561 FW 5
RCRA - Solid Waste (Nonhazardous)
FWM#:377 (Supersedes 561 FW 5, 06/12/95, FWM194)
Date: September 29, 2001
Series: Pollution Control
Part 561:   Compliance Requirements
Originating Office: Division of Engineering
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5.1 What is the purpose of this chapter? This chapter provides guidance for handling and disposing of solid waste material at Fish and Wildlife Service facilities.

5.2 Who is responsible for implementing this program?

A. The Chief, Division of Engineering will provide guidance and technical assistance for handling and disposing of nonhazardous solid waste.

B. Project Leaders/Facility Managers are responsible for continuing to seek opportunities to promote recycling and to implement actions ensuring proper handling and disposal of solid wastes generated by our operations.

5.3 What are the authorities for this chapter?

A. 42 U.S.C. 6901 et. seq., Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA).

B. 40 CFR 240, Environmental Protection Agency, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Wastes.

C. 40 CFR 243, Environmental Protection Agency, Guidelines for the Storage and Collection of Residential, Commercial, and Institutional Solid Waste.

5.4 What are definitions for terms used in this chapter?

A. Solid Waste. Any nonhazardous garbage; refuse; sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility; and other discarded material. Solid waste includes solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, or agricultural operations and from community activities. It does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges that are point sources subject to permit under 33 U.S.C. 1342, or source, special nuclear, or byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.

B. Bulky Wastes. Large items of solid waste, such as household appliances, furniture, large auto parts, trees, branches, stumps, and other oversized wastes, that prevent or complicate their handling by normal solid waste collection, processing, or disposal methods.

C. Household Waste. Any solid waste (including garbage, trash, and sanitary waste in septic tanks) that originates from households (including single and multiple residences, hotels and motels, lunchrooms, ranger stations, crew quarters, campgrounds, picnic grounds, and day-use-recreation areas).

D. Open Burning. Burning of solid wastes in the open, such as in an open dump.

E. Open Dump. Any facility or site where solid waste is disposed of that does not meet the criteria for a sanitary landfill and that does not protect the environment.

F. Recoverable Resource. Those materials that still have useful physical, chemical, or biological properties after serving their original purpose can be reused or recycled for the same or other purposes.

G. Recycling. Process by which recovered materials are transformed into new products.

H. Sanitary Landfill. A land disposal site employing an engineered method of disposing of solid wastes on land in a manner that minimizes environmental hazards by spreading the solid wastes in thin layers, compacting the solid wastes to the smallest practical volume, and applying and compacting cover material at the end of each operating day. The site can receive a sanitary landfill rating only if there is no reasonable probability of adverse effects on health or the environment from disposal of solid waste at such facility. Section 4004, RCRA, requires that each State plan prohibit the establishment of open dumps and that all solid waste be utilized for resource recovery or disposed of in sanitary landfills or otherwise disposed of in an environmentally-sound manner.

I. Separate Collection. The collection of recyclable materials that have been separated at the point of generation and keeping those materials separated from other collected solid waste in separate compartments of a single collection vehicle or through the use of separate collection vehicles.

J. Source Separation. The setting aside of recyclable materials at their point of generation by the generator.

K. Waste Reduction. Preventing or decreasing the amount of waste being generated through Service operations, the encouragement of recycling, or purchasing recycled and environmentally preferable products.

L. Vector. A carrier, usually an arthropod, that is capable of transmitting a pathogen from one organism to another.

5.5 What are the implementation strategies?

A. Where practicable, we will adopt or change our practices to prevent or reduce solid waste pollution by promoting waste reduction, which includes household waste at Service facilities, proper disposal, and recycling. We place emphasis on waste reduction, proper disposal, and recycling (including source separation and separate collection of recoverable resources) as the first step for promoting the protection of health and the environment and to conserve valuable material and energy resources.

B. Handle, collect, and dispose of all solid waste in compliance with applicable local, State, and Federal regulations. The following provides supplemental guidance to facility managers for handling and disposing of solid waste:

(1) Operate Service facilities according to any permits issued by the State or local agencies. Issues typically regulated by State and local agencies include:

(a) License or permit requirements for existing onsite landfills.

(b) Disposal of solid waste offsite only at licensed or permitted municipal solid waste landfills, sanitary landfills and other such licensed or permitted facilities.

(c) Recycling requirements.

(d) Disposal of household wastes.

(e) Yard waste.

(f) Disposal of used tires.

(2) Store all solid waste so as not to cause a fire, health, or safety hazard.

(3) At least once each week, collect and properly dispose of all solid wastes that contain food wastes.

(4) Collect and properly dispose of all bulky wastes every 3 months or sooner, as determined by the project leader/facility manager.

(5) Collect all solid wastes with sufficient frequency to inhibit the propagation or attraction of vectors and the creation of nuisances.

(6) Collect in a safe, efficient manner all solid wastes of materials separated for recycling.

(7) Do not dispose of hazardous waste as solid waste.

(8) Develop and maintain a program at each facility to keep personnel informed about proper waste disposal practices.

(9) Develop and maintain a solid waste reduction program in accordance with 561 FW 15.

C. The use of open dumps for the disposal of any solid waste material is prohibited. Dispose of all solid waste in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations in approved sanitary landfills (40 CFR 240.101).

D. The use of open burning of solid waste material is prohibited (40 CFR 240.101(r)). Control burns are excepted when all required local air permits, if applicable, are obtained. For disposal of medical wastes, refer to 561 FW 13.

 For information on the specific content of this chapter, contact the Division of Engineering.  For additional information regarding this Web page, contact Krista Bibb, in the Division of Policy and Directives Management, at Krista_Bibb@fws.gov.

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