Using Fire to Save a Toad
For Immediate Release
August, 6 2013
"I never thought I'd be burning prairie to help a toad," Felix Valdez said last spring. But that's exactly what he was doing.
Valdez, a U.S. Forest Service fire management officer, is working with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managers and biologists, the multi-agency Wyoming Toad Recovery Team, and other partners at Mortenson Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming, to conserve the last known population of the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri).
The Wyoming toad, now the most endangered amphibian in North America, once flourished in the wetlands and rivers of southeastern Wyoming. This species is especially small for a toad, averaging just over two inches in length. By the mid-1970s, the population was in decline likely due to a combination of insecticide use, changes in climate, agricultural practices, predation, and disease. In 1984, the toad was listed under the Endangered Species Act, and in 1993, The Nature Conservancy helped establish the refuge to protect the species.
In April 2012, Valdez was the burn boss for a prescribed burn project designed to give the native toad what it needs to survive: water and warmth. Studies show the Wyoming toad requires pockets of warm, shallow water to breed. Historically, livestock grazing kept rushes in check, allowing plenty of sunlight to warm the waters. Over time, grazing declined, requiring prescribed fires to keep plant growth in check. Without the prevention of overgrowth on this high plains prairie, biologists are concerned that Wyoming toads won't survive in the wild. So, prescribed fire, along with prescribed grazing, is part of a collaborative recovery plan to achieve self-sustaining populations and ultimately delist the species.
Another part of the recovery plan includes a captive breeding program at Saratoga National Fish Hatchery in Wyoming and the University of Wyoming's Red Buttes Biological Lab, and various zoos. To date, more than 160,000 tadpoles and toadlets have been released into the wild. Researchers continue to study the toad's habitat requirements and the best strategies for releasing captive tadpoles and toadlets.
Nearly 30 years after it gained federal protection, the Wyoming toad is still with us today. While the toad has been extirpated from much of its historic habitat and is still a federally endangered species, there is great hope for the species' future thanks to these ongoing coordinated conservation efforts.