Permits

Frequently Asked Questions and Facts Index "C"

Snowy EgretThe following alphabetical index is to help you quickly find the answer to general permit questions. The keywords lead you to frequently asked questions and their answer, as well as links to fact sheets and specific web pages.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX:

[A]  [B]  [D]  [E]  [F/G/H]  [I/J/K]  [L/M]  [N/O/P/Q]  [R]  [S]  [T/U/V/W/X/Y/Z

 

Keyword – C

Question/Answer/Fact

Cactus

How are cactus protected?  All cacti, with a few exceptions mentioned below, are listed in CITES.  Most are listed in CITES Appendix II, but some have greater protection and are listed in Appendix I.  Under CITES, live plants and all parts, products, and derivatives, including dried cacti skeletons, are listed with a few exceptions. Exempt parts, products, and derivatives of Appendix-II and -III cacti are:  (a) tissue cultures; (b) pollen; (c) seeds (other than Mexican Cactaceae seeds); and (d) cut flowers of artificially propagated plants.  Also, for artificially propagated or naturalized Appendix-II cacti, the following are exempt:  (a) separate stem joints (pads) and their parts, products, and derivatives of the genus Opuntia subgenus Opuntia; and (b) fruits and their parts, products, and derivatives. Some cacti also are listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA. Check the lists to determine how a specific cactus is listed. Click here for a CITES fact sheet or ESA fact sheet. Check with APHIS, the State, and foreign country to meet their requirements.

Cactus, Artificially Propagated

Do I need a permit to import or export artificially propagated cacti?  Yes, cacti listed under CITES and/or the ESA that have been grown from seeds, cuttings, divisions, or other propagules under controlled conditions require a permit to be imported or exported.  Click here for an CITES application form for artificially propagated plants or a ESA application form.

Cactus, Christmas

I purchased a Christmas cactus at the local supermarket.  I would like to take it home with me overseas.  Do I need a permit to export it?   No. Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera truncata) cultivars and its hybrids with S. opuntoides, S. orssichiana, and S. russelliana are not listed under CITES, and do not require a permit from us to be exported. 

Cactus, Seeds

I grow cacti and import and export seeds.  Do I need a permit?  It depends on how the cactus species is listed (see above), and whether the seeds are from artificially propagated plants.  Seeds of CITES Appendix-II cacti, other than seeds from Mexican cacti originating from Mexico, do not require CITES permits. Contact Mexico to meet its requirements.  Plants grown from exempt seeds, however, are protected and require CITES permits to be imported or exported.  Seeds of CITES Appendix-I cacti, including seeds from artificially propagated plants, require CITES permits. Under the ESA, seeds of endangered cacti require permits to be imported or exported. Seeds of threatened cacti require permits if the seeds came from wild plants, but do not require permits if the seeds are from artificially propagated plants. A label stating that the seeds are of cultivated origin must accompany the shipment of such seeds.

Cactus, Supermarket Plants

Do I need a permit to export the cactus I purchased at the supermarket? Certain cacti that are commonly sold in supermarkets are exempt from CITES requirements. These include artificially propagated specimens of the following hybrids and/or cultivars:  (a) Hatiora x graeseri (=H. gaertneri x H. rosea); (b) Gymnocalycium mihanovichii cultivars lacking chlorophyll, grafted on Hatiora ‘Jusbertii”, Hylocereus trigonus, or H. undatus; and (c) Opuntia microdasys.

Camel, Bactrian

Do I need a permit to import or export a Bactrian camel, or purchase or sell one in interstate commerce?  The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is listed as endangered under the ESA.  If you want to import, export, or sell a camel taken from the wild, click here for an application form. You do not need a permit under the ESA to purchase or sell a domesticated Bactrian camel. Click here for information on commercially importing and exporting wildlife. Contact APHIS and the foreign country to meet their requirements.

Canada

Import, Export, and Re-export Requirements

Captive-bred Wildlife (CBW) Registration (ESA)

Captive-bred Wildlife Registration under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

Cats, Domestic

Do I need a permit to import or export my domestic cat?  You do not need a permit from us to import or export most domestic cats (Felis domesticus). Domestic Bengal cats, however, are hybrids of the domestic cat and the leopard cat (Prionailurus (=Felis) bengalensis). They are regulated by CITES and require a CITES permit. If importing a Bengal cat into the United States, contact the foreign country to get a CITES permit.  If exporting a Bengal cat from the United States, click here for an application form. You must import or export your pet Bengal cat through a designated port unless you have received a port exception permit. You must notify the FWS wildlife inspection office at the port of entry or exit at least 48 hours in advance, present our declaration form to the wildlife inspectors, and receive clearance from us prior to export or at the time of entry. Click here for information on commercially importing or exporting wildlife. Contact the Center for Disease Control to meet its requirements.

Caviar Labeling

CITES and Caviar

Chinchilla

Do I need a permit to import chinchilla?  All South American populations of chinchilla (Chinchilla spp.), except for domesticated specimens, are listed in CITES Appendix I. The Bolivian chinchilla (Chinchilla brevicaudata boliviana) is listed as endangered under the ESA.

  • You need a CITES or CITES/ESA permit to import or export non-domesticated or endangered chinchilla.  Click here for an application form.
  • You do not need a CITES permit from us for the import or export of a specimen of the domesticated chinchilla that is not listed as endangered.
  • A person engaged in business as an importer or exporter of wildlife must obtain an import/export license.
  • You must import or export your wild pet chinchilla through a designated port unless you have received a port exception permit. You must notify the FWS wildlife inspection office at the port of entry or exit at least 48 hours in advance, present our declaration form to the wildlife inspectors, and receive clearance from us prior to export or at the time of import. Click here for information on commercially importing and exporting wildlife.
  • Check with the State and foreign country to meet their requirements.

Cichlids, African

Do I need a permit to import African cichlids?  Cichlids of the genus Acanthorutilus do not require a permit from us to enter the United States. A person engaged in business as an importer or exporter of wildlife must obtain an import/export license.  You must import or export your pet African cichlids through a designated port unless you have received a port exception permit. You must notify the FWS wildlife inspection office at the port of entry or exit at least 48 hours in advance, present our declaration form to the wildlife inspectors, and receive clearance from us prior to export or at the time of import. Click here for information on commercially importing and exporting wildlife. Contact the State and foreign country to meet their requirements.

CITES

CITES Secretariat's Website
Foregin Management Authority Directory
FWS CITES website

Cockatiel

Do I need a U.S. permit to import or export a cockatiel?  The cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) does not require a CITES or WBCA permit from us to be imported or exported. A person engaged in business as an importer or exporter of wildlife must obtain an import/export license. You must import or export your pet cockatiel through any port authorized by the Department of Agriculture. You must notify the FWS wildlife inspection office at the port of entry or exit at least 48 hours in advance, present our declaration form to the wildlife inspectors, and receive clearance from us prior to export or at the time of import. Click here for information on commercially importing and exporting wildlife. Contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture for quarantine requirements and the State to meet its requirements.

Comments, Public

How can I find a notice of a permit application published in the Federal Register for public comment?  Search on the applicant’s name in the Service’s Federal Register search program.

Contact for Application Procedures

Who can tell me more about application procedures?  Check with the office listed on the application form for your activity.

Conures

Do I need a permit to breed Queen of Bavaria or golden conures?  The Queen of Bavaria or golden conure/parakeet (Aratinga guarouba) is listed as endangered under the ESA.  Click here for information on the Captive-bred Wildlife Registration.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

See CITES

Cormorant

What should I do if I am having problems with cormorants?  In most cases, if you are a private landowner, you will need a depredation permit to lethally take a double-crested cormorant.  The exception is if you are a commercial aquaculture producer in one of 13 States (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, or Texas).  In that case, you may shoot double-crested cormorants that are depredating aquacultural stock on your facility.  Click here to view the migratory bird permit regulations and scroll to 50 CFR 21.47 to see the cormorant depredation order.  For conflicts not associated with commercial aquaculture, you may attempt to take care of the problem by harassing birds off of your property without killing them.  This can be done without a permit and often proves successful.  If it is unsuccessful, a permit will be necessary for lethal take.  You may apply for a depredation permit from your nearest Regional Migratory Bird Permit Office.  Click here for an application form.  You must also contact your local U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services Office, which routinely deals with wildlife conflicts, and obtain their recommendation regarding your depredation problem.  Their recommendation will be required as part of your application.  If approved, the depredation permit would allow you to kill a limited number of birds.

Crocodiles

Do I need a permit to import or export crocodile leather or products, such as shoes and purses?  All species in the Family Crocodylidae are listed in CITES Appendix I or II. Some are also listed under the ESA.  See the next paragraph for specific information on the import and re-export of Nile crocodile and Australian crocodile parts, products, and derivatives.  Check the list to determine how the crocodile in the product is regulated.  Click here to obtain a fact sheet that outlines the permitting requirements under CITES and the ESA.

  • The commercial re-export of non-endangered crocodilian products or parts from the United States requires a CITES permit.  Click here for an application form.
  • A person engaged in business as an importer or exporter of wildlife must obtain an import/export license. Click here for information on commercially importing or exporting wildlife.
  • Check with the State to meet its requirements.

Can I import or re-export leather or other products as personal effects?  The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and Australian crocodile (C. porosus) are listed as threatened under the ESA.  The Nile crocodile in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda and the Australian saltwater crocodile are listed in CITES Appendix II. 

  • These populations have special rules under the ESA that allow trade under specific circumstances.
  • We allow the import and re-export of crocodilian parts, products, and derivatives as accompanying personal baggage or effects, or as part of a move of household effects without a CITES or ESA permit when the quantity is no more than four.  You must declare these personal items on your Customs declaration form at the time of import. Not all CITES countries recognize these exemptions, and may require a CITES permit. Also some countries may require a permit under their domestic legislation.  Contact the foreign country to meet its requirements.  If the foreign country requires you to have a U.S. CITES document, click here for an application form.
  • If the personal item is being mailed or shipped separately, it must be accompanied by a CITES permit.

Do I need a permit to import a Nile crocodile or Australian saltwater crocodile as a sport-hunted trophy?  See the paragraph above for how the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and Australian crocodile (C. porosus) are listed.

  • You do not need a CITES or ESA permit from us to import personal sport-hunted trophies, including skulls, from Appendix-II populations provided the unmounted skin bears an intact, uncut tag from the country of origin or such tag accompanies mounted specimens in accordance with the tagging resolution. You must import or export your trophy through a designated port unless you have received a port exception permit. If your tophy is perishable, you must notify the FWS wildlife inspection office at the port of entry or exit at least 48 hours in advance. You must present our declaration form to the wildlife inspectors, and receive clearance from us at the time of import. If your taxidermist is importing the trophy for you, he or she will need an import/export license.
  • You need a CITES permit issued by the foreign country to accompany the trophy when imported into the United States.

Cultivars

My orchid is a cultivar, do I still need a permit?  A cultivar is defined as a horticulturally derived variety where humans have selected for specific morphological, physiological, or other characteristics, such as color, a large flower, or disease resistance.  Cultivars of species listed under CITES and/or the ESA require permits. Click here for a CITES fact sheet and an ESA fact sheet. Check with APHIS and the State to meet their requirements.

Cycads

Are permits required to import or export cycads?   All cycads (Families Cycadaceae, Stangeriaceae, and Zamiaceae) are protected in CITES Appendix I or II, and require permits to be imported or exported. Many cycads are propagated from seeds.  The import or export of seeds of CITES Appendix-II cycads do not require CITES permits.  Plants grown from such seeds, however, do require CITES permits so be sure to keep records on the origin of seeds.  Seeds of Appendix-I cycads require permits to be imported or exported.  Click here for a CITES fact sheet. Check with APHIS to meet its requirements.

Cyclamen

Do I need a permit to export my cyclamen?  All cyclamen (Cyclamen spp.) are listed in CITES Appendix II, and require a permit to be exported, excluding artificially propagated specimens of the cultivar Cyclamen persicum. However, dormant tubers of this cultivar are listed and require CITES permits.  Click here for a CITES fact sheet. Check with APHIS to meet its requirements.

CITES:   Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
BGEPA: Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act
ESA:      Endangered Species Act
MBTA:   Migratory Bird Treaty Act
MMPA:  Marine Mammal Protection Act
WBCA:  Wild Bird Conservation Act

For additional information, visit the Fish and Wildlife Service's Frequently Asked Questions web site.

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Last updated: September 21, 2010