[Federal Register: October 30, 2000 (Volume 65, Number 210)]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Fish and Wildlife Service
50 CFR Part 20
Migratory Bird Hunting; Approval of Tungsten-Nickel-Iron Shot as
Nontoxic for Hunting Waterfowl and Coots
AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.
ACTION: Proposed rule.
SUMMARY: We propose to approve shot formulated of tungsten, nickel, and
iron as nontoxic for hunting waterfowl and coots. We assessed possible
effects of the tungsten-nickel-iron (t-n-i) shot, and have made a
preliminary determination that it is not a significant threat to
wildlife or their habitats and that further testing of t-n-i shot is
not necessary. In addition, approval of t-n-i shot may induce more
waterfowl hunters to switch away from lead shot, reducing lead risks to
species and habitats.
DATES: Comments on the proposed rule must be received no later than
November 29, 2000.
ADDRESSES: You may send comments about this proposal to the Chief,
Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
4401 North Fairfax Drive, Room 634, Arlington, Virginia 22203-1610. You
may inspect comments during normal business hours at the same address.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jon Andrew, Chief, or Dr. George T.
Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, 703-358-1714.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act)
(16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird
treaties between the United States and Great Britain for Canada (1916
and 1996 as amended), Mexico (1936 and 1972 as amended), Japan (1972
and 1974 as amended), and Russia (then the Soviet Union, 1978). These
treaties protect certain migratory birds from take, except as permitted
under the Act. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to
regulate take of migratory birds in the United States. Under this
authority, the Fish and Wildlife Service controls the hunting of
migratory game birds through regulations in 50 CFR part 20.
Since the mid-1970s, we have sought to identify shot that does not
pose a significant toxicity hazard to migratory birds or other
wildlife. Compliance with the use of nontoxic shot has increased over
the last few years (Anderson et al. 2000). We believe that it will
continue to increase with the approval and availability of other
nontoxic shot types. Currently, steel, bismuth-tin, tungsten-iron,
tungsten-polymer, and tungsten-matrix shot are approved as nontoxic. On
September 25, 2000 (65 FR 57586-57588), we published a proposed rule to
grant temporary approval to tin shot. The purpose of this proposed rule
is to approve the use of t-n-i shot in the tested formulation (50%
tungsten, 35% nickel, and 15% iron by weight) for waterfowl and coot
hunting. We propose to amend 50 CFR 20.21 (j), which describes
prohibited types of shot for waterfowl and coot hunting.
On April 9, 1999 (64 FR 17308-17309), we announced receipt of an
application from Standard Resources Corporation (Standard) of Cherry
Hill, New Jersey for nontoxic approval of HEVI-METAL shot in the 50%
tungsten, 35% nickel, 15% iron formulation. The density of the shot in
that formulation is 11.0 grams/cm\3\. The manufacturer believes that
the shot does not need a coating because it is sufficiently
noncorrosive under neutral pH. It is not chemically or physically
altered by firing from a shotgun.
On April 19, 1999 (64 FR 19191), we announced that Standard's
application did not provide sufficient information for us to conclude
that the candidate shot is not a significant danger to migratory birds.
We advised Standard to proceed with additional testing of the candidate
shot. Subsequently, development of HEVI-METAL was transferred to
ENVIRON-Metal, Inc., of Albany, Oregon (Environ-metal), and the shot
was re-named HEVI-SHOT\TM\.
On August 10, 2000, Environ-metal submitted an application for
permanent approval of the t-n-i shot as nontoxic for hunting waterfowl
and coots. The application included a description of the shot, results
and a toxicological report of a preliminary 30-day dosing study of the
toxicity of the shot in game-farm mallards (Ecological Planning and
Toxicology, Inc. [EPT] 1999), and results of a more comprehensive 30-
day acute toxicity study (Brewer and Fairbrother 2000).
Toxicity Information. Tungsten may be substituted for molybdenum in
enzymes in mammals. Ingested tungsten salts reduce growth, and can
cause diarrhea, coma, and death in mammals (e.g. Bursian et al. 1996,
Cohen et al. 1973, Karantassis 1924, Kinard and Van de Erve 1941,
National Research Council 1980, Pham-Huu-Chanh 1965), but elemental
tungsten is virtually insoluble and therefore essentially nontoxic. In
rats, a dietary concentration of 94 parts-per-million (ppm) did not
reduce weight gain in growing rats (Wei et al. 1987). Lifetime exposure
to 5 ppm tungsten as sodium tungstate in drinking water produced no
discernible adverse effects in rats (Schroeder and Mitchener 1975). At
100 ppm tungsten as sodium tungstate in drinking water, rats had
decreased enzyme activity after 21 days (Cohen et al. 1973). These
studies indicate that tungsten salts are very toxic to mammals.
Chickens given a complete diet showed no adverse effects of 250 ppm
sodium tungstate administered for 10 days in the diet. However, 500 ppm
in the diet had detrimental effects on day-old chicks (Teekell and
Watts 1959). Adult hens had reduced egg production and egg weight on a
diet containing 1,000 ppm tungsten (Nell et al. 1981a). EPT (1999)
concluded that 250 ppm in the diet would produce no observable adverse
effects. Kelly et al. (1998) demonstrated no adverse effects on
mallards dosed with tungsten-iron or tungsten-polymer shot according to
nontoxic shot test protocols.
Most toxicity tests reviewed were based on soluble tungsten
compounds rather than elemental tungsten. As we found in our reviews of
other tungsten shot types, we believe that there is no basis for
concern about the toxicity of the tungsten in t-n-i shot to fish,
mammals, or birds.
Nickel is a dietary requirement of mammals, with necessary
consumption set at 50 to 80 parts per billion for the rat and chick
(Nielsen and Sandstead 1974). Though it is necessary for some enzymes,
nickel can compete with
calcium, magnesium, and zinc for binding sites on many enzymes. Water-
soluble nickel salts are poorly absorbed if ingested by rats (Nieboer
et al. 1988). Nickel carbonate caused no treatment effects in rats fed
1,000 ppm for 3 to 4 months (Phatak and Patwardhan 1952). Rats fed
1,000 ppm nickel sulfate for 2 years showed reduced body and liver
weights, an increase in the number of stillborn pups, and decrease in
weanling weights through three generations (Ambrose et al. 1976).
Nickel chloride was even more toxic; 1,000 ppm fed to young rats caused
weight loss in 13 days (Schnegg and Kirchgessner 1976).
Soluble nickel salts can be classified as very toxic to mammals,
with an oral LD50 of 136 mg/kg in mice, and 350 mg/kg in
rats (Fairchild et al. 1977). Nickel catalyst (finely divided nickel in
vegetable oil) fed to young rats at 250 ppm for 16 months, however,
produced no detrimental effects (Phatak and Patwardhan 1952).
In chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age, 300 ppm nickel as nickel
carbonate or nickel acetate in the diet produced no observed adverse
effects. However, concentrations of 500 ppm or more reduced growth
(Weber and Reid 1968). A diet containing 200 ppm nickel as nickel
sulfate had no observed effects on mallard ducklings from 1 to 90 days
of age. Diets of 800 ppm or more caused significant changes in physical
condition of the ducklings (Cain and Pafford 1981). Eastin and O'Shea
(1981) observed no apparent significant changes in pairs of breeding
mallards fed diets containing up to 800 ppm nickel as nickel sulfate
for 90 days.
Iron is an essential nutrient, so reported iron toxicosis in
mammals is primarily a phenomenon of overdosing of livestock. Maximum
recommended dietary levels of iron range from 500 ppm for sheep to
3,000 ppm for pigs (National Research Council [NRC] 1980). Chickens
require at least 55 ppm iron in the diet (Morck and Austic 1981).
Chickens fed 1,600 ppm iron in an adequate diet displayed no ill
effects (McGhee et al. 1965). Turkey poults fed 440 ppm in the diet
suffered no adverse effects. The tests in which eight #4 tungsten-iron
shot were administered to each mallard in a toxicity study indicated
that the 45% iron content of the shot had no adverse effects on the
test animals (Kelly et al. 1998).
Environmental Fate: Elemental tungsten and iron are virtually
insoluble in water and do not weather and degrade in the environment.
Tungsten is stable in acids and does not easily form compounds with
other substances. Preferential uptake by plants in acidic soil suggests
uptake of tungsten when it has formed compounds with other substances
rather than when it is in its elemental form (Kabata-Pendias and
Nickel is common in fresh waters, though usually at concentrations
of less than 1 part per billion in locations unaffected by human
activities. Pure nickel is not soluble in water. Free nickel may be
part of chemical reactions, such as sorption, precipitation, and
complexation. Reactions of nickel with anions are unlikely.
Complexation with organic agents is poorly understood (U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] 1980). Water hardness is the
dominant factor governing nickel effects on biota (Stokes 1988).
Environmental Concentrations: Calculation of the estimated
environmental concentration (EEC) of a candidate shot in a terrestrial
ecosystem is based on 69,000 shot per hectare (Bellrose 1959, 50 CFR
20.134). Assuming complete dissolution of the shot, the EEC for
tungsten in soil is 19.3 mg/kg. The EECs for nickel and iron would be
7.7 and 3.3 mg/kg, respectively. The EEC for nickel (the only one of
the three elements with an application limit) is substantially below
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) biosolid application
limit. The 3.3 mg/kg EEC for nickel also is far below the 16 to 35 mg/
kg concentrations suggested as minimum sediment concentrations at which
effects of the metal are likely to occur (EPA 1997, Ingersoll et al.
1996, Long and Morgan 1991; MacDonald et al. 2000, Smith et al. 1996).
The EEC for tungsten from t-n-i shot is below that for the already-
approved tungsten-matrix shot. The EEC for iron is less than 0.01% of
the typical background concentration, and the iron is in an insoluble
Calculation of the EEC in an aquatic ecosystem assumes complete
erosion of the 69,000 shot/hectare in water 1 foot deep. The EECs for
the elements in t-n-i shot in water are 2,348 g/L for
tungsten, 1,643 g/L for nickel, and 704 g/L for iron.
We concluded that a tungsten concentration of 10,500 g/L posed
no threat to aquatic biota (62 FR 4877-4879). The EEC for nickel, if
the shot were completely dissolved, would exceed the EPA acute water
quality criterion of 1,400 g/L in fresh water, and would
greatly exceed the 75 g/L criterion for salt water. However,
tests showed that corrosion of t-n-i shot is negligible in neutral pH
fresh water. Actual tests in water with a pH of 2 showed that the EEC
for nickel would be 83.98 g/L, and in salt water it would be
7.92 g/L; both are far below the EPA criterion of 160
g/L for chronic exposure.
Effects on Birds. Kraabel et al. (1996) surgically embedded
tungsten-bismuth-tin (t-b-t) shot in the pectoralis muscles of ducks to
simulate wounding by gunfire and to test for toxic effects of the shot.
The authors found that t-b-t shot neither produced toxic effects nor
induced adverse systemic effects in the ducks during the 8-week period
of their study.
Nell et al. (1981a) fed laying hens (Gallus domesticus) 0.4 or 1.0
g/kg tungsten in a commercial mash for five months to assess
reproductive performance. Weekly egg production was normal, and
hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected. Exposure of chickens to
large doses of tungsten either through injection or by feeding resulted
in an increased tissue concentration of tungsten and a decreased
concentration of molybdenum (Nell et al. 1981b). The loss of tungsten
from the liver occurred in an exponential manner, with a half-life of
27 hours. The alterations in molybdenum metabolism seemed to be
associated with tungsten intake rather than molybdenum deficiency.
Death due to tungsten occurred when tissue concentrations increased to
25 ppm in the liver. At that concentration, xanthine dehydrogenase
activity was zero.
Toxicity Studies. Ringelman et al. (1993) conducted a 32-day acute
toxicity study that involved dosing game-farm mallards with a shot
alloy which was 39%, 44.5%, and 16.5% by weight, respectively. No dosed
birds died during the trial, and behavior was normal. Post-
euthanization examination of tissues revealed no toxicity or damage
related to shot exposure. Blood calcium differences between dosed and
undosed birds were judged to be unrelated to shot exposure. That study
indicated that tungsten presented little hazard to waterfowl.
Initial analyses of corrosion of t-n-i metal in 0.1N HCl and in
seawater indicated that t-n-i shot is more corrosion resistant than
copper-plated tungsten-iron shot and steel shot, and that it will
release tungsten into the environment more slowly than does tungsten-
iron shot. In addition, only a portion of the tungsten is soluble, and
not all of that is absorbed. Therefore, EPT (1999) suggested that
ingested t-n-i shot should pose minimal risks to migratory birds that
might ingest it.
EPT conducted a preliminary 30-day oral toxicity study of t-n-i
shot that followed the general approach outlined for a short-term acute
toxicity test (50 CFR 20.134). Eight #4 t-n-i shot pellets
were administered to each of three healthy adult male and three healthy
adult female mallards by placing them in a gelatin capsule and placing
the capsule in the bird's gizzard. All of the birds retained seven or
eight of the pellets for the 30-day test period. During that time the
birds behaved normally, and none of them exhibited signs of metal
intoxication. Body weights of the birds did not change significantly
during the test period.
Upon postmortem examination, all body organs looked normal.
Histopathology showed that one of the females had a fatty liver, and
also had elevated liver enzymes. Liver abnormalities due to fatty
changes (accumulation of glycogen or fat) were considered the likely
cause of the problem.
Brewer and Fairbrother (2000) reported on the outcome of more
extensive corrosion/erosion testing of t-n-i shot, and steel and lead
shot. Eight #4 t-n-i shot pellets were administered to each of 20 male
mallards and 20 female mallards by placing the shot in a gelatin
capsule and placing the capsule in the bird's gizzard. The same
procedure was followed for dosing 20 male mallards and 20 female
mallards with 8 #4 steel shot, and for dosing 5 males and 5 females
with 8 #4 lead shot. The birds had been fasting prior to placement of
the gelatin capsules to facilitate movement of the capsule to the
gizzard. During the 30-day test period, the researchers monitored loss
of shot through the digestive system, and they determined retention of
shot in the gizzard upon necropsy. They also carefully monitored food
consumption of the test birds and their health.
No mortality occurred in birds treated with t-n-i shot or steel
shot. Nine of the ten birds dosed with lead died during the test
period. Therefore, most measures of health and measures of shot erosion
were not valid for the lead-dosed group. No significant differences in
body weight changes emerged between the steel shot group and the t-n-i
shot group during the test period.
The evaluation focused on corrosion/erosion of the steel shot and
the t-n-i shot, and associated changes in organs and blood chemistry. A
total of 134 of the t-n-i shot pellets and 138 of the steel shot were
recovered from the gizzards of the test birds after 30 days. T-n-i shot
pellets recovered from gizzards at the end of the test retained an
average of 88.6% of their initial weight; steel pellets retained an
average of 49.7% of their weight.
Histopathological examination of kidney tissues from the 41 ducks
alive at the end of the test period revealed no significant lesions.
Livers also appeared to have been unaffected by steel pellets or t-n-i
shot. Hemoglobin, white blood cell counts, hematocrits, and blood serum
chemistry results did not differ between the steel shot test group and
the t-n-i shot test group, with the exception that the mean for plasma
protein was significantly higher in the t-n-i shot-treated ducks.
Analytical chemistry of liver, kidney, and blood samples showed
some differences between the steel shot and t-n-i shot test groups.
Mean tungsten concentrations in blood, liver, and kidney tissues were
0.24 ppm in the blood, 0.64 ppm in kidney tissue, and 1.65 ppm in liver
tissue. No tungsten was detected in tissues of mallards dosed with
steel shot. Mean nickel concentrations in blood (0.03 ppm), liver (0.09
ppm), and kidney (0.44 ppm) tissues were significantly higher in ducks
dosed with t-n-i shot than in those dosed with steel shot. Mean nickel
concentrations in blood, liver, and kidney tissues of mallards treated
with 800 ppm in the diet for 90 days were 0.139, 0.52, and 1.94 ppm,
respectively (Eastin and O'Shea 1991). Those ducks suffered no apparent
ill effects from their treatment. Mean iron concentrations in the blood
and liver were higher for the ducks dosed with steel shot, but kidney
concentrations did not differ.
EPT (1999) calculated that the mallards studied by Eastin and
O'Shea (1981) consumed approximately 102 mg of nickel each day during
the study. Under the Tier 2 protocol, each test mallard is dosed with 8
#4 shot at 0, 30, 60, and 90 days, which in the case of t-n-i shot
would contain a total of 32 shot, and 2.3 g of nickel per bird. At pH
2, with continual grinding of ingested shot, eight #4 pellets would
lose 0.176 mg of nickel per day. The maximum exposure for a mallard
under such conditions would be 0.704 mg/day, substantially less than
the estimated consumption by mallards in the Eastin and O'Shea study
(EPT 1999). We believe, therefore, that consumption of nickel from t-n-
i shot is unlikely to have detrimental effects on waterfowl.
Ingestion by Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, or Mammals. Based on the
available information and past reviews of tungsten-based shot, we
expect no detrimental effects due to tungsten or iron on animals that
might ingest t-n-i shot. However, we know of no studies of ingestion of
nickel by herpetofauna. In the worst case, assuming complete erosion of
a #4 t-n-i shot pellet equal to that found in a mallard gizzard,
exposure to a vertebrate would be approximately 0.022 mg of nickel per
day if the shot were retained in the animal. The exposure actually
would be substantially less because a shot pellet likely would not be
retained in most animals that might consume one.
Nontoxic Shot Approval
The first condition for nontoxic shot approval is toxicity testing.
Based on the results of the toxicological reports and the toxicity
tests, we preliminarily conclude that t-n-i shot does not pose a
significant danger to migratory birds, other wildlife, or their
The second condition for approval is testing for residual lead
levels. Any shot with a lead level of 1% or more will be illegal. We
determined that the maximum environmentally acceptable level of lead in
shot is 1%, and incorporated this requirement in the nontoxic shot
approval process we published in December 1997 (62 FR 63608-63615).
ENVIRON-Metal, Inc. has documented that t-n-i shot meets this
The third condition for approval involves enforcement. In 1995 (60
FR 43314), we stated that approval of any nontoxic shot would be
contingent upon the development and availability of a noninvasive field
testing device. This requirement was incorporated in the nontoxic shot
approval process. T-n-i shotshells can be drawn to a magnet as a simple
field detection method.
For these reasons, and in accordance with 50 CFR 20.134, we intend
to approve t-n-i shot as nontoxic for migratory bird hunting, and
propose to amend 50 CFR 20.21(j) accordingly. It is based on the
toxicological reports, acute toxicity studies, and assessment of the
environmental effects of the shot. Those results indicate no
deleterious effects of t-n-i shot to ecosystems or when ingested by
waterfowl. Because the testing of t-n-i shot and earlier testing of
shot types containing tungsten and iron indicated no environmental
problems, we do not believe Tier 3 testing of t-n-i shot is necessary.
Public Comments Solicited
Our past experience with nontoxic shot approvals has been that 30
days is sufficient time for those interested in these actions to
comment. Also, tungsten and iron already have been reviewed extensively
for use in nontoxic shot. Therefore, we will accept comments on this
proposal for a 30-day period.
Anderson, W. L., S. P. Havera, and B. W. Zercher. 2000. Ingestion of
lead and nontoxic shotgun pellets by ducks in the
Mississippi flyway. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:848-857.
Ambrose, P., P. S. Larson, J. F. Borzelleca, and G. R. Hennigar, Jr.
1976. Long term toxicologic assessment of nickel in rats and dogs.
Journal of Food Science and Technology 13:181-187.
Bellrose, F. C. 1959. Lead poisoning as a mortality factor in
waterfowl populations. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin
Brewer, L. and A. Fairbrother. 2000. Corrosion/erosion of Hevi-shot
nontoxic shot in mallard duck gizzards. EBA, Inc., Snow Camp, North
Carolina. 152 pages.
Bursian, S. J., M. E. Kelly, R. J. Aulerich, D. C. Powell, and S.
Fitzgerald. 1996. Thirty-day dosing test to assess the toxicity of
tungsten-polymer shot in game-farm mallards. Report to Federal
Cartridge Company. 71 pages.
Cain, B. W. and E. A. Pafford. 1981. Effects of dietary nickel on
survival and growth of mallard ducklings. Archives of Environmental
Contamination and Toxicology 10:737-745.
Cohen, H. J., R. T. Drew, J. L. Johnson, and K. V. Rajagopalan.
1973. Molecular basis of the biological function of molybdenum: the
relationship between sulfite oxidase and the acute toxicity of
bisulfate and SO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Eastin, W. C., Jr. and T. J. O'Shea. 1981. Effects of dietary nickel
on mallards. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 7:883-
Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc. 1999. Application for
approval of t-n-i metalTM nontoxic shot: Tier 1 report.
Cherry Hill, New Jersey. 28 pages plus appendixes.
Fairchild, E. J., R. J. Lewis, and R. L. Tatken (editors). 1977.
Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances, Volume II. Pages
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Publication (NIOSH) 78-104B. 227 pages.
Ingersoll, C. G., P. S. Haverland, E. L. Brunson, T.J. Canfield, F.
J. Dwyer, C. E. Henke, N. E. Kemble, and D. R. Mount. 1996.
Calculation and evaluation of sediment effect concentrations for the
amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius. EPA 905-
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Kabata-Pendias, A. and H. Pendias. 1984. Trace elements in soils and
plants. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL. 315 pages.
Karantassis, T. 1924. On the toxicity of compounds of tungsten and
molybdenum. Annals of Medicine 28:1541-1543.
Kelly, M. E., S. D. Fitzgerald, R. J. Aulerich, R. J. Balander, D.
C. Powell, R. L. Stickle. W. Stevens, C. Cray, R. J. Tempelman, and
S. J. Bursian. 1998. Acute effects of lead, steel, tungsten-iron and
tungsten-polymer shot administered to game-farm mallards. Journal of
Wildlife Diseases 34:673-687.
Kinard, F. W. and J. Van de Erve. 1941. The toxicity of orally-
ingested tungsten compounds in the rat. Journal of Pharmacology and
Experimental Therapeutics 72:196-201.
Kraabel, F. W., M. W. Miller, D. M. Getzy, and J. K. Ringelman.
1996. Effects of embedded tungsten-bismuth-tin shot and steel shot
on mallards. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38:1-8.
Long, E. R. and L. G. Morgan. 1991. The potential for biological
effects of sediment-sorbed contaminants tested in the National
Status and Trends Program. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OMA 52,
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toxicity. Poultry Science 44:310-312.
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tungsten on the molybdenum status of poultry. British Poultry
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in man and animals. Pages 91-122 in Metal ions in biological
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Sigel, editors. Marcel Dekker, New York.
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silicon, fluoride, and tin essential for man? American Journal of
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molybdate, tungstate, and metavanadate. Archives Internationales de
Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 154:243-249.
Phatak, S. S. and V. N. Patwardhan. 1950. Toxicity of nickel.
Journal of Science and Industrial Research 9B:70-76.
Ringelman, J. K., M. W. Miller, and W. F. Andelt. 1993. Effects of
ingested tungsten-bismuth-tin shot on captive mallards. Journal of
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Schnegg, S. and M. Kirchgessner. 1976. [Toxicity of dietary nickel].
Landwirtsch. Forsch. 29:177. Cited in Chemical Abstracts 86:101655y
Schroeder, H. A. and M. Mitchener. 1975. Life-term studies in rats:
effects of aluminum, barium, beryllium, and tungsten. Journal of
Smith, S. L., D. D. MacDonald, K. A. Keenleyside, C. G. Ingersoll,
and J. Field. 1996. A preliminary evaluation of sediment quality
assessment values for freshwater ecosystems. Journal of Great Lakes
Stokes, P. 1988. Nickel in aquatic systems. Pages 31-46 in Metal
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biology. H. Sigel and A. Sigel, editors. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Teekel, R. A. and A. B. Watts. 1959. Tungsten supplementation of
breeder hens. Poultry Science 38:791-794.
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criteria for nickel. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
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006. Office of Science and Technology, Washington, D.C. 182 pages
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copper/nickel plating on nontoxic shot. U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Washington, D.C. 3 pages.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1986b. Finding of no significant
impact: copper/nickel plating on nontoxic shot. U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 1 page.
Weber, C. W. and B. L. Reid. 1968. Nickel toxicity in growing
chicks. Journal of Nutrition 95:612-616.
Wei, H. J., X-M. Luo, and X-P. Yand. 1987. Effects of molybdenum and
tungsten on mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
Chung Hua Chung Liu Tsa Chih 9:204-7. English abstract.
In compliance with the requirements of section 102(2)(C) of the
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(C)), and the
Council on Environmental Quality's regulation for implementing NEPA (40
CFR parts 1500-1508), we prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA)
for approval of t-n-i shot in September 2000. The draft EA is available
to the public at the location indicated in the ADDRESSES section.
Endangered Species Act Considerations
Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1972, as amended
(16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), provides that Federal agencies shall ``insure
that any action authorized, funded or carried out * * * is not likely
to jeopardize the continued existence of any endangered species or
threatened species or result in the destruction or adverse modification
of (critical) habitat * * *'' We are completing a Section 7
consultation under the ESA for this proposed rule. The result of our
consultation under Section 7 of the ESA will be available to the public
at the location indicated in the ADDRESSES section.
Regulatory Flexibility Act
The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)
requires the preparation of flexibility analyses for
rules that will have a significant effect on a substantial number of
small entities, which includes small businesses, organizations, or
governmental jurisdictions. This rule proposes to approve an additional
type of nontoxic shot that may be sold and used to hunt migratory
birds; this proposed rule would provide one shot type in addition to
the existing four that are approved. We have determined, however, that
this proposed rule will have no effect on small entities since the
approved shot merely will supplement nontoxic shot already in commerce
and available throughout the retail and wholesale distribution systems.
We anticipate no dislocation or other local effects, with regard to
hunters and others. This rule was not subject to Office of Management
and Budget (OMB) review under Executive Order 12866.
Executive Order 12866
This proposed rule is not a significant regulatory action subject
to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review under Executive Order
12866. OMB makes the final determination under E.O. 12866. We invite
comments on how to make this rule easier to understand, including
answers to questions such as the following: (1) Are the requirements in
the rule clearly stated? (2) Does the rule contain technical language
or jargon that interferes with its clarity? (3) Does the format of the
rule (grouping and order of sections, use of headings, paragraphing,
etc.) aid or reduce its clarity? (4) Would the rule be easier to
understand if it were divided into more (but shorter) sections? (5) Is
the description of the rule in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of
the preamble helpful in understanding the rule? What else could we do
to make the rule easier to understand?
Paperwork Reduction Act
An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required
to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a
currently valid OMB control number. We have examined this regulation
under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501) and found it
to contain no information collection requirements. We have submitted a
request for renewal of OMB approval of collection of information shot
manufacturers are required to provide to us for the nontoxic shot
approval process. For further information see 50 CFR 20.134.
Unfunded Mandates Reform
We have determined and certify pursuant to the Unfunded Mandates
Reform Act, 2 U.S.C. 1502, et seq., that this proposed rulemaking will
not impose a cost of $100 million or more in any given year on local or
State government or private entities.
Civil Justice Reform--Executive Order 12988
We, in promulgating this proposed rule, have determined that these
regulations meet the applicable standards provided in Sections 3(a) and
3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988.
Takings Implication Assessment
In accordance with Executive Order 12630, this proposed rule,
authorized by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, does not have significant
takings implications and does not affect any constitutionally protected
property rights. This proposed rule will not result in the physical
occupancy of property, the physical invasion of property, or the
regulatory taking of any property. In fact, this proposed rule will
allow hunters to exercise privileges that would be otherwise
unavailable; and, therefore, reduces restrictions on the use of private
and public property.
Due to the migratory nature of certain species of birds, the
Federal Government has been given responsibility over these species by
the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. This proposed rule does not have a
substantial direct effect on fiscal capacity, change the roles or
responsibilities of Federal or State governments, or intrude on State
policy or administration. Therefore, in accordance with Executive Order
13132, this proposed regulation does not have significant federalism
effects and does not have sufficient federalism implications to warrant
the preparation of a Federalism Assessment.
Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes
In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994,
``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal
Governments'' (59 FR 22951) and 512 DM 2, we have determined that this
proposed rule has no effects on Federally recognized Indian tribes.
List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 20
Exports, Hunting, Imports, Reporting and recordkeeping
requirements, Transportation, Wildlife.
For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend part
20, subchapter B, chapter I of Title 50 of the Code of Federal
Regulations as follows:
1. The authority citation for part 20 continues to read as follows:
Authority: 16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j.
2. Section 20.21 is amended by revising paragraph (j) to read as
Sec. 20.21 What hunting methods are illegal?
* * * * *
(j) While possessing loose shot for muzzle loading or shotshells
containing other than the previously approved shot types of steel,
bismuth-tin (97 parts bismuth: 3 parts tin), tungsten-iron (40 parts
tungsten: 60 parts iron), tungsten-polymer (95.5 parts tungsten: 4.5
parts Nylon 6 or 11), tungsten-matrix (95.9 parts tungsten: 4.1 parts
polymer), and tungsten-nickel-iron (55% tungsten: 35% nickel: 15%
iron), all of which must contain less than 1% residual lead (see
Sec. 20.134). This restriction applies to the taking of ducks, geese
(including brant), swans, coots (Fulica americana), and any other
species that make up aggregate bag limits with them during concurrent
seasons in areas described in Sec. 20.108 as nontoxic shot zones.
* * * * *
Dated: October 24, 2000.
Kenneth L. Smith,
Acting Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
[FR Doc. 00-27842 Filed 10-27-00; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-P