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Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge
Pacific Region
Mosquitoes

Contact Us
with inquiries or questions:

Megan Nagel
Public Affairs Officer
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Pacific Region
911 NE 11th Ave Portland, Oregon 97232
Office: (503) 231-6123
Email: oregoncoast@fws.gov

Status

Status on 8/15/2014
Starting on August 11 and continuing for four days, Coos County contractor Vector Disease Control International treated 106.7 acres of breeding pools harboring mosquito larvae in the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh Refuge with a granular form of Bti. The Bti was applied on foot using gas-powered backpack blowers. Ongoing monitoring by refuge staff and the contractor shows that adult numbers of saltmarsh mosquitoes have dropped considerably both in traps and on the marsh itself. 

Work by Ducks Unlimited contractor Magnus Pacific to excavate new tidal channels to drain mosquito breeding pools has entered its fifth week. To date over 47,000 feet of new tidal channels have been dug and the results are promising with drainage during high tide cycles being improved and less stagnant water being reported. Consequently, the 106 acres that was treated earlier this week is the smallest area of treatment since the first treatment this spring and is a direct result of the tidal channels eliminating mosquito breeding habitat.

Status on 7/31/2014
Magnus Pacific, a contractor hired by Ducks Unlimited, began work to add tidal channels aimed at draining mosquito breeding habitat in the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh Refuge on July 11. Crews are working six to seven days a week and to date they have excavated over 20,000 feet of new tidal channels. Seven mosquito larvicide treatments, using the granular form of Bti have been conducted on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh Refuge this summer by Vector Disease Control International, a contractor hired by Coos County Public Health. The next larvicide treatment is scheduled for the week of August 11. Seven mosquito traps that target adult flying mosquitoes have been set up both within and near the refuge by Coos County Public Health. The overall number of mosquitoes captured has decreased in recent weeks. To view weekly survey results from the mosquito traps visit the website for Coos County Public Health.

Status on 7/9/14
Ducks Unlimited and the Service will begin work to add tidal channels to drain mosquito breeding habitat at Bandon Marsh Refuge in mid-July. Ducks Unlimited awarded a contract to Magnus Pacific to construct 46,000 linear feet of new tidal channels on the Ni-lesítun Unit of the Refuge. Small channels up to two feet wide by two feet deep will drain breeding pools that salt marsh mosquitoes require to breed. This will also improve tidal flow within the marsh. Excavation equipment to be used will be specialized to allow operation on soft marsh surfaces without causing significant damage or creating new depressions.

Status on 6/17/14
On Sunday morning June 15, Coos County contractor Vector Disease Control International applied a granular form of Bti by fixed-wing aircraft to portions of the habitat containing mosquito larvae on the Ni-les’tun Unit of the Refuge.  Mosquito producing areas not treated by the aircraft application were treated on foot using gas-powered blowers on June 15-16.

Status on 6/9/2014
On Friday, June 6 the USFWS and Ducks Umlimited met with nine contractors during a pre-bid construction meeting for the tidal channel construction project. This project will reduce mosquito breeding pools through improvement of tidal flow throughout the restored tidal marsh in the Ni-les’tun Unit of the Refuge. Eliminating mosquito habitat will prevent mosquito populations from expanding and will provide long-term control of mosquitoes. Final bids are due from interested contractors by June 19, 2014. The work to expand the network of tidal channels is still scheduled to begin this summer.

Status on 5/29/2014
Three days, May 28-30, of larvicide treatment occurred on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh. Vector Disease Control International applied a granular form of the larvicide Bti to all habitat containing mosquito larvae on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh Refuge. The Bti was applied on foot using gas-powered backpack blowers. Ongoing monitoring showed a prevalence of very young larvae produced after the high tides that occured with the new moon last weekend. These young instars are highly susceptible to Bti and are expected to be killed by the latest treament.

Ducks Unlimited issued a call for bids to solicit companies interested and qualified to conduct channel creation work in the Ni-les'tun Unit to provide long-term relief from mosquitoes by eliminating their breeding habitat. The call for bids is open for 30 days. Once a contractor is selected habitat modification will begin.

Status on 5/20/2014
The contracted pesticide applicator of Vector Disease Control International (VDCI) hired by Coos County Public Health provided an update on the mosquito control program at Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge during the Coos County Vector Control Committee meeting on May 15, 2014. USFWS staff were on-hand and answered questions.

VDCI reports that four days of larvicide treatment occurred on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh on May 17–20. VDCI had five staff on site. Granular Bti was applied on foot using gas-powered backpack blowers. All habitat containing mosquito larvae was treated. Monitoring data indicated a prevalence of very young larvae largely produced after the high tides that occured last week wetted pools with eggs. These young instars are highly susceptible to Bti. Monitoring will be ongoing to document effectiveness of the Bti treatment.

The USFWS will provide a grant of $3,000 to a local nonprofit to purchase materials for bat house construction. The Coos County Vector Control Committee will oversee the bat house program.

Sixteen “Mosquito Magnet” mosquito traps were purchased by the USFWS for loan to Coos County. Four of these were delivered to the City of Bandon on May 19, along with 2 propane tanks for each trap. The City and the Coos County Vector Control Committee will determine where to set the traps. The remaining 12 traps will be delivered between May 23–27.

Status on 5/6/2014
Coos County Public Health completed a ground application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, or Bti, on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge following monitoring and confirmation of presence of larval mosquitoes the weekend of May 3–5, 2014.

Status on 4/30/2014
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined Findings of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Tidal Marsh Restoration at Bandon Marsh Refuge and the Plan and Environmental Assessment for Mosquito Control at Bandon Marsh Refuge.

**Download the FONSI for the Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Tidal Marsh Restoration at Bandon Marsh Refuge (44 KB PDF) **

**Download the Addendum for responses to comments for the Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Tidal Marsh Restoration at Bandon Marsh Refuge (52 KB PDF)**

**Download the FONSI for the Plan and Environmental Assessment for Mosquito Control at Bandon Marsh Refuge (37 KB PDF) **

**Download the Addendum for responses to comments for the Plan and Environmental Assessment for Mosquito Control at Bandon Marsh Refuge (74 KB PDF)**

Status on 3/26/2014
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service issued a special use permit to Coos County Public Health to conduct mosquito monitoring activities on Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge. The County has hired a person to conduct the monitoring which will begin in early April.

Status on 3/19/2014
Materials from the March 18, 2014 public meeting are available for download here (1.2 MB PDF).

Status on 3/11/2014
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service requests a public review and comment on the proposed Integrated Marsh Management approach to control mosquitoes at Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge.  The public review and comment period begins on March 11, 2014 and ends on April 9, 2014.

**Download the draft Supplement Environmental Assessment for Tidal Marsh Restoration at Bandon Marsh Refuge (939 KB PDF) **

**Download the draft Plan and Environmental Assessment for Mosquito Control at Bandon Marsh Refuge (3,821 KB PDF)**

Frequently Asked Questions **Download as a PDF (109 KB)**

Why are there so many mosquitoes on Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge?
Why are there so many mosquitoes on Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge?
In 2011, Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge completed the restoration of 420 acres of tidal marsh - the largest ever in Oregon. The restored Ni-les'tun tidal marsh is succeeding in increasing use by wildlife, including migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, along with native fish species, including the threatened coho salmon. However, an unanticipated by-product of the restoration was a large population increase of the salt marsh mosquito (Aedes dorsalis) in the summer of 2013. Shallow pools resulting from the marsh restoration, which were inadvertently created as filled ditches subsided or in ruts left by equipment, provided new breeding habitat for these mosquitoes. Though mosquitoes were present in the area prior to marsh restoration, they had much less available habitat. No other salt marsh restoration effort in Oregon had experienced this issue before.

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What is the Service doing to control mosquitoes at Bandon Marsh NWR?
What is the Service doing to control mosquitoes at Bandon Marsh NWR?
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has issued a final decision on its Integrated Marsh Management approach that will control mosquitoes in the long term by reducing mosquito breeding pools by improving tidal flow throughout the restored tidal marsh in the Ni-les'tun Unit of the Refuge. The work to expand the network of tidal channels is scheduled to begin in early summer 2014.

Until habitat work takes effect the Service will use a naturally derived larvicide called Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, or Bti, to control mosquitoes on the refuge. Bti targets mosquito larvae and is not toxic to bees, moths, butterflies, fish, mammals, or birds. The Service will not use synthetic chemical larvicides (e.g. methoprene and CocoBearTM) to reduce mosquitoes on the Refuge. After evaluating public comments, collected between March 11 and April 9, 2014, on its Integrated Marsh Management approach and discussion with mosquito experts, the Service determined that using Bti will effectively control mosquitoes on the Ni-les'tun Unit while posing a low risk to wildlife, their habitats, and the human environment.

Monitoring for mosquito larvae began in early April 2014 and will continue throughout the summer. Monitoring is a key component of the Integrated Marsh Management approach. Results will be used to determine when and where to apply Bti. The Service expects this approach to minimize the number of adult mosquitoes being produced on the Refuge while using the least amount of larvicide necessary to accomplish the objective. Larvicide use will only occur on the Ni-les'tun Unit of the Refuge. The Service provided funding to Coos County Public Health to hire a field technician to monitor mosquitoes on the Refuge this season and to contract with Vector Disease Control, Inc. to apply Bti as needed on the Refuge.

Details about the Service's Integrated Marsh Management approach and plans for mosquito control are available above.

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Are the mosquito species documented at Bandon Marsh vectors or carriers of disease?
Are the mosquito species documented at Bandon Marsh vectors or carriers of disease?
The dominant species of mosquito found at Bandon Marsh NWR is Aedes dorsalis or the salt marsh mosquito. Aedes mosquitoes have been documented as secondary vectors for California Encephalitis and are considered to be low to moderately efficient vectors for West Nile Virus. However, Aedes dorsalis is of most concern as an adverse health impact and a public health risk because they do occur in large numbers, bite throughout the day and cause severe allergic reactions in some people.

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Who is paying for mosquito control?
Who is paying for mosquito control?
The Service has committed to funding the restoration work necessary to reduce the amount of available mosquito habitat on the Ni-les'tun Unit of the Refuge by creating channels to improve tidal flows throughout the marsh. The Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board is also contributing funding toward the restoration work. Because there is currently no Mosquito Control District in Coos County, the Service provided funding to Coos County Public Health to monitor mosquitoes and control mosquitoes with the use of approved larvicides on the Refuge. The final cost of mosquito control will depend on the contractor hired by Coos County Public Health to carry out this work and the extent of the area that is treated; however, the Service can only fund mosquito control work that occurs on the Refuge.

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Why are pesticides being used for mosquito control on Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge?
Why are pesticides being used for mosquito control on Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge?
The Service has developed a comprehensive Integrated Marsh Management approach that will ultimately reduce both the amount of available mosquito habitat and the numbers of mosquitoes. This long term approach emphasizes modifying the restoration site hydrology to eliminate most of the mosquito breeding pools that were inadvertently created. However, the work needed to accomplish that will not begin until late-June/early-July 2014, and will therefore not be completed in time to prevent the expected large fly-offs of mosquitoes in spring 2014. Consequently, to manage mosquito numbers in the short term the Service will use a naturally derived larvicide called Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, or Bti, to kill mosquitoes in their aquatic immature life stages as they hatch in breeding pools on the Refuge, until the plans to eliminate mosquito-breeding habitat are implemented and begin to be effective.

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What kind of pesticides will be used to treat refuge land for mosquitoes?
What kind of pesticides will be used to treat refuge land for mosquitoes?
Pesticide use is intended primarily as a supplement to, rather than substitute for, the physical marsh manipulation that will reduce the amount of available mosquito habitat on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge. Pesticides that target immature mosquitoes are called larvicides, and those that target adult mosquitoes are called adulticides. The Service will not use adulticides to control mosquitoes on Bandon Marsh Refuge.

Larvicides affect the four larval stages of mosquitoes known as instars. They can be applied through a wide variety of methods including hand application and backpack sprayers, amphibious tracked vehicle, truck-mounted equipment and aerial sprayers.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally derived soil bacterium that acts as a larval arthropod stomach poison. Several varieties of Bt have been discovered and identified by the specificity of the toxins to certain insect orders. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is specific only to certain primitive dipterans (flies), particularly mosquitoes. Bti is the form of larvicide that will be used on the fresh or brackish water breeding sites at the Ni-les'tun Unit of the Bandon Marsh Refuge; no other types of larvicides will be used. Bti is not toxic to non-dipteran insects including bees, moths, and butterflies, or fish, mammals, and birds.

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What are the potential effects of the selected pesticides on people, water, pets, livestock, crops, and wildlife?
What are the potential effects of the selected pesticides on people, water, pets, livestock, crops, and wildlife?
Mosquito populations will be managed primarily through habitat modification and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a biological agent and early-stage larvicide (i.e., effective on early larval stages of mosquitoes). Bti does not pose risks to non-target birds, freshwater fish, freshwater aquatic invertebrates, estuarine and marine animals, arthropod predators/parasites, honey bees, annelids and mammalian wildlife or the environment when used according to label directions. Bti is not expected to have any measurable effect on water quality and occurs naturally in most aquatic environments. Bti is unlikely to contaminate groundwater due to its high affinity for sediments and organic materials.

The Plan adopts methods of application that ensures that minimal amounts of Bti will be applied only as needed, and avoids exposure of non-target species whenever possible. The Service expects the frequency and amount of application and the area within the Ni-les'tun restoration site potentially requiring mosquito treatment to be drastically reduced after summer 2014 when the mosquito habitat reduction project is completed. Therefore, if needed at all, less larvicide would be applied in 2015 and subsequent years until treatment ends when the natural mosquito population level is reached.

Additional information about Bti is available in the Draft Plan and Environmental Assessment for Mosquito Control, which addressed the possible effects to human health, soil, air, water, plants, and wildlife, and how the plan mitigates those effects. Download the plan above or request a hard copy by calling the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 541-867-4550 or emailing at oregoncoast@fws.gov.

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When larvicides are planned for use on refuge lands, how and when will the public be notified?
When larvicides are planned for use on refuge lands, how and when will the public be notified?
The Service is collaborating with the Coos County Public Health Department to conduct education and outreach activities aimed at protecting human and wildlife health from threats associated with mosquitoes. Once approved and prior to implementing the plan that will include application of pesticide on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge, notification will be made public on the Coos County Public Health's website at http://www.co.coos.or.us/Departments/PublicHealth/PublicServiceAnnouncements.aspx and notification will be sent to news outlets throughout Coos County. However, once the plan is implemented, larvicide application will depend on mosquito monitoring results showing that application is needed, and will occur immediately without public notification of each instance, unless aerial application is planned, of which the public will be notified. All applications are expected to be of larvicides applied directly to mosquito breeding pools located on the Refuge, and will not affect adjacent lands or visitors to the Refuge.

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How will mosquito populations be monitored?
How will mosquito populations be monitored?
Monitoring of immature (larval and pupal) mosquitoes on the Refuge began in April 2014 and is being conducted by Service personnel and technicians hired by Coos County Public Health. Funding for monitoring is provided by the Service. County staff has developed and maintains a list and map of known mosquito breeding sites on the Refuge and visits them during likely periods of mosquito production. Mosquito populations are sampled using established protocols and samples are examined by Coos County Public Health and the Service to determine the abundance, species, and life-stage of mosquitoes. This information is compared to database records and established thresholds and will be used as a tool for future treatment decisions.

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Will the Service also be using pesticides to treat private lands for mosquitoes?
Will the Service also be using pesticides to treat private lands for mosquitoes?
No. Please refer to the Coos County Public Health's website (http://www.co.coos.or.us/Departments/PublicHealth/PublicServiceAnnouncements.aspx) for information about mosquitoes and pesticide application outside of refuge lands. The Service has no authority over the County's mosquito control activities on other federal, state, county, and privately-owned lands.

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How do I get more information about what the Service and Coos County Public Health are doing to control mosquitoes at Bandon Marsh Refuge?
How do I get more information about what the Service and Coos County Public Health are doing to control mosquitoes at Bandon Marsh Refuge?
A final decision on the Integrated Marsh Management Approach was made in April 2014. Coos County Public Health will begin with mosquito control on the Refuge in early May and whenever needed throughout the spring and summer. The Service evaluated and responded to comments received on the Environmental Assessments. This information, the Environmental Assessments, Findings of No Significant Impact Statements, and more are available for review on the refuge's mosquito web page www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/bandonmarsh/Mosquito.html. You can contact the Refuge through email at oregoncoast@fws.gov or call 541-867-4550.

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News Releases

July 7, 2014: Construction to reduce mosquito breeding habitat moving forward at Bandon Marsh

June 13, 2014: Coos County plans to use airplane to treat Bandon Marsh Refuge with mosquito larvicide

May 21, 2014: Coos County treats Bandon Marsh Refuge with mosquito larvicide

May 2, 2014: Coos County to begin treating Bandon Marsh Refuge with mosquito larvicide

April 30, 2014: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will move forward with mosquito control at Bandon Marsh Refuge

March 11, 2014: Draft Mosquito Management Plans for Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge Available for Public Review and Comment

February 14, 2014: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is working with Coos County to develop a marsh and mosquito management plan

August 30, 2013: Coos County and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Mosquito Treatment Plan to Move Forward at Bandon Marsh

July 3, 2013: Bandon Marsh Refuge partners with experts in mosquito study

Timeline through November 19, 2013:

For more information on the timeline of events through the end of fall 2013, click here.

Pre tidal marsh restoration: Mosquitoes have always been present in the lower Coquille Estuary and Bullards Beach State Park areas but in unremarkable numbers.

Early Fall 2011: Bandon Marsh NWR’s Ni-les’tun Unit tidal marsh restoration project completed.  A natural tidal regime is re-established in the historic saltmarsh to assist estuary-dependent fish (salmon) and wildlife (migratory birds) for the benefit of the American public.

Summer 2012:
Refuge staff received several calls and one letter describing increased mosquito numbers from landowners across the river from the Ni-les’tun Unit.  Refuge Staff coordinated with Regional Office regarding USFWS mosquito management policies.  USFWS guidance generally limits mosquito surveillance and control activities on refuge lands to those conducted by local county Mosquito Abatement Districts through Special Use Permit.

Fall 2012:
Refuge staff began coordinating with Coos County Public Health concerning the complaints of increased mosquito numbers and investigated whether mosquito-transmitted disease was historically an issue with mosquitoes in Coos County.  Refuge staff began detailing funding needs for USFWS-led inventory and monitoring of mosquitoes, which are activities that are normally carried out by local Mosquito Abatement Districts on refuges across the country.

Winter 2012/2013:
USFWS began discussions of mosquito inventory and monitoring needs on the Refuge with Oregon Vector Control Organization and Private Vector Control Managers.  Discussions continued with Coos County Public Health concerning inventory and monitoring needs on Refuge lands.  USFWS coordinated with Oregon State University (OSU) Entomology and Zoology Departments concerning assistance in inventory and monitoring; however, there are no public health/vector control entomologists on staff.

Spring 2013:
USFWS coordinated with Center for Disease Control, Oregon State Health Department, U.S. Geologic Survey Research Branch, and Private Mosquito Research organizations concerning funding for inventory and monitoring. No funding was readily available.

May 2013:
Spring high tides (late May) flooded the upper most portions of the marsh on the Ni-les’tun Unit and created pooled shallow waters in depressions caused by subsiding filled agricultural ditches and ruts from equipment used during the restoration effort. Discussions continued with OSU Entomology Program for assistance, and Refuge staff established a working relationship with OSU.

June 5–15, 2013:
The first major adult mosquito emergence occurred 10–15 days after the high tide of May 26; Refuge staff received the first complaints from adjacent landowners about large numbers of mosquitoes.

June 27–28, 2013:
OSU/USFWS began sampling of adult and larval mosquitoes on Bandon Marsh NWR for species identification. This was coordinated with Multnomah and Benton County Public Health/Vector control programs due to the lack of a local Mosquito Abatement/Vector Control District in Coos County. 

July 11–12, 2013: OSU sampled for adult and larval mosquitoes on Ni-les’tun Unit.  Larvae numbers were low in most areas on the Ni-les’tun Unit.  Pools had dried up from sun and summer winds, and the numbers of adults were observed to be decreasing. Mosquito samples were sent in to experts for identification. The reason for the need to identify mosquito species is that each species requires different habitat conditions to proliferate and expand, and without a clear understanding of the species present, it would not be possible to take effective action to reduce mosquito breeding habitat and thus mosquito numbers.

Week of July 21, 2013:
Multnomah County Public Health Department – Vector Control identified the adult and larval mosquito samples collected on July 11/12.  Five species were identified including Culex tarsalis, Culex pipiens, Aedes cinereus and Culisetas particeps.  They indicated that by far the most abundant species was Aedes dorsalis, commonly known as the salt marsh mosquito.  This species breeds primarily in brackish and saline habitats and under the right conditions breeds in abundance in intertidal marshes.  The majority of females live less than 90 days and males rarely live for more than 30 days.  This species can fly long distance (reportedly up to 30 miles, which is probably wind aided), and is a vicious biter night and day.  Populations left unchecked grow with each generation and under ideal conditions they can produce 8 generation/year. 

July 25–26, 2013:
OSU/USFWS sampling followed the recent high tide series.  Researchers reported finding larvae in great abundance in nearly every shallow ponded depression they encountered.  In one location they had 300–400 larvae in a single dip.  Another large flyoff of adult mosquitoes was expected this week or next. 

Week of August 4, 2013:
Refuge acquired a small moldboard plow to be pulled by a 6-wheel Amphibious ATV in the hopes of connecting some of the low areas to tidal channels to increase water circulation. Refuge staff began to plow small ditches to drain small ponds holding water and determined that the tool had very limited effectiveness on a large scale.  The determination was made that a much bigger effort was needed, including engineering, design and use of large equipment.

August 8–9, 2013:
OSU continued sampling of adults and larvae. Numbers of mosquito larvae and adults were observed to be decreasing slightly. A formal Cooperative Agreement with OSU Entomology Program was established to continue mosquito work including identifying species and breeding areas.

August 16, 2013:
Bandon Marsh Refuge Manager David Ledig met with Dr. Nikki Zogg, Administrator for Coos County Public Health, at the Bandon Marsh Office.  Manager Ledig gave Dr. Zogg the history of refuge coordination with the Coos County Health Department over the last year and a half, to ensure that she was aware of USFWS efforts to coordinate with Coos County and to explain how Multnomah County Public Health Department got involved through our work with OSU. He provided her with a list of mosquito species we have documented, that led to a discussion about our restoration effort, the effects of tidal flooding on A. dorsalis, the NWR mosquito Integrated Pest Management policy/process, and USFWS’ current plans to conduct mosquito breeding site reduction through habitat management. 

August 19, 2013:
City of Bandon passed Resolution 13-21:  Demanding Federal Government Action to Abate the Mosquito Problem Caused by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service Development of the Ni-les’tun Unit of the Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge.

August 20, 2013:
Project Leader Roy Lowe attended a Town Hall with Senator Merkley and provided information on the current mosquito situation at Bandon Marsh and the efforts to remedy a solution to the problem.

August 22, 2013:
Dr. Nikki Zogg of Coos County Public Health issued a Health Advisory for excessive mosquito numbers and associated health impacts to residents.

August 22, 2013:
Refuge and regional staff discussed potential treatment prescriptions to control the mosquito source population for the remainder of this mosquito season.  Participants in the discussion included managers and vector control biologists from other National Wildlife Refuges and Mosquito Vector Control Districts, and technical representatives from mosquito treatment providers that are familiar with salt marsh mosquitoes.

August 22–23, 2013:
Oregon State University continued sampling of adults and larvae.  All five documented species were found in the adult traps and larvae were observed in approximately 50% of the depressions with pooled water.

August 23, 2013:
Jackson County Vector Control District (VCD) was contacted by Coos County Public Health about the mosquito situation at Bandon Marsh because Coos County has no vector control district.  Based upon a recent request from the City of Bandon and Coos County, Jackson County VCD provided a proposed mosquito control prescription for Bandon Marsh based upon limited information about the mosquito problem; the prescription involved both a larvicide and adulticide treatments.

August 26, 2013:
USFWS Project Leader Roy Lowe declared an emergency on Bandon Marsh NWR due to excessive numbers of mosquitoes, and issued a Special Use Permit (SUP) to the Coos County Public Health Department for mosquito abatement on refuge lands.  This SUP allows Coos County to apply select adulticide and larvicide treatments on refuge lands.

August 27, 2013:
USFWS Deputy Regional Director Richard Hannan and Public Affairs Officer Megan Nagel of External Affairs attended the Coos County Commissioners meeting in Coquille to answer questions from County Commissioners and the public about the mosquito issue on Bandon Marsh NWR.

August 29, 2013:
Project Leader Roy Lowe participated in a live interview on OPB’s Think Out Loud, with Mary Schamehorn (Mayor, City of Bandon). 

August 29, 2013:
Refuge and Regional staff met at Bandon Marsh NWR with the mosquito control experts and Dr. Nikki Zogg of Coos County public health Department to discuss and assist Coos County in the proposed immediate abatement treatment on the Refuge.    Coos County also discussed with the experts their proposed plans to treat off-refuge areas in the vicinity of the refuge.

August 30, 2013:
The Coos County Public Health Department released a Draft “Proposal for Mosquito Control on the Bandon Marsh Refuge and Surrounding Area”.  The purpose of this plan is to inform the County Commissioners, USFWS, and the public concerning implementation measures that will aid in the control of the current mosquito situation and help reduce future mosquito explosions. Coos County commissioners will consider the plan for approval next week. USFWS is funding the control effort, and Coos County Public Health is seeking cost estimates from vector-control businesses to address the existing mosquito problem.  USFWS is working to develop a long-term solution that includes an Integrated Marsh Management Plan that will incorporate mosquito control.  Coos County Public Health Department and USFWS also issued a joint news release today to update the public on the situation. USFWS is working with experts to develop a long-term solution that includes an Integrated Marsh Management Plan that will incorporate mosquito control.

September 12, 2013:
A single-engine fixed wing aircraft applied MetaLarv S-PT at 4.0 lbs/acre to 292 acres of the Ni-les’tun Unit of the Refuge. The application was conducted under a contract between Coos County and Vector Disease Control International.

November 8, 2013:
The post-treatment NEPA compliance documentation for the September 12, 2013 MetaLarv S-PT Treatment on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh NWR is available for download here (3.7 MB PDF).

November 19, 2013:
An errata sheet documenting corrections to the November 2013 Environmental Assessment entitled "MetaLarv S-PT Treatment on the Ni-les'tun Unit of Bandon Marsh NWR" is available for download here (26 KB PDF).

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