[Federal Register: June 12, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 113)]
[Page 31686-31690]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]



Fish and Wildlife Service

Request for Information and Recommendations on Species To 
Consider for Changes to the CITES Appendices

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Request for information.


SUMMARY: In order to implement the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Parties to the 
Treaty periodically meet to review which species in international trade 
should be regulated, and other aspects of implementation of the treaty. 
We have been informed that the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the 
Parties to CITES (COP12) will be held in November 2002, in Santiago, 
Chile. We are, therefore, soliciting recommendations for amending 
Appendices I and II of CITES at COP12. We invite information and 
comment from the public on animal and plant species that should be 
considered as candidates for U.S. proposals to amend CITES Appendix I 
or II. Such amendments may concern the addition of species to Appendix 
I or II, the transfer of species from one Appendix to another, or the 
removal of species from Appendix II. We are also seeking information 
and comment from the public on the biological and trade status of 
selected species identified at the end of this notice.

DATES: We will consider all information and comments received by August 
13, 2001.

ADDRESSES: Send correspondence concerning this request pertaining to 
species amendments to: Chief, Division of Scientific Authority; U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Room 750; 
Arlington, Virginia 22203-1610, or via E-mail to: fw9ia--dsa@fws.gov. 
Comments and materials received will be available for public inspection 
by appointment from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, at the 
Division of Scientific Authority.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Susan Lieberman, Chief, Division 
of Scientific Authority, phone 703-358-1708, fax 703-358-2276, E-mail: 



    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora, (hereinafter referred to as CITES or the Convention), 
is an international treaty designed to control and regulate 
international trade in certain animal and plant species that are now or 
potentially may become threatened with extinction. These species are 
listed in the Appendices to CITES. You may obtain copies of the list of 
CITES species, and the text of the treaty, from the Division of 
Scientific Authority at the above address, from our web site http://
international.fws.gov/, or from the official CITES Secretariat web site 
at http://www.cites.org/.
    Currently 152 countries, including the United States, are Parties 
(i.e., a country that has acceded to the treaty) to the Convention. The 
treaty states that a biennial meeting of the Conference of the Parties 
will be held to consider amendments to the list of species in 
Appendices I and II, review issues pertaining to CITES implementation, 
make provisions enabling the CITES Secretariat in Switzerland to carry 
out its functions, consider reports presented by the Secretariat, and 
make recommendations for the improved effectiveness of CITES. Any 
country that is a Party to CITES may propose and vote on amendments to 
Appendices I and II (species proposals), resolutions, decisions, 
discussion papers, and agenda items for consideration at biennial 
meetings of the Conference of the Parties. The text of any proposal 
must be submitted to the CITES Secretariat at least 150 days before the 
meeting. The Secretariat must then consult the other Parties and 
appropriate intergovernmental agencies, and communicate their responses 
to all Parties no later than 30 days before the meeting.
    This is the first in a series of Federal Register notices that, 
together with announced public meetings, provide an opportunity for the 
public to participate in the development of the United States 
negotiating positions for the twelfth regular meeting of the Conference 
of the Parties to CITES (COP12). Our regulations governing this public 
process are found in 50 CFR 23.31-23.39. We have been informed that 
COP12 will be held in November 2002, in Santiago, Chile.

Request for Information and Comments

    One of the purposes of this first notice is to solicit information 
that will help us identify species that the United States should 
propose as candidates for addition, removal, or reclassification in the 
CITES Appendices, or to identify issues warranting attention by the 
CITES Nomenclature Committee. This request is not limited to species 
occurring in the United States. Any Party may submit proposals 
concerning animal or plant species occurring in the wild anywhere in 
the world. We encourage the submission of information on species for 
possible inclusion in the Appendices if these species are subject to 
international trade that may be detrimentally impacting the status of 
the species. Complete proposals are not being requested at this time, 
but are always welcome. Rather, we are asking interested persons to 
submit convincing information describing: (1) The status of the 
species, especially trend information; (2) conservation and management 
programs for the species, including the effectiveness of enforcement 
efforts; and (3) the level of domestic as well as international trade 
in the species, especially trend information. Any other relevant 
information can also be provided. References are appreciated.
    The term ``species'' is defined in CITES as ``any species, sub-
species, or geographically separate population thereof.'' Each species 
for which trade is controlled is included in one of three Appendices, 
either as a separate listing or incorporated within the listing of a 
higher taxon. The basic standards for inclusion of species in the 
Appendices are contained in Article II of CITES. Appendix I includes 
species threatened with extinction that are or may be affected by 
trade. Appendix II includes species that, although not necessarily now 
threatened with extinction, may become so unless trade in them is 
strictly controlled. Appendix II also lists species that must be 
subject to regulation in order that trade in other

[[Page 31687]]

CITES-listed species may be brought under effective control. Such 
listings frequently are required because of difficulty in 
distinguishing specimens of currently or potentially threatened species 
from other species at ports of entry. Appendix III includes species 
that any Party country identifies as being subject to regulation within 
its jurisdiction for purposes of preventing or restricting exploitation 
and for which it needs the cooperation of other Parties to control 
trade. Since species are listed in Appendix III unilaterally by any 
country, we are not seeking input on possible U.S. Appendix-III 
listings in this Notice.
    CITES specifies that international trade in any readily 
recognizable part or derivative of animals listed in Appendix I or II, 
or plants listed in Appendix I, is subject to the same conditions that 
apply to trade in the whole organism. With certain standard exclusions 
formally approved by the Parties, the same applies to the readily 
recognizable parts and derivatives of most plant species listed in 
Appendix II. Parts and derivatives usually not included (i.e., not 
regulated) for Appendix-II plants are: Seeds, spores, pollen (including 
pollinia), and seedling or tissue cultures obtained in vitro and 
transported in sterile containers. You may refer to 50 CFR 23.23(d), 
and the October 6, 1995, Federal Register (60 FR 52450) and February 
22, 1996, Federal Register (61 FR 6793) for further exceptions and 
    In 1994, the CITES Parties adopted criteria for inclusion of 
species in Appendices I and II (in Resolution Conf. 9.24). These 
criteria apply to all listing proposals and are available from the 
CITES Secretariat web site (http://www.cites.org/), or upon request 
from the Division of Scientific Authority (see ADDRESSES section 
above). Resolution Conf. 9.24 also established a format for complete 

What Information Should Be Submitted?

    In response to this Notice, to provide us information on species 
subject to international trade for possible proposals to amend the 
Appendices, please include as much of the following information as 
possible in your submission:
    (1) Scientific name and common name;
    (2) Population size estimates (including references if available);
    (3) Population trend information;
    (4) Threats to species status (other than from trade);
    (5) Level/trend of international trade (as specific as possible but 
without a request for new searches of Service records);
    (6) Level/trend in total take from the wild (as specific as 
reasonable); and
    (7) Short summary statement clearly presenting the rationale for 
inclusion in or delisting from one of the Appendices, including which 
of the criteria in Resolution Conf. 9.24 are met.
    If you wish to submit more complete proposals for us to consider, 
please consult Resolution Conf. 9.24 for the format for proposals and a 
detailed explanation of each of the categories. Proposals to transfer a 
species from Appendix I to Appendix II, or to remove a species from 
Appendix II, must also be in accordance with the precautionary measures 
described in Annex 4 of Resolution Conf. 9.24. If you have information 
and comments on species that are potential candidates for CITES 
proposals, we encourage you to contact our Division of Scientific 

What Will We Do With the Information We Receive?

    One important function of the CITES Scientific Authority of each 
country is the monitoring of international trade in plant and animal 
species, and ongoing scientific assessments of the impact of that trade 
on species. For native U.S. species, we monitor trade and export 
permits we authorize, to be assured that trade remains sustainable (for 
Appendix-II species). We also work closely with our States, to be 
assured that species are correctly listed in the CITES Appendices (or 
not listed, if a listing is not warranted). We actively seek 
information about U.S. and foreign species subject to international 
trade. The information submitted will help us monitor trade and its 
impact, as well as help us decide if we should submit or co-sponsor a 
proposal to amend the CITES Appendices. However, there may be species 
that qualify for CITES listing for which we decide not to submit a 
proposal to COP12. Our decision will be based on a number of factors, 
including scientific and trade information, whether or not the species 
is native to the United States and, for foreign species, whether or not 
a proposal is supported or co-sponsored by at least one range country 
for the species. We will consult range countries for foreign species, 
and for species we share with other countries, subsequent to receiving 
and analyzing the information provided by the public. The lists that 
follow includes species that we are considering based on our monitoring 
efforts since COP11. Proposals for some of the species on this list 
were submitted or co-sponsored by the United States at COP11, but were 
not adopted for a number of reasons. We encourage the submission by the 
public of any new scientific or trade information on these species so 
that we can decide if we will re-submit proposals for them (or not). 
Including a species here does not mean that we will necessarily submit 
a proposal for it. For native U.S. species, we will share information 
provided to us with the States, to assist them with their management of 
the species, and to enable a productive State-Federal dialogue on 
whether or not CITES listing would assist the States in the 
conservation of these species.
    There may be species which meet the criteria for CITES Appendix I 
or II but do not appear in the lists below because of inadequate or 
anecdotal information in our records. We will continue to consult with 
other Federal and State agencies, academia, the public, and other 
countries to obtain information on additional species that may qualify 
for CITES listing and will report our findings in subsequent Federal 
Register notices prior to COP12.

What Species Are We Considering for Proposals, and for Which Species 
Are We Requesting Additional Information?

    We solicit information on the biological and trade status of the 
following taxa, and whether or not they meet the CITES criteria for 
listing in Appendix II:

           Species or taxon                          Geographic scope                        Rationale
Poecilotheria spp. (Eastern Hemisphere  India, Sri Lanka.........................  Over-harvest for
 tarantulas).                                                                       international pet trade.
                                                                                    Proposed at COP 11.
Rhincodon typus (whale shark).........  Globally, in tropical and sub-tropical     Vulnerable life history;
                                         waters.                                    unsustainable harvest rates
                                                                                    for international fin
                                                                                    markets. Proposed at COP 11.
Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake)  U.S.A....................................  Possible over-harvest for
                                                                                    skin and pet trades.
                                                                                    Proposed at COP 11, but
Crotalus adamanteus (eastern            U.S.A....................................  Potential for periodic over-
 diamondback rattlesnake).                                                          harvest for skin trade.

[[Page 31688]]

Lampropeltis zonata (California         U.S.A....................................  Possible over-harvest for pet
 mountain kingsnake).                                                               trade; similarity of
                                                                                    appearance issues.
Clemmys guttata (spotted turtle)......  U.S.A....................................  Possible over-harvest for pet
                                                                                    trade and export. Proposed
                                                                                    at COP 11, but not adopted.
Apalone spinifera, A. mutica, A. ferox  U.S.A....................................  Possible over-harvest for
 (North American softshell turtles).                                                international food trade.
Asian freshwater turtles and tortoises  Asia.....................................  Over-harvest for
 (e.g., Carettochelys insculpta,                                                    international food and pet
 Chinemys spp., Chitra spp., Heosemys                                               trades, and similarity of
 spp., Mauremys spp., Amyda                                                         appearance issues.
 cartilagina, Kachuga spp., Orlitia
 borneensis, Pyxidea mouhotii,
 Chelodina spp., Pelochelys spp.).

    We solicit information on the biological and trade status of the 
following species, and whether or not it meets the CITES criteria for 
removal from Appendix II:

                Species                              Geographic scope                        Rationale
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus (orange-      U.S.A....................................  Little international trade
 throated whiptail lizard).                                                         and threat to species in the

    We solicit information on the biological and trade status of the 
following taxa, and whether or not they meet the CITES criteria for 
transfer to or listing in Appendix I:

          Species or taxon                           Geographic scope                          Rationale
Asian freshwater turtles and         Asia...........................................  Over-harvest for
 tortoises (e.g., Callagur                                                             international food and
 borneoensis, Chelodina mccordi,                                                       pet trades, and
 Chitra chitra, Cuora spp.,                                                            similarity of appearance
 Geochelone platynota, Heosemys                                                        issues.
 yuwonoi, Manouria spp.).
Chamaeleo (=Calumma) parsonii        Madagascar.....................................  Possible over-harvest for
 (Parson's chameleon).                                                                 international pet trade.
Pyxis spp. (Madagascar spider        Madagascar.....................................  Over-harvest for
 tortoises) and Erymnochelys                                                           international pet trade.
 madagascariensis (Madagascar big-
 headed turtle).
Corucia zebrata (Solomon Island      Solomon Islands................................  Over-harvest for
 skink).                                                                               international pet trade.
Uromastyx spp. (spiny-tailed         Africa.........................................  Over-harvest of some
 lizards).                                                                             species for international
                                                                                       pet trade.
Cacatua sulphurea (lesser sulphur-   Indonesia......................................  Over-harvest for
 crested cockatoo).                                                                    international pet trade,
                                                                                       and lack of development
                                                                                       of a management plan for
                                                                                       sustainable use.
Manis crassicaudata, M. javanica,    South and Southeast Asia.......................  Over-harvest for
 M. pentadactyla (Asian pangolins).                                                    international skin and
                                                                                       medicinal trade.
Tursiops truncatus ponticus          Black Sea/Sea of Azov population...............  Over-harvest, pollution,
 (bottlenose dolphin).                                                                 habitat degradation.
Moschus spp. (musk deer)...........  Asia (Russian Federation, China, Korea,          Over-harvest for
                                      Mongolia, Himalayan countries).                  international perfume and
                                                                                       medicinal trade.
Saiga tatarica (saiga).............  Asia (Russian Federation and Kazakhstan).......  Over-exploitation for meat
                                                                                       and horns.


    We are seeking additional information on the biological and trade 
status of the following North American cacti, and whether they qualify 
for transfer to Appendix I due to possible unsustainable trade in 
individual species or seeds collected from the wild:

           Species                               Geographic scope                          Current status
Sclerocactus nyensis.........  U.S.A. (Arizona)...................................  Appendix II.
Sclerocactus parviflorus.....  U.S.A. (Nevada)....................................  Appendix II.
Sclerocactus sileri..........  U.S.A. (Arizona)...................................  Appendix II.
Sclerocactus spinosior ssp.    U.S.A. (Nevada, Utah)..............................  Appendix II.

    At COP11 the following plant species were proposed by Switzerland 
on behalf of the Plants Committee for transfer from Appendix I to II or 
for removal from Appendix II. However, these proposals were not adopted 
due to lack of consensus regarding the proposed actions. We are seeking 
additional information on the biological and trade status of the 
following taxa, and whether they qualify for transfer to Appendix II or 
for removal from Appendix II.

[[Page 31689]]

           Species                               Geographic scope                          Current status
Dudleya traskiae (Santa        U.S.A. (California)................................  Appendix I.
 Barbara Dudleya).
Lewisia maguirei (Maguire's    U.S.A. (Nevada)....................................  Appendix II.
Lewisia serrata (Saw-toothed   U.S.A. (California)................................  Appendix II.
Sclerocactus mariposensis....  U.S.A. (Texas).....................................  Appendix I.
Shortia galacifolia (O'conee-  U.S.A. (Appalachian Mountains).....................  Appendix II.

    We are seeking additional biological and trade information on the 
following taxa native to the United States, and whether or not they 
meet the CITES criteria for listing in Appendix II:

      Species or taxon          Geographic scope          Rationale
Cimicifuga (=Actaea)          U.S.A. (Eastern       Suspected over-
 racemosa, C. (=Actaea)        states).              harvest for export.
 americana (black cohosh).
Echinacea spp. (coneflower).  U.S.A. (Eastern and   Suspected over-
                               Midwestern states).   harvest for export.
Olneya tesota (ironwood)....  U.S.A (Arizona and    Suspected
                               California), Mexico.  unsustainable
                                                     harvest in Mexico
                                                     for import to the
                                                     United States.
Sanguinaria canadensis        U.S.A. (Eastern       Suspected over-
 (bloodroot).                  states).              harvest for export.

    We are soliciting additional information on the following species 
native to the United States and Canada that are used in the floral and 
horticulture markets. In particular, we solicit information on the 
biological and trade status of these taxa, and whether or not they meet 
the CITES criteria for listing in Appendix II:

                Species                          Geographic scope
Antitrichia curtipendula (hanging moss)  U.S.A. and Canada (Oregon,
                                          Washington, Alaska, and
                                          British Columbia).
Eurhynchium oreganum (=Kindbergia        U.S.A. and Canada (Oregon,
 oregana) (Oregon beaked moss).           Washington, and British
Hypnum curvifolium, H. impogens (log     U.S.A. (Eastern states).
Isothecium myosuroides (Cat-tail moss).  U.S.A. and Canada (Oregon,
                                          Washington, Alaska, and
                                          British Columbia).
Meteaneckera menziesii (Menzies'         U.S.A. and Canada (Oregon,
 neckera).                                Washington, Alaska, and
                                          British Columbia).
Neckera douglasii (Douglas' neckera)...  U.S.A. and Canada (Oregon,
                                          Washington, and British
Rhytidiadelphus loreus (lanky moss), R.  U.S.A. and Canada (Oregon,
 riquetrus (cat's tail moss).             Washington, Alaska and British
Thuidium delicatum (log moss)..........  U.S.A. (Eastern states).

    We are soliciting additional information on the following species 
native to the United States and Canada that are used in the herbal 
medicinal market. In particular, we solicit information on the 
biological and trade status of these taxa, and whether or not they meet 
the CITES criteria for listing in Appendix II.

                Species                          Geographic scope
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue         U.S.A. and Canada (New
 cohosh).                                 Brunswick).
Dioscorea villosa (wild yam)...........  North and Central America.
Drosera spp. (sundews).................  U.S.A. and Canada.
Ligusticum porteri (osha)..............  U.S.A. (Western states).
Rhamnus (=Frangula) purshiana (cascara   U.S.A. and Canada (Western
 sagrada).                                states and B.C.).
Tricholoma magnivelare (American         U.S.A. (California, Oregon, and
 matsutake mushroom).                     Washington).
Trillium erectum (Beth root)...........  U.S.A. (Eastern states).
Usnea sp. (tree lichen)................  U.S.A.

    We are seeking additional information on the following species not 
native to the United States. In particular, we solicit information on 
the biological and trade status of these taxa, and whether or not they 
meet the CITES criteria for listing in Appendix II.

                   Species                          Geographic scope
Guaiacum coulteri (Guayacan, used for timber)  Mexico.
Taxus chinensis, Taxus celebica, Taxus         Eurasia.
 cuspidata, Taxus fuana, Taxus yunnanensis (a
 tree, used medicinally).
Uncaria guianensis and Uncaria tomentosa       Peru.
 (cat's claw, a medicinal plant).

    We also welcome information and comment from the public on tree 
species. Many trees are traded in large volumes and have high value and 
may, therefore, be of conservation concern.

Future Actions

    The next regular meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP12) 
is expected to be held in November 2002 in Chile, and we have developed 
a tentative schedule to prepare for it. Any proposals to amend Appendix 
I or II must be submitted by the United States to the CITES Secretariat 
150 days prior to the start of COP12 (i.e., in June 2002).

[[Page 31690]]

We are initiating this request for status and trade information on 
species with ample time to seek greater involvement of State wildlife 
and natural resource agencies and the public in the review process. 
Thus, after this initial request for species to consider, the State 
animal and plant conservation agencies will be asked for specific 
status and management information on those native species that warrant 
further consideration. After review of any information received, we 
will make some preliminary decisions and will seek assistance in 
developing more complete proposals during the summer and fall of 2001.
    We plan to publish a Federal Register notice in December 2001 to 
announce tentative species proposals to be submitted by the United 
States and to solicit further information and comments on them, as well 
as to provide summary comments on information provided in response to 
this notice. In January 2002, we plan to hold a public meeting to allow 
for additional input. We will consult all CITES Parties within the 
geographic range of species we are considering proposing for amendments 
to the Appendices by March 2002, so that final proposals will have the 
benefit of their consideration and comments. This is consistent with 
CITES Resolution Conf. 8.21. Another Federal Register notice in July 
2002 will announce our final decisions and those species proposals 
submitted by the United States to the CITES Secretariat.
    Through a series of additional notices in advance of COP12, we will 
solicit recommendations for possible agenda items and resolutions 
designed to improve the implementation of the Convention, inform the 
public about preliminary and final negotiating positions on resolutions 
and amendments to the Appendices proposed by other Parties for 
consideration at COP12, and explain how observer status is obtained for 
non-governmental organizations that plan to attend. We will also 
publish announcements of public meetings expected to be held in January 
2002 and August 2002, to receive public input on U.S. positions 
regarding COP12 issues.
    Authors: This notice was prepared by staff of the Division of 
Scientific Authority.

    Dated: May 22, 2001.
Marshall P. Jones, Jr.,
Acting Director.
[FR Doc. 01-14807 Filed 6-11-01; 8:45 am]