Environmental Contaminants
Mountain-Prairie Region
Graphic button showing the 8 state mountain prairie region

About Us

 

Jump to a section: Program mission | Program history | Contaminant issues | NRDAR | Success stories | Spill prevention and contingency planning | Publications | Contact our staff | Links and downloadable PDFs | Open / Close All

Oil Covered Pied-billed Grebe. Credit: Pedro Ramirez Jr. / USFWS.

Oil Covered Pied-billed Grebe. Credit: Pedro Ramirez Jr. / USFWS.

One of the primary responsibilities of the Environmental Contaminants program is the identification of environmental contaminant problems affecting National Wildlife Refuge lands, migratory birds, and threatened and endangered species.

When problems are identified, appropriate actions are pursued to eliminate the contaminant threat and restore affected resources. Equally important, the program provides technical assistance to other Service programs, to State and Federal agencies, and to the public.


Program mission »

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To protect, improve and restore the quality of fish, wildlife and habitat resources through:

  • Identification of environmental contaminants problems affecting fish and wildlife resources
  • Preventing environmental contaminants from adversely affecting fish and wildlife resources
  • Correcting environmental contaminant problems
  • Assisting other Federal, State and local agencies and the public in the restoration of fish and wildlife habitats adversely impacted by environmental contaminants

Program history »


Contaminant issues »

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Oil Field Waste Pits
Pits used to separate oil and water.

Acid Mine Drainage
Acidic water draining from mines.

Industrial Wastewater Impoundments
Ponds containing oil, cyanide, salts or acids.

Selenium/Irrigation Drain Water
Pollutants transported by irrigation.

Pesticides
Chemicals used to control insects and weeds.

Oil Spills/Hazardous Materials Spills
Oil or hazardous material spills into the environment.

Superfund Sites
Toxic and hazardous waste sites.

Pit Lakes
Lakes in abandoned open pit mines.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Duck Mortality


NRDAR »

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The primary aim of the U.S. Department of the Interior's (Department) Natural Resources Damage Assessment and Restoration Program (NRDAR) is to restore natural resources injured as the result of oil spills or hazardous substance releases.  The program assesses the damages and injuries to natural resources entrusted to the Department and negotiates legal settlements or takes other legal actions against the responsible parties for the spill or release.  Funds from these settlements are then used to restore the injured resources at no expense to the taxpayer.  Settlements often include the recovery of the costs incurred in assessing the damages.  These funds are then used to fund further damage assessments.

For more information:  
-Visit the Department of Interior's NRDR website.  
-Contact John Wegrzyn, NRDA Coordinator, USFWS, Region 6, 303-236-4261

 


NRDA Projects within Region 6


Hazardous Waste Site Assistance

Planning and Promoting Ecological Land Reuse of Remediated Sites  
(1.77mb .pdf download)

Examination of Risk-Based Screening Values and Approaches
(.9mb .pdf download)

The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council  (funded by U.S. EPA).
See this site for free online training and information related to remediation/restoration of hazmat sites.

CAMEO Chemicals  online database of hazardous materials maintained by NOAA's Ocean Service


Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration:

CERCLA NRDA Regulations 
(DOI Restoration Program website 43 CFR 11 html doc)

Visual HEA: Habitat Equivalency Analysis software to calculate compensatory restoration

Visual HEA Instructions to download software

ASTSWMO Restoration Guidance 8-06

Indirect Cost Rates FWS rates for FY07 and FY08

 


Success stories »

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State success stories: Colorado | Kansas | Montana | The Dakotas | Utah | Wyoming


A similar overbank tailings deposition
area 5 years after removal of the
contaminated material.
USFWS Photo by bill Olsen.

Existing unlined earthen lateral before piping (left) and pipe being placed in the ground (right).

Colorado

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Department of Interior National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), investigations into problems caused by irrigation drainage from large irrigation projects in the Uncompahgre and Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed selenium loading into the Uncompahgre, Gunnison and Colorado rivers resulting in exceedances of water quality criterion. General Area Map

Biologists suspect the selenium is causing reproductive failure in both fish and birds inhabiting the study area. Research conducted by Dr. Steve Hamilton (Environmental and Contaminants Research Center) suggests that selenium is adversely affecting reproduction and recruitment of endangered razorback suckers.

The EC Program at the Grand Junction, CO field office have worked in partnership with the NIWQP, other state and federal agencies, local governments and private landowners to resolve selenium contamination resulting from irrigation drainwater. Within the Scope of the NIWQP, the EC Program at the Grand Junction field office is actively involved in work with selenium and its impact on fish and wildlife resources in the Uncompahgre, Gunnison and upper Colorado River basins. Most recently the NIWQP assisted with installing 8 miles of piped lateral to replace an existing earthen lateral system which provides water to farmers in the Uncompahgre basin. Preliminary results have shown up to a 40% reduction in selenium loading within the affected basin from this project! These results indicate a far greater reduction in selenium loading than was predicted. Monitoring will continue to determine if this reduction in selenium loading will continue.

The EC staff is involved with the NIWQP Gunnison-Grand Valley Core Team, an interagency team which also includes staff from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

Photos showing Pam being sprayed onto the canals when they are dry prior to turning the irrigation water in.

Photos showing Pam being sprayed onto the canals when they are dry prior to turning the irrigation water in.

The Core Team has worked with the Gunnison Basin Selenium Task Force, and development of Best Management Practices and remediation alternatives. The Selenium Task Force is a local grass roots organization, established in the Uncompahgre basin to explore options for reducing selenium loads into the Uncompahgre River to meet state water quality standards. To date, the Task Force has received over $638,000 in grants and matching funds aimed at selenium reduction. On-going Task Force projects include: an effort to determine other source areas for selenium contamination, a phytoremediation project using poplar trees, and monitoring the effects of land use conversion on selenium loading (i.e. conversion of irrigated and non-irrigated lands to subdivisions). The task force has been very active with education and outreach, including bringing in renowned experts to talk to the local water users about other geographic areas with high selenium problems and potential solutions. The Task Force’s web site (http:///www.seleniumtaskforce.org) explains their mission, efforts and activities.


Kansas

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Confined Animal Feeding Operation

Confined Animal Feeding Operation (CAFOs) are agricultural production facilities where large numbers of animals (swine, poultry, cattle, etc.) are raised inside of large buildings. Some of the larger CAFOs can exceed 100,000 chickens, or over 300,000 pigs. These facilities produce large volumes of animal waste which is temporarily stored in open lagoons and then applied to crop fields as a fertilizer. In Kansas, CAFOs with more than 300 Animal Units (750 pigs) present on site must apply for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). These permits allow for land application of wastes, but generally prohibit discharges directly to surface water. In 1998, the Kansas Field Office received a public notice of intent to issue a NPDES permit for a 4,400 head swine operation near Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area in central Kansas. Cheyenne Bottoms has been designated as a Wetland of International Importance and is the only listed critical habitat (whooping cranes) in the state. Part of the waste management plan for this operation included land application of solid wastes to parcels abutting Cheyenne Bottoms. Interestingly enough, prior to and during the Public Comment period for the permit, a moderate rainfall event had caused Cheyenne Bottoms to inundate one of these parcels, and the other was draining significant amounts of runoff directly into Cheyenne Bottoms. Had the permit been allowed as proposed, large volumes of untreated swine waste could have been discharged directly into Cheyenne Bottoms. Through our responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act, the Kansas Field Office and the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks provided technical assistance to KDHE and the permit applicant to avoid this potential impact. As a result, the permit applicant identified other land parcels where the waste material could be applied which do not drain into Cheyenne Bottoms, thereby eliminating the risk of pollution, while still allowing for the project to proceed.


Montana

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Mine Waste

The Mill-Willow Bypass near Warm Springs, Montana was severely contaminated with mine waste containing very high concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. Historically, fish kills in the Bypass and Clark Fork River had occurred, and in 1989, over 5,000 fish were killed by overland flow during a summer thunderstorm. In addition, the adjacent 2,600-acre water treatment pond system contained over 250 acres of slickens (exposed, fluvially deposited mine waste). The Helena EC Program has provided technical assistance to the EPA for over five years during remediation of the treatment ponds and the Bypass. Fish and migratory bird exposure to the contaminants has been greatly reduced, and valuable habitat remediated. The trout population is heavily fished. Over 140 migratory bird species, including the peregrine falcon and one pair of nesting bald eagles, use the area.

A similar overbank tailings deposition
area 5 years after removal of the
contaminated material.
USFWS Photo by bill Olsen.

A similar overbank tailings deposition area 5 years after removal of the contaminated material. USFWS Photo by bill Olsen.

An unremediated overbank
tailings deposition area
upstream of the removal area.
USFWS Photo by Bill Olsen.

An unremediated overbank tailings deposition area upstream of the removal area. USFWS Photo by Bill Olsen.


The Dakotas

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Drained SD prairie pothole wetlands Dakota Photo: USFWS

Drained SD prairie pothole wetlands Dakota Photo: USFWS

Grassland and Wetland Habitat Protection

Environmental Contaminant Specialists provide environmental reviews for U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) land acquisition programs that add lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System.  In the Dakotas, this can be upwards of 50,000 acres per year mostly focused on wetland and grassland easements with limited fee title purchases.  The environmental contaminant reviews are required by federal regulations aimed at protecting the government (tax payers) from costly environmental cleanups.  In the Dakotas, most of the environmental reviews are for easements within the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area where we are working with private landowners to accelerate the conservation of Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and native prairie.  The Dakota Grassland Conservation Area initiative is part of a landscape-scale, strategic habitat conservation effort established to conserve populations of migratory birds by protecting the unique, highly diverse, and endangered Prairie Pothole Region ecosystem.   From 2011 - 2014, the Environmental Contaminants Program in South Dakota reviewed and signed over 580 easement pre-acquisition surveys aimed at protecting approximately 24,200 wetland acres and 114,500 grassland acres.

For more information contact:   Matt_Schwarz@fws.gov

 

Roughlock Falls Nature Area Photo SDGFP

Roughlock Falls Nature Area Photo SDGFP

Whitewood Creek Natural Resource Damage Assessment

Beginning in the 1870s due to discovery of gold, millions of tons of toxic tailings were deposited along South Dakota’s Whitewood creek in Lawrence, Meade and Butte counties.  Natural resources affected included:  surface and ground waters, drinking water, fisheries resources, soils, sediments, habitat (including uplands, flood plains and riparian areas), vegetation, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, state or federally listed threatened or endangered species and migratory birds.  A Natural Resource Damage Assessment claim was settled in 1999 with the Homestake Mining Company for 4 million dollars along with some land and water rights transfers.  The funds were divided evenly between natural resource Trustees which included the Department of Interior (DOI), State of South Dakota and the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe.  The State and DOI pooled their settlement funds and have purchased 355-acres of property in Spearfish Canyon including 1.52 miles of stream, Roughlock Falls, and two ponds.  The most recent addition came in December of 2014 when $105,000 of settlement funds was combined with a Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Grant and funds from the Spearfish Canyon Foundation to attain approximately $1.2 million of quality lands including Little Spearfish Falls.  The natural resources protected on these lands are similar to those injured in Whitewood Creek and will be managed in perpetuity for public use by the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks.  The Restoration Team continues to seek proposals to restore, replace and/or acquire equivalent trust natural resources and lost services in accordance with the “Final Conceptual Restoration and Compensation Plan for Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne River Watersheds, South Dakota.”

For more information contact:   Matt_Schwarz@fws.gov

Pesticides

In 1995, the EPA approved the North Dakota Endangered Species-Pesticide Management Plan. This was the first such plan in the nation. It is a collaborative effort between the FWS, North Dakota Agriculture Department, North Dakota Game and Fish Department, and local agriculture groups such as the Farm Bureau and Farmers Union. The plan protects four threatened and endangered species (pallid sturgeon, piping plover, bald eagle, and least tern) from 27 pesticides at nearly 150 breeding sites throughout the state. Currently satellite imagery and GIS technology is being employed to further protect these species from pesticides.

The Environmental Contaminants program regularly participates with North Dakota Agricultural Extension Service to recertify pesticide applicators. This has proven to be an effective endeavor in presenting pesticides and wildlife before those who work with the chemicals on a daily basis. In addition to speaking personally to applicators, we also have made a video discussing pesticides and their impact of the environment. This video is shown yearly to thousands of pesticide applicators and farmers via satellite hook up throughout the state.

Oil Field Waste Pits and Bird Mortalities

Oil companies in western North Dakota are beginning to take steps to protect migratory birds. Each year, oil pits in the western part of the state entrap and kill many neotropical migrants. Through a combination of enforcement and cooperative efforts, oil companies are beginning to understand their role in protecting birds. While many companies continue to resist placing nets over oil pits, several companies are actively taking measures to protect migratory birds. 


Utah

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Selenium Reduction

Department of Interior National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) investigations into problems caused by irrigation drainage in northeastern Utah revealed leakage of wastewater ponds at the Ashley Valley Wastewater Treatment Facility (Ashley Valley) near Vernal. The wastewater percolated through Mancos Shale, a selenium-bearing formation, and out into Ashley Creek, a tributary to the Green River in an area of biological importance to the endangered razorback sucker. High concentrations of selenium entered the environment from this source. The USFWS EC Program in Utah played a major role in NIWQP investigations in northeastern Utah and in assessing the Ashley Creek selenium problem. The State of Utah and Ashley Valley initiated action when the USFWS threatened prosecution under the Endangered Species Act due to effects to endangered fish. Ashley Valley and the State of Utah signed a consent decree to replace the existing lagoon system with a mechanical treatment facility by February 2001. Ashley Valley has initiated interim measures aimed at reducing seepage into the selenium-bearing formation by reducing the number of ponds from five to three. Grants and loans from the State of Utah and a federal appropriation of $7 million will be used to pay for the project. Salinity control funds from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation may also be available for the project. Ashley Valley has received designs and construction bids for a new facility. Construction will take approximately 18 months. The load of selenium contributed to the Green River system by Ashley Creek is about the same as all of the other upstream sources combined. The NIWQP studies showed that the Ashley Valley wastewater ponds contributed the majority of selenium into Ashley Creek. Completion of the new facility should eliminate a significant portion of the selenium problem to endangered fish in northeastern Utah.


Jordan River Habitat Restoration

The Jordan River, located in Salt Lake County Utah, is a highly urbanized and degraded river that has been dewatered, channelized and polluted. Five Superfund sites located on the Jordan River have been or are in the process of being remediated. In 1991 the USFWS received a $2.3 million settlement from the responsible parties of one of the Superfund sites known as the Sharon Steel Superfund site. The funds were for restoring threatened and endangered species, migratory birds and wetlands affected by the release of heavy metals from the site. In 1997, the USFWS embarked on three long term projects to restore damaged natural resources and restore 274 acres of habitat on the Jordan River. Other federal, state, municipal and nonprofit organizations including Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, West Jordan City, City of South Jordan, National Audubon Society, Great Salt Lake Audubon Society, Tree Utah and Trust for Public Lands have contributed both funds and in-kind services to match the $2.3 million with $7.4 million for a total of $9.7 million! This partnership of state and federal agencies and local organizations have begun work on properties acquired for the restoration project. Efforts are underway to contour highly erodible banks, remove nonnative invasive vegetation and to plant trees and shrubs which are native and provide quality habitats for migratory birds. As property values continue to rise, it becomes a race to acquire the remaining acreage with the secured funds and the USFWS is now looking for new partners to join the effort to preserve and protect a riparian corridor on the Jordan River. These projects represent immense planning, negotiating and vision from many agencies of various jurisdictions as well as nonprofit organizations, municipalities and private citizens which have come together to make these projects a reality. For more information on these projects, visit our web site at: www.r6.fws.gov/jordan.


Wyoming

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Lead Shot

Wetland after restoration. Credit: USFWS.

Wetland after restoration. Credit: USFWS.

The Wyoming EC Program has provided technical assistance to the Partners for Fish and Wildlife program. In 1992, EC technical assistance averted a lead shot problem at a wetland development project in a former sewage pond in Buffalo, Wyoming. Elevated lead levels in soil and sediment led to further investigation which revealed the source as lead shot. The former sewage pond was once used as a shooting range. The lead shot was confined to the upper two inches of soil. During construction of the wetland project, the upper six inches of soil was removed and disposed of in accordance with Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements. The wetland project proceeded, and the site now provides habitat for breeding aquatic migratory birds.


Oil-covered pit at a commercial oil field wastewater disposal facility in Campbell County, Wyoming. USFWS Photo by Gary Mowad.

Oil-covered pit at a commercial oil field wastewater disposal facility in Campbell County, Wyoming. USFWS Photo by Gary Mowad.

Commercial oil field wastewater disposal
facility in Campbell County, Wyoming
after remediation of the oil pit.
USFWS Photo by Pedro Ramirez, Jr.

Commercial oil field wastewater disposal facility in Campbell County, Wyoming after remediation of the oil pit. USFWS Photo by Pedro Ramirez, Jr.

Oil Field Waste Pits and Bird Mortalities

The Wyoming EC Program has partnered with the Law Enforcement Division and EPA to investigate migratory bird mortalities in oil field waste  pits and non-compliance with other environmental regulations (Oil Pollution Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) by oil field operators. In 1997, approximately 400 oil field waste pits were surveyed from the air by a USFWS Special Agent and EPA. Approximately 216 sites were identified as potential problems. Ground inspections involving the Wyoming EC Program, EPA, USFWS Special Agents, as well as state and federal co-regulators, further identified sites requiring remediation and follow-up by co-regulators. Several operators have been issued notices of violation by either the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality or the Bureau of Land Management and have been instructed to either clean up their sites or enclose oil pits with netting to prevent migratory bird mortality. The EPA has issued administrative orders under RCRA 7003 on a few of the worst sites to obtain cleanup. The combined effort of state and federal agencies as well as peer pressure from within the oil industry has resulted in the cleanup of a vast majority of the sites.


Spill prevention and contingency planning »

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USCG Incident Management Handbook (download 1.3mb; 8-06 edition)

USCG "Homeport"  follow links to "Coast Guard Response" et al.

Area Contingency Plans follow links to individual area plans

US EPA Region 5 Contingency Plan  (Oil and Haz Substances Integrated Contingency Plan)

FWS National Oil Spill Contingency Plan

Inland Sensitivity Atlas (follow links to map shape files; need GIS software to use)

FWS Policy Manual on Reporting Releases of Haz Subs, Oil, Contam Sites (560 FW 3)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (2005-151) | CDC/NIOSH 
US DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (can view, search, or download)

National Incident Management System Integration Center (NIMS info and training)

Incident Command System training (FEMA ICS Resource Center)

 


Publications »

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Publications by state: Colorado | Kansas | Montana | Nebraska | North Dakota | South Dakota | Utah | Wyoming


Colorado

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Archuleta, A.S. 1990. Contaminant Studies on the Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge and Relationship to Birds. Progress Report #02 (1989 Dec 1-1190 Nov 30) Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Archuleta, A.S. 1992. Report on the Big Thompson Fish Kill. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Colorado Field Office, Environmental Contaminants Program Special Report.

Archuleta, A.S. and L.R. DeWeese. 1992. Inorganic Elements on the Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge and Relationships to Birds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Contaminants Program Report No. R6/305G/92.

Archuleta, A.S., L.R. DeWeese, and A. Smykay. 1991. Organochlorines and Trace Elements in Avarian Prey of Peregrine Falcons in Colorado: Ten Years After. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Golden, CO.

Archuleta, A.S. and K. Holley. 1996. Contaminant Screening Results: Floodplain Habitat Restoration Program, Green River, UT. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Junction, CO.

Balistrieri, L.S., L.P. Gough, R.C. Severson, and A.S. Archuleta. 1995. The Biogeochemistry of Wetlands in the San Luis Valley, Colorado: The Effects of Acid Drainage from Natural and Mine Sources. Colorado Geological Survey, Proceedings: Summitville Forum ’95.

Butler, D.L., R.P. Krueger, B.C. Osmundson,  A.L.Thompson, J. James, and D.W. Wickman. 1993. Reconnaissance Investigation of Water Quality, Bottom Sediment, and Biota Associated with Irrigation Drainage in the Pine River Project Area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO. Water- Resource Investigations Report 92-4188.

Butler, D.L., R.P. Krueger, B.C. Osmundson, A.L. Thompson, and S.K. McCall. 1991. Reconnaissance Investigation of Water Quality, Bottom Sediment, and Biota Associated with Irrigation Drainage in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins and at Sweitzer Lake, West-Central Colorado, 1988-89.

Butler, D.L., W.G.Wright, D.A. Hahn, R.P. Krueger, and B.C. Osmundson. 1994. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for Detailed Study of Irrigation Drainage in the Uncompahgre Project Area and in the Grand Valley, West-Central Colorado, 1991-92. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO. Open File Report 94-110.

Carey, C., B.C. Osmundson, H. Ramsdell, L. Livo, and S. Brinkman. 1999. Disappearance of Boreal Toads in Colorado: A Contaminant Investigation. 1994 and 1997 Project ID 6F30 Off-Refuge, Dec. ID# 9560003. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, Grand Junction, CO.

Chirhart, J., L. Coppock, and A. Archuleta  2002  Contaminant Assessment Process Report for Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [PDF file 7.8M]  [PDF Appendix 5M]

Custer, C.M. and T.W. Custer. 2000. Lead Exposure and Effects in Tree Swallows Nesting on the Arkansas River, Colorado. Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey.

Custer, C.M., T.W. Custer, A.S. Archuleta, L.C. Coppock, C.D. Swartz, and J.W. Bickham. 2002. A Mining Impacted Stream: Exposure and Effects of Lead and Other Trace Elements on Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) Nesting in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, Colorado. In Handbook of Ecotoxicology, D.J. Hoffman, B.A. Rattner, G.A. Burton, Jr., J. Cairns, Jr.. CRC Press/Lewis Publishers Boca Raton, FL. pp. 787-812.

DeWeese, L. R. 1988. Trace Elements in Eagle Blood and Liver and Organochlorine Contamination in the San Luis Valley. Preliminary Reports on Results of FY87 EC Studies. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Golden, CO.

DeWeese, L.R., A.M. Smykaj, J.F. Meisner, and A.S. Archuleta. 1993. Environmental Contaminants Survey of the South Platte River In Northeastern Colorado, 1988. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Contaminants Program Report No. R6/306G/93.

Fish and Wildlife Enhancement. 1989. Results of Analysis: Whole Blood from Female Bald Eagle that Nested at Barr Lake State Park in Adams County, Colorado.

Henry, C.J., R.A. Grove, and V.R. Bentley. Effects of Selenium, Mercury, and Boron Waterbud Egg Hatchability at Stillwater, Malheur, Seedskadee, Ouray, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges and Surrounding Vicinities. National Irrigation Water Quality Program Info Report No. 5. Denver, CO.

Iko, W.M., A.S. Archuleta, and F.L. Knopf. 2003. Plasma Choinestrase Levels of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius Montanus) Wintering in Central California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 22(1):119-125.

Krueger, R.P. 1988. Heavy Metals Analysis of Seven Colorado Squawfish from the Colorado and White Rivers. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Junction, CO.

Krueger, R.P., Thompson and B.C. Osmundson. 1991. Big River Fishes: Environmental Contaminants in Fish Species used as Surrogates for Threatened and Endangered Fish of the Colorado River Basin. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Junction, CO.

Kurey, W. 1985. Organochlorine Contaminants in Fish of the Grand Valley (Grand Junction Area of Colorado). Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, Grand Junction, CO.

Luke, D. 1997. Status of the Cassin’s Sparrow. Unpublished Student Paper.

Mueller, D.K.,L.R. DeWeese, A.J. Garner, and T.B. Sprwill. 1991. Reconnaissance Investigation of Water Quality, Bottom Sediment, and Biota Associated with Irrigation Drainage in the Middle Arkansas River Basin, Colorado and Kansas, 1988-89. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO. Water Resources Investigations Report 91-4060. 84pp.

Osmundson, B.C. 1989. Colorado Squawfish Heavy Metal Analysis/Comparison to Rainbow Trout Samples Taken from Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery. Colorado State Office. R6/87/GJ1.

Osmundson, B.C. 1992. Oct. Inorganic Elements Detected in Sediments and Aquatic Biota from the Uncompahgre River and Ridgeway Reservoir, Colorado, 1987-1990. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Junction, CO. Environmental Contaminant Report No. R6/303J/92.

Strom, S.M. 2000. The Utility of Metal Biomarkers in Assessing the Toxicity of Metals in the American Dipper. M.S. Thesis, Colorado State University.

Strom, S.M., H.S. Ramsdell, and A.S. Archuleta. 2001. Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in American dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) from a metal-impacted stream. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(1):115-120.

Thompson, A.L. and R.P. Krueger. 1990. A Comprehensive Analysis and Interpretation of Contaminant Data from the San Luis Valley, Colorado, 1986-1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Colorado Sub-office.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Recovery Implementation Program for Endangered Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Environmental Assessment, Denver, CO.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Assessment of the Trout Population in the Upper Arkansas River Basin of Central Colorado. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Golden, CO.

Willingham, W.T., L.P. Parrish, W.C. Schroeder, G.R. Rodriguez, A.S. Archuleta, M.E. Smith, L.E. Herrin, A.M. Kneipp, and J.D. Gebler. 1995. Evaluation of the Chemical, Physical and Biological Conditions of the Summitville Mine Superfund Site, and Alamosa River and Associated Tributaries. Colorado Geological Survey, Proceedings: Summitville Forum ’95.


Kansas

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Allen, G.T. 1991. Background contaminants evaluation of Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/502M/91. 40 pp.

Allen, G.T. 1991. Background contaminants evaluation of Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge - 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/504M/91. 22 pp. 

Allen, G.T. 1991. Petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and metals in soils and sediments of Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report. 10 pp.

Allen, G.T. 1992. Metal concentrations in blood from fledgling bald eagles of Clinton Reservoir in Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/506M/91. 3 pp.  

Allen, G.T. 1992. Metal concentrations in blood from an adult bald eagle nesting at Clinton Reservoir in Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/507M/92. 8 pp. 

Allen, G.T. 1992. Contaminants in interior least tern eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, Kansas, in 1990 and 1991. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/510M/92. 10 pp.

Allen, G.T. 1992. Metals and organic compounds in fish and sediments from the Missouri and lower Kansas Rivers in 1991. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/509M/92. 24 pp. 

Allen, G.T. and S.H. Blackford. 1993. Contaminants in interior least terns and snowy plover eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1992. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/511M/93. 9 pp.

Allen, G.T. and S. H. Blackford. 1995. Contaminants evaluation of Neosho madtom habitats in the Neosho River drainage in Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/513M/95. 75 pp.

Allen, G.T. and S.H. Blackford. 1997. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, and organochlorine compounds in interior least tern eggs in the Northern Great Plains states, 1992-1994. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/515M/97. 39 pp.

Allen, G.T., S.H. Blackford, and D. Welsh. 1998. Arsenic, Mercury, Selenium, and Organochlorines and Reproduction of Interior Least Tern Eggs in the Northern Great Plains, 1992-1994. Colonial Waterbirds 21:356-366.

Allen, G.T., S.H. Blackford, V.M. Tabor, and M.S. Cringan. 1999. Metals, Boron, and Selenium in Neosho Madtom Habitats in the Neosho River in Kansas, U.S.A. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. In Press.

Allen, G.T., S.H. Blackford, V.M. Tabor, and M.S. Cringan. 2000. Metals, Boron, and Selenium in Neosho Madtom Habitats in the Neosho River in Kansas, U.S.A. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 66:1-21.

Allen, G.T. and T. Fannin. 1993. Background contaminants evaluation of the Republican River drainage: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/512M/93. 52 pp.

Allen, G.T. and T. Nash. 1992. Contaminants survey of the proposed Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/508M/92. 22 pp.  

Allen, G.T., T.J. Nash, and D.E. Janes. 1995. Contaminants Evaluation of Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas and Missouri, U.S.A. Environmental Management 19:393-404.

Allen, G.T., J. Veatch, R.K. Stroud, C. Vendel, R.H. Poppenga, L. Thompson, J. A. Shafer, and W. E. Braselton. 1996. A Case of Poisoning of Raptors in Winter with Flowable Furadan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32:385-389.

Allen, G.T. and R.M. Wilson. 1990. Selenium in the Aquatic Environment of Quivira National Wildlife Refugs. Prairie Naturalist 22:129-135.

Allen, Veatch, Stroud, Vendel, et al. Winter poisoning of coyotes and raptors with furadan-laced carcass baits. Carbamates/Carbofuran 

Allen, G.T. and R.M. Wilson. 1989. Selenium in the aquatic environment of Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report. 21 pp.

Allen, G.T. and R.M. Wilson. 1990. Selenium in the Aquatic Environment of Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. Prairie Naturalist 22:129_135.

Allen, G.T., and R.M. Wilson. 1991. Metals and organic compounds in Missouri River fish in 1988. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/503M/91. 69 pp. 

Allen, G.T. and R.M. Wilson. 1992. Trace elements and organic compounds in the Spring River Basin of southeastern Kansas in 1988. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/505M/91. 60 pp. 

Blackford, S.H. and G.T. Allen. 1996. Contaminants evaluation of the Solomon River drainage in Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/514M/96. 46 pp. 

Goodman, T.A., R.M. Wilson, T.J. Kelly, and R.L. Kibler Jr. 1987. Biological assessment of the aquatic environment in the lower Kansas River Basin, Kansas, and Nebraska. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Manhattan, KS.

Miesner, J.F. 2000. Contaminant residue analysis of fish tissues from Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge-Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number: R6/801M/1998. 32pp. [PDF file size 38 KB]

Welsh, Ruelle, Allen, Palawski, Fannin. Contaminants in rare and endangered fish of the Missouri River Fish.

Wilson and Allen. Selenium in the aquatic environment of Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1987. R6 Studies - Kansas. 


Montana

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Dickerson K, KJ Nelson, C Zeeman. 2011. Characterizing contaminant exposure of Mountain Plovers on wintering grounds in California and breeding grounds in Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Contaminant Report No. R6&R8/725C/11. Cheyenne, WY. Feb. 164 pp. [PDF file size 5 MB]

DuBois, K., D.U. Palawski and J.C. Malloy. 1992. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge contaminant biomonitoring study. Contam. Rep. R6/207H/92. USFWS, Helena, MT. 53 pp.

Gilbert, E. D., S.B. Heath, D.U. Palawski, and J.C. Malloy. 1995. Trace element concentrations in sediment and biota from the Benton Lake Wetland Management District, north-central Montana. USFWS, Helena, MT. 20 pp. 

Hazlewood, R.M., K. L. DuBois and D.U. Palawski. 1991. Milltown Reservoir sediments site endangerment assessment wetland delineation and classification. Final Report prepared for USEPA, Region 8, Montana Office, Helena, MT. USFWS, Helena, MT. 21+ pp. 

Heath, S.B. 1995. Risks posed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources by Montana gold mining operations that use cyanide extraction. Contam. Rep. R6/212H/95. USFWS, Helena, MT. 28 pp.

Jones, W.E., D.U. Palawski, and J.C. Malloy. 1990. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey. USFWS, Helena, MT.

Kendy, E. and B. Olsen. 1997. Physical, chemical and biological data associated with irrigation drainage in the Freezeout Lake area, west-central Montana, 1994-95. USGS Open-File Report 97-349. U.S. Geological Survey, Helena, Montana. 48 pp.

Kendy, E., B. Olsen and J.C. Malloy. 1998. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Helena Valley, west-central Montana, 1995. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4214. U.S. Geological Survey, Helena, MT. 62 pp.

Knapton, J.R, W.E. Jones, and J.W. Sutphin. 1988. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Sun River area, west-central, Montana. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4244. U.S. Geological Survey, Helena, Montana. 78 pp.

Lambing, J.H., D.A. Nimick, J.R. Knapton and D.U. Palawski. 1994. Physical, chemical and biological data for detailed study of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake Nation Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92, with selected data for 1987-89. USGS Open-File Report 94-120. U.S. Geological Survey, Helena, Montana. 171 pp.

Lambing, J.H., W.E. Jones, and J.W. Sutphin. 1988. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River Basin, northeastern Montana. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4243. U.S. Geological Survey, Helena, Montana. 71 pp.

Meade, M.L., D.U. Palawski, J.C. Malloy and B. Olsen. 1999. Bio-assessment of arian botulism at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Contaminant Report No. R6/216H/99. Helena,MT.

Nimick, D.A., J.H. Lambing, D.U. Palawski and J.C. Malloy. 1996. Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4170. U.S. Geological Survey, Helena, MT. 120 pp.

Olsen, B., C.A. Caldwell, D.U. Palawski and J.C. Malloy. 1997. Biological indices of lead exposure in relation to heavy metal residues in sediment and biota from Prickly Pear Creek and Lake Helena, Montana. Contam. Rep. R6/214H/97. USFWS, Helena, MT. 21 pp.

Olsen, B. and K. Shelley. 1994. Wetlands delineation and evaluation Burlington Northern Superfund Site Somers, Montana.

Olsen, B., W.L. West and L. Clark. 1996. Field test of biological control methods to curtail exotic plants on national wildlife refuges in Montana. Contam. Rep. R6/211H/96. USFWS, Helena, MT. 7+ pp.

Palawski, D.U., K. L. DuBois and J.C. Malloy. 1991. Milltown Reservoir sediments site endangerment assessment wildlife survey. Final Report prepared for USEPA, Region 8, Montana Office, Helena, MT. USFWS, Helena, MT. 49 pp.

Palawski, D.U., W.E. Jones, G.T. Allen and J.C. Malloy. 1990. Trace element and organochlorine residues in sediment, fish and water birds from Montana. USFWS, Helena, MT. 34 pp.

Palawski, D.U., W.E. Jones, K. DuBois and J.C. Malloy. 1991. Contaminant biomonitoring at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. USFWS, Helena, MT. 35 pp.

Palawski, D.U. and J.C. Malloy. 1992. Environmental contaminants in Montana avian prey of Peregrine falcons. Contam. Rep. R6/208H/92. USFWS, Helena, MT. 17 pp.

Palawski, D.U., J.C. Malloy and K.L. DuBois. 1991. Montana National Wildlife Refuges: Contaminant issues of concern. USFWS, Helena, MT. 96 pp.

Palawski, D.U., J.C. Malloy and E.D. Gilbert. 1994. Toxicity of surface waters from Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, Montana to mallard ducklings. Contam. Rep. R6/209H/94. USFWS, Helena, MT. 12 pp.

Palawski, D.U., J.C. Malloy, S.B. Heath, B. Olsen and E.D. Gilbert. 1998. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass as potential indices of environmental contamination at national wildlife refuges in Montana. Contam. Rep. R6/215H/98. USFWS, Helena, MT. 26 pp.

Palawski, D.U. and B. Olsen. 1996. Trace elements and organochlorine residues in shovelnose sturgeon from the Missouri River drainage in Montana. Contam. Rep. R6/213h/96. USFWS, Helena, MT. 16 pp.

Palawski, D.U., F.J. Pichett and B. Olsen. 1996. Trace elements and organochlorines in sediments and fish from Missouri River Reservoirs in Montana. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Helena, MT.

US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. Selected trace elements in biological samples collected at the Milltown Superfund Site. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Helena, MT.

US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Patterns of mortality in bald eagle carcasses recovered in Montana. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Helena, MT.

US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. Calming troubled waters: Contaminants at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, a plan of action. Contam. Rep. R6/206H/91. USFWS, Helena, MT. 39 pp.

Wergand, J.P. and P. Schladweiler. 1989. Monitoring organochlorine residues in hunter harvested ducks in Montana, 1988. Research and Technologies Services Bureau, Wildlife Division.


Nebraska

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Druliner, A.D., B.J. Esmoil and J.M. Spears. 1999. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the North Platte Project Area, Nebraska and Wyoming, 1995. US Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 98-4210.

Esmoil B.J., K.D. Schroeder, and T.E. Fannin.  1994.  A contaminant evaluation of the Big Blue River in southeastern Nebraska.  US Fish and Wildlife Service.  Contaminant Report No. R6/60II/94.

Fannin, T.E. 1991. Contaminant residues in Sand hill cranes killed upon striking power lines in central Nebraska, USA. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Island, NE.

Fannin, T.E. and B.J. Esmoil. 1993. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. Pages 150-158 in Higgins, K.F. and M.R. Brashier, eds. Proceedings, The Missouri River and its tributaries piping plover and least tern symposium/workshop. South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.

Nelson, K.J. and B.J. Esmoil. 1999. Background contaminants evaluation of Fort Niobrara and Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Grand Island, NE.

Nelson, K.J. and B.J. Esmoil. 2001. Trace element concentrations in plants and sediments at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Grand Island, NE.

Schwarz, M.S., K.R. Echols, M.J. Wolcott and K.J. Nelson.  2004.  Environmental contaminants associated with swine concentrated animal feeding operation and implications for McMurtrey National Wildlife Refuge.  US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Grand Island, NE. 

Schwarz, MS and CD Lydick. 2007. Evaluation of Wetlands Created with Effluent From a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Using Mallard Sentinels: Implications for McMurtrey National Wildlife Refuge. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report 6N49, Grand Island, NE. 72 pp. [PDF file 3 MB]

Schwarz, MS and CD Lydick. 2010. Assessment of Selenium and Atrazine Exposure and Effects to Wildlife at the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge, Scottsbluff, Nebraska. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report 6N54, Grand Island, NE. 62 pp. [PDF file 4 MB]

Schwarz, MS, CD Lydick, KJ Nelson, and TS Gross. 2005. Contaminant Exposure and Reproductive Health of Sandhill Cranes in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report 6F39, Grand Island, NE. 31 pp. [PDF file 1.4 MB]

Schwarz, MS, BJ Esmoil, KJ Nelson, and TE Fannin. 2005. A Survey of Elemental Contaminants and Organochlorines at North Platte National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska, 1993. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report 6N17, Grand Island, NE. 20 pp. [PDF file 1 MB]

Schwarz, MS, CD Lydick, DE Tillitt, DM Papoulias, and TS Gross. 2005. A Health Risk Evaluation for Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Lower Platte River Using Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) as a Surrogate. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report 6F46, Grand Island, NE. 105 pp. [PDF file 2.6 MB]


North Dakota

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Gamble, L. R., K. M. Johnson., G. Linder, E. A. Harrahy. 2003. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and concerns for non-target birds relative to spring baiting with DRC-1339. In Management of North American Blackbirds, pp. 8-14 (George Linz, ed.) USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Ft. Collins, CO.

Goldberg, D.R.  2004.  Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avian botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?  U.S. Geographical Survey, National Wildlife Health Center.  Madison, WI.

Goldberg, D.R, M.C. Samuel, T.E. Rocke, K.M. Johnson, G. Linz.  2004.  Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avain botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?  Wildlife Soc.  Bul.  32(3):  870-880.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1989. Baseline study of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the James River, Garrison Diversion Unit, 1986-1988. Technical Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Baseline study of trace elements and organic compounds at National Wildlife Refuges along the aquatic ecosystem of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers, North Dakota (1987-1989). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. An investigation into the water quality of Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Burleigh and Kidder Counties, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. An investigation of the cause of a snow goose die off at South Twin Lake, LaMoure County, North Dakota, 1984-1985. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. An investigation of inorganic chemicals in fish from Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery, McLean County, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. An investigation of trace element concentrations in biota and sediments in relation to avian botulism at Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. A pre-reconnaissance investigation of trace
elements and organic contaminants in biota and sediments at Fort Clark and Heart
Butte irrigation units. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Concentrations of inorganic and organic chemicals in fish and sediments from the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, North Dakota, 1988-90. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Concentrations of potential contaminants in shovelnose sturgeon from the Missouri River at Bismarck, North Dakota, 1991. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Concentrations of inorganic and organic chemicals in fish and sediments from major tributaries of the Missouri River in North Dakota, 1989-91. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. A survey of contaminants associated with industrial sources along the Little Muddy River, Williams County, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. An evaluation of trace element concentrations in a marsh influenced by irrigation drainwater at Oakes Test Area, Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA. 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Trace element concentrations in biota and sediments at Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge, Sargent County, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. 1996 lead shot study of upland habitat on North Dakota’s Federal trust resource land. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Contaminant concerns for West River National Wildlife Refuges, Slope and Dunn Counties, North Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Bismarck, North Dakota, USA.


South Dakota

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Henry, C.J. and R. Ruelle. 1992. A study of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon reproduction. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 19 pp.

Ruelle, R. 1991. A contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 18 pp.

Ruelle, R. 1991. A pesticide and toxicity evaluation of wetland waters and sediments on National Wildlife Refuges in South Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Contaminant Report Number: R6/804P/91. 27 pp.

Ruelle, R. and C. Henry. 1993. Contaminant and toxicity evaluation of National Wildlife Refuge and private wetlands in South Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number: R6/814P/93. 36 pp.

Ruelle, R. and C. Henry. 1994. Life history observations and contaminant evaluation of pallid sturgeon, final report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 33 pp.

Ruelle, R.R. and C.J. Henry. 1995. Survey of organophosphate insecticides in wetlands near sunflower fields in South Dakota, final report. 15 pp.

Ruelle, R. and K.D. Keenlyne. 1992. Contaminants in Missouri River sturgeon. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. SD-DEC-93-01. 12 pp.

Ruelle, R, R. Koth, and C. Stone. 1993. Contaminants, fish, and hydrology of the Missouri River and western tributaries, South Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pp. 449-490. In: Hesse, L.W., C. Stalnaker, N. Benson, and J. Zuboy (eds). River Ecosystem. Biological Report 19, National Biological Survey, Washington, D.C. October 1993.

Schwarz MS, and Gober J. 2011. Review and Management Recommendations for study titled “Retention time of chlorophacinone in the tissues of black-tailed prairie dogs exposed to chlorophacinone bait.” US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report 6F56. Pierre, SD. 16 pp with attached Witmer report.[PDF file size 7 MB]

Sowards, C., S. Maxwell, and R. Ruelle. 1991. A compendium of environmental contaminants in South Dakota fish, wildlife, and habitats. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number: R6/812P/91. 93 pp.


Utah

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Fairchild, J.F. A.L. Allert, B.C. Poulton and R.V. Graham. 2002. A site-specific assessment of the risk of Ammonia to endangered Colorado Pikeminnow and Razorback sucker populations in the upper Colorado River adjacent to the Atlas Mill tailings pile, Moab, Utah. US Fish and Wildlife Service Off-Refuge Contaminants Program and USGS, Salt lake City, UT.

Hamilton, Steven J., Muth, Robert T., Waddell, Bruce H., and others, 1988, Selenium and other trace elements in wild larval razorback suckers from the Green River, Utah: Columbia, MO, U. S. Geological Survey, 40 pages.

Hamilton, Steven J., Muth, Robert T., Waddell, Bruce, and others, 2000, Hazard assessment of selenium and other trace elements in wild larval razorback sucker from the Green River, Utah: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 45, p. 132-147.

---, 1999, Selenium and Other Trace Elements in Wild Larval Razorback Suckers from the Green River, Utah: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.

Hamilton, Steven J., and Waddell, Bruce H., 1994, Selenium in eggs and milt of razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) in the Midde Green River, Utah: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 27, p. 195-201.

Peltz, L. A., and Waddell, Bruce, 1991, Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1988-1989, with selected data for 1982-1987., U.S. Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT, Biological Open-File Report, 213 pages.

Stephens, Doyle W., and Waddell, Bruce H., 1989, Selenium contamination from irrigation drainage in the Western United States with emphasis on UtahGeology and Hydrology of Hazardous Waste, Mining Waste, Waste Water and Repository Sites in Utah. Utah Geological Association, October 1989.

---, 1992, Selenium contamination of waterfowl areas in Utah and options for management, Robarts, R. D., and Bothwell, M. L., editors, Aquatic ecosystems in semi-arid regions: implications for resource management, p. 301-311.

---, 1998, Selenium sources and effects on biota in the Green River basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, in Frankenberger, William T., and Engberg, Richard A., editors, Environmental Chemistry of Selenium: New York, NY, Marcel Dekker, Inc., p. 183-203.

Stephens, Doyle, Waddell, Bruce, DuBois, Kristi, and others, 1997, Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with the Emery and Scofield project area, central Utah, 1994: Salt Lake City, UT, U.S. Geological Survey, 39 pages.

Stephens, Doyle, Waddell, Bruce, and Holley, Kathy, 1995, Contaminant screening results, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Junction, CO, Floodplain Habitat Restoration Program, Green River, Utah, Biological Report, 56 pages.

Stephens, Dolye W., Waddell, Bruce H., and Miller, Jerry B., 1988, Irrigation drainage: Green River Basin, Utah, Proceedings on planning now for irrigation and drainage, Lincoln, NE, July 18 1988-July 21 1988, p. 686-693.

Stephens, Doyle W., Waddell, Bruce, and Miller, Jerry B., 1988, Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1986- 1987., U.S. Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT, Water-Resources Investigations Report , 70 pages.

Stephens, Doyle W., Waddell, Bruce H., and Miller, Jerry B., 1991, Sources, sinks, and effects of selenium at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area, Jensen, Utah, Mallard, Gail E., and Aronson, David A., editors, U.S. Geological Survey toxic substances hydrology program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, p. 324-329.

Stephens, Doyle W., Waddell, Bruce, Peltz, L. A., and others, 1992, Detailed study of selenium and selected elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the middle Green River basin, Utah, 1988-1990., U.S. Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, Utah, 164 pages.

Stolley, D.S., J.A. Bissonette and J.A. Kadlec. 1998. Limitations on Canada goose reproduction at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waddell, B. 1988. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge-refuge contaminant studies results 1987. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waddell, B. 1988. Pariette Wetlands-hot spot study results 1987. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waddell, B., E. Boeke, and K. Dubois. 1999. Evaluation of trace elements in invertebrates from Great Salt Lake. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waddell, Bruce H., and Coyner J., 1990, Screening evaluation for inorganic contaminants at Desert Lake wetlands Wildlife Management Area.

Waddell, Bruce H., and Coyner, J., 1990, Screening evaluation of biologically active elements and pesticides in the Utah Lake wetlands proposed for a National Wildlife Refuge, 13 pages.

Waddell, Bruce H., and Coyner, James, 1989, Results of a contaminant screening program at Topaz Slough in the Sevier Lake Basin, (Millard County) Utah 1988: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

---, 1990, Screening evaluation of biologically active elements and pesticides in the Utah wetlands proposed for a National Wildlife Refuge: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

---, 1990, Screening evalution for inorganic contaminants at Desert Lake Wetlands Waterfowl Management Area: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Waddell, Bruce H., Dolling, Justin, Linner, Susan, and others, 1990, A preliminary evaluation of contaminants at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge acquisitions: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pages.

Waddell, B.H. and S.C. Linner. 1991. Pesticide loading and trace elements in the avian prey of Peregrine Falcons in Utah. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Salt Lake City, UT.

Waddell, Bruce H., and May, Thomas W., 1995, Selenium concentrations in the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus): substitution of non-lethal muscle plugs for muscle tissue in contaminant assessment: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 28, p. 321-326.

Waddell, Bruce H., and Stanger, M. C., 1992, The influence of selenium on incubation patterns and nesting success of waterbirds at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service., 18 pages.

Waddell, B. H., & Stanger, M. C. 1992. The influence of selenium on incubation patterns and nesting success of waterbirds at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah.(Report No. R6/400S/92). Salt Lake City, Utah: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Call Number: 688

Waddell, Bruce H., and Stephensen, Shawn, 1992, Contaminant screening at Topaz Slough, Utah 1990: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

---, 1992, Supplemental sampling for inorganic elements in eggs at Tamarisk Lake, Desert Lake Waterfowl Management Area, Utah 1990: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

---, 1992, Supplemental sampling for trace elements in biota at proposed Utah Lake National Wildlife Refuge, 1990: Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Waddell, Bruce, and Wiens, Carol, 1992a, Contaminant assessment of Winter Storage Pond, lower Ashley Creek, and lower Brush Creek, Utah, 1991, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT, Final Draft Report, 16 pages.

---, 1994a, Contaminant assessment of Winter Storage Pond, lower Ashley Creek, and lower Brush Creek, Utah, 1991, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT, Biological Final Draft Report, 16 pages.

---, 1994b, Monitoring of selenium in fish of the Green River, Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT, Biological Draft Report, 14 pages.

---, 1993, Reconnaissance study of trace elements in water, sediment, and biota of Lake Powell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT, Biological Interim Report, 18 pages.

---, 1992b, Trace element concentrations in razorback sucker eggs from the Ashley Creek area, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT, Biological Draft Report, 7 pages.

Wiens, Carol, and Waddell, Bruce, 1996, Monitoring for selenium at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge 1991-1995, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT, Biological Draft Report, 6 pages.

Wilson, R. M., :Lusk, J. D., Bristol, S. B., and others, 1995, Environmental contaminants in biota from the San Juan River and selected tributaries in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report, 60 pages.


Wyoming

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Allen, G.T. and P. Ramirez. 1990. A review of bird deaths on barbed-wire fences. Wilson Bull. 102(3):553-558.

Custer, T.W., C.M. Custer, K. Dickerson, K. Allen, M.J. Melancon, and L.J. Schmidt. 2001. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements, and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20(3):624-631.

DeWeese, L.R., B. Waddell, D. Palawski and P. Ramirez. 1992. Organochlorine pesticide and trace element contamination of avian prey used by Peregrine falcons in four Rocky Mountain States: Ten years after. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminants Report, Colorado, Utah, Montana, Wyoming.

Dickerson, K.K, T.W. Custer, C.M. Custer, and K. Allen. 2000. Bioavailability and exposure assessment of petroluem hydrocarbons and trace elements in birds nesting near the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Contaminant Report R6/716C/00. Cheyenne, WY. 72 pp. [PDF file, 423KB]

Dickerson, K.K., W.A. Hubert, and H.L. Bergman. 1993. Toxicity Assessment of Water from Basins Receiving Irrigation Drainwater. Study presented by Kim Dickerson at the SETAC 14th Annual Meeting, November 14 - 18, 1994 at Houston, TX.

Dickerson, K.K., W.A. Hubert, and H.L. Bergman. 1996. Toxicity Assessment of Water from Lakes and Wetlands Receiving Irrigation Drain Water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15 (7): 1097-1101.

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1993. An Investigation of Trace Element Contamination at Bamforth National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/707C/93. Cheyenne, WY. [PDF file, 4.1 MB]

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez. 1997. A Comparison of Boron and Selenium Concentrations in Biota from Irrigation Drainwater Projects Throughout Wyoming. Study presented by Kim Dickerson at the SETAC 18th Annual Meeting, November 16 - 20, 1997 at San Francisco, CA.

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1997. An investigation of irrigation-related contaminants in water, bottom sediment, and biota from Goshen County, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/711C/97. Cheyenne, WY. 44 pp. [PDF file, 421KB]

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1998. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery Casper, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/713C/98. Cheyenne, WY. 29 pp. [PDF file, 207KB]

Dickerson, K.; A. Farag; A. Gray; D. Harper; and W. Brumbaugh.  2007.  Lead shot availability to birds using the North Platte River near a trap and skeet range. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contamination Report No. R6/722C/06. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 47 pp.[PDF file 1.3 MB]

Dickerson K, KJ Nelson, C Zeeman. 2011. Characterizing contaminant exposure of Mountain Plovers on wintering grounds in California and breeding grounds in Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Contaminant Report No. R6&R8/725C/11. Cheyenne, WY. Feb. 164 pp. [PDF file size 5 MB]

Dickerson K, A Farag, C Helbing, M Jordan. 2012. Assessment of Atrazine Effects and the pathogenic chytrid fungus to the Endangered Wyoming Toad and the Chorus Frog at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge, Wyoming No. R6/726C/12. Cheyenne, Wyoming 59 pp. [PDF file size 1.3 MB]

Esmoil, B.J. and S.H. Anderson. 1995. Wildlife mortality associated with oil pits in Wyoming. Prairie Naturalist. 27(2): 81-88pp.

Jordan, M 2013. Identification of Sex and Fungal Infection Screening of Wyoming Anurans Part 2: Chytridiomycosis. Fort Wayne, Indiana 6pp. [PDF file size 522 KB]

Little, E.E., R.D. Calfee and K. Dickerson. 2002. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contamination Report No. R6/719/02. Columbia, Missouri & Cheyenne, Wyoming. [PDF file size 367KB]

Naftz, D.L., R.B. See and P. Ramirez. 1993. Selenium source identification and biogeochemical processes controlling selenium in surface water and biota, Kendrick Reclamation Project, Wyoming, U.S.A. Applied Geochem.8:115-126.

Peterson, D.A., T.F. Harms, P. Ramirez, Jr., G.T. Harms, and A.H. Christenson. 1991. Reconnaissance Investigation of Water Quality, Bottom Sediment, and Biota Associated with Irrigation Drainage in the Riverton Reclamation Project, Wyoming, 1988-89. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 90-4187.

Peterson, D.A., W.E. Jomes and A.G. Morton. 1998. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, 1986-1987. US Geological Survey Water Resource Investigations Report 87-4255.

Ramirez, P. 1992. Trace Element Concentrations in Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater from the Jim Bridger Power Plant, Sweetwater County, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/703C/92. Cheyenne, WY. April. [PDF file size 1.88MB]

Ramirez, P. 1992. Trace Elements in Water, Sediments and Biota from Wetlands in the Laramie Basin and Their Relationship to the Recovery of the Endangered Wyoming Toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/704C/92. Cheyenne, WY. [PDF file size 2MB]

Ramirez, P. 1993. Contaminants in Oil Field Produced Waters Discharged into the Loch Katrine Wetland Complex, Park County, Wyoming and Their Bioconcentration in the Aquatic Bird Food Chain. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report No. R6/706C/93. Cheyenne, WY. Dec. [PDF file size 398KB]

Ramirez, P. 1993. Environmental Contaminants Issues in Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/705C/93. Cheyenne, WY. Oct.

Ramirez, P. 1994. Contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine wetland complex, Park County, Wyoming. Rocky Mtn. Symp. on Environmental Issues in Oil & Gas Operations. July 11-13. Golden, CO.

Ramirez, P. Jr. 1997. Environmental Contaminants in the Aquatic Bird Food Chain of an Oil Refinery Wastewater Pond in Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. R6/712c/97. Cheyenne, Wy. 28 pp. [PDF file, 76 KB]

Ramirez, P. 1998. Contaminants Information Bulletin-Evironmental contaminants in sediments from oilfield produced water discharge points. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/710C/98. Cheyenne, WY. 24 pp. [PDF file, 4.2 MB]

Ramirez, P. 2002. Oil Field Produced Water Discharges into Wetlands in Wyoming. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report # R6/718C/02. Cheyenne, WY. Aug. 15 pp. [1.8 MB]

Ramirez, P.Jr. 2005. Assessment of contaminants associated with coal bed methane-produced water and its suitability for wetland creation or enhancement projects. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contamination Report No. R6/721C/05. Cheyenne, Wyoming.

Ramirez, P. 2005. Oil field-produced water discharges into wetlands: Benefits and risks to wildlife. Environmental Geosciences, v. 12, no. 2 (June), pp. 65–72

Ramirez, P. Jr. 2008. Trace Elements and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Bird Food Chain Of Process Water Evaporation Ponds at the Little America Refinery, Casper, Wyoming. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contamination Report No. R6/724C/08. Cheyenne, WY. 36 pp. [PDF file size 2.2 MB]

Ramirez, P. Jr. 2010. Bird mortality in oil field wastewater disposal facilities. Environmental Management 46:820-826.

Ramirez, P. Jr. 2013. Migratory Bird Mortality in Oil and Gas Facilities in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming. US Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Contaminants Report No. R6/726C/13. Cheyenne, WY. 30 pp. [PDF file size 1.5 MB]

Ramirez, P. Jr., G.T. Allen and J. Malloy. 1993. Selenium in Aquatic Birds Nesting in the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County, Wyoming: Apparent Impacts from Irrigation Drainwater in Planning, Rehabilitation and Treatment of Disturbed Lands, Sixth Billings Symposium, Billings, MT. Reclamation Res. Unit Pub. No. 9301. Montana State Univ. Bozeman, MT.

Ramirez, P. Jr. and J.A. Armstrong. 1990. Environmental contaminants monitoring in selected wildlife refuges in Wyoming. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, WY.

Ramirez, P. Jr. and J.A. Armstrong. 1990. Trace elements concentrations in water and sediment from Seedskadee NWR Well #1, Sweet Water Co., Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY.

Ramirez, P. Jr. and J.A. Armstrong. 1990. Trace elements in water and sediments from wetlands in the Laramie Plains and their relationship to the recovery of the Wyoming toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Cheyenne, WY.

Ramirez, P. and J. Armstrong. 1991. Trace Elements in Existing Wetlands and  Proposed Mitigation Sites in the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Shoshone Rehabilitation and Betterment Project, Park and Bighorn Counties, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, WY. April. [PDF file size 3 MB]

Ramirez, P. and J. Armstrong. 1992. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming {Biologically Active Elements Study]. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Contaminant Report No. R6/701C/92. Cheyenne, WY. Feb. [PDF file size 833KB]

Ramirez, P. and J. Armstrong. 1992. Environmental Contaminant Surveys in Three National Wildlife Refuges in Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/702C/92. Cheyenne, WY. Feb. [PDF file size 3.1MB]

Ramirez, P. Jr. and J.A. Armstrong. 1992. Selenium in Aquatic Birds Inhabiting the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Wyoming: Apparent Impacts from Irrigation Drainwater. in Society of Environ. Toxicol. and Chem. 13th Annual Meeting. Cincinnati, OH. Nov. 8-12.

Ramirez, P. Jr. and S. Brockmann. 1991. Grease Traps Wyoming Wildlife Magazine. Wyoming Game & Fish Dept. Cheyenne, WY.

Ramirez, P. and K. Dickerson. 1997. Follow-up investigation of selenium and other trace elements in biota from the Riverton Reclamation Project, Fremont County, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/709C/97. Cheyenne, WY. 20 pp. [PDF file, 305 KB]

Ramirez, P. Jr. and K. Dickerson. 1998. Monitoring of selenium concentrations in biota from the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County, Wyoming, 1992- 1996. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/714C/99. Cheyenne, Wy. 16 pp. [PDF file, 109 KB]

Ramirez, P. Jr., K. Dickerson and M. Jennings . 1995. Trace element concentrations in water, sediment and biota from Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Natrona and Carbon Counties, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/708C/97. Cheyenne, WY. 15 pp. [PDF file size 238KB]

Ramirez, P. Jr. and B.J. Esmoil. 1993. Bird Mortalities Associated with Mining and Oilfield Waste Pits in Wyoming. in Planning, Rehabilitation and Treatment of Disturbed Lands, Sixth Billings Symposium, Billings, MT. Reclamation Res. Unit Pub. No. 9301. Montana State Univ. Bozeman, MT.

Ramirez, P. Jr., M. Jennings and K. Dickerson. 1994. A Comparison of Trace Element Concentrations in Biota from Four Irrigation Projects in Wyoming. Study presented by Kim Dickerson and Mary Jennings at the SETAC 15th Annual Meeting, October 30 - November 3, 1994 at Denver, CO.

Ramirez, P. Jr., M. Jennings and K. Dickerson. 1994. Selenium in Fish and the Aquatic Bird Food Chain Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County, Wyoming. in Proc. Annual Summer Symposium of Am. Water Res. Assoc. Effects of Human-Induced Changes on Hydrologic Systems. Jackson, WY. June 26-29. pp: 1043-1053.

Ramirez, P. and B. Rogers. 2000. Selenium in a Wyoming grassland community receiving wastewater from an in situ uranium mine. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report # R6/715C/00. Cheyenne, WY. Sept. 31. [PDF file, 992 KB]

Ramirez, P. and B.P. Rogers. 2002. Selenium in a Wyoming grassland community receiving wastewater from an in situ uranium mine. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 42(4):431-436.

See, R.B.; D.L. Naftz; D.A. Peterson; J.G. Crock; J.A. Erdman; R.C. Severson; P. Ramirez, Jr. and J.A. Armstrong. 1992. Detailed Study of Selenium in soil, Representative Plants, Water, Bottom Sediment, and Biota in the Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, 1988-89. U.S. Geological Survey Water Investigations Report 91-4131. Cheyenne.

See, R.B.; D.A. Peterson; and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1992. Physical, Chemical and Biological Data for Detailed Study of Irrigation Drainage in the Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, 1988-90. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 91-533. Cheyenne, WY.

Skorupa, J.P., H.M. Ohlendorf, R.L. Hothem, D.L. Roster, R.G. Stein, W.L. Hohman, D.Welsh, C.M. Marn, S.J. Detwiler, J. Winkel, P. Ramirez, J.A. Armstrong and P.J. Leonard. 1993. Comparative ecotoxicology of selenium for breeding stilts and avocets exposed to irrigation drain water. Proc. Wildl. Soc., Western Section. Monterey, CA. Feb.

Stephens, R.M.; A.S. Johnson; R. Plumb; K.K. Dickerson; M.C. McKinstry; and S.H. Anderson.  2006.  Secondary lead poinsoning in Golden Eagle and Ferruginous Hawk chicks consuming shot Black-tailed Prairie Dogs, Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.  US Fish and Wildlife Service Contamination Report No. R6/720C/05. Columbia, Missouri & Cheyenne, Wyoming.  19 pp. [PDF file size 310 KB]


Contact our staff »

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REGIONAL OFFICE

USFWS
PO Box 25486 - DFC
Denver, CO 80225

Maria Boroja
Branch Chief EWC & Environmental Contaminants Coordinator
303-236-4518
Maria_Boroja@fws.gov

John Wegrzyn
NRDAR/Oil Spill Coordinator
303-236-4261
John_Wegrzyn@fws.gov


FIELD OFFICES

BISMARCK, ND

Jessica Johnson
USFWS
Ecological Services
3425 Miriam Avenue
Bismarck, ND 58501
701-355-8507
Jessica_N_Johnson@fws.gov


CHEYENNE, WY

Kim Dickerson
USFWS
Ecological Services
5353 Yellowstone Road #308A
Cheyenne, WY 82003
307-772-2374 ext. 230
Kimberly_Dickerson@fws.gov


GRAND ISLAND, NE

Lourdes Mena
USFWS
Ecological Services
203 West Second Street
Federal Building, 2nd Floor
Grand Island, NE 68801
308-382-6468 ext. 23
Lourdes_Mena@fws.gov


GRAND JUNCTION, CO

Barb Osmundson
USFWS
Ecological Services
764 Horizon Drive
South Annex A - Bldg. B
Grand Junction, CO 81506-3946
970-243-2778 ext. 21 Barb_Osmundson@fws.gov


HELENA, MT

Karen Nelson
David Rouse

USFWS
Ecological Services
585 Shepard Way
Helena, MT 59601

406-449-5225 ext. 210
Karen_Nelson@fws.gov

406-449-5225 ext. 211
David_Rouse@fws.gov


SAGUACHE, CO

Laura Archuleta
USFWS
Ecological Services
San Luis Valley Public Lands Center
Saguache Field Office
46525 Highway 114
Saguache, CO 81149
719-655-6121
Laura_Archuleta@fws.gov

LAKEWOOD, CO

Brian Sanchez
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
PO Box 25486 - DFC
Denver, CO 80225
303-236-4752
Brian_C_Sanchez@fws.gov


MANHATTAN, KS

John Miesner
Gibran Suleiman

USFWS Ecological Services
2609 Anderson Avenue
Manhattan, KS 66502-2801

785-539-3474 ext. 103
John_Miesner@fws.gov

785-539-3474 ext. 114
Gibran_Suleiman@fws.gov


PIERRE, SD

Matt Schwarz
USFWS
Ecological Services
420 S. Garfield Ave., Suite 400
Pierre, SD 57501 605-224-8693 x232
Matt_Schwarz@fws.gov


SALT LAKE CITY, UT

Chris Cline
USFWS
Ecological Services
2369 West Orton Circle
West Valley City, UT 84119
801-975-3330 ext. 145
Chris_Cline@fws.gov


Links and downloadable PDFs »

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Commercial Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

Laws Protecting Migratory Birds

Wildlife Exclusionary Devices

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Superfund sites in Region 6

Superfund sites in Kansas and Nebraska

National Irrigation Water Quality Program

National Spill Response Center Database

Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation
and Liability Act (CERCLA)


EC Reports:    NOTE:  For more reports that are not in PDF, CLICK "Publications"

Allen, G.T. 1992. Metal concentrations in blood from an adult bald eagle nesting at Clinton Reservoir in Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/507M/92. 8 pp.

Allen, G.T. 1992. Metals and organic compounds in fish and sediments from the Missouri and lower Kansas Rivers in 1991. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/509M/92. 24 pp. 

Allen, G.T. and S.H. Blackford. 1997. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, and organochlorine compounds in interior least tern eggs in the Northern Great Plains states, 1992-1994. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/515M/97. 39 pp.

Allen, G.T. and T. Fannin. 1993. Background contaminants evaluation of the Republican River drainage: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/512M/93. 52 pp.

Allen, G.T. and T. Nash. 1992. Contaminants survey of the proposed Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/508M/92. 22 pp. 

Allen, G.T., and R.M. Wilson. 1991. Metals and organic compounds in Missouri River fish in 1988. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number R6/503M/91. 69 pp.

Chirhart, J., L. Coppock, and A. Archuleta  2002  Contaminant Assessment Process Report for Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [PDF file 7.8M]  [PDF Appendix 5M]

Dickerson, K.K, T.W. Custer, C.M. Custer, and K. Allen. 2000. Bioavailability and exposure assessment of petroluem hydrocarbons and trace elements in birds nesting near the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Contaminant Report R6/716C/00. Cheyenne, WY. 72 pp. [PDF file, 423KB]

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1993. An Investigation of Trace Element Contamination at Bamforth National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/707C/93. Cheyenne, WY. [PDF file, 4.1 MB]

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1997. An investigation of irrigation-related contaminants in water, bottom sediment, and biota from Goshen County, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/711C/97. Cheyenne, WY. 44 pp.

Dickerson, K. and P. Ramirez, Jr. 1998. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery Casper, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/713C/98. Cheyenne, WY. 29 pp. [PDF file, 207KB]

Esmoil BJ, Schroeder KD, Fannin TE.  1994.  A contaminant evaluation of the Big Blue River in southeastern Nebraska.  US Fish and Wildlife Service.  Contaminant Report No. R6/60II/94.

Fannin, T.E. and B.J. Esmoil. 1993. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. Pages 150-158 in Higgins, K.F. and M.R. Brashier, eds. Proceedings, The Missouri River and its tributaries piping plover and least tern symposium/workshop. South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.

Goldberg, D.R, M.C. Samuel, T.E. Rocke, K.M. Johnson, G. Linz.  2004.  Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avain botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?  Wildlife Soc.  Bul.  32(3):  870-880.

Little, E.E., R.D. Calfee and K. Dickerson. 2002. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contamination Report No. R6/719C/02. Columbia, Missouri & Cheyenne, Wyoming. [PDF file size 367KB]

Miesner, J.F. 2000. Contaminant residue analysis of fish tissues from Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge-Kansas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report Number: R6/801M/1998. 32pp. [PDF file size 38 KB]

Nelson, K.J. and B.J. Esmoil. 1999. Background contaminants evaluation of Fort Niobrara and Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Grand Island, NE.

Nelson, K.J. and B.J. Esmoil. 2001. Trace element concentrations in plants and sediments at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge. US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Grand Island, NE.

Schwarz, M.S., K.R. Echols, M.J. Wolcott and K.J. Nelson.  2004.  Environmental contaminants associated with swine concentrated animal feeding operation and implications for McMurtrey National Wildlife Refuge.  US Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report, Grand Island, NE. 

Ramirez, P. 1992. Trace Elements in Water, Sediments and Biota from Wetlands in the Laramie Basin and Their Relationship to the Recovery of the Endangered Wyoming Toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/704C/92. Cheyenne, WY. [PDF file size 2MB]

Ramirez, P. 1992. Trace Element Concentrations in Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater from the Jim Bridger Power Plant, Sweetwater County, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/703C/92. Cheyenne, WY. April. [PDF file size 1.88MB]

Ramirez, P. 1993. Contaminants in Oil Field Produced Waters Discharged into the Loch Katrine Wetland Complex, Park County, Wyoming and Their Bioconcentration in the Aquatic Bird Food Chain. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report No. R6/706C/93. Cheyenne, WY. Dec. [PDF file size 398KB]

Ramirez, P. Jr. 1997. Environmental Contaminants in the Aquatic Bird Food Chain of an Oil Refinery Wastewater Pond in Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. R6/712c/97. Cheyenne, Wy. 28 pp. [PDF file, 76 KB]

Ramirez, P. 1998. Contaminants Information Bulletin-Evironmental contaminants in sediments from oilfield produced water discharge points. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/710C/98. Cheyenne, WY. 24 pp. [PDF file, 4.2 MB]

Ramirez, P. 2002. Oil Field Produced Water Discharges into Wetlands in Wyoming. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report # R6/718C/02. Cheyenne, WY. Aug. 15 pp. [1.8 MB]

Ramirez, P. and J. Armstrong. 1991. Trace Elements in Existing Wetlands and  Proposed Mitigation Sites in the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Shoshone Rehabilitation and Betterment Project, Park and Bighorn Counties, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, WY. April. [PDF file size 3 MB]

Ramirez, P. and J. Armstrong. 1992. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming {Biologically Active Elements Study]. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Contaminant Report No. R6/701C/92. Cheyenne, WY. Feb. [PDF file size 833KB]

Ramirez, P. and J. Armstrong. 1992. Environmental Contaminant Surveys in Three National Wildlife Refuges in Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/702C/92. Cheyenne, WY. Feb. [PDF file size 3.1MB]

Ramirez, P. and K. Dickerson. 1997. Follow-up investigation of selenium and other trace elements in biota from the Riverton Reclamation Project, Fremont County, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/709C/97. Cheyenne, WY. 20 pp. [PDF file, 305 KB]

Ramirez, P. Jr. and K. Dickerson. 1998. Monitoring of selenium concentrations in biota from the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County, Wyoming, 1992- 1996. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/714C/99. Cheyenne, Wy. 16 pp. [PDF file, 109 KB]

Ramirez, P. Jr., K. Dickerson and M. Jennings . 1995. Trace element concentrations in water, sediment and biota from Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Natrona and Carbon Counties, Wyoming. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Contam. Rep. No. R6/708C/97. Cheyenne, WY. 15 pp. [PDF file size 238KB]

Ramirez, P. and B. Rogers. 2000. Selenium in a Wyoming grassland community receiving wastewater from an in situ uranium mine. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contaminant Report # R6/715C/00. Cheyenne, WY. Sept. 31. [PDF file, 992 KB]

Waddell, B. H., & Stanger, M. C. (1992). The influence of selenium on incubation patterns and nesting success of waterbirds at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah.(Report No. R6/400S/92). Salt Lake City, Utah: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Call Number: 688

Wilson and Allen. Selenium in the aquatic environment of Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1987. R6 Studies - Kansas. 

Other:

Seiler, R.L., Skorupa, J.P., and Peltz, L.A., 1999, Areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination of water and biota in the western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1180, 36 pages, [PDFDF file size 2,140 KB]

 

The mission of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is working with Others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American People.
Last modified: July 23, 2015
All Images Credit to and Courtesy of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Unless Specified Otherwise.
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