(Map may reflect historical as well as recent sightings)
Gentner's fritillary was federally listed as threatened without
critical habitat in 1999. A recovery
plan was published in August 2003..
and Life History
This perennial plant in the lily family (Liliaceae) has straight,
smooth lily-type leaves that are sometimes mottled with purple.
The robust stem can reach 45 centimeters (1.5 feet) high. Gentner's
fritillary produces reddish- purple flowers with pale yellow
streaks that measure 2.5 to 5 centimeters (1 to 2 inches) long.
Flowering typically occurs from April to June. This species is
know to reproduce asexually by bulblets; the bulbets break off
and form new plants. Sexual reproduction has not been well documented.
Gentner's fritillary typically grows in or on the edge of open
woodlands at elevations from 180 to 1,360 meters (60 to 450
feet) with Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) and Pacific
menziesii) as the most common overstory plants. Western
yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga
are also frequently present. Associated understory species include
white-leaved manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida), poison
diversiloba), ashy rock cress (Arabis
subpinnatifida), Rogue River
milkvetch (Astragalus accidens var. hendersoni), fringed
brome (Bromus ciliatus), Henderson's shootingstar (Dodecatheon
California fescue (Festuca californica), mission bells
affinis), scarlet fritillary (Fritillaria
recurva), fineleaf biscuit-root
(Lomatium utriculatum), Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa
and American vetch (Vicia americana).
Gentner's fritillary can also grow in open chaparral/grassland
habitat, which is often found within or adjacent to the mixed
hardwood forest type, but always where some wind or sun protection
is provided by other shrubs. It does not grow on very dry sites.
Reasons for Decline
Residential development, agricultural activities, logging, fire
suppression, road and trail maintenance, off-road-vehicle use,
and collecting for gardens all contribute to the rarity of this
Gentner's fritillary is known only from scattered localities
in southwest Oregon, along the Rogue and Illinois River drainages
in Josephine and Jackson counties. It is highly localized in
a 48 kilometers (30 miles) radius around Jacksonville, Oregon,
on land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, USDA Forest
Service, Department of Transportation, Southern Oregon University,
City of Jacksonville, and private landowners.
References and Links
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. Final Endangered Status
for the Plant Fritillaria gentneri (Gentner's fritillary). FR