Migratory Bird Program
Conserving the Nature of America
ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS IN PERIL: REPORT OF THE ARCTIC GOOSE HABITAT WORKING GROUP

LITERATURE CITED


Abraham, K.F., R.L. Jefferies, R.F. Rockwell, and C.D. MacInnes. 1996. Why are there so many white geese in North America? Pages 79-92 in J. Ratti (editor). Proceedings of 7th International Waterfowl Symposium. Ducks Unlimited, Memphis, Tennessee.

Alisauskas, R., and C.D. Ankney. 1992. Spring habitat use and diets of midcontinent adult lesser snow geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 56:43-54.

______, and H. Boyd. 1994. Previously unrecorded colonies of Ross' and Lesser Snow Geese in the Queen Maud Gulf bird sanctuary. Arctic 47:69-73.

______, C.D. Ankney and E.E. Klaas. 1988. Winter diets and nutrition of midcontinental lesser snow geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:403-414.

Allen, J.R., J.S. Kirby and C.J. Feare. 1995. The biology of Canada geese Branta canadensis in relation to the management of feral populations. Wildl. Biol. 1:129-143.

Andrews, J.T. 1973. The Wisconsin Laurentide ice sheet: dispersal centres, problems of rates of retreat, and climatic interpretations. Arct. Alp. Res. 5:185-189.

Ankney, C.D. 1996. An embarrassment of riches: too many gaggles of geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:217-223.

______, and C.D. MacInnes. 1978. Nutrient reserves and reproductive performance of female lesser snow geese. Auk 95:459-471.

Anonymous. 1981. A Greater Snow Goose Management Plan. Canadian Wildlife Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Atlantic Flyway Council. 68 pp.

Anonymous. 1992. Hinterland Who's Who: Greater Snow Goose. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa. 4 pp.

Bateman, H.A., T. Joanen and C.D. Stutzenbaker. 1988. History and status of midcontinent snow geese on their Gulf Coast winter range. Pages 495-515 in M. W. Weller, ed. Waterfowl in winter. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Bazely, D.R., and R.L. Jefferies. 1986. Changes in the composition and standing crop of salt marsh communities in response to the removal of a grazer. J. Ecol. 74:693-706.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and G. Gauthier. 1986. Effects of spring grazing by greater snow geese on hay production. J. Appl. Ecol. 23:65-75.

______________, and G. Gauthier. 1989. Comparative energy budgets of Greater Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens atlantica staging in two habitats in spring. Ardea 77:3-20.

____________, and G. Lapointe. 1991. Responses of hayfield vegetation to spring grazing by greater snow geese. J. Appl. Ecol. 28:187-193.

Belanger, L., and J. Bédard. 1994. Role of ice scouring and goose grubbing in marsh plant dynamics. J. Ecol. 82:437-445.

Bellrose, F.C. 1980. Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America. Stackpole Books. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 543pp.

Bent, A.C. 1962. Life Histories of North American Wildfowl. Part II. Dover Publications, New York, New York. 314pp + plates.

Berkes, F., P.J. George, R.J. Preston, A. Hughes, J. Turner and B.D. Cummins. 1994. Wildlife harvesting and sustainable regional native economy in the Hudson and James Bay Lowland, Ontario. Arctic 47:350-360.

____________, A. Hughes, P.J. George, R.J. Preston, B.D. Cummins and J. Turner. 1995. The persistence of aboriginal land use: fish and wildlife harvest areas in the Hudson and James Bay Lowland, Ontario. Arctic 48:81-93.

Boyd, H. 1977. Waterfowl hunting by native peoples in Canada: the case of James Bay and northern Québec. Trans. Congr. of Game Biol. 13:463-473.

Boyd, H., and J.Y. Pirot. (eds.). 1989. Flyways and reserve networks for water birds. Canadian Wildlife Service: IWRB Special Publication #9, IWRB, Slimbridge, U.K. xxxpp.

________________, G.E.J. Smith and F.G. Cooch. 1982. The lesser snow goose of the eastern Canadian Arctic: their status during 1964-1979 and their management from 1982 to 1990. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 46. 21pp.

Burton, B.A. 1977. Some aspects of the ecology of lesser snow geese wintering on the Fraser River estuary. M.Sc. Thesis. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Cargill, S.M., and R.L. Jefferies. 1984. The effects of grazing by lesser snow geese on the vegetation of a sub-arctic salt marsh. J. Appl. Ecol. 21:669-686.

Chou, R., C. Vardy and R.L. Jefferies. 1992. Establishment from leaves and other plant fragments produced by the foraging activities of geese. Funct. Ecol. 6:297-301.

Cohen, S.J., T.A. Agnew, A. Headley, P.Y.T. Louie, J. Reycraft and W. Skinner. 1994. Climate variability, climatic change and implications for the future of the Hudson Bay bioregion. The Hudson Bay Programme, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario. 113pp.

Cooch, F.G. 1955. Observations of the autumn migration of the Blue Goose. Wilson Bull. 67:171-174.

________________, 1958. The breeding biology and management of the Blue Goose, Chen caerulescens. Ph. D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca. 235pp.

______________, 1961. Ecological aspects of the blue-snow goose complex. Auk 78:72-89.

Cooch, E.G., D.B. Lank, R.F. Rockwell and F. Cooke. 1991a. Long-term decline in body size in a snow goose population: evidence of environmental degradation? J. Anim. Ecol. 60:483-496.

______________,_________________ , A. Dzubin, R.F. Rockwell and F. Cooke. 1991b. Body size variation in lesser snow geese: environmental plasticity in gosling growth rates. Ecology 72:503-512.

__________________, R.L. Jefferies, R.F. Rockwell and F. Cooke. 1993. Environmental change and the cost of philopatry: an example in the lesser snow goose. Oecologia 93:128-138.

Cooke, F., R.F. Rockwell and D.B. Lank. 1995. The Snow Geese of La Pérouse Bay. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 297pp.

Davies, J.C. and F. Cooke. 1983. Annual nesting productivity in snow geese: prairie droughts and arctic springs. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:291-296.

Didiuk, A.B., R.S. Ferguson, R.T. Alisauskas and G.B. Stenhouse. 1994. Habitat mapping of Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Northwest Territories. Arctic Goose Joint Venture, Canadian Wildlife Service, Saskatoon.

Dzubin, A. 1979. Recent increases of blue geese in western North America. Pages 141-175 in R.L. Jarvis and J.C. Bartonek (eds). Management and biology of Pacific flyway geese. Oregon State University Press.

Fox, A.D., H. Boyd and S.M. Warren. 1992. The phenology of spring staging of pre-nesting geese in Iceland. Ecography 15:289-295.

Francis, C.M., M.H. Richards, F. Cooke and R.F. Rockwell. 1992. Long-term changes in survival rates of lesser snow geese. Ecology 73:1346-1362.

Frederick, R.B., and E.E. Klaas. 1982. Resource use and behavior of migrating snow geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:601-614.

Friend, M. and D.H. Cross. 1995. Waterfowl diseases: causes, prevention and control. Waterfowl Management Handbook 13.2.3. U.S.D.I., National Biological Service. 8 pp.

Gadallah, F.L., and R.L. Jefferies. 1995a. Comparison of the nutrient contents of the principal forage plants utilized by lesser snow geese on summer breeding grounds. J. Appl. Ecol. 32:263-275.

______________, and______________. 1995b. Forage quality in brood rearing areas of the lesser snow goose and the growth of captive goslings. J. Appl. Ecol. 32:276-287.

Garrott, R.A., P.J. White and C.A. Vanderbilt White. 1993. Overabundance: An issue for conservation biologists? Conservation Biology 7:946-949.

Gauthier, G., Y. Bédard and J. Bédard. 1988. Habitat use and activity budgets of Greater Snow Geese in spring. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:191-201.

______________, and J. Bédard. 1991. Experimental tests of the palatability of forage plants in Greater Snow Geese. J. Appl. Ecol. 28:491-500.

_________________, J.R. Hughes, A. Reed, J. Beaulieu and L. Rochefort. 1995. Effects of grazing by greater snow geese on the production of graminoids at an arctic site (Bylot Island, N.W.T., Canada). J. Ecol. 83:653-664.

______________, L. Rochefort, and A. Reed. 1996. The exploitation of wetland ecosystems by hervivores on Bylot Island. Geoscience Canada In Press.

Gauvin, J., and A. Reed. 1987. A simulation model for the Greater Snow Goose population. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper, No. 64. Environment Canada, Ottawa. 28pp

Geramita, J.M. and F. Cooke. 1982. Evidence that fidelity to natal breeding colony is not absolute in female snow geese. Can. J. Zool. 60:2051-2056.

Giroux, J.F., and J. Bédard. 1987. The effects of grazing by greater snow geese on the vegetation of tidal marshes in the St. Lawrence estuary. J. Appl. Ecol. 24:773-788.

Gomis, S., A.B. Didiuk, J. Neufeld and G. Wobeser. 1996. Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-Anne River, West Coast Hudson Bay. J. Wildl. Diseases 32:498-504.

Goodrich, J.M. and S.W. Busker. 1995. Control of abundant native vertebrates for conservation of endangered species. Conservation Biology 9:1357-1364.

Gratto-Trevor, C. 1994. Monitoring shorebird populations in the Arctic. Bird Trends 3:10-12

Gresham, B. 1939. Flight of the blue goose. Pages 16-19 in The Beaver, March 1939. Hudson's Bay Company, Winnipeg.

Hanson, H.C., H.G. Lumsden, J.J. Lynch and H.W. Norton. 1972. Population characteristics of three mainland colonies of blue and lesser snow geese in the southern Hudson Bay region. Research Report (Wildlife) No. 92. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 38 pp.

_______________ and C. Currie. 1957. The kill of wild geese by the natives of the Hudson Bay - James Bay Region. Arctic 10:211-229.

Heagy, M.I., and F. Cooke. 1979. Vegetation characteristics of Snow Goose nest sites. Can. J. Bot. 57:1502-1504.

Hik, D., and R.L. Jefferies 1990. Increases in the net above-ground primary production of a salt-marsh forage grass: a test of the predictions of the herbivore-optimization model. J. Ecol. 78:180- 195.

_______________, H.A. Sadul and R.L. Jefferies. 1991. Effects of the timing of multiple grazings by geese on net above-ground primary production of swards of Puccinellia phryganodes. J. Ecol. 79:715-730.

_______________, R.L. Jefferies and A.R.E. Sinclair. 1992. Grazing by geese, isostatic uplift and the occurrence of multiple stable states of salt-marsh vegetation. J. Ecol. 80:395-406.

Hill, M.R.J. 1992. Movements and habitat use by wintering greater snow geese on the Delmarva Peninsula. M.Sc. Thesis, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond. 111pp.

Hindman, L.J., and F. Ferrigno. 1990. Atlantic Flyway goose populations: status and management. Pages 293-311 in Transactions of the 55th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.

Hobaugh, W.C., C.D. Stutzenbaker and E.L. Flickinger. 1989. The rice prairies. Pages 367-383 in L.M. Smith, R.L. Pederson and R.M. Kaminski (eds.). Habitat management of migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America. Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock.

Iacobelli, A., and R.L. Jefferies. 1991. Inverse salinity gradients in coastal marshes and the death of stands of Salix: the effects of grubbing by geese. J. Ecol. 79:61-73.

James Bay and Northern Québec Native Harvesting Research Committee. 1976. Research to establish present levels of harvesting by native peoples of Northern Québec. Part 1. A report on the harvests by the James Bay Cree. Montreal. 376 pp.

Jefferies, R.L. 1988a. Pattern and process in arctic coastal vegetation in response to foraging by lesser snow geese. Pages 281-300 in M.J.A. Werger, P.J.M. van der Art, H.J. During and J.T. A. Verhoeven (eds.). Plant form and vegetation structure. S.P.B. Academic Publishing, The Hague.

______________, 1988b. Vegetational mosaics, plant-animal interactions and resources for plant growth. Pages 341-369 in L.D. Gottlieb and S.K. Jain (eds). Plant Evolutionary Biology. Chapman & Hall, London.

________________, and L.D. Gottlieb. 1983. Genetic variation within and between populations of the asexual plant Puccinellia x phryganodes. Can. J. Bot. 61:774-779.

_____________, D.R. Bazely and S.M. Cargill. 1986. Effects of grazing on tundra vegetation - a positive feedback model. Page 50 in P.J. Joss, P.W. Lynch and O.B. Williams (eds.). Rangelands: a resource under siege Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia.

_________, D.R. Klein and G.R. Shaver. 1994. Vertebrate herbivores and northern plant communities: reciprocal influences and responses. Oikos 71:193-206.

_______________, F.L. Gadallah, D.R. Srivastava and D.J. Wilson. 1995. Desertification and trophic cascades in arctic coastal ecosystems: a potential climatic change scenario? Pages 201- 206 in T.W. Callaghan (ed.). Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems. Ecosystem Research Report No. 10. European Commission, Luxembourg.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1974. Song of the North Wind: a story of the snow goose. Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 150pp.

Johnson, M. 1997. Management strategies to address the mid-continent lesser snow goose overpopulation problem. Pages 101-111 in B. D. J. Batt, ed. Arctic Ecosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottowa, Ontario.

Johnson, S.R. 1995. Immigration in a small population of snow geese. Auk 112:731-736.

Kerbes, R.H. 1975. The nesting population of lesser snow geese in the eastern Canadian Arctic: a photographic inventory of June 1973. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series No. 35. 46pp.

______________, 1983. Lesser snow goose colonies in the western Canadian Arctic. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:523-526.

______________, 1994. Colonies and numbers of Ross' geese and lesser snow geese in the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 81. 45pp.

_________________, P.M. Kotanen and R.L. Jefferies. 1990. Destruction of wetland habitats by lesser snow geese: a keystone species on the west coast of Hudson Bay. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:242-258.

Kotanen, P., and R.L. Jefferies. 1997. Long-term destruction of sub-arctic wetland vegetation by lesser snow geese. EcoScience, (under review).

Kraft, M. and H.D. Funk. 1991. Goose management in the 1990s, a Central Flyway Perspective. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf.

Krapu, G.L., K.J. Reinecke, D.G. Jorde and S.G. Simpson. 1995. Spring-staging ecology of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese. J. Wildl. Manage. 59:736-746.

Lynch, J.J. 1975. Winter ecology of snow geese on the Gulf Coast, 1925-1975. 37th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Toronto. 45pp.

____________, T. O’Neil and D.W. Lay. 1947. Management significance of damage by geese and muskrats to Gulf coast marshes. J. Wildl. Manage. 11:50-76.

MacInnes, C.D. and F.G. Cooch. 1963. Additional eastern records of Ross' Goose Chen rossii. Auk 80:77-79.

___________, and R. H. Kerbes. 1987. Growth of the snow goose, Chen caerulescens, colony at McConnell River, Northwest Territories: 1940-1980. Can. Field-Nat. 101:33-39.

___________, E.H. Dunn, D.H. Rusch, F. Cooke and F.G. Cooch. 1990. Advancement of goose nesting dates in the Hudson Bay region, 1951-1986. Can. Field-Nat. 104:295-297.

Manning, T.H. 1942. Blue and lesser snow geese on Southampton and Baffin Islands. Auk 59:158-175.

McCormick, K.J. 1989. Lesser Snow Goose colonies in the Pelly Lake area, Northwest Territories, 1988. Canadian Wildlife Service Progress Notes No. 185. 4pp.

________________, and B. Poston. 1988. Lesser snow geese, Anser c. caerulescens, nesting on Jenny Lind Island, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 102:530-532.

McIlhenny, E.A. 1932. The blue goose in its winter home. Auk 49:279-306.

McKelvey, R., M. Bousfield, A. Reed, V.V. Baranyuk and R. Canniff. 1989. Preliminary results of the Lesser Snow Goose collaring program on the Alaskan National Wildlife Area, 1986 and 1987. Canadian Wildlife Service Progress Notes No. 183. 5 pp.

McLandress, M.R. 1979. Status of Ross' geese in California. Pages 255-265 in R.L. Jarvis and J. C. Bartonek (eds.). Management and biology of Pacific flyway geese. Oregon State University Press. 346pp.

McLaren, P.L. and M.A. McLaren. 1982. Migration and summer distribution of lesser snow geese in interior Keewating. Wilson Bull. 94:494-504.

Ogilvie, M.A. and A.K.M. St. Joseph. 1976. Dark-bellied Brent Geese in Britain and Europe, 1955-76. British Birds 9:422-439.

Owen, M. 1980. Wild geese of the world, their life history and ecology. B.T. Batsford. London. 236pp.

______________, and J. Black. 1991. Geese and their future fortune. Ibis 133 suppl. 1:28-35.

Pacific Flyway Council. 1992. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Wrangel Island population of lesser snow goose. Pacific Flyway Study Committee, Portland, Oregon. 25pp.

Prevett, J.P., and C.D. MacInnes. 1972. The number of Ross' geese in central North America. Condor 74:431-438.

______________, and F. C. Johnson. 1977. Continued eastern expansion of breeding range of Ross' geese. Condor 79:121.

_______________, A.R. Brazda, H.G. Lumsden and J.J. Lynch. 1982. Problems with snow goose productivity appraisals. Wild. Soc. Bull. 10:11-17.

______________, I.F. Marshall and V.G. Thomas. 1979. Fall foods of lesser snow geese in the James Bay region. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:736-742.

____________,____________ , and ______________, 1985. Spring foods of snow and Canada geese at James Bay. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:558-563.

____________, H.G. Lumsden and F.C. Johnson. 1983. Waterfowl kill by Cree hunters of the Hudson Bay Lowland, Ontario. Arctic 36:185-192.

Raveling, D.G. 1978. Dynamics of distribution of Canada geese in winter. Transactions 43rd N.A. Wildlife & Natural Resources Conference: 206-225.

Reed, A. 1976. Geese, nutrition and farmland. Wildfowl 27:153-156.

______________. 1989. Use of a freshwater tidal marsh in the St. Lawrence estuary by greater snow geese. Pages 605-616 in R.R. Sharitz and J.W. Gibbons (eds.), Freshwater wetlands and wildlife. DOE Symposium Series No. 61. USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

______________. 1990. Population dynamics in a successful species: challenges in managing the increasing population of greater snow geese. Trans. 19th IUGB Congress (1989), Trondheim.

______________. 1991. Management of greater snow geese in relation to crop damage: the need for a diversified and integrated approach. Pages 93-100 in M. van Roomen and J. Madsen (eds.). Waterfowl and agriculture: review and future perspective of the crop damge perspective in Europe. IWRB Special Publication, No. 21. Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, The Netherlands.

______________. 1996. Population and productivity surveys of greater snow geese in 1995. Unpublished report to the Atlantic Flyway Council, February 1996. 4 pp. Available from Canadian Wildlife Service, Ste-Foy, Québec.

________________, and D. Cloutier. 1990. Frequentation des terres agricoles par les Oies des neiges et experience d’appatage, Kamouraska, printemps 1989. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ste Foy, Québec, 27pp.

________________, and P. Chagnon. 1987. Greater snow geese on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories, 1983. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:128-131.

________________, and N. Plante. 1997. Decline in body mass, size, and condition of greater snow geese, 1975-94. J. Wildl. Manage. 61 : In Press.

_______________, P. Dupuis and G.E.J. Smith. 1987. A survey of lesser snow geese on Southampton and Baffin islands, N.W.T., 1979. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 61. 22pp.

_____________, H. Boyd, P. Chagnon and J. Hawkings. 1992. The numbers and distribution of greater snow geese on Bylot Island and near Jungersen Bay, Baffin Island, in 1988 and 1983. Arctic 45:115-119.

Robertson, D.G., and R.D. Slack. 1995. Landscape change and its effects on the wintering range of a lesser snow goose Chen caerulescens caerulescens population: a review. Biological Conservation 71:179-185.

Rockwell, R.F., A. Dzubin, R.L. Jefferies, P. Matulonis, M. Owen, F.L. Gadallah and K.F. Abraham. 1995. Size, body condition, and survival of fledgling lesser snow geese on the southwest coast of Hudson Bay. 7th North American Arctic Goose Conference, Albuquerque.

______________, E. Cooch, and S. Brault. 1997. Dynamics of the Mid-continent Population of lesser snow geese - projected impacts of reductions in survival and fertility on population growth rates. Pages 73-100 in B. D. J. Batt, ed. Arctic Ecyosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.

Ross, R.K. 1982. Duck distribution along the James and Hudson Bay coasts of Ontario. Naturaliste Can. 109:927-932.

Rusch, D.H., and F.D. Caswell. 1997. Evaluation of the Arctic Goose Management Initiative. Pages 112- 114 in B. D. J. Batt, ed. Arctic Ecoysystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.

_____________, J.C. Wood, and G.G. Zenner. 1996. The dilemma of giant Canada goose management. Pages 72-78 in Ratti, J. (ed.). Proceedings of the 7th International Waterfowl Symposium. February 4-6, 1996, Memphis, Tennessee.

______________, R.E. Malecki and R. Trost. 1995. Canada geese in North America. Pages 26-34 in LaRoe, E.T., G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran and M.J. Mac (eds.). Our Living Resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance and health of U.S. plants, animals and ecosystems. U.S.D.I. National Biological Service. Washington, D.C.

Schroeder, C.H. 1963. Half-day goose hunting. North Dakota Outdoors 26(4):2-4.

Smith, T.J. III. 1983. Alteration of salt-marsh plant community composition by grazing snow geese. Hol. Ecol. 6:204-210.

_______________, and W.E. Odum. 1981. The effects of grazing by snow geese on coastal salt marshes. Ecology 72:98-106.

Soper, J.D. 1930. The Blue Goose: an account of its breeding ground, migration, eggs, nests and general habits. Canada Department of Interior, Ottawa. 64pp.

Srivastava, D.S., and R.L. Jefferies. 1995a. The effects of salinity on the leaf and shoot demography of two arctic forage species. J. Ecol. 83:421-430.

______________, and ______________. 1995b. Mosaics of vegetation and soil salinity: a consequence of goose foraging in an arctic salt marsh. Can. J. Bot. 73:75-85.

______________, and ______________. 1996. A positive feedback: herbivory, plant growth, salinity and the desertification of an arctic salt marsh. J. Ecol. 84:31-42.

Sutton, G.M. 1931. The blue goose and lesser snow goose on Southampton Island, Hudson Bay. Auk 48:335-364.

Syroechkovsky, E.V., F. Cooke and W.J.L. Sladen. 1994. Population structure of the lesser snow geese of Wrangel Island, Russia. EcoScience 1:311-316.

Tacha, T.C. 1991. Management plan for the Mississippi Valley Population of Canada geese, 1991- 1996. Mississippi Flyway Council, July 1991. 52 pp.

Thomas, V.G. and J.P. Prevett. 1982. The roles of the James and Hudson Bay Lowland in the annual cycle of geese. Naturaliste Can. 109:913-925.

Thompson, J.E. and W.A. Hutchison. 1989. Resource use by Native and non-Native hunters of the Ontario Hudson Bay lowland. 150pp. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Moosonee.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1979. Management plan for the Mississippi Valley Population of Canada geese, 1979-1983. Mississippi Flyway Council, January 1979. 51 pp.

Widner, M. R., and S. C. Yaich. 1990. Distribution and habitat use of snow and white-fronted geese in Arkansas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Fish and Wildlife Agencies 44:328-336.

Williams, T.D., E.G. Cooch, R.L. Jefferies and F. Cooke. 1993. Environmental degradation, food limitation and reproductive output: juvenile survival in lesser snow geese. J. Anim. Ecol. 62:766-777.

Wypkema, R.C.P. and C.D. Ankney. 1979. Nutrient reserve dynamics of lesser snow geese staging at James Bay, Ontario. C. J. Zool. 57:213-219.

Yancey, R., M. Smith, H. Miller and L. Jahn. 1958. Waterfowl distribution and migration report (Mississippi Flyway States). Proceedings 11th Annual Southeastern Association of Game & Fish Commissioners: 105-115.

Zellmer, I.D., M.J. Claus, D.S. Hik, D.S. and R.L. Jefferies. 1993. Growth responses of arctic graminoids following grazing by captive lesser snow geese. Oecologia 93:487-492.

Zenner, G. 1996. Snow and white-fronted goose committee report. Mississippi Flyway Technical Section Minutes.

Return to Table of Contents


DMBM Logo

Last updated: April 11, 2012