata var. angulata 
include, but are not limited to, slopes, ledges, or gulches in lowland 
mesic or dry forest. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for Neraudia angulata var. dentata include, but are not 
limited to, cliffs, rock embankments, gulches, or slopes in mesic or 
dry forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species 
and from habitat for three populations on Army lands at Makua Military 
Reservation, in order to avoid all

[[Page 36050]]

recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Neraudia angulata--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Neraudia angulata and is 40 ha 
(98 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Neraudia angulata and is currently occupied by 40 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for Neraudia angulata var. angulata 
include, but are not limited to, slopes, ledges, or gulches in lowland 
mesic or dry forest. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for Neraudia angulata var. dentata include, but are not 
limited to, cliffs, rock embankments, gulches, or slopes in mesic or 
dry forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species 
and from habitat for three populations on Army lands at Makua Military 
Reservation, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Neraudia angulata--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Neraudia angulata and is 83 ha 
(207 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and State land. This 
unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Neraudia angulata and is currently occupied by 5 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for Neraudia angulata var. angulata 
include, but are not limited to, slopes, ledges, or gulches in lowland 
mesic or dry forest. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential for Neraudia angulata var. dentata include, but are not 
limited to, cliffs, rock embankments, gulches, or slopes in mesic or 
dry forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species 
and from habitat for three populations on Army lands at Makua Military 
Reservation, in order to avoid all recovery populations from being 
destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 3--Nototrichium humile--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Nototrichium humile and is 20 ha 
(51 ac) on State (Kaena Point State Park and Kuaokala Forest Reserve) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Nototrichium humile and is currently occupied 
by 900 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential for this species include, but are not limited to, cliff 
faces, gulches, stream banks, or steep slopes in dry or mesic forest 
often dominated by Sapindus oahunensis or Diopsyros sandwicensis. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Nototrichium humile and is 229 ha 
(568 ac) on private and State (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reserve) 
land, containing a portion of Mokuleia Trail. This unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Nototrichium humile and is currently occupied by 
10 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, cliff faces, gulches, stream banks, or 
steep slopes in dry or mesic forest often dominated by Sapindus 
oahunensis or Diopsyros sandwicensis. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Nototrichium humile and is 236 ha 
(586 ac) on private and State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Kaala NAR) 
land. This unit contains no named natural features. This unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Nototrichium humile and is currently occupied by 
54 individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the 
species because it supports an extant colony of this species and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential for this species 
include, but are not limited to, cliff faces, gulches, stream banks, or 
steep slopes in dry or mesic forest often dominated by Sapindus 
oahunensis or Diopsyros sandwicensis. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Nototrichium humile--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Nototrichium humile and is 30 ha 
(75 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) land. This unit contains 
no named natural features. This unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Nototrichium humile and is currently occupied by 215 
individuals. This unit is essential to the conservation of the species 
because it supports an extant colony of this species and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential for this species include, but are not 
limited to, cliff faces, gulches, stream banks, or steep slopes in dry 
or mesic forest often dominated by Sapindus oahunensis or Diopsyros 
sandwicensis. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Peucedanum sandwicense--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Peucedanum sandwicense and is 76 
ha

[[Page 36051]]

(186 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands, containing Puu 
Kawiwi. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Peucedanum 
sandwicense and is currently occupied by 34 individuals. The unit is 
important to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Peucedanum sandwicense include, but are not limited to, cliffs, slopes, 
or ridges in Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated on Kauai, 
Molokai, and Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 20--Phlegmariurus nutans--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Phlegmariurus nutans and is 1,624 
ha (4,014 ac) on State (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park, 
Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, and Ewa Forest 
Reserve), and private lands. Natural features found in this unit 
include Castle Trail, Puu Kaaumakua, and Puu Pauao. The unit provides 
habitat for 5 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Phlegmariurus nutans and is currently occupied by 
contains 5 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is important for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Phlegmariurus nutans include, but are not 
limited to, tree trunks on open ridges, forested slopes, or cliffs in 
Metrosideros polymorpha-dominated wet forests, on cliffs, in 
shrublands, or in mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated on Kauai for this species in order to 
avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia hirsuta--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia hirsuta and is 113 
ha (282 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve, Kaala NAR, and Waianae 
Kai Forest Reserve) lands. There are no named natural features in this 
unit. This unit contains 4 individuals and provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Phyllostegia hirsuta. The unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is important for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Phyllostegia hirsuta include, but are not 
limited to, steep, shaded slopes, cliffs, ridges, gullies, or stream 
banks in mesic or wet forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or a 
mixture of Metrosideros polymorpha and Dicranopteris linearis. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other three units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia hirsuta--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia hirsuta and is 131 
ha (324 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and 
private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, containing Puu Hapapa and Puu 
Kanehoa. This unit it currently occupied by 50 individuals and provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Phyllostegia hirsuta. The unit is essential to 
the species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia 
hirsuta include, but are not limited to, steep, shaded slopes, cliffs, 
ridges, gullies, or stream banks in mesic or wet forests dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of Metrosideros polymorpha and 
Dicranopteris linearis. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other three units designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia hirsuta--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia hirsuta and is 69 ha 
(171 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit is currently occupied by 2 
individuals and provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Phyllostegia 
hirsuta. The unit is essential to the species' conservation because it 
supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for 
the expansion of the present population, which is currently considered 
nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Phyllostegia hirsuta include, but are not limited to, 
steep, shaded slopes, cliffs, ridges, gullies, or stream banks in mesic 
or wet forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha or a mixture of 
Metrosideros polymorpha and Dicranopteris linearis. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other three units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Phyllostegia hirsuta--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia hirsuta and is 1,004 
ha (2,483 ac) on State (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park, 
and Kaipapau Forest Reserve) and private lands, containing the Koolau 
Summit Trail. This unit is occupied by 39 individuals and provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Phyllostegia hirsuta. The unit is essential to 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia hirsuta include, but 
are not limited to, steep, shaded slopes, cliffs, ridges, gullies, or 
stream banks in mesic or wet forests dominated by Metrosideros 
polymorpha or a mixture of Metrosideros polymorpha and Dicranopteris 
linearis. This unit is geographically separated from the other three 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 57 
ha (141 ac) on State (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reserve) lands. 
There are no named natural features in this unit. This unit is occupied 
by 21 individuals and provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Phyllostegia kaalaensis. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently

[[Page 36052]]

considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential to Phyllostegia kaalaensis include, but are not limited 
to, gulch slopes or bottoms or almost vertical rock faces in mesic 
forest or Sapindus oahuensis forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 
589 ha (1,456 ac) on State (Pahole and Kaala NARs and Mokuleia Forest 
Reserve) lands and contains Dupont Trail. This unit currently occupied 
by an unknown number of individuals and provides habitat for 6 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Phyllostegia kaalaensis. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia kaalaensis include, but 
are not limited to, gulch slopes or bottoms or almost vertical rock 
faces in mesic forest or Sapindus oahuensis forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 
122 ha (304 ac) on State (Kaala NAR, Mokuleia Forest Reserve) and 
private lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The 
unit is currently occupied by 10 individuals and provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Phyllostegia kaalaensis. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia kaalaensis include, but 
are not limited to, gulch slopes or bottoms or almost vertical rock 
faces in mesic forest or Sapindus oahuensis forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 28 
ha (69 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands containing 
Waianae Kai. This unit, combined with Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--
e, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Phyllostegia kaalaensis include, but are not limited to, 
gulch slopes or bottoms or almost vertical rock faces in mesic forest 
or Sapindus oahuensis forest. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other five units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 16 
ha (39 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands containing 
Waianae Kai. This unit is currently occupied by 8 individuals and, 
combined with Oahu 4--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--d, provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Phyllostegia kaalaensis. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia kaalaensis include, but 
are not limited to, gulch slopes or bottoms or almost vertical rock 
faces in mesic forest or Sapindus oahuensis forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia kaalaensis--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is 30 
ha (74 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Phyllostegia kaalaensis and is currently unoccupied. This 
unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
habitat that is important to the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia 
kaalaensis include, but are not limited to, gulch slopes or bottoms or 
almost vertical rock faces in mesic forest or Sapindus oahuensis 
forest. This unit is geographically separated from the other five units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia mollis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia mollis and is 152 ha 
(376 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands containing Puu Kanehoa. 
The unit is currently occupied by 7 individuals and provides habitat 
for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Phyllostegia mollis. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia hirsuta include, but 
are not limited to, steep slopes or gulches in diverse mesic to wet 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from other critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia mollis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia mollis and is 85 ha 
(210 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit is currently occupied by 7 
individuals and provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Phyllostegia 
mollis. This unit is essential to the species' conservation because it 
supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for 
the expansion of the present population, which is currently considered 
nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Phyllostegia hirsuta include,

[[Page 36053]]

but are not limited to, steep slopes or gulches in diverse mesic to wet 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from other critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15-Phyllostegia parviflora--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
lydgatei and is 70 ha (173 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. 
This unit contains no named natural features. The unit provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' conservation because 
it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei include, but are not limited to, 
moderate to steep slopes in mesic forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from other critical habitat designated on Oahu for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia parviflora--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
lydgatei and is 21 ha (51 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. 
There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit is occupied 
by unknown number of individuals and provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei. This unit is essential 
to the species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia 
parviflora var. lydgatei include, but are not limited to, moderate to 
steep slopes in mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from other critical habitat designated on Oahu for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Phyllostegia parviflora--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
lydgatei and is 69 ha (171 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. 
There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit is occupied 
by 50 individuals and provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. lydgatei. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
lydgatei include, but are not limited to, moderate to steep slopes in 
mesic forests. This unit is geographically separated from other 
critical habitat designated on Oahu for this species in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Phyllostegia parviflora--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora and is 1,430 ha (3,534 ac) on State (Hauula Forest Reserve, 
Sacred Falls State Park, Kaipapau Forest Reserve, Kahana Valley State 
Park, Ewa Forest Reserve) and private lands, containing Castle Trail, 
Puu Kaaumakua, Puu Pauao, and the Koolau Summit Trail. The unit is 
occupied by 30 individuals and provides habitat for 6 populations of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Phyllostegia parviflora var. parviflora. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Phyllostegia parviflora var. 
parviflora include, but are not limited to, Metrosideros polymorpha 
mixed lowland wet forest. This unit is geographically separated from 
other critical habitat designated on Oahu for this species in order to 
avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. 
longibracteata and is 15 ha (37 ac) on State lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit, is occupied by 2 individuals 
and, in combination with Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--b, provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Plantago princeps var. longibracteata. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata include, but are not limited to, sides of 
waterfalls or wet rock faces. This unit is geographically separated 
from other critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, 
Molokai, and Maui in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Plantago princeps--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. 
longibracteata and is 52 ha (131 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve 
and Pahole Natural Area Preserve) lands. There are no named natural 
features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 4--Plantago 
princeps--a, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Plantago princeps 
var. longibracteata and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Plantago princeps var. longibracteata 
include, but are not limited to, sides of waterfalls or wet rock faces. 
This unit is geographically separated from other critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Plantago princeps--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. 
longibracteata and is 63 ha (157 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) 
lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Plantago princeps var. 
longibracteata and is currently occupied by 8 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Plantago 
princeps var. longibracteata include, but are not limited to, sides of 
waterfalls or wet rock faces. This unit is

[[Page 36054]]

geographically separated from other critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Plantago princeps--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. princeps 
and is 992 ha (2,450 ac) on Federal (Oahu Forest National Wildlife 
Refuge), State (Ewa Forest Reserve, Waiahole Forest Reserve), and 
private lands, containing Eleao Summit and Kipapa Trail. The unit, in 
combination with Oahu 20--Plantago princeps--e, provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Plantago princeps var. princeps and is currently 
occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Plantago princeps var. princeps include, but 
are not limited to, slopes or ledges in Metrosideros polymorpha lowland 
mesic forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated from 
other critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, 
Molokai, and Maui in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Plantago princeps--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Plantago princeps var. princeps 
and is 297 ha (729 ac) on State (Waiahole Forest Reserve) and private 
lands, containing Nanaikaalaea Summit, Ulimakoli Summit, and Waiahole 
Ditch Tunnel. The unit, in combination with Oahu 20--Plantago 
princeps--d, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Plantago princeps 
var. princeps and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary 
for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to 
reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential to Plantago princeps var. princeps include, but are not 
limited to, slopes or ledges in Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic 
forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated from other 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, 
and Maui in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Platanthera holochila--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Platanthera holochila and is 35 
ha (86 ac) on private lands in the Koolau Mountains. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Platanthera holochila and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat 
that is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on 
Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Platanthera holochila include, but 
are not limited to, Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis wet 
forest or Metrosideros polymorpha mixed shrubland. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Platanthera holochila--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Platanthera holochila and is 165 
ha (407 ac) on Federal (Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge) and State 
(Ewa Forest Reserve and Keaiwa Heiau State Park) lands. There are no 
named natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Platanthera holochila and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat 
that is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on 
Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Platanthera holochila include, but 
are not limited to, Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis wet 
forest or Metrosideros polymorpha mixed shrubland. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Pteris lidgatei and is 1,233 ha 
(3,044 ac) on State (Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park and 
Kaipapau Forest Reserve) and private lands, containing the Castle 
Trail, Sacred Falls, and the Koolau Summit Trail. The unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Pteris lidgatei and is occupied by 2 
individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Pteris lidgatei include, but are not limited 
to, steep stream banks or cliffs in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis forest. This unit is geographically separated 
from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and 
Maui for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Pteris lidgatei and is 289 ha 
(711 ac) on State (Kahana Valley State Park) and private lands, 
containing Puu Kaaumakua. The unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Pteris lidgatei and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to 
the species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary 
for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to 
reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential to Pteris lidgatei include, but are not limited to, steep 
stream banks or cliffs in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris 
linearis forest. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Molokai and Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Pteris lidgatei--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Pteris lidgatei and is 844 ha 
(2,084 ac) on State (Ewa and Waiahole Forest Reserves) and private 
lands, containing Eleao and Nanaikaalaea Summits. The unit provides 
habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the short-lived perennial Pteris lidgatei and is occupied by 4 
individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Pteris lidgatei include, but are not limited 
to, steep stream banks or cliffs in wet Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis forest. This unit is

[[Page 36055]]

geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Molokai and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.

Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--a

    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa and is 7 ha 
(17 ac) on State (Makua Keauu Forest Reserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 6--
Sanicula mariversa--d, provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Sanicula 
mariversa and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Sanicula mariversa include, but are not limited to, well-
drained, dry slopes or rock faces in mesic shrublands or open grassy 
areas. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists 
to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, 
this unit is geographically separated from the other five units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa and is 6 ha 
(15 ac) on State (Kaala NAR) lands, containing Kamaohanui Summit. The 
unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Sanicula mariversa and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Sanicula mariversa include, but are not limited to, well-
drained, dry slopes or rock faces in mesic shrublands or open grassy 
areas. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists 
to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, 
this unit is geographically separated from the other five units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Sanicula mariversa--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa and is 25 ha 
(61 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands, containing Puu 
Kawiwi and Puu Kepauala. The unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Sanicula mariversa and is occupied by 2 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Sanicula 
mariversa include, but are not limited to, well-drained, dry slopes or 
rock faces in mesic shrublands or open grassy areas. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 6--Sanicula mariversa--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa and is 3 ha (8 
ac) on State (Makua Keauu Forest Reserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 6--
Sanicula mariversa--a, provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Sanicula 
mariversa and is occupied by 30 individuals. This unit is essential to 
the species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Sanicula 
mariversa include, but are not limited to, well-drained, dry slopes or 
rock faces in mesic shrublands or open grassy areas. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Sanicula mariversa--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa and is 14 ha 
(34 ac) on private (Honouliui Preserve) lands, containing Puu Hapapa. 
The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Sanicula mariversa and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Sanicula mariversa include, but are not limited to, well-
drained, dry slopes or rock faces in mesic shrublands or open grassy 
areas. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists 
to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, 
this unit is geographically separated from the other five units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Sanicula mariversa--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula mariversa and is 39 ha 
(95 ac) on State and private (Honouliui Preserve) lands, containing Puu 
Kanehoa and Puu Kaua. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Sanicula mariversa and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Sanicula mariversa include, but are not 
limited to, well-drained, dry slopes or rock faces in mesic shrublands 
or open grassy areas. Although we do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, this unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to 
avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Sanicula purpurea--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Sanicula purpurea and is 704 ha 
(1,739 ac) on Federal (Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge), State 
(Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park, Kaipapau Forest 
Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, Ewa Forest Reserve, Waiahole Forest 
Reserve), and private lands, containing Eleao Summit, Puu Kaaumakua, 
Puu Kahuauli, Puu

[[Page 36056]]

Keahiakahoe, Puu Pauao and Koolau Summit Trail. The unit provides 
habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Sanicula purpurea and is occupied by 6 
individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Sanicula purpurea include, but are not 
limited to, open Metrosideros polymorpha mixed montane bogs or 
windswept shrublands within the cloud zone. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated on Maui for this species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 3--Schiedea hookeri--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 22 ha (56 
ac) on State (Kaena Point State Park and Kuaokala Forest Reserve) 
lands. No named natural features are found within this unit. The unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea hookeri is occupied 
by 10 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Schiedea hookeri include, but are not 
limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, rock walls, or ledges in 
diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often with Diospyros hillebrandii, 
Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 710 ha 
(1,755 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole and Kaala NARs) 
lands, containing Dupont Trail. The unit provides habitat for 2 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Schiedea hookeri and is occupied by 3 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea 
hookeri include, but are not limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, 
rock walls, or ledges in diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often 
with Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros 
polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 248 ha 
(612 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands, containing 
Kamaileunu Ridge and Puu Kawiwi. The unit provides habitat for 2 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Schiedea hookeri and is occupied by 57 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present populations, which are currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea 
hookeri include, but are not limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, 
rock walls, or ledges in diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often 
with Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros 
polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Schiedea hookeri--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 31 ha (78 
ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands. No named natural 
features are found within this unit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Schiedea hookeri and is occupied by 50 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea 
hookeri include, but are not limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, 
rock walls, or ledges in diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often 
with Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros 
polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 14 ha (34 
ac) on Federal lands (Lualualei Naval Reservation). There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 15--
Schiedea hookeri--f, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea hookeri 
and is occupied by 10 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Schiedea hookeri include, but are 
not limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, rock walls, or ledges in 
diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often with Diospyros hillebrandii, 
Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 10 ha (25 
ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named natural 
features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 15--Schiedea 
hookeri--e, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea hookeri 
and is occupied by at 63 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Schiedea hookeri include, but are 
not limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, rock walls, or ledges in 
diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often with Diospyros hillebrandii, 
Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros polymorpha. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu for this species in order to avoid all

[[Page 36057]]

recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea hookeri--g
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea hookeri and is 83 ha 
(204 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and private 
lands, containing Puu Kaua. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Schiedea hookeri and is occupied by 42 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea 
hookeri include, but are not limited to, slopes, cliffs or cliff bases, 
rock walls, or ledges in diverse mesic or dry lowland forest, often 
with Diospyros hillebrandii, Diospyros sandwicensis, or Metrosideros 
polymorpha. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Schiedea kaalae--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae and is 426 ha 
(1,051 ac) on State (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reserve) lands. 
There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit provides 
habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the 
short-lived perennial Schiedea kaalae and is occupied by 2 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
an extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the 
expansion of the present population, which is currently considered to 
be nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Schiedea kaalae include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes, cliffs, stream banks, or deep shade in diverse mesic or wet 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Schiedea kaalae--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae and is 134 ha 
(331 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, containing Puu 
Kanehoa. The unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea kaalae 
and is occupied by 8 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered to be nonviable. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea kaalae include, 
but are not limited to, steep slopes, cliffs, stream banks, or deep 
shade in diverse mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae and is 22 ha (53 
ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named natural 
features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Schiedea kaalae and is occupied by 13 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered to be nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea 
kaalae include, but are not limited to, steep slopes, cliffs, stream 
banks, or deep shade in diverse mesic or wet forests. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea kaalae--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae and is 39 ha (97 
ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named natural 
features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Schiedea kaalae and is occupied by one individual. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports occupied 
habitat that is important for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered to be nonviable. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea kaalae include, 
but are not limited to, steep slopes, cliffs, stream banks, or deep 
shade in diverse mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Schiedea kaalae--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae and is 379 ha 
(934 ac) on State (Hanuula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park and 
Kaipapau Forest Reserve) and private lands, containing Sacred Falls. 
The unit provides habitat for 3 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea kaalae and is 
occupied by 15 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered to be nonviable. The habitat features contained in 
this unit that are essential to Schiedea kaalae include, but are not 
limited to, steep slopes, cliffs, stream banks, or deep shade in 
diverse mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other five units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 21--Schiedea kaalae--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kaalae and is 105 ha 
(206 ac) on State (Kahana Valley State Park) and private lands. There 
are no named natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Schiedea kaalae and is occupied by one individual. This 
unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
occupied habitat that is important for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered to be nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea kaalae 
include, but are not limited to, steep slopes, cliffs, stream banks, or 
deep shade in diverse mesic or wet forests. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 1--Schiedea kealiae--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea kealiae and is 193 ha 
(477 ac) on State (Kaena Point State Park and

[[Page 36058]]

Kuaokala Forest Reserve) and private lands, containing Alei Pali, Haili 
Gulch, Mahoe Pali, Manini Pali, Nihoa Gulch, Peacock Flat Trail, Puu 
Pueo, and Uluhulu Gulch. The unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Schiedea kealiae and is occupied by 320 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports occupied 
habitat that is important for the establishment of additional 
populations. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Schiedea kealiae include, but are not limited to, steep 
slopes and cliff faces in dry remnant Erythrina sandwicensis forest. We 
do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the 
recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species.
Oahu 4--Schiedea nuttallii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea nuttallii and is 527 ha 
(1,304 ac) on State (Mokuleia Forest Reserve and Pahole and Kaala NARs) 
lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit 
provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea nuttallii and is 
occupied by 370 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Schiedea 
nuttallii include, but are not limited to, rock walls, forested slopes, 
or steep walls in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic 
forest or Metrosideros polymorpha-Dodonaea viscosa forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on 
Oahu and on Kauai and Molokai in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea nuttallii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea nuttallii and is 141 ha 
(347 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, containing 
Puu Kanehoa. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Schiedea 
nuttallii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Schiedea nuttallii include, but are not limited to, rock 
walls, forested slopes, or steep walls in Acacia koa-Metrosideros 
polymorpha lowland mesic forest or Metrosideros polymorpha-Dodonaea 
viscosa forest. This unit is geographically separated from critical 
habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai and Molokai in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Schiedea nuttallii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Schiedea nuttallii and is 41 ha 
(102 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Schiedea nuttallii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that 
is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Schiedea nuttallii include, but are not 
limited to, rock walls, forested slopes, or steep walls in Acacia koa-
Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forest or Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dodonaea viscosa forest. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai and Molokai in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 1--Sesbania tomentosa--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa and is 101 ha 
(250 ac) on Federal, State (Kaena Point State Park and Kaena Point 
NAR), and private lands. There are no named natural features in this 
unit. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Sesbania tomentosa 
and is occupied by 53 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Sesbania tomentosa include, but are 
not limited to, cliff faces, broken basalt, or sand dunes with rock 
outcrops in Scaevola sericea coastal dry shrubland or Sporobolus 
virginicus mixed grasslands. This unit is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, 
Maui, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Island in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 18--Sesbania tomentosa--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Sesbania tomentosa and is 5 ha 
(12 ac) on State (Mokualula State Seabird Sanctuary) lands that contain 
Mokualula Island. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Sesbania 
tomentosa and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Sesbania tomentosa include, but are not limited to, cliff 
faces, broken basalt, or sand dunes with rock outcrops in Scaevola 
sericea coastal dry shrubland or Sporobolus virginicus mixed 
grasslands. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the 
Northwestern Hawaiian Island in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Silene lanceolata--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Silene lanceolata and is 113 ha 
(281 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands, containing Puu 
Kawiwi. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Silene lanceolata 
and is occupied by 12 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered to be not viable. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential to Silene lanceolata include, 
but are not limited to, cliff faces or ledges of gullies in dry to 
mesic shrubland or cliff communities. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated on Molokai in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Silene perlmanii and is 65 ha 
(162 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and State lands, 
containing Puu Kawiwi. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-

[[Page 36059]]

lived perennial Silene perlmanii and is occupied by at 12 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
an extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the 
expansion of the present population, which is currently considered 
nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Silene perlmanii include, but are not limited to, steep 
rocky slopes in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic 
forest. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists 
to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, 
this unit is geographically separated from the other three units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Silene perlmanii and is 5 ha (12 
ac) on private (Honouluili Preserve) lands. There are no named natural 
features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Silene 
perlmanii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Silene perlmanii include, but are not limited to, steep 
rocky slopes in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic 
forest. Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists 
to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, 
this unit is geographically separated from the other three units 
designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid 
all recovery populations from being destroyed by one naturally 
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Silene perlmanii and is 49 ha 
(124 ac) on State and private lands in the Waianae Mountains. There are 
no named natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for 2 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Silene perlmanii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that 
is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Silene perlmanii include, but are not 
limited to, steep rocky slopes in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha 
lowland mesic forest. Although we do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, this unit is geographically separated from the other 
three units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Silene perlmanii--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Silene perlmanii and is 52 ha 
(130 ac) on private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for 2 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Silene perlmanii and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that 
is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Silene perlmanii include, but are not 
limited to, steep rocky slopes in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha 
lowland mesic forest. Although we do not believe that enough habitat 
currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for 
this species, this unit is geographically separated from the other 
three units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Solanum sandwicense--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Solanum sandwicense and is 104 ha 
(258 ac) on State (Pahole NAR and Mokuleia Forest Reseve) lands. There 
are no named natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat 
for one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Solanum sandwicense and is currently unoccupied. This 
unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Solanum 
sandwicense include, but are not limited to, talus slopes or streambeds 
in open, sunny areas. This unit is geographically separated from 
critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Solanum sandwicense--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Solanum sandwicense and is 146 ha 
(361 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, containing 
Puu Kanehoa. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Solanum 
sandwicense and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Solanum sandwicense include, but are not limited to, talus 
slopes or streambeds in open, sunny areas. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Solanum sandwicense--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Solanum sandwicense and is 78 ha 
(192 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands. There are no 
named natural features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Solanum sandwicense and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that 
is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Solanum sandwicense include, but are not 
limited to, talus slopes or streambeds in open, sunny areas. This unit 
is geographically separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere 
on Oahu and on Kauai for this species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 5--Spermolepis hawaiiensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Spermolepis hawaiiensis and is 21 
ha (53 ac) on State and private lands, containing Kaneana Cave. The 
unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Spermolepis hawaiiensis and is 
occupied by 32 individuals. This unit is essential to the

[[Page 36060]]

species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Spermolepis hawaiiensis include, but 
are not limited to, steep or vertical cliffs or the base of cliffs or 
ridges in coastal dry cliff vegetation. This unit is geographically 
separated from critical habitat designated elsewhere on Oahu and on 
Kauai, Molokai, and Maui for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 31--Spermolepis hawaiiensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Spermolepis hawaiiensis and is 
116 ha (286 ac) on State (Diamond Head State Park) lands, containing 
Kuilei Cliffs. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis and is occupied by 10 individuals. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis include, but are not limited to, steep or 
vertical cliffs or the base of cliffs or ridges in coastal dry cliff 
vegetation. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Kauai, Molokai, and Maui for this 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Stenogyne kanehoana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Stenogyne kanehoana and is 140 ha 
(347 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation), State, and private 
lands (Honouliuli Preserve), containing Puu Hapapa and Puu Kanehoa. The 
unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Stenogyne kanehoana and is 
occupied by 6 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Stenogyne kanehoana include, but are not 
limited to, lowland mesic forest. Although we do not believe that 
enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 
populations for this species, this unit is geographically separated 
from the other unit designated as critical habitat for this island-
endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from being destroyed 
by one naturally occurring catastrophic event. In addition, this unit 
is geographically separated from Army lands at Schofield Barracks that 
provide habitat for two populations of this species.
Oahu 15--Stenogyne kanehoana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Stenogyne kanehoana and is 43 ha 
(107 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, containing 
the Palikea Summit and the Laikea Trail. The unit provides habitat for 
one population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Stenogyne kanehoana and is currently unoccupied. This 
unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
habitat that is necessary for the establishment of additional 
populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Stenogyne 
kanehoana include, but are not limited to, lowland mesic forest. 
Although we do not believe that enough habitat currently exists to 
reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this 
unit is geographically separated from the other unit designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event. In addition, this unit is geographically separated 
from Army lands at Schofield Barracks that provide habitat for two 
populations of this species.
Oahu 4--Tetramolopium filiforme--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium filiforme and is 
111 ha (273 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands, containing 
Puu Kawiwi. The unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Tetramolopium 
filiforme and is occupied by one individual. This unit is essential to 
the species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
populations, which is currently considered nonviable, and the 
establishment of one additional population. The habitat features 
contained in this unit that are essential to Tetramolopium filiforme 
include, but are not limited to, dry cliff faces or ridges in dry or 
mesic forests. We do not believe that enough habitat currently exists 
to reach the recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species. 
However, this unit is geographically separated from Army lands at Makua 
and Schofield that provide habitat for four populations of this 
species, in order to avoid all populations being destroyed by one 
naturally occurring catastrophic event (see ``Analysis of Impacts Under 
Section 4(b)(2): Other Impacts'').
Oahu 4--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is 167 ha (413 ac) on State (Kaala NAR, Mokuleia Forest 
Reserve) lands, containing Kamaohanui Summit. The unit provides habitat 
for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-
lived perennial Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' conservation because 
it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum include, but are not limited to, 
grassy ridgetops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry forests. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is 23 ha (56 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) 
lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is occupied by 8 individuals. This unit is essential to 
the species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and 
includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present 
population, which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat 
features contained in this unit that are essential to Tetramolopium 
lepidotum ssp. lepidotum include, but are not limited to, grassy 
ridgetops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry forests. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat on Oahu for this species in order

[[Page 36061]]

to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is 11 ha (28 ac) on Federal lands (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation), containing Puu Hapapa. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' conservation because 
it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum include, but are not limited to, 
grassy ridgetops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry forests. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is 94 ha (233 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation), State, and private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, 
containing Puu Kanehoa. The unit, in combination with Oahu 15--
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--e, provides habitat for 2 
populations of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum and is currently 
unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' conservation because 
it supports habitat that is necessary for the establishment of 
additional populations on Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum include, but are not limited to, 
grassy ridgetops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry forests. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat on Oahu for this species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is 1 ha (3 ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) 
lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The unit, in 
combination with Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--d, 
provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum. It is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum include, but are 
not limited to, grassy ridgetops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat on Oahu for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is 259 ha (641 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation), State, and private lands, containing Palikea Summit. The 
unit provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. 
lepidotum and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for 
the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum include, but are 
not limited to, grassy ridgetops, slopes, or cliffs in windblown dry 
forests. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat on Oahu for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is 
457 ha (1,129 ac) on State (Sacred Falls State Park, Hauula Forest 
Reserve, and Kaipapau Forest Reserve) and private lands, containing the 
Koolau Summit Trail. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is occupied by 24 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa include, but are not limited to, windswept 
summit ridges, slopes, or gullies in wet or sometimes mesic lowland 
forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is 
235 ha (581 ac) on State (Kahana Valley State Park), and private lands, 
containing Puu Kaaumakua. The unit provides habitat for one population 
of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is occupied by 5 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa include, but are not limited to, windswept 
summit ridges, slopes, or gullies in wet or sometimes mesic lowland 
forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is 
411 ha (1,018 ac) on State (Waiahole Forest Reserve and Ewa Forest 
Reserve) and private lands, containing Eleao Summit. The unit provides 
habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of 
the long-lived perennial Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is occupied by 2 
individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently

[[Page 36062]]

considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that 
are essential to Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa include, but are not limited 
to, windswept summit ridges, slopes, or gullies in wet or sometimes 
mesic lowland forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically 
separated from the other five units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations 
being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is 
362 ha (894 ac) on Federal, State (Waiahole Forest Reserve and Kaneohe 
Forest Reserve), and private lands, containing Puu Kahualuli and Puu 
Keahiakahoe. The unit provides habitat for one population of 100 
mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived perennial 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is occupied by 28 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa include, but are not limited to, windswept 
summit ridges, slopes, or gullies in wet or sometimes mesic lowland 
forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated from the 
other five units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic 
species in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by 
one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is 
152 ha (377 ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) lands, 
containing Konahuanui Summit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 100 mature, reproducing individuals of the long-lived 
perennial Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is occupied by 5 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
an extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the 
expansion of the present population, which is currently considered 
nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa include, but are not limited to, 
windswept summit ridges, slopes, or gullies in wet or sometimes mesic 
lowland forests or shrublands. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other five units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Tetraplasnadra gymnocarpa--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and is 
213 ha (528 ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) and 
private lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The 
unit provides habitat for one population of 100 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the long-lived perennial Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa and 
is occupied by 15 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa include, but are 
not limited to, windswept summit ridges, slopes, or gullies in wet or 
sometimes mesic lowland forests or shrublands. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Trematolobelia singularis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Trematolobelia singularis and is 
86 ha (219 ac) on Federal, State (Waiahole Forest Reserve and Ewa 
Forest Reserve), and private lands, containing Eleao Summit. The unit 
provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Trematolobelia singularis and 
is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Trematolobelia singularis include, but are not limited to, 
steep, windswept cliff faces or slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet shrubland. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other four units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Trematolobelia singularis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Trematolobelia singularis and is 
10 ha (26 ac) on Federal, State, and private lands, containing Puu 
Keahiakahoe. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Trematolobelia singularis and is occupied by 50 individuals. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an extant 
colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the 
present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to 
Trematolobelia singularis include, but are not limited to, steep, 
windswept cliff faces or slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet shrubland. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other four units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 34--Trematolobelia singularis--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Trematolobelia singularis and is 
2 ha (5 ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) and private 
lands, containing Kainawaaunui Summit, Mount Olympus, Palikea Summit, 
and Puu Lanipo. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Trematolobelia singularis and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that 
is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Trematolobelia singularis include, but are 
not limited to, steep, windswept cliff faces or slopes in Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet shrubland. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other four units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being

[[Page 36063]]

destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Trematolobelia singularis--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Trematolobelia singularis and is 
13 ha (33 ac) on State lands, containing Puu Lanihuli. The unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Trematolobelia singularis and 
is occupied by 100 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Trematolobelia singularis include, but are 
not limited to, steep, windswept cliff faces or slopes in Metrosideros 
polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet shrubland. Although we do 
not believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery 
goal of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is 
geographically separated from the other four units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery 
populations from being destroyed by one naturally occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 35--Trematolobelia singularis--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Trematolobelia singularis and is 
26 ha (64 ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) and private 
lands, containing Konahuanui Summit. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Trematolobelia singularis and is occupied by 15 individuals. 
This unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports 
an extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the 
expansion of the present population, which is currently considered 
nonviable. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Trematolobelia singularis include, but are not limited to, 
steep, windswept cliff faces or slopes in Metrosideros polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis lowland wet shrubland. Although we do not 
believe that enough habitat currently exists to reach the recovery goal 
of 8 to 10 populations for this species, this unit is geographically 
separated from the other four units designated as critical habitat for 
this island-endemic species to avoid all recovery populations from 
being destroyed by one naturally occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Urera kaalae--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Urera kaalae and is 53 ha (133 
ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 4--
Urera kaalae--b, provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Urera kaalae and 
is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Urera kaalae include, but are not limited to, slopes or 
gulches in diverse mesic forest. This unit is geographically separated 
from the other five units designated as critical habitat for this 
island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery populations being 
destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Urera kaalae--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Urera kaalae and is 17 ha (43 ac) 
on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) lands. There are no named 
natural features in this unit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 4--
Urera kaalae--a, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Urera kaalae and 
is occupied by 3 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Urera kaalae include, but are not limited 
to, slopes or gulches in diverse mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Urera kaalae and is 224 ha (555 
ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and private (Honouliuli 
Preserve) lands, containing Puu Hapapa and Puu Kanehoa. The unit 
provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Urera kaalae and is occupied 
by 4 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Urera kaalae include, but are not limited 
to, slopes or gulches in diverse mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Urera kaalae and is 35 ha (87 ac) 
on private (Honoliuli Preserve) lands. There are no named natural 
features in this unit. The unit provides habitat for one population of 
300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Urera 
kaalae and is occupied by 7 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Urera kaalae include, but are not 
limited to, slopes or gulches in diverse mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Urera kaalae and is 51 ha (125 
ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval Reservation) and State lands. There are 
no named natural features in this unit. The unit, in combination with 
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--f, provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 
mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Urera 
kaalae and is occupied by 6 individuals. This unit is essential to the 
species' conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes 
habitat that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, 
which is currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Urera kaalae include, but are not 
limited to, slopes or gulches in diverse mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being

[[Page 36064]]

destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Urera kaalae and is 82 ha (202 
ac) on State and private (Honouliuli Preserve) lands, containing 
Palikea Summit. The unit, in combination with Oahu 15--Urera kaalae--e, 
provides habitat for 2 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Urera kaalae and is occupied 
by 31 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Urera kaalae include, but are not limited 
to, slopes or gulches in diverse mesic forest. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 1--Vigna o-wahuensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Vigna o-wahuensis and is 180 ha 
(447 ac) on State (Kaena Point State Park) lands, containing Alau 
Gulch, Alei Pali, Nihoa Gulch, Puu Pueo, and Uluhulu Gulch. The unit 
provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Vigna o-wahuensis and is 
currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Vigna o-wahuensis include, but are not limited to, open 
dry fossil reef, with shrubs or grasses or fairly steep slopes. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui and Kahoolawe for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 24--Vigna o-wahuensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Vigna o-wahuensis and is 4 ha (12 
ac) on State (Mokulua Island State Seabird Sactuary) lands, containing 
the Mokulua Islands. The unit, in combination with Oahu 25--Vigna o-
wahuensis--c, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Vigna o-wahuensis 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Vigna o-wahuensis include, but are not limited to, open 
dry fossil reef with shrubs or grasses or fairly steep slopes. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui and Kahoolawe for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 25--Vigna o-wahuensis--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Vigna o-wahuensis and is 4 ha (9 
ac) on State (Mokulua Island State Seabird Sactuary) lands, containing 
the Mokulua Islands. The unit, in combination with Oahu 24--Vigna o-
wahuensis--b, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Vigna o-wahuensis 
and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports habitat that is necessary for the 
establishment of additional populations on Oahu in order to reach 
recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this unit that are 
essential to Vigna o-wahuensis include, but are not limited to, open 
dry fossil reef with shrubs or grasses or fairly steep slopes. This 
unit is geographically separated from critical habitat designated 
elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui and Kahoolawe for this species in order 
to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-
occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 26--Vigna o-wahuensis--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Vigna o-wahuensis and is 26 ha 
(63 ac) on State (Manana Island State Seabird Sanctuary) lands, 
containing Manana Island. The unit provides habitat for one population 
of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial 
Vigna o-wahuensis and is currently unoccupied. This unit is essential 
to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that is 
necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Vigna o-wahuensis include, but are not 
limited to, open dry fossil reef with shrubs or grasses or fairly steep 
slopes. This unit is geographically separated from critical habitat 
designated elsewhere on Oahu and on Maui and Kahoolawe for this species 
in order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana and is 199 ha (491 ac) on State (Kaala NAR and Mokuleia 
Forest Reserve) lands. There are no named natural features in this 
unit. The unit provides habitat for 4 populations of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat 
that is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on 
Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana include, but are not limited to, dry cliffs, rocky 
ledges, or steep slopes in mesic shrubland or cliff vegetation. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana and is 10 ha (25 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest 
Reserve) lands. There are no named natural features in this unit. The 
unit, in combination with Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana--c, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat 
that is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on 
Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana include, but are not limited to, dry cliffs, rocky 
ledges, or steep slopes in mesic shrubland or cliff vegetation. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 4--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--c
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana and

[[Page 36065]]

is 22 ha (55 ac) on State (Waianae Kai Forest Reserve) lands, 
containing Puu Kawiwi. The unit, in combination with Oahu 4--Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--b, provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and is occupied by 5 
individuals. This unit is essential to the species' conservation 
because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat that is 
necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana 
include, but are not limited to, dry cliffs, rocky ledges, or steep 
slopes in mesic shrubland or cliff vegetation. This unit is 
geographically separated from the other five units designated as 
critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all 
recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 10--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--d
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana and is 6 ha (15 ac) on Federal lands (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation). There are no named natural features in this unit. The 
unit, in combination with Oahu 15--Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana--e, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat 
that is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on 
Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana include, but are not limited to, dry cliffs, rocky 
ledges, or steep slopes in mesic shrubland or cliff vegetation. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--e
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana and is 13 ha (31 ac) on Federal lands (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation). There are no named natural features in this unit. The 
unit, in combination with Oahu 10--Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana--d, provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and is currently unoccupied. This unit 
is essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat 
that is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on 
Oahu in order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained 
in this unit that are essential to Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana include, but are not limited to, dry cliffs, rocky 
ledges, or steep slopes in mesic shrubland or cliff vegetation. This 
unit is geographically separated from the other five units designated 
as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid 
all recovery populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring 
catastrophic event.
Oahu 15--Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana--f
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola chamissoniana ssp. 
chamissoniana and is 29 ha (72 ac) on Federal (Lualualei Naval 
Reservation) and private lands. There are no named natural features in 
this unit. The unit provides habitat for one population of 300 mature, 
reproducing individuals of the short-lived perennial Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana and is occupied by 3 individuals. This 
unit is essential to the species' conservation because it supports an 
extant colony and includes habitat that is necessary for the expansion 
of the present population, which is currently considered nonviable. The 
habitat features contained in this unit that are essential to Viola 
chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana include, but are not limited to, dry 
cliffs, rocky ledges, or steep slopes in mesic shrubland or cliff 
vegetation. This unit is geographically separated from the other five 
units designated as critical habitat for this island-endemic species in 
order to avoid all recovery populations being destroyed by one 
naturally-occurring catastrophic event.
Oahu 20--Viola oahuensis--a
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola oahuensis and is 903 ha 
(2,232 ac) on Federal (Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge), State 
(Hauula Forest Reserve, Sacred Falls State Park, Kaipapau Forest 
Reserve, Kahana Valley State Park, Ewa Forest Reserve, and Waiahole 
Forest Reserve), and private lands, containing Eleao Summit, Puu 
Kahuauli, Puu Keahiakahoe, Puu Pauao, and the Koolau Summit Trail. The 
unit provides habitat for 6 populations of 300 mature, reproducing 
individuals of the short-lived perennial Viola oahuensis and is 
occupied by 67 individuals. This unit is essential to the species' 
conservation because it supports an extant colony and includes habitat 
that is necessary for the expansion of the present population, which is 
currently considered nonviable. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Viola oahuensis include, but are not limited 
to, exposed, windswept ridges of moderate to steep slope in wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis shrublands or 
Metrosideros polymorpha mixed montane bogs in the cloud zone. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other unit designated as critical 
habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.
Oahu 35--Viola oahuensis--b
    This unit is critical habitat for Viola oahuensis and is 74 ha (186 
ac) on State (Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve) lands, containing 
Konahuanui Summit and Mount Olympus. The unit provides habitat for one 
population of 300 mature, reproducing individuals of the short-lived 
perennial Viola oahuensis and is currently unoccupied. This unit is 
essential to the species' conservation because it supports habitat that 
is necessary for the establishment of additional populations on Oahu in 
order to reach recovery goals. The habitat features contained in this 
unit that are essential to Viola oahuensis include, but are not limited 
to, exposed, windswept ridges of moderate to steep slope in wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis shrublands or 
Metrosideros polymorpha mixed montane bogs in the cloud zone. This unit 
is geographically separated from the other unit designated as critical 
habitat for this island-endemic species in order to avoid all recovery 
populations being destroyed by one naturally-occurring catastrophic 
event.

Effects of Critical Habitat Designation

Section 7 Consultation

    Section 7(a) of the Act requires Federal agencies, including the 
Service, to ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or carry out are 
not likely to destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Destruction 
or adverse modification of critical habitat occurs when a Federal 
action directly or indirectly alters critical habitat to the extent 
that it appreciably diminishes the value of critical habitat for the 
conservation of the species. Individuals,

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organizations, States, local governments, and other non-Federal 
entities are affected by the designation of critical habitat when their 
actions occur on Federal lands, require a Federal permit, license, or 
other authorization, or involve Federal funding.
    Section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies, including the 
Service, to evaluate their actions with respect to any species that is 
listed as endangered or threatened and with respect to its critical 
habitat, if any is designated. If a Federal action may affect a listed 
species or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal action agency 
must enter into consultation with us. Through this consultation, the 
action agency would ensure that the permitted actions do not destroy or 
adversely modify critical habitat. Section 7(a)(4) of the Act requires 
Federal agencies (action agency) to confer with us on any action that 
is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a species proposed 
for listing or result in destruction or adverse modification of 
proposed critical habitat. Regulations implementing this interagency 
cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR part 402.
    Regulations at 50 CFR 402.16 require Federal agencies to reinitiate 
formal consultation on previously reviewed actions under certain 
circumstances, including instances where critical habitat is 
subsequently designated and the Federal agency has retained 
discretionary involvement, or control has been retained or is 
authorized by law. Consequently, some Federal agencies may request 
reinitiation of consultation or conferencing with us on actions for 
which formal consultation has been completed, if those actions may 
affect designated critical habitat or adversely modify or destroy 
proposed critical habitat.
    If we issue a biological opinion concluding that a project is 
likely to result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat, we also provide ``reasonable and prudent alternatives'' to the 
project, if any are identifiable. Reasonable and prudent alternatives 
are defined at 50 CFR 402.02 as alternative actions identified during 
consultation that can be implemented in a manner consistent with the 
intended purpose of the action, that are consistent with the scope of 
the Federal agency's legal authority and jurisdiction, that are 
economically and technologically feasible, and that the Director 
believes would avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat. Reasonable and prudent alternatives can vary from slight 
project modifications to extensive redesign or relocation of the 
project. Costs associated with implementing a reasonable and prudent 
alternative are similarly variable.
    Activities on Federal lands that may affect critical habitat of one 
or more of the 99 plant species from Oahu will require section 7 
consultation. Activities on private or State lands requiring a permit 
from a Federal agency, such as a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers (Corps) under section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 
1344 et seq.), the Department of Housing and Urban Development, or a 
section 10(a)(1)(B) permit from us; or some other Federal action, 
including funding (e.g., from the Federal Highway Administration, 
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Emergency Management 
Agency (FEMA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or Department of 
Energy); regulation of airport improvement activities by the FAA; and 
construction of communication sites licensed by the Federal 
Communications Commission (FCC) will also continue to be subject to the 
section 7 consultation process. Federal actions not affecting critical 
habitat and actions on non-Federal lands that are not federally funded, 
authorized, or permitted do not require section 7 consultation.
    Section 4(b)(8) of the Act requires us to briefly describe and 
evaluate in any proposed or final regulation that designates critical 
habitat those activities involving a Federal action that may adversely 
modify such habitat or that may be affected by such designation. We 
note that such activities may also jeopardize the continued existence 
of the species.
    Activities that, when carried out, funded, or authorized by a 
Federal agency, may directly or indirectly destroy or adversely modify 
critical habitat include, but are not limited to:
    (1) Activities that appreciably degrade or destroy the primary 
constituent elements including, but not limited to: Overgrazing; 
maintenance of feral ungulates; clearing or cutting of native live 
trees and shrubs, whether by burning or mechanical, chemical, or other 
means (e.g., woodcutting, bulldozing, construction, road building, 
mining, herbicide application); introducing or enabling the spread of 
nonnative species; and taking actions that pose a risk of fire;
    (2) Activities that alter watershed characteristics in ways that 
would appreciably reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, dynamic 
wetland or other vegetative communities. Such activities may include 
water diversion or impoundment, excess groundwater pumping, 
manipulation of vegetation such as timber harvesting, residential and 
commercial development, and grazing of livestock that degrades 
watershed values;
    (3) Rural residential construction that includes concrete pads for 
foundations and the installation of septic systems in wetlands where a 
permit under section 404 of the Clean Water Act would be required by 
the Corps;
    (4) Recreational activities that appreciably degrade vegetation;
    (5) Mining of sand or other minerals;
    (6) Introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative plant 
species into critical habitat units; and
    (7) Importation of nonnative species for research, agriculture, and 
aquaculture, and the release of biological control agents that would 
have unanticipated effects on the listed species and the primary 
constituent elements of their habitat.
    If you have questions regarding whether specific activities will 
likely constitute adverse modification of critical habitat, contact the 
Field Supervisor, Pacific Islands Ecological Services Field Office (see 
ADDRESSES section). Requests for copies of the regulations on listed 
plants and animals, and inquiries about prohibitions and permits may be 
addressed to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Branch of Endangered 
Species/Permits, 911 N.E. 11th Ave., Portland, OR 97232-4181 (telephone 
503/231-2063; facsimile 503/231-6243).

Analysis of Managed Lands Under Section 3(5)(A)

    The need for ``special management considerations or protections'' 
of the essential habitat features (primary constituent elements) 
included in a designation is required by the definition of critical 
habitat in section 3(5)(A) of the Act. If the primary constituent 
elements are being adequately managed then they do not need ``special 
management considerations or protections.'' Adequate management or 
protection is provided by a legally operative plan that addresses the 
maintenance and improvement of the essential elements and provides for 
the long-term conservation of the species. We consider a plan adequate 
when it (1) provides a conservation benefit to the species (i.e., the 
plan must maintain or provide for an increase in the species' 
population or the enhancement or restoration of its habitat within the 
area covered by the plan); (2) provides assurances that the management 
plan will be implemented (i.e., those

[[Page 36067]]

responsible for implementing the plan are capable of accomplishing the 
objectives, have an implementation schedule and have adequate funding 
for the management plan); and, (3) provides assurances that the 
conservation plan will be effective (i.e., it identifies biological 
goals, has provisions for reporting progress, and is of a duration 
sufficient to implement the plan and achieve the plan's goals and 
objectives). If an area is covered by a plan that meets these criteria, 
it does not constitute critical habitat as defined by the Act because 
the primary constituent elements found there are not considered to be 
in need of special management or protection.
    Currently occupied and historically known sites containing one or 
more of the primary constituent elements considered essential to the 
conservation of these 99 plant species were examined to determine the 
adequacy of special management considerations or protection and, 
consequently, whether such areas meet the definition of critical 
habitat under section 3(5)(A). We reviewed all available management 
information on these plants at these sites, including published reports 
and surveys; annual performance and progress reports; management plans; 
grants; memoranda of understanding and cooperative agreements; DOFAW 
planning documents; internal letters and memos; biological assessments 
and environmental impact statements; and section 7 consultations. We 
reviewed all biological information received during the public comment 
periods, public meeting, and public hearing. When clarification was 
required on the information provided to us, we followed up with a 
telephone contact. We also met with staff from the Oahu District DOFAW 
office to discuss management activities they are conducting on Oahu.
    In determining whether a management plan or agreement provides 
adequate management or protection, we first consider whether that plan 
provides a conservation benefit to the species. We considered the 
following threats and associated recommended management actions:
    (1) The factors that led to the listing of the species, as 
described in the final rules for listing each of the species. Effects 
of clearing and burning for agricultural purposes and of invasive 
nonnative plant and animal species have contributed to the decline of 
nearly all endangered and threatened plants in Hawaii (Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990; Howarth 1985; Loope 1998; Scott et al. 1986; Service 1994, 
1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999; 
Smith 1985; Stone 1985; Vitousek 1992; Wagner et al. 1985).
    Current threats to these species include nonnative grass- and 
shrub-carried wildfire; browsing, digging, rooting, and trampling from 
feral ungulates (including goats, cattle, and pigs); direct and 
indirect effects of nonnative plant invasions, including alteration of 
habitat structure and microclimate; and disruption of pollination and 
gene-flow processes by adverse effects of mosquito-borne avian disease 
on forest bird pollinators, direct competition between native and 
nonnative insect pollinators for food, and predation of native insect 
pollinators by nonnative hymenopteran insects (ants). In addition, 
physiological processes such as reproduction and establishment, 
continue to be negatively affected by fruit- and flower-eating pests 
such as nonnative arthropods, mollusks, and rats, and photosynthesis 
and water transport are affected by nonnative insects, pathogens, and 
diseases. Many of these factors interact with one another, thereby 
compounding effects. Such interactions include nonnative plant 
invasions altering wildfire regimes; feral ungulates carry weeds and 
disturbing vegetation and soils, thereby facilitating dispersal and 
establishment of nonnative plants; and numerous nonnative insect 
species feeding on native plants, thereby increasing their 
vulnerability and exposure to pathogens and disease (Bruegmann et al. 
2001; Cuddihy and Stone 1990; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992; Howarth 
1985; Mack 1992; Scott et al. 1986; Service 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 
1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999; Smith 1985; Tunison et 
al. 1992);
    (2) The recommendations from the HPPRCC in their 1998 report to us 
(``Habitat Essential to the Recovery of Hawaiian Plants''). As 
summarized in this report, recovery goals for endangered Hawaiian plant 
species cannot be achieved without the effective control of nonnative 
species threats, wildfire, and land use changes; and
    (3) The management actions needed for assurance of survival and 
ultimate recovery of these plants. These actions are described in our 
recovery plans for these 99 species (Service 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 
1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999), in the 1998 HPPRCC 
report to us, and in various other documents and publications relating 
to plant conservation in Hawaii (Cuddihy and Stone 1990; Mueller-
Dombois 1985; Smith 1985; Stone 1985; Stone et al. 1992).
    In general, taking all of the above recommended management actions 
into account, the following management actions are important in 
providing a conservation benefit to the species: Feral ungulate 
control; wildfire management; nonnative plant control; rodent control; 
invertebrate pest control; maintenance of genetic material of the 
endangered and threatened plant species; propagation, reintroduction, 
and augmentation of existing populations into areas essential for the 
recovery of the species; ongoing management of the wild, outplanted, 
and augmented populations; maintenance of natural pollinators and 
pollinating systems, when known; habitat management and restoration in 
areas essential for the recovery of the species; monitoring of the 
wild, outplanted, and augmented populations; rare plant surveys; and 
control of human activities/access (Service 1994, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 
1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999). On a case-by-case 
basis, these actions may rise to different levels of importance for a 
particular species or area, depending on the biological and physical 
requirements of the species and the location(s) of the individual 
plants.
    As shown in Table 2, the 99 species of plants are found on Federal, 
State, and private lands on the island of Oahu. Information received in 
response to our public notices; meetings with Oahu District DOFAW 
staff; the May 28, 2002, proposal; public comment periods; and the 
November 19, 2002, public hearing; as well as information in our files, 
indicated that there is limited ongoing conservation management action 
for these plants, except as noted below. Without management plans and 
assurances that the plans will be implemented, we are unable to find 
that the lands in question do not require special management or 
protection.
    The following discussion analyzes current management plans that 
provide a conservation benefit to the species on lands under U.S. Army 
jurisdiction to assess whether they meet the Service's requirements for 
adequate management or protection.
    The Sikes Act Improvements Act of 1997 (Sikes Act) requires each 
military installation that includes land and water suitable for the 
conservation and management of natural resources to complete, by 
November 17, 2001, an Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan 
(INRMP). An INRMP integrates implementation of the military mission of 
the installation with stewardship of the natural resources found there. 
Each INRMP includes an assessment of the ecological needs on the 
installation, including needs to provide for the conservation of listed 
species; a statement of goals and

[[Page 36068]]

priorities; a detailed description of management actions to be 
implemented to provide for these ecological needs; and a monitoring and 
adaptive management plan. We consult with the military on the 
development and implementation of INRMPs for installations with listed 
species. Bases that have completed and approved INRMPs that adequately 
address the needs of the species may not meet the definition of 
critical habitat discussed above, because they may not require special 
management or protection. We would not include these areas in critical 
habitat designations if they meet the following three criteria: (1) A 
current INRMP must be complete and provide a conservation benefit to 
the species, (2) there must be assurances that the conservation 
management strategies will be implemented, and (3) there must be 
assurances that the conservation management strategies will be 
effective, by providing for periodic monitoring and revisions as 
necessary. If all of these criteria are met, then the lands covered 
under the plan would not meet the definition of critical habitat.

Lands Under U.S. Army Jurisdiction

    The Army has six installations under its jurisdiction on Oahu: 
Dillingham Military Reservation (DMR), Kawailoa Training Area (KLOA), 
Kahuku Training Area (KTA), Makua Military Reservation (MMR), Schofield 
Barracks Military Reservation (SBMR), and Schofield Barracks East Range 
(SBER). All of these lands are administered by the Army Garrison, 
Hawaii, for various types of routine military training. The Army has 
completed an INRMP (Army 2002), an Ecosystem Management Plan (Army 
1998), and an Endangered Species Management Plan (Research Corporation 
of Hawaii (RCUH) 1998) for all of the Oahu training areas. These plans 
encompass management actions that will benefit all 76 listed plant 
species for which critical habitat has been proposed on these Army 
lands. They have a completed Wildland Fire Management Plan (WFMP) for 
MMR (Army 2000) and a draft plan which includes the other five 
installations (Army 2003). The goal of the WFMP is to reduce the threat 
of wildfire which adversely affects threatened and endangered species 
on all six installations. The Army also provides monthly and annual 
summary reports (Col. W.E. Ryan III, Army, in litt. 2000-2002; Col. 
F.A. Quintana, Army, in litt. 2002-2003) regarding the natural 
resources management projects performed under the Ecosystems Management 
Program for all six installations (RCUH 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 
2002). These reports provide information on management actions which 
have been implemented and which of these have proven beneficial to 
populations of listed species.
    The INRMP describes specific actions for each installation, 
including anticipated implementation schedules. It includes hundreds of 
ongoing and proposed actions within the time frame of the INRMP 
designed to address the variety of threats faced by these plant species 
at appropriate scales: Species-specific, small areas, watersheds, and 
installation-wide. Examples of management activities directed towards 
the conservation of listed plants and their habitat include: (1) Field 
surveys to identify new populations of threatened and endangered plant 
species in previously unsurveyed areas and areas of suitable habitat; 
(2) development of a web-based system for a rare plant database; (3) 
establishment of a GIS database to store data to be used to monitor 
threatened and endangered plant species; (4) maintenance a GIS database 
updated with results of field surveys; (5) determining effects of 
military actions on threatened and endangered plants species through 
monitoring known populations of threatened and endangered plant 
species; (6) evaluation and determination of plant propagation needs 
and storage facilities; (7) identification of research needs regarding 
pollination biology and establishment of a GIS database to store data 
to be used to monitor threatened and endangered plant species; (8) 
propagation and outplanting of threatened and endangered plant species; 
and (9) creation of a full-time horticulturist position to identify and 
implement management actions for threatened and endangered plant 
species (Army 2002).
    The list of ongoing and proposed actions detailed in the INRMP 
focuses management activities into the areas of wildfire management, 
nonmilitary human land use, feral ungulate control, invasive plant 
control, and other nonnative species control. As an example, some of 
the management actions that address feral ungulate control include: (1) 
The establishment and evaluation of permanent ungulate monitoring 
transects; (2) development and establishment of a GIS database to 
maintain these transect data; (3) implementation of ungulate control 
measures as necessary in areas where there are populations or 
occurrences of threatened and endangered species; (4) evaluation of 
ungulate control efforts to determine if permanent management units are 
required; and (5) monitoring and maintenance of existing fenced units. 
In addition, management actions for control of nonnative plant species 
include: (1) The control and eradication of nonnative incipient plant 
species, particularly in areas where threatened and endangered species 
occur; (2) control of widespread nonnative plant species where they 
threaten native plant communities; and (3) establishment of a GIS 
database for nonnative plant location data, and updating nonnative 
plant location maps to track and prioritize control efforts (Army 
2002).
    The comprehensive list of ongoing and proposed management 
activities detailed in the INRMP addresses each of the management 
actions detailed above that the Service considers are important in 
providing a conservation benefit to the species, therefore, the plan 
provides a conservation benefit to the species.
    In terms of providing assurances that the management plant will be 
implemented, the INRMP provides implementation schedules and identifies 
funding needs for each installation through the year 2006. Examples of 
those programs identified for funding include the Endangered Species 
Management, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Integrity, Watershed Management, 
Conservation Education and Outreach, and Pest Management. The Army has 
committed to increased funding for their wildland fire program to 
ensure proactive fire management that will benefit threatened and 
endangered plant species through increased protection of habitat on 
their lands. They have also committed to continued funding of actions 
that benefit habitat restoration, species stabilization, and threat 
abatement (Anderson, in litt. 2003).
    The plan does provide assurances that the conservation effort will 
be effective. The Army will fund and engage in activities that have 
been demonstrated to benefit threatened and endangered species (e.g., 
ungulate and invasive weed control). In addition to the extensive 
monitoring provisions contained in the INRMP and provided by the 
reporting procedures, the Army has agreed to amend their existing INRMP 
to include additional monitoring of federally listed plants and their 
habitat at all of their Oahu installations to determine the success of 
identified management activities. Based upon this information, 
activities will be revised to provide for the optimum conservation 
benefit to the listed plant species and their habitat (Col. David L. 
Anderson, Army, in litt. 2003). Thus, the Army will monitor the 
effectiveness of its management actions and modify them,

[[Page 36069]]

as necessary, to ensure their effectiveness.
    As all three criteria above have been met, the Service has 
determined that lands on the island of Oahu which fall under U.S. Army 
jurisdiction do not meet the definition of critical habitat in the Act. 
According to the Service's published recovery plans, the major 
extinction threats to Oahu plants involve the persistent and expanding 
presence of alien species and their associated impacts. In general, for 
most of these species there is less relative concern associated with 
Federal activities or proposed development. Recovery of these listed 
species will require active management such as plant propagation and 
reintroduction, management of fire risk, alien species removal, and 
ungulate and rat management. Failure to implement these management 
measures, all of which require active intervention and participation, 
virtually assures the extinction of these species. The Army is carrying 
out many of these actions on their lands, in some cases to a degree 
that surpasses that of other Federal, State, and private landowners in 
Hawaii. We are, therefore, not designating critical habitat on these 
lands. Should the status of these commitments change, the Service will 
reconsider whether these lands meet the definition of critical habitat. 
If the definition is met, we have the authority to propose to amend 
critical habitat to include identified areas at that time (50 CFR 
section 424.14(g)). Although these areas are removed from the final 
critical habitat designation, the number of populations that habitat on 
these installations provides is applied toward the overall conservation 
goal of 8 to10 populations for each species because these lands will be 
managed under the INRMP consistent with recovery goals.

Analysis of Impacts Under Section 4(b)(2)

    Section 4(b)(2) of the Act requires us to designate critical 
habitat on the basis of the best scientific and commercial information 
available, and to consider the economic and other relevant impacts of 
designating a particular area as critical habitat. We may exclude areas 
from critical habitat upon a determination that the benefits of such 
exclusions outweigh the benefits of specifying such areas as critical 
habitat. We cannot exclude such areas from critical habitat when such 
exclusion will result in the extinction of the species concerned.

Economic Impacts

    Following the publication of the proposed critical habitat 
designation on May 28, 2002, a draft economic analysis was prepared to 
estimate the potential direct and indirect economic impacts associated 
with the designation, in accordance with recent decisions in the N.M. 
Cattlegrowers Ass'n v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., 248 F.3d 1277 
(10th Cir. 2001). The draft analysis was made available for review on 
December 26, 2002 (67 FR 78763). Following the close of the comment 
period, an addendum was completed that incorporated public comments on 
the draft analysis and made other changes as necessary. These changes 
were primarily the result of modifications made to the proposed 
critical habitat designation based on biological information received 
during the comment periods. Together, the draft economic analysis and 
the addendum constitute our final economic analysis.
    Our economic analysis evaluated the potential direct and indirect 
economic impacts associated with the proposed critical habitat 
designation for the 99 plant species from the island of Oahu over the 
next 10 years. Direct impacts are those related to consultations under 
section 7 of the Act. They include the cost of completing the section 7 
consultation process and potential project modifications resulting from 
the consultation. Indirect impacts are secondary costs and benefits not 
directly related to operation of the Act. Examples of indirect impacts 
include potential effects to property values, redistricting of land 
from agricultural or urban to conservation, and social welfare benefits 
of ecological improvements.
    The categories of potential direct and indirect costs considered in 
the analysis included the costs associated with: (1) Conducting section 
7 consultations, including incremental consultations and technical 
assistance; (2) modifications to projects, activities, or land uses 
resulting from the section 7 consultations; (3) uncertainty and public 
perceptions resulting from the designation of critical habitat 
including potential effects on property values and potential indirect 
costs resulting from the loss of hunting opportunities and the 
interaction of State and local laws; and (4) potential offsetting 
beneficial costs associated with critical habitat, including 
educational benefits. The most likely economic effects of critical 
habitat designation are on activities funded, authorized, or carried 
out by a Federal agency (i.e., direct costs).
    The analysis in the DEA incorporated two baselines: one that 
addressed the impact of the proposed critical habitat designation that 
may be attributable coextensively to the listing of the species, and 
one that addressed the incremental impact of the proposed designation.
    The Addendum utilizes only the first of the two baselines. Because 
of the uncertainty about the benefits and economic costs resulting 
solely from critical habitat designations, the Service believes that it 
is reasonable to estimate the economic impacts of a designation 
utilizing this single baseline. It is important to note that the 
inclusion of impacts attributable coextensively to the listing does not 
convert the economic analysis into a tool to be used in deciding 
whether or not a species should be added to the Federal list of 
threatened and endangered species.
    The final economic analysis estimates that, over the next 10 years, 
the designation (co-extensive with the listing in some instances) may 
result in potential direct economic effects from implementation of 
section 7 ranging from approximately $8.3 million to $20.3 million in 
quantifiable costs. This is an increase from the range of $1.1 to $2.4 
million in the draft economic analysis. The increase is primarily due 
to revised estimates associated with section 7 consultations on Army 
lands. All other direct costs stay the same or decrease, due primarily 
to the exclusion of proposed units Oahu C, Oahu M, Oahu P, and Oahu V 
from final designation and the significant reduction in size to 
proposed units Oahu A, Oahu G, Oahu L, and Oahu W because they lacked 
the primary constituent elements or were not essential to the 
conservation of the species. Overall, the largest portion of this 
estimate includes Army lands that were proposed as critical habitat but 
have been removed from the final designation. Therefore, the direct 
cost of designating critical habitat for these 99 plant species will be 
far less than this estimate.
    While our final economic analysis includes an evaluation of 
potential indirect costs associated with the designation of critical 
habitat for 99 plant species on Oahu, the reported costs are often 
unquantifiable and discussed in qualitative terms. In general, most of 
the potential indirect effects are thought to have a low probability of 
occurrence. The final economic analysis concludes the probability that 
some land within the Urban and Agricultural Districts would be 
redistricted to Conservation is considered moderate to high. However,

[[Page 36070]]

the analysis concludes it is unlikely that all lands within the Urban 
and Agricultural Districts would be redistricted to Conservation. In 
addition, such redistricting is not expected to have a significant 
economic impact because the land most likely converted to the 
Conservation District are those with a high value for conservation and 
low economic value (i.e., not suitable for development). The final 
economic analysis also discusses economic benefits in qualitative terms 
rather than providing quantitative estimates because of the lack of 
information available to estimate the economic benefits of endangered 
species preservation and ecosystem improvements.
    A more detailed discussion of our economic analysis is contained in 
the draft economic analysis and the addendum. Both documents are 
available for inspection at the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife 
Office (see ADDRESSES section).
    Other than the Army lands discussed below, no critical habitat 
units in the proposed rule were excluded or modified due to a 
determination that the benefits of excluding the lands, taking into 
account the economic and other relevant impacts, exceeded the benefits 
of specifying them as critical habitat.

Other Impacts

    As described in the ``Analysis of Managed Lands Under Section 
3(5)(A)'' section above, based on our evaluation of the adequacy of 
special management and protection that is provided in the Army's Final 
Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Oahu Training 
Areas (Department of the Army 2002) for the plant species addressed in 
this proposal which are found on Army lands, in accordance with section 
3(5)(A)(i) of the Act, we have not included the Army's Dillingham 
Military Reservation (DMR), Kawailoa Training Area (KLOA), Kahuku 
Training Area (KTA), Makua Military Reservation (MMR), Schofield 
Barracks Military Reservation (SBMR), and Schofield Barracks East Range 
(SBER), in this final designation of critical habitat. However, to the 
extent that special management considerations and protection may be 
required for these areas and they, therefore, would meet the definition 
of critical habitat according to section 3(5)(A)(i), they are properly 
excluded from designation under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, based on 
the following analysis.
    As explained below, we believe the benefits of designating critical 
habitat for the 76 species listed above at DMR, KLOA, KTA, MMR, SBMR, 
and SBER are relatively low and outweighed by the benefits of excluding 
these areas from critical habitat. We also have concerns that a 
critical habitat designation may negatively impact the Army's ability 
to effectively carry out a recently proposed training and equipment 
conversion program on Oahu and otherwise adversely impact national 
security.
    The Army's DMR, KLOA, KTA, MMR, SBMR, and SBER are occupied habitat 
for 53 species and unoccupied habitat for 23 species, as referenced 
above. A total of 10,905 hectares (26,946 acres) are excluded from 
final critical habitat; of this total, 6,208 hectares (15,340 acres) 
are considered occupied by one or more listed species, while 4,697 
hectares (11,606 acres) are considered unoccupied. The unoccupied 
habitat is located in the northern portion of the Koolau Mountains.
    According to our published recovery plans, recovery of these 76 
species will require reproducing, self-sustaining populations located 
in a geographic array across the landscape, with population numbers and 
population locations of sufficient robustness to withstand periodic 
threats due to natural disaster or biological threats (Service 1994, 
1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999). 
The highest priority recovery tasks include proactive management such 
as plant propagation and reintroduction, fire control, nonnative 
species removal, and ungulate fencing. Failure to implement these 
active management measures, all of which require voluntary landowner 
support and participation, increases the likelihood that species will 
go extinct or not recover. The Army is undertaking many of these types 
of conservation actions on their lands on Oahu as part of the 
implementation of the INRMP for Oahu Training Areas. These activities, 
which are described in more detail in the ``Analysis of Managed Lands 
Under Section 3(5)(A)'' section, require substantial financial 
obligations by the Army and cooperation with other agencies, 
landowners, and local residents.
    The following analysis describes the likely positive and negative 
impacts of a critical habitat designation on Army lands compared to the 
likely positive and negative impacts of a critical habitat exclusion of 
those lands. The Service paid particular attention to the following 
issues: To what extent a critical habitat designation would confer 
additional regulatory, educational, and social benefits; and to what 
extent would critical habitat interfere with the Army's ongoing 
proactive conservation actions.
(1) Benefits of Designating U.S. Army Lands as Critical Habitat
    The six Army Oahu installations contain habitat essential to the 
conservation of the 76 species listed above. The primary regulatory 
benefit provided by a critical habitat designation on Army lands is the 
requirement under section 7 of the Act that any actions authorized, 
funded, or carried out by the Army would not destroy or adversely 
modify any critical habitat, which includes an evaluation on the 
effects of the action on recovery of the species. Most of the Army 
areas are occupied by listed species and thus section 7 consultation 
would already be required. However, since areas without listed species 
present or without a critical habitat designation do not always receive 
section 7 evaluation (e.g., see 50 CFR 402.12, biological assessments 
are based on a list of species present in the action area), a critical 
habitat designation in unoccupied areas may provide additional 
regulatory benefits.
    The net benefit of this aspect of critical habitat, however, has 
been significantly minimized by the Army's commitment to coordinate 
with the Service on any of its activities that may adversely affect 
areas whether occupied or unoccupied by listed species that are 
considered essential to their conservation (i.e., proposed as critical 
habitat) (Anderson, in litt., March 20, 2003). In fact, for the current 
consultation at the six Oahu installations, the Army is evaluating 
impacts of its ongoing and future training activities on habitat 
considered essential to the conservation, including habitat unoccupied 
by listed species.
    Moreover, the section 7 mandate to avoid destroying critical 
habitat does not extend to requiring plant reintroductions or other 
proactive conservation measures (e.g., ungulate control, etc.) 
considered essential to the conservation of the species. As discussed 
above, the major threat to these species is the persistent and 
expanding presence of alien species. Failure to implement proactive 
management measures such as alien species removal and ungulate and rat 
management, as well as management of fire risk and plant propagation 
and reintroduction, may result in extinction of these species even with 
a critical habitat designation. These actions are, however, included in 
the Army's INRMP for Oahu Training Areas and will provide tangible 
benefits that will

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reduce the likelihood of extinction and increase the chances of 
recovery.
    Another potential benefit of a critical habitat designation on 
these Army lands is the education of the Army and the general public 
concerning the conservation value of these lands. While we believe 
these educational benefits are important for the conservation of these 
species, we believe it has already been achieved through the Army's 
INRMP (for example most of the INRMP's biologically sensitive areas 
overlap with proposed critical habitat), publication of the proposed 
critical habitat rule, the many public and interagency meetings that 
have been held to discuss the proposal, and discussion contained in 
this final rule.
    In sum, the Army will manage for the conservation of all of these 
species through their INRMP process; this management will confer 
significant conservation benefits to the species that would not 
necessarily result from the section 7 consultation process. In 
addition, the Army has agreed to coordinate with the Service on any 
actions that may affect essential habitat areas (whether occupied or 
unoccupied by the listed species) even if these areas are not 
designated as final critical habitat. Taken together, these two 
management commitments by the Army lead the Service to conclude that 
any additional, incremental regulatory benefits provided by a final 
critical habitat designation on Army lands would be relatively small.
(2) Benefits of Excluding U.S. Army Lands from Critical Habitat
    When evaluating the potential negative impacts of a critical 
habitat designation and the potential benefits of excluding Army lands 
from final critical habitat, the Service considered whether critical 
habitat designation would affect Army's military mission on its Oahu 
installations and adversely impact national security.
    As noted above, these plants will need actions that proactively 
remove existing threats and that include propagation and reintroduction 
into unoccupied areas if they are to recover. Neither section 7 
consultations nor a critical habitat designation would necessarily 
result in the implementation of actions needed for recovery of these 
species.
    The Army is engaged in or has committed to engage in a wide variety 
of proactive conservation management activities that are set out in the 
``Analysis of Managed Lands Under Section 3(5)(A)'' section of this 
rule.
    The Service also considered whether a final critical habitat 
designation would negatively impact the Army's military mission and 
thus national security. Overall, the Service believes it has been able 
to work closely and in a positive collaborative fashion with the Army 
to minimize potential negative impacts to the Army's military training 
activities as a consequence of Endangered Species Act regulation.
    However, the 25th Infantry Division (Light) based on Oahu has 
recently been selected to participate in the experimental 
``Transformation'' of its force to a lighter, rapid response force 
known as a Stryker Brigade Combat Team.
    The Army has stated that a final critical habitat designation may 
lead to disruption to training and a delay of construction of required 
training facilities if the Army has to consult on the impacts to newly 
designated critical habitat. The active training areas allow the troops 
to attain skills to respond to enemy fire quickly and accurately and to 
train in offensive operations. The natural and physical attributes of 
the training areas in Hawaii realistically mirror the battlefield 
conditions found in other nations in the Pacific region. As these 
training conditions are not found anywhere else in the continental 
United States, the Army states that it is imperative that the 
utilization of the military training installations in Hawaii not be 
impeded by additional requirements associated with section 7 
consultations on critical habitat designations.
(3) The Benefits of Excluding Army Lands from Critical Habitat Outweigh 
the Benefits of Inclusion
    Based on the above considerations, and in accordance with section 
4(b)(2) of the Act, we have determined that the benefits of excluding 
the Army's Oahu training areas from critical habitat due to adverse 
impacts to national security and other relevant factors, as set forth 
above, outweigh the benefits of including these lands in critical 
habitat for the 76 species listed above. We acknowledge that the 
benefits for either inclusion or exclusion of Army lands appear to be 
relatively limited. Therefore, we have carefully weighed the relative 
benefits of each option.
    Although these areas within Army lands are removed from the final 
critical habitat designation, the Service still considers them 
essential to the conservation of these species. The number of 
populations that the habitat on these installations provides is applied 
towards the overall recovery goal of 8 to 10 populations for each 
species (see discussion below), and it is anticipated that these lands 
will be managed under the Army's INRMP for Oahu Training Areas 
consistent with the conservation goals for these species.
(4) Exclusion of This Unit Will Not Cause Extinction of the Species
    For both the 44 endemic and the 32 multi-island species, it is the 
Service's conclusion that the Army's mission and management plans 
(e.g., INRMP) will provide more net conservation benefits than would be 
provided if these areas were designated as critical habitat. These 
management plans, which are described above, will provide tangible 
proactive conservation benefits that will reduce the likelihood of 
extinction for the listed plants in these areas of Oahu and increase 
their likelihood of recovery. Further, the majority of these areas are 
already occupied by 53 of the 76 species and thereby benefit from the 
section 7 protections of the Act. The Army has agreed to coordinate 
with the Service on any actions that may adversely affect habitat in 
remaining unoccupied areas that are essential to the conservation of 
these species. The exclusion of these areas will not increase the risk 
of extinction to any of these species, and it may increase the 
likelihood these species will recover by encouraging other landowners 
to implement discretionary conservation activities as the Army has 
done.
    In addition, critical habitat is being designated on other areas of 
Oahu for all 44 of the endemic species, and critical habitat has been 
designated elsewhere on Oahu, and/or designated or proposed on other 
islands, for the remaining 32 multi-island species consistent with the 
guidance in recovery plans. These other designations identify 
conservation areas for the maintenance and expansion of the existing 
populations.
    In sum, the above analysis concludes that the exclusion of these 
lands will not cause extinction and should in fact improve the chances 
of recovery for all 76 species.

Lands Under U.S. Navy Jurisdiction

    The U.S. Navy (Navy) manages several areas which contain proposed 
critical habitat: Naval Magazine Pearl Harbor Lualualei Branch and 
Naval Computer and Telecommunication Area Master Station Pacific 
Transmitting Facility at Lualualei. The following discussion explains 
why portions of these Navy areas are included in final critical 
habitat.
    The U.S. Navy owns or leases much of Lualualei Valley, which is 
operated as a naval magazine and transmitting facility. One listed 
species, Marsilea villosa, occurs on land at the Naval Computer and 
Telecommunications

[[Page 36072]]

Area Master Station Pacific Radio Transmitting Facility at Lualualei. 
The Navy regularly mows this area, which benefits the species by 
keeping the grasses from taking over the habitat (HINHP Database 2001; 
Navy 2001a; Navy 2001c). Twenty-three species, Abutilon sandwicense, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Bonamia menziesii, Chamaesyce kuwaleana, Diellia 
falcata, Flueggea neowawraea, Hedyotis parvula, Lepidium arbuscula, 
Lipochaeta lobata, Lipochaeta tenuifolia, Lobelia niihauensis, Marsilea 
villosa, Melicope saint-johnii, Neraudia angulata, Nototrichium humile, 
Phyllostegia hirsuta, Plantago princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea 
hookeri, Tetramolopium filiforme, Tetramolopium lepidotum, Urera 
kaalae, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, are reported from 
lands at the Naval Magazine Pearl Harbor Lualualei Branch (HINHP 
Database 2001; Navy 2001b; Navy 2001d). One fenced exclosure at the 
Halona management area has been erected to protect Abutilon sandwicense 
from feral ungulates, and another exclosure at Puu Hapapa protects 
Abutilon sandwicense, Bonamia menziesii, Fleuggea neowawraea, 
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla, and Nototrichium humile from 
browsing by feral ungulates. Other management actions include some 
monitoring of rare plants, surveying for rare plants, and controlling 
some invasive plants in rare plant habitats (The Traverse Group 1988; 
Navy 1997, 2001a, 2001b; Navy 2001c; Navy 2001d).
    The Service conducted an analysis for U.S. Navy lands similar to 
that described above for Army lands. We were not able to exclude Navy 
lands from final critical habitat for the following reasons:
    [sbull] The Navy's INRMP fails to address 17 of the 20 listed 
species for which critical habitat has been proposed on Navy lands. 
Therefore, absent explicit beneficial management plans for these 
species, and absent a reasonable likelihood that such plans for these 
species will be funded and implemented in the future, the Service 
cannot identify compelling conservation benefits that temper the 
regulatory benefits of a critical habitat designation on these Navy 
lands.
    [sbull] Since the time critical habitat was first proposed on Navy 
lands, the Service has worked closely with Navy staff to scientifically 
refine the proposed critical habitat. The changes from the proposed 
critical habitat to final critical habitat reflect our attempt to 
ensure that we have included on those lands that contain features 
essential to the species or, if unoccupied, are themselves essential to 
the conservation of the species. In doing so, we have also been able to 
minimize the potential for negative impacts to military activities. 
Therefore, at this time we cannot identify any relevant negative 
impacts to the Navy's military mission as a consequence of this 
critical habitat designation.
    In conclusion, the Service believes that it is necessary to include 
these Navy lands in final critical habitat when the above factors are 
considered. The Navy is an important partner of the Service and, as 
described above, is carrying out some conservation activities on Oahu 
for some of these listed plant species. The current Navy management 
practices for the areas that are designated as critical habitat, 
including mowing and fire suppression, are consistent with the 
conservation of the listed plants and maintenance of their habitat. For 
example, Navy mowing has benefitted listed species by keeping grasses 
from taking over their habitat. Similarly, Navy fire management 
practices, such as restricting access, can further the conservation of 
listed plants. Although some areas on Navy lands are included in the 
final critical habitat designation, the Service will consider amending 
this critical habitat designation if new information becomes available 
regarding potential impacts to military readiness, or if there is a 
change in Navy INRMP planning and implementation that was not 
previously considered and that addresses the conservation needs of 
these species. For one listed species, Marsilea villosa, occurs on land 
at the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area Master Station 
Pacific Radio Transmitting Facility at Lualualei. The Navy regularly 
mows this area, which benefits the species by keeping the grasses from 
taking over the habitat (HINHP Database 2001; Navy 2001a; Navy 2001c).

Taxonomic Changes

    At the time we listed Hibiscus brackenridgei, Phyllostegia 
parviflora, and Mariscus pennatiformis, we followed the taxonomic 
treatments in Wagner et al. (1990), the widely used and accepted Manual 
of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Subsequent to the final listings for 
these three species, we became aware of new taxonomic treatments for 
these species. Also, the recently published book Hawaii's Ferns and 
Fern Allies (Palmer 2003) has changed the family name for Ctenitis 
squamigera (from Aspleniaceae to Dryopteridaceae). Due to the court-
ordered deadlines, we are required to publish this final rule to 
designate critical habitat on Oahu before we can prepare and publish a 
notice of taxonomic changes for these four species. We will prepare a 
taxonomic change notice for these four species after we have published 
the final critical habitat designations on Oahu.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review

    In accordance with Executive Order 12866, the Office of Management 
and Budget (OMB) has determined that this critical habitat designation 
is not a significant regulatory action. This rule will not have an 
annual economic effect of $100 million or more or adversely affect any 
economic sector, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, or 
other units of government. This designation will not create 
inconsistencies with other agencies' actions or otherwise interfere 
with an action taken or planned by another agency. It will not 
materially affect entitlements, grants, user fees, loan programs, or 
the rights and obligations of their recipients. Finally, this 
designation will not raise novel legal or policy issues. Accordingly, 
OMB has not formally reviewed this final critical habitat designation.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (as amended by the Small 
Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 1996), 
whenever a Federal agency is required to publish a notice of rulemaking 
for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make available for 
public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that describes the 
effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small 
organizations, and small governmental jurisdictions). However, no 
regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of the agency 
certifies that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on 
a substantial number of small entities. SBREFA amended the RFA to 
require Federal agencies to provide a statement of the factual basis 
for certifying that a rule will not have a significant economic impact 
on a substantial number of small entities.
    Based on the information in our economic analysis (draft economic 
analysis and addendum), we are certifying that the critical habitat 
designation for 99 Oahu plant species will not have a significant 
effect on a substantial number of small entities because a substantial 
number of small

[[Page 36073]]

entities are not affected by the designation.
    Federal courts and Congress have indicated that an RFA/SBREFA 
analysis may be limited to entities directly subject to the 
requirements of the regulation (Service 2002). As such, entities not 
directly regulated by the listing or critical habitat designation are 
not considered in this section of the analysis.
    Small entities include small organizations, such as independent 
nonprofit organizations, and small governmental jurisdictions, 
including school boards and city and town governments that serve fewer 
than 50,000 residents, as well as small businesses. Small businesses 
include manufacturing and mining concerns with fewer than 500 
employees, wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, 
retail and service businesses with less than $5 million in annual 
sales, general and heavy construction businesses with less than $27.5 
million in annual business, special trade contractors doing less than 
$11.5 million in annual business, and agricultural businesses with 
annual sales less than $750,000. The RFA/SBREFA defines ``small 
governmental jurisdiction'' as the government of a city, county, town, 
school district, or special district with a population of less than 
50,000. By this definition, Honolulu County is not a small governmental 
jurisdiction because its population was 876,156 in 2000. Although 
certain State agencies, such as DLNR, Department of Agriculture (DOA), 
and Department of Transportation (DOT), may be affected by the critical 
habitat designation, State governments are not considered small 
governments, for the purposes of the RFA. To determine if potential 
economic impacts to these small entities are significant, we consider 
the types of activities that might trigger regulatory impacts under 
this rule as well as the types of project modifications that may 
result. In general, the term ``significant economic impact'' is meant 
to apply to a typical small business firm's business operations.
    To determine if the rule would affect a substantial number of small 
entities, we consider the number of small entities affected within 
particular types of economic activities (e.g., housing development, 
grazing, oil and gas production, timber harvesting, etc.). We apply the 
``substantial number'' test individually to each industry to determine 
if certification is appropriate. SBREFA does not explicitly define 
either ``substantial number'' or ``significant economic impact.'' 
Consequently, to assess whether a ``substantial number'' of small 
entities is affected by this designation, this analysis considers the 
relative number of small entities likely to be impacted in the area. 
Similarly, this analysis considers the relative cost of compliance on 
the revenues/profit margins of small entities in determining whether or 
not entities incur a ``significant economic impact.'' Only small 
entities that are expected to be directly affected by the designation 
are considered in this portion of the analysis. This approach is 
consistent with several judicial opinions related to the scope of the 
RFA (Mid-Tex Electric Co-op Inc. v. F.E.R.C., 249 U.S. App. D.C. 64, 
773 F.2d 327 (1985) and American Trucking Associations, Inc. v. U.S. 
E.P.A., 175 F.3d 1027, 336 U.S.App.D.C. 16 (D.C.Cir., May 14, 1999)).
    The primary projects and activities that might be affected by the 
designation that could affect small entities include ranching 
operations and conservation projects. Based on our draft economic 
analysis and addendum, there were 100 cattle livestock operations in 
Honolulu County in 2000. The combined cattle sales of all of these 
operations in 2000 was about $556,000 (State Department of Agriculture 
2002). Since this implies average annual cattle sales per business of 
$9,267, it is likely that all or almost all of the Honolulu County 
cattle operations meet the definition of a small business (annual sales 
less than $750,000). Thus, our draft economic analysis concluded that 
the proposed critical habitat designation might affect a half dozen out 
of 100 (or 12 percent) of the small businesses in the cattle industry 
in Honolulu County.
    The actual impacts of the final rule will be even smaller. The 
final rule designates less land used for ranching as critical habitat. 
In turn, both the number of affected ranches and the number of Section 
7 consultations involving ranching will be lower. As discussed in the 
addendum, the final designation could have a negative impact on about 
three ranches (about three percent of the total ranches on Oahu). These 
estimates were based on the proposed designations. However, this final 
rule designates 22,767 hectares (56,258 acres) less than had been 
proposed, or a 49 percent reduction.
    These conclusions are supported by the history of consultations on 
Oahu. Since these 99 plant species were listed (between 1991 and 1996), 
we have conducted 2 formal consultations and 24 informal consultations, 
in addition to consultations on Federal grants to State wildlife 
programs that do not affect small entities. The two formal 
consultations were conducted on behalf of the Army, for review of the 
``Biological Assessment for Programmatic Section 7 Consultation on 
Routine Military Training at Makua Military Reservation, and Makua 
Endangered Species Mitigation Plan.'' Thirty-nine of the 99 species, 
Alectryon macrococcus, Abutilon sandwicense, Alsinidendron obovatum, 
Bonamia menziesii, Cenchrus agrimonioides, Chamaesyce celastroides var. 
kaenana, Chamesyce herbstii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana, Cyanea longiflora, 
Cyanea superba, Cyrtandra dentata, Delissea subcordata, Diellia 
falcata, Dubautia herbstobatae, Euphorbia haeleeleana, Flueggea 
neowawraea, Hedyotis degeneri, Hedyotis parvula, Hesperomannia 
arbuscula, Hibiscus brackenridgei, Lepidium arbuscula, Lipochaeta 
tenuifolia, Lobelia niihauensis, Lobelia oahuensis, Neraudia angulata, 
Nototrichium humile, Peucedanum sandwicense, Phyllostegia kaalaensis, 
Plantago princeps, Sanicula mariversa, Schiedea hookeri, Schiedea 
kaalae, Schiedea nuttallii, Silene lanceolata, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, 
Tetramolopium filiforme, and Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana, 
were reported from the action area. We conducted 24 informal 
consultations with the Army, U.S. Air Force, Navy, FAA, Department of 
Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Land and Natural 
Resources Division of State Parks, Hawaii Army National Guard, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 
and U.S. Department of Energy.
    None of these consultations affected or concerned small entities. 
We have determined that the State of Hawaii and Honolulu County are not 
small entities. The Army, Navy, NRCS, Corps, FCC, Department of 
Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, FAA, FEMA, Dole Food 
Company, local television stations, and cellular, paging, and wireless 
services are not small entities. In 21 of the 24 informal 
consultations, we concurred with each agency's determination that the 
project, as proposed, was not likely to adversely affect listed 
species. We initiated formal consultation for the remaining three. For 
both formal consultations, we found that routine military training at 
Makua Military Reservation, which included an indepth list of 
conservation measures the Army would carry out in the action area, was 
not likely to jeopardize listed species.
    For these reasons, we are certifying that the designation of 
critical habitat

[[Page 36074]]

for Abutilon sandwicense, Adenophorus periens, Alectryon macrococcus, 
Alsinidendron obovatum, Alsinidendron trinerve, Bonamia menziesii, 
Cenchrus agrimonioides, Centaurium sebaeoides, Chamaesyce celastroides 
var. kaenana, Chamaesyce deppeana, Chamaesyce herbstii, Chamaesyce 
kuwaleana, Chamaesyce rockii, Colubrina oppositifolia, Ctenitis 
squamigera, Cyanea acuminata, Cyanea crispa, Cyanea grimesiana ss