BIRD KILLS AT TOWERS AND OTHER HUMAN-MADE STRUCTURES:
AN ANNOTATED PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY (1960-1998)
By: John L. Trapp
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Migratory Bird Management
Arlington, Virginia 22203
Last Revised: 10 June 1998
The purpose of this document is to increase public awareness of the
potential impacts of towers and other human-made structures by
highlighting some of the pertinent literature on the subject. The
bibliography focuses primarily on collisions with communication towers,
lighted buildings, and (to a lesser degree) windows. No effort has been
made to cover collisions with power lines or wind turbines, topics that
have been addressed by Bevanger (1994) and Hebert et al. (1995).
Previous bibliographies on the subject of bird collisions with
human-made objects have been prepared by Weir (1976), Avery et al. (1978),
Avery et al. (1980), Hebert et al. (1995), and the National Wind
Technology Center (n.d.). This document is intended to supplement, not
duplicate, these earlier publications. Of the 125 citations listed below,
83 were published subsequent to Avery et al. (1980) and 102 were not
included in Hebert et al. (1995); 24 of the citations are to Internet
If you are aware of other references published since 1979 that you think
should be added to this bibliography, please send that information to <http//www.fws.gov/migratorybirds>.
Alphabetical Listing by Author
Able, K. P. 1966. Television tower mortality near Louisville
[Kentucky]. Kentucky Warbler 42: 27-28.
Mortality of 25 individuals of 14 species (including 13 warblers of 8
species) on 5 nights, 14 September-23 October 1965, at 973-ft WHAS-TV
tower in Floyd County, Indiana, "is apparently the first migrant
mortality due to such a structure in the Louisville region."
Able, K. P. 1968. Connecticut Warblers in the Louisville
[Kentucky] area in autumn. Kentucky Warbler 44: 3-4.
Two recent specimens (females collected 22 September 1967 in Jefferson
County; and 7 October 1967 in Floyd County, Indiana--1 of 78 birds killed
at WHAS-TV tower) indicates that species may not be as rare in Kentucky in
fall as paucity of records (1 previous specimen) suggest.
Anonymous. n.d. Towerkill.Com. <http://towerkill.com>. Accessed
2 June 1998.
The stated goal of this site to "serve as an information resource
on the towerkill problem and to promote cooperative solutions for
mitigating the needless slaughter of millions of songbirds every year."
A brief historical overview of the issue is provided, and clickable maps
depict the locations of communication towers of different size classes in
each of the 48 contiguous United States. Also includes a bulletin board
Anonymous. 1998a (29 January). Bad weather causes syracuse bird
kill: as many as 10,000 common Lapland Longspurs apparently crashed into
radio towers in fog. Wichita [Kansas] Eagle. <http://newslibrary.infi.net/wichita/>. Choose "The Wichita Eagle," click on "Go," scroll to "Newspaper
Search," enter "longspur" as a search word, select "1998"
as the search year, click on "Search," and scroll to "Search
Results." Accessed 9 June 1998.
This synopsis of a 375-word article notes that a combination of fog,
snow, and radio transmission towers near Syracuse, Kansas, was responsible
for one of the State's largest bird kills, when 5,000-10,000 longspurs
crashed into guy wires around the towers as they milled about the
clearance lights on 22 January 1998. The complete article is accessible
only to registered subscribers of NewsLibrary.
Anonymous. 1998b (30 January). Mid-America. Kansas
City [Kansas] Star. <http://www.kcstar.com/library/library.htm>. Enter "longspur" as a search word, select "Metropolitan"
section and "Library '98" search collection, click on "Search,"
click on text icon, click on "OK," and scroll to "Bird
kill." Accessed 8 June 1998.
An estimated 5,000-10,000 Lapland Longspurs were reportedly killed as
they crashed into the guy wires of lighted radio transmission towers near
Syracuse, Kansas. The kill, termed "one of the largest ever in Kansas"
by State wildlife officials, apparently occurred 22 January 1998 when the
guy wires were obscured by fog and blowing snow. Specimens collected will
be studied by scientists from Southwestern College and Kansas State
Anonymous. 1998c (20 February). Telecommunications towers
affect avian community. WaveGuide. <http://www.cruzio.com/~rbedard/waveguide/birdkill.html>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
Includes full text of message by Bill Evans <email@example.com>
dated 17 February 1998 (Subject: 150 pounds of longspurs). Evans reports
an estimated kill of 5,000-10,000 birds, mostly Lapland Longspurs, in
vicinity of 420-ft tower in western Kansas on the night of 22 January 1998
(also see Anonymous 29 January 1998 and Anonymous 30 January 1998), and
reviews impacts of towers on birds.
Avery, M., P. F. Springer, and J. F. Cassel. 1977. Weather
influences on nocturnal bird mortality at a North Dakota tower. Wilson Bull. 89: 291-299.
At a 366-m tower in southeastern North Dakota, most fall losses occurred
under overcast skies, 1972-1973. Rails were killed in relatively equal
proportions on overcast and non-overcast night in both spring and fall,
Warblers were killed in significantly greater numbers on overcast nights
in both seasons, as were fringillids in fall.
Avery, M. L., P. F., Springer, and N. S. Dailey. 1978. Avian
mortality at man-made structures: an annotated bibliography. U.S.
Fish Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-78/58, 108 pp.
Annotated bibiliography of 853 references pertaining to bird mortality
due to collision and electrocution at human-made structures such as power
transmission lines, radio and TV towers, lighthouses, cooling towers,
buildings, and airport ceilometers. Includes subject, taxonomic, and
geographic indexes. Revised in 1980 (see Avery et al. 1980).
Avery, M. L., P. F. Springer, and N. S. Dailey. 1980. Avian
mortality at man-made structures: an annotated bibliography (revised). U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-80/54, 152 pp.
Compilation of 1,042 references through February 1980, including 189 not
in the original publication (Avery et al. 1978). Includes subject,
taxonomic, and geographic indexes.
Avise, J. C., and R. L. Crawford. 1981. A matter of lights and
death. Nat. Hist. 90: 6-14.
This popular account, which draws heavily on data gathered at the WCTV
tower in Leon County, Florida, emphasizes the beneficial uses made of
tower-killed birds in a variety of scientific investigations.
Ball, L. G., K. Zyskowski, and G. Escalona-Segura. 1995. Recent
bird mortality at a Topeka [Kansas] television tower. Kansas
Ornithol. Soc. Bull. 46: 33-36.
Summarize 4 major mortality events at a 439-m KTKA-TV tower in Shawnee
County: 919 individuals of 54 species, 25-26 September 1985; 635
individuals of 49 species, 30 September-1 October 1986; 834 individuals of
64 species, 11-12 October 1986; 420 individuals of 45 species, 8-9 October
1994; cumulative totals of 2,808 individuals of 91 species. Gray Catbird
and Sora were the most abundant species on both September dates, while
Orange-crowned Warbler dominated on the October dates.
Banks, R. C. 1979. Human-related mortality of birds in the
United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep.--Wildl.
215, 16 pp.
In early 1970s, human activity was estimated to be responsible for death
of ca. 196 million birds/yr, or ca. 1.9% of wild birds of continental U.S.
that died each year. Hunting was the largest direct mortality factor,
accounting for ca. 61% of human-related bird deaths. Collision with
human-made objects was the greatest indirect human cause of avian deaths,
accounting for ca. 32% of human-related deaths.
Barbour, R. W. 1961. An unusual bird mortality at Lexington
[Kentucky]. Kentucky Warbler 37: 55.
Reports tally of 82 birds of 21 species (Red-eyed Vireo most abundant)
at 670-ft TV tower in Fayette County, 8 May 1961.
Barkley, R., C. Elk, and J. Palmquist. 1977. Recent TV tower
kills at Goodland, Kansas. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. Bull. 28: 10-12.
Of 390 birds of 30 species found dead at 700-ft KLOE-TV tower in Sherman
County, 28-30 August 1976, 40% were Yellow-headed Blackbirds and Wilson's
Barrett, H. B. n.d. Bird kill. <http://www.kwic.com/~pagodavista/birdkill.html>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
Photo depicts a large pile of birds said to have died due to collision
with the Long Point [Ontario] Lighthouse.
Bartolo, B. 1976. Bird kill at [Ohio] TV tower. Redstart 43: 109.
Reports kill of 1,057 birds of at least 39 species (30% Ovenbirds) due
to collision with 1,085-ft WFMJ-TV tower in Youngstown, 18-27 September
Bevanger, K. 1994. Bird interactions with utility structures:
collision and electrocution, causes and mitigating measures. Ibis
Although this paper deals specifically with the problems posed by power
lines, there are many parallels with the tower kill issue. An important
review that is worth reading.
Bierly, M. L. 1968. Television tower casualties at Birmingham
[Alabama] in 1967. Alabama Birdlife 16: 34-35.
Reports kill of 12 invidiuals of 5 species in spring (1 and 7 May) and
64 individuals of 26 species in fall (13 September-15 November) at 2
towers (WAPI and WBRC).
Bierly, M. L. 1969. 1968 Birmingham [Alabama] tower casualties. Alabama Birdlife 17: 46-49.
Reports total of 36 individuals of 16 species found on 16 of 66 days in
spring (15 March-20 May) and 47 individuals of 21 species found on 27 of
72 days in fall (5 September-15 November) at 2 towers (WAPI and WBRC).
Mourning Warbler found 15 September is fourth fall record for Mountain
region of Alabama.
Bierly, M. L. 1972. Spring 1969 tower casualties in Birmingham
[Alabama]. Alabama Birdlife 20(1-2): 3.
Reports total of 44 individuals of 17 species, 15 March-22 May, at 2
towers (WAPI and WBRC).
Bjorge, R. R. 1987. Bird kill at an oil industry flare stack in
northwest Alberta. Canadian Field-Nat. 101: 346-350.
Approximately 3,000 individuals of at least 26 species were found dead
within 75 m of a 104-m flare stack in late May 1980. Warblers of 12
species accounted for 77% of all identified birds, with Yellow Warbler and
Blackpoll Warbler the most abundant. The presence of pulmonary congestion
and edema in specimens examined suggests that death may have been related
to stack emissions. Death from striking the tower or guy wires was
unlikely for the majority of casualties.
Bohlen, H. D. 1985. Age and sex composition of a TV-tower kill
near Springfield [Illinois]. Illinois Birds Birding 1: 61-62.
Broderick, B. 1995 (June). [Why be concerned about light
pollution?] RASC [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada] Bulletin. <http://www.rasc.ca/rasc/light/concern.htm>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
Includes second-hand report that, over a period of about 10 years,
nearly 23,000 birds were killed by flying into the floodlit smokestacks of
Ontario Hydro's Bath Generating Plant, near Kingston. The problem was
resolved by replacing the floodlights with strobe lights, which are said
to "not have such an attraction for the birds."
Caldwell, L. D., and N. L. Cuthbert. 1963. Bird mortality at
television towers near Cadillac, Michigan. Jack-Pine Warbler 41:
Report kill of 812 individuals (74% of mortality occurring on 1 date) of
42 species (including 23 warblers, mostly Blackpoll Warbler, Ovenbird, and
Magnolia Warbler) on 8 dates, 26 September-16 October, and mortality of 74
individuals of 27 species (mostly Red-eyed Vireo and Common Yellowthroat)
on 15 dates, 22 April-11 June 1962, at WWTV tower, Cadillac. Also report
kill of 125 individuals of 36 species (mostly Red-eyed Vireo and Ovenbird)
on 15 dates, 22 April-11 June 1962, at WPBN tower, Harrietta, Michigan.
Also provides comparative data from 7 other studies in eastern U.S.,
Caldwell, L. D., and G. J. Wallace. 1966. Collections of
migrating birds at Michigan television towers. Jack-Pine Warbler
A minimum of 525 individuals of 73 species was killed in spring
(1962-1964) at 2 towers in Wexford County, for average of 88
individuals/tower/year; 21 species of warblers accounted for 39% of the
total kill. A minimum of 6,504 individuals of 76 species were killed in
fall (1959-1964) at 7 towers in Ingham, Kent, and Wexford counties, for
average of 155 individuals/tower/year; 27 species of warblers accounted
for 67% of the total kill.
Carter, J. H., III, and J. F. Parnell. 1976. TV tower kills in
eastern North Carolina. Chat 40: 1-9.
Annotated list of 84 species (5,070 birds) tallied on 42 occasions,
September-November 1971-1972, at 2 towers (WECT, Bladen County; WWAY,
Brunswick County). Common Yellowthroat was most numerous species in kills.
Also includes tabular summary of sample (290 individuals of 39 species) of
estimated kill of 1,000 birds at WECT, 30 October 1970.
Carter, J. H., III, and J. F. Parnell. 1978. TV tower kills in
eastern North Carolina: 1973 through 1977. Chat 42: 67-70.
Irregular monitoring of 2 towers in Bladen County, September-October
1973-1977, revealed 3 large kills at the WECT tower: 600+ individuals of
39 species on 1 October 1973, 3,240+ individuals of 41 species on 5
September 1974, and 306+ individuals of 21 species on 28 October 1975;
warblers of 28 species accounted for 75% of the casualties (with American
Redstart, Ovenbird, Common Yellowthroat, and Black-and-white Warbler being
the most abundant). Infrequent visits to the WWAY tower "revealed no
evidence of significant mortality."
Cooley, C. D. 1977. Television tower casualties at Huntsville
[Alabama]: fall, 1976. Alabama Birdlife 25(3-4): 14-15.
Notes mortality of 42 individuals of 18 species (with Bay-breasted and
Magnolia warblers most numerous) at WHNT tower, Madison County, 30
September-31 October 1976.
Cox, J. 1997 (22 September). Blinking lights mark scenes of
death for birds. Tallahassee [Florida] Democrat Online. <http://vh1421.infi.net/features/environ/cox/0922cox.htm>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
This exceptionally well-written popular account of the impacts of
communication towers on birds draws on the research conducted at the WCTV
tower in Leon County, Florida. Cox, a biologist with the Florida Fresh
Water Fish and Game Commission, states that "A widely referenced
estimate places the average death toll at 2,500 birds per tower per year."
Crawford, R. L. 1974. Bird casualties at a Leon County,
Florida, TV tower: October 1966-September 1973. Bull. Tall
Timbers Res. Sta. 18, 27 pp.
Brief discussion and tabular summary (by month) of 5,550 individuals of
148 species found dead at WCTV tower, including 4 species not recorded
Crawford, R. L. 1976a. Willow and Alder flycatcher records at a
north Florida TV tower. Florida Field Nat. 4: 1-4.
Discussion of status based on 19 specimens (9 Willow and 10 Alder) from
WCTV tower in Leon County, 1957-1974.
Crawford, R. L. 1976b. Some old records of TV tower kills from
southwest Georgia. Oriole 41: 45-51.
Kills at WALB tower near Doerum, Colquitt County, on 3 nights in fall
(365 individuals of 35 species, 56% Red-eyed Vireos; 12-13 September 1959,
7-8 September, and 17-18 October 1962) are compared with kill on same
nights at WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida. Discusses "records of
interest" of 9 species at Doerun tower, and mentions 2 kills in 1962
at WRBL-WTVM tower near Cusseta, Chattahoochee County (18 birds on 23
April and 60 birds on 18 October).
Crawford, R. L. 1980. Wind direction and the species
composition of autumn TV tower kills in northwest Florida. Auk
Presents data on number of individuals of 53 species killed at 4 TV
towers during varying time periods spanning years 1956-1976. The most
abundant species, in aggregate, were Red-eyed Vireo, Common Yellowthroat,
Louisiana Waterthrush, and American Redstart.
Crawford, R. L. 1981a. Bird kills at a lighted man-made
structure: often on nights close to a full moon. Am. Birds. 35:
In response to Verheijen's (1981a, 1981b) claims that tower kills rarely
occur on nights close to a full moon, Crawford examined 25 years of data
(1956-1980) from the WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida, and identified
683 nights on which 10 or more birds were killed. Bird-kill nights were
found to be non-randomly distributed among the 20 moon-phase categories
examined by Crawford, a seeming contradiction of Verheijen's hypothesis
that moon phase affects the likelihood of tower kills. However, a
re-examination of the data presented by Crawford (Table 1) indicates that
43% of the kills occurred during the darkest one-third of the lunar cycle)
compared to 32% during the lightest one-third of the lunar cycle. The
relative importance of moon phase and weather conditions in tower kills
would thus appear to warrant additional study.
Crawford, R. L. 1981b. Bird casualties at a Leon County,
Florida, TV tower: a 25-year migration study. Bull. Tall Timbers
Res. Sta. 22, 30 pp.
Species accounts briefly discuss numbers and seasonal occurrences of 189
species (totalling 42,384 individuals) found dead at WCTV tower, October
Crawford, R. L. 1981c. Weather, migration, and autumn bird
kills at a north Florida TV tower. Wilson Bull. 93: 189-195.
Tower kill data (1962-1966) from the 308-m WCTV tower in Leon County
show 4 consistent patterns: (1) kills occurred on virtually every night
(93% of 420), but large kills were relative rare events (>50 birds on
11% of nights and >100 birds on 3%); (2) greater numbers of birds were
killed on north winds than on south winds (22 vs 13 birds/night); (3)
large kills were generally associated with passage of cold fronts (94% of
36 nights with kill >50 birds); and (4) greater numbers of birds were
killed during overcast skies than clear skies (31 vs 7 birds/night).
Crawford, R. L. 1989. Another consideration of Yellow-billed
Cuckoo casualties at a Tennessee TV tower. Migrant 60: 72-73.
Contrary to Hamel (1987), considers that the abnormally high number of
cuckoos recorded by Goodpasture (1987), August-November 1985, was result
of direct collision with tower.
Crawford, R. L., and W. W. Baker. 1981. Bats killed at a north
Florida television tower: a 25-year record. J. Mammal. 62:
Summary of information on 7 species (54 individuals) found dead on 49
occasions at the WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida, 1955-1980.
Davis, W. M. 1987. Avian mortality during spring migration at a
north Mississippi television tower. Mississippi Kite 16: 5-7.
On morning of 21 April 1984, ca. 200 dead birds were found beneath the
397-m WHAV-TV transmitter near Oxford. Of 26 birds of 11 species collected
at random, 16 (61%) were warblers.
Dillon, J. n.d. Why birds hate Seinfeld. Audubon Reports. <http://magazine.audubon.org/report2.html>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
After noting the dangers of TV and other types of communication towers
to migrating birds, and citing a proposal by the Federal Communications
Commission to make it easier for such towers to be built in
environmentally sensitive areas, author urges the FCC to conduct an
environmental assessment of the impacts of the nation's estimated 75,000
towers on birds.
Dinsmore, J. J., R. B. Renken, and J. P. Schaufenbuel. 1983. TV
tower kill in central Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 53: 91-93.
Reports kill of 384 birds of 33 species at 2,100-ft Alleman TV tower,
Polk County, 14 September 1982.
Dinsmore, S., E. Munson, J. J. Dinsmore, and G. M. Nelson. 1987. Two television tower kills in Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 57:
Tabular summary of 984 birds of 47 species found dead at towers in
Alleman (Polk County) and Hinton (Plymouth County), 21-22 September 1985.
Warblers comprised 65-76%, and vireos 13-21%, of the kill (with Ovenbird,
Red-eyed vireo, and Nashville Warbler the 3 most abundant species).
Dunn, E. H. 1993. Bird mortality from striking residential
windows in winter. J. Field Ornithol. 64: 302-309.
Documents incidence of mortality using data gathered by volunteer
participants in the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology's Feederwatch
Program, and suggests that mortality in North America due to striking
plate glass windows is on the order of about 100 million birds annually.
Elder, W. H. 1982. Television can be hazardous for [Missouri]
warblers! Bluebird (St. Louis) 49(4): 9.
Of 34 individuals of 17 species killed by hitting TV tower in Columbia,
15 September 1982, 12 were Red-eyed Vireo and 19 were warblers (13
Ellis, C. D. 1997. Back to the tower: tower-killed birds at a
Putnam County, West Virginia, television transmission tower. Redstart 64: 111-113.
On 16 September 1995, 6 individuals of 6 species were found at WCHS-TV
tower, and 0 individuals at WVAH-TV tower, both located on Coal Mountain,
Putnam County. Also includes tabular summary of 280 individuals of 27
species (Swainson's Thrush and Ovenbird predominating at 20.4% and 18.6%,
respectively) found dead on 5 dates (16 September 1965, 5 and 27 September
and 3 October 1966, and 7 October 1967) at a TV tower on Coal Mountain.
Elmore, J. B., Jr., and B. Palmer-Ball Jr. 1991. Mortality of
migrant birds at two central Kentucky TV towers. Kentucky Warbler
Report total kill of 1,939 individuals (range 55-1,576) of 70 species
(range 16-59) on 5 nights (2 in spring, 3 in fall), 1983-1990. Most
frequent species in kill were Ovenbird, Bay-breasted Warbler, Tennessee
Warbler, Magnolia Warbler, and Red-eyed Vireo.
Environmental News Service. 1997 (20 August). High rise lights
kill millions of birds. <http://envirolink.org/environews/ens/newsfeed/aug19-1997-01.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
Brief overview of the problems caused by lighted office buildings,
including mention of fact that 111 species have been found dead in
Toronto's financial district (with White-throated Sparrow and Ovenbird the
most abundant), and the Bird-Friendly Building program launched in fall
1976 by the World Wildlife Fund Canada and the Fatal Light Awareness
Program (see World Wildlife Fund Canada 1996c, 1998). FLAP founder Michael
Mesure is quoted as saying that an estimated "100 million birds die
each year [in North America] when they collide with buildings."
Feehan, J. 1963. Destruction of birdlife in
Minnesota--Sept[ember] 1963. II. Birds killed at the Ostrander television
tower. Flicker 35: 111-112.
Mortality estimated at 1,000-1,500 individuals, 20 September. Three
species (Swainson's Thrush, Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo) comprised 62% of the
248 individuals of 28 species collected.
FLAP [Fatal Light Awareness Program]. n.d. Migration periods
for birds commonly found to collide with lighted structures in Toronto
[Ontario]. <http://www.flap.org/Frequent.htm>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
Bar graph depicts weekly periods in which each of 15 species are most
likely to collide with lighted structures in spring (15 March-15 June) and
fall (15 August-15 November). The source of the data used to construct the
graph is not stated.
FLAP [Fatal Light Awareness Program]. n.d. 1997 FLAP data. <http://www.flap.org/flap97.htm>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
For each of 84 species, lists number of individuals found alive (866)
and dead (1002); White-throated Sparrow, Ovenbird, and Brown Creeper were
most frequently reported. The source of the data is not stated, but it
presumably reflects birds found at the base of lighted buildings in
FLAP [Fatal Light Awareness Program]. 1998 (19 May). FLAP home
page. <http://www.flap.org>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
Provides background information on the Fatal Light Awareness Program.
FLAP, a registered charity based in Toronto, Ontario, is dedicated to
reducing mortality of birds due to collisions with lighted structures.
Topics include Tower kill, Injury, FLAP to the rescue, What you can do to
help, Preparing for migration season, If you find an injured bird,
Rehabilitation centres, and How tenants can help.
Goodpasture, K. A. 1984. Television tower casualties,
Nashville, Tennessee 1976-1983. Migrant 55: 53-57.
Median annual fall (1 September-31 October) mortality was 200
individuals (range 84-339) of 28 species (range 20-34) at the WSMV
(formerly WSM) tower, and 42 individuals (range 8-114) of 18 species
(range 7-35) at WKRN (formerly WNGE) tower. Comparable figures for
1968-1975 are 718 individuals (range 56-5,537) of 50 species (range 20-73)
at the WSMV tower, and 122 individuals (range 55-307) of 34 species (range
21-51). Warblers comprised 80% of the total. The apparent 84% decline in
bird mortalities from 1968-1975 to 1976-1983 might be related to (a)
vagaries of weather, (b) general declines in overall bird populations, or
(c) differential scavenging of carcasses.
Goodpasture, K. A. 1986. Nashville, Tennessee, television tower
casualties, 1984. Migrant 57: 70-72.
Reports fall tally of 215 individuals of 34 species (most abundant being
Tennessee Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, Bay-breasted Warbler, and Ovenbird) at
Goodpasture, K. A. 1987. 1985 tower casualties at WSMV,
Nashville, Tennessee. Migrant 58: 85-86.
Recovery of 67 birds of 26 species (40% Yellow-billed Cuckoos) compares
to 5-yr (1973-1977) median of 93 birds (range 56-435).
Graber, R., and J. Graber. 1980. Comparison of [Illinois] bird
kill and census. Illinois Audubon Bull. 192: 20-23.
Of 283 individuals of 19 species found dead at TV tower near Fithian, 24
October 1979, 85% were Yellow-rumped Warblers. Although 7 of 8 species
represented by more than 1 individual at tower kill were also encountered
in census of 19-ha plot of forest-edge habitat in Altherton County (40 km
from tower), there was no correlation between numbers of night-migrating
forest birds detected in the 2 data sets.
Graber, R. R., and W. W. Cochran. 1960. Evaluation of an aural
record of nocturnal migration. Wilson Bull. 72: 253-273.
In Champaign County, Illinois, amplified calls of nocturnal migrants
were recorded nightly (total of 175 nights, fall and spring 1957-1959) on
tape recorder controlled by automatic timer that sampled 1.5 min of each
10-min period during night, providing 1.5-hr tape representing 10 hrs.
Compare audio record with tower kills and field observations.
Green, J. C. 1963. Destruction of birdlife in
Minnesota--Sept[ember] 1963. III. Notes on kills at Duluth on September
18/19. Flicker 35: 112-113.
Reports finding 111 individuals of 20 species (nearly all vireos and
warblers) at base of airport ceilometer and WDSM-TV tower; Ovenbird and
Bay-breasted Warbler were most abundant species.
Greenberg, L. M. 1998 (Wednesday, 10 June). Migratory birds and
office towers are a pretty bad mix. They go bump in the night. In Toronto
[Ontario] now there is a big FLAP about that. Wall Street J.
231(112): A1(Column 4) and A8(Columns 1-2).
This popular account reviews the success of the Fatal Light Awareness
Program (100 buildings are now enrolled), while pointing out the
reluctance of some building owners and tenants to participate in this
voluntary effort to reduce bird collisions.
Grunbaum, A., and L. Orgel. 1998 (4 January). Birds and
prisons--an unlikely pairing. Friends of Grays Harbor. <http://www.wln.com/~crc/issues2/foghbirds.html>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
FOGH, a non-profit organization whose mission is to "foster and
promote the economic, biological and social uniqueness of a healthy Grays
Harbor Estuary," publicly opposes a proposal by the Washington
Department of Corrections to build a facility on the shore of Grays Harbor
because of the potential risk to over 500,000 shorebirds that use the
estuary. This document, apparently created to help bolster the FOGH
position, includes 18 excerpts from Ogden (1996) that highlight the
hazards of lights to birds, including complete literature citations.
Hamel, P. B. 1987. An improbable number of Yellow-billed Cuckoo
casualties at a Tennessee TV tower. Migrant 58: 86-89.
Examines potential causes of apparent high mortality at WSMV
(Goodpasture 1987) and concludes that it was most likely due to selective
predation by owls, not collision with tower.
Hamel, P. B. 1989. Reply to Crawford. Migrant 60: 74.
Reply to Crawford (1989) notes that probability of recovering 27
Yellow-billed Cuckoos in a single season at WSMV-TV tower in Nashville,
Tennessee, assuming conditions in 1985 were representative of those in
1960-1984, was <1 in 100,000. Concludes that some factor besides simple
collison with tower was involved.
Hebert, E., E. Reese, and L. Mark. 1995 (October). Avian
collision and electrocution: an annotated bibliography. California Energy Commission.
<http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/avian_bibliography.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
This on-line bibliography includes 468 citations, mostly for the period
1876-1992, and mainly from the United States. Citations are listed
alphabetically by author. Cross-referenced subject, taxonomic, geographic,
and author indexes are especially useful. For example, under the category
of Collision Mortality, there are 32 key-coded references to "Buildings,
windows" and 176 to "Towers, radio, TV, and other."
Herron, J. 1997. Television transmission tower kills in Lewis
County, West Virginia. Redstart 64: 114-117.
A total of 841 individuals of 58 species was found dead on 94 visits to
a 529-ft TV tower, August-October 1978-1986. The 3 most abundant species
(Bay-breasted Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush) represented 24%
of the total, while warblers (28 species) collectively accounted for most
(64%) of the mortality. Mean indices of annual mortality ranged from 2-54
individuals/visit (median = 10). In fall 1996, 13 individuals of 8 species
were found in 7 visits (2 birds/visit).
Hoving, E. J., and S. G. Sealy. 1987. Species and age
composition of a sample of birds killed in fall 1979 at a Manitoba TV
tower. Prairie Nat. 19: 129-133.
Janssen, R. B. 1963. Destruction of birdlife in
Minnesota--Sept[ember] 1963. I. Birds killed at the Lewisville television
tower. Flicker 35: 110-111.
Of 924 individuals of 47 species found dead at KEYC-TV tower in Watonwan
County, 21 September, most (77%) were vireos and warblers, with Red-eyed
Vireo being most abundant species.
Johnston, D. W. 1976. Races of Palm Warblers killed at a
Florida TV tower. Florida Field Nat. 4: 22-24.
The western race (palmarum) greatly outnumbered the eastern
race (hypochrysea) among the 369 individuals killed at the WCTV
tower in Leon County, 1961-1966: 89% palmarum, 6% intermediate,
and 5% hypochrysea in fall; with corresponding values of 74%,
16%, and 10% in spring.
Kale, H. W., II. 1975. Extension of winter range of Telmatodytes
palustris waynei to Georgia and Florida. Auk 92: 806-807.
Reports 7 specimens collected in McIntosh, Georgia, 1958-1961, and 14
birds found dead at base of TV tower in Leon County, Florida.
Kemper, C. 1996. A study of bird mortality at a west central
Wisconsin TV tower from 1957-1995. Passenger Pigeon 58: 219-235.
Daily monitoring of a 1,000-ft tower near Eau Claire in spring
(April-June) and fall (August-October) revealed a total mortality of
121,560 individuals of 123 species, or about 3,200 individuals/year. The 3
most common species encountered in both spring and fall were Red-eyed
Vireo, Ovenbird, and Tennessee Warbler. Provides information on seasonal
occurrence, and discusses apparent temporal changes (increases and
decreases) in the numbers of different species found dead.
Klem, D., Jr. 1989. Bird-window collisions. Wilson
Bull. 101: 606-620.
Survey reveals that about 25% (225) of 917 bird species in the U.S. and
Canada have been documented striking windows. Birds fail to see windows as
barriers and are vulnerable to them wherever they mutually occur.
Klem, D., Jr. 1990. Collisions between birds and windows:
mortality and prevention. J. Field Ornithol. 61: 120-128.
The annual mortality resulting from window collisions in the United
States is estimated to be at least 98 million, and possibly as many as 976
million, birds. Offers solutions for preventing collisions.
Klem, D., Jr. 1991. Glass and bird kills: an overview and
suggested planning and design methods of preventing a fatal hazard. Pp. 99-104 in L. W. Adams and D. L. Leedy (Eds.), Wildlife
conservation in metropolitan environments. Natl. Inst. Urban Wildl. Symp.
Reviews the bird-glass issue and recommends that the building industry
give serious consideration to the mortality of birds due to collision with
Koneke, M. A. 1992. Yellow Rail and Sharp-tailed Sparrow in
Oswego County [New York]. Kingbird 42: 14.
A Yellow Rail found dead after colliding with tower, 9 October 1991, is
second record (first this century) for Oneida Lake Basin region; and a
Sharp-tailed Sparrow collected on same date is one of few records for this
Larkin, R. P. 1988a. Why are migrating birds killed at tall
structures? Illinois Audubon Bull. 226: 20-21.
Larkin, R. P. 1988b. Why are migrating birds killed at tall
structures? Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Rep. 277: 1-2.
Larkin, R. P., and B. A. Frase. 1988. Circular paths of birds
flying near a broadcasting tower in cloud. J. Comp. Psychol. 102:
Laskey, A. R. 1961. [Tennessee] TV tower casualties. Inland Bird Banding News 33: 1.
Reports kill of 3,683 birds of 77 species at 2 towers in Nashville, fall
1960; 5 species (Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler, Magnolia
Warbler, Gray Catbird) accounted for 63% of kill.
Leenhouts, W. P. 1987. Osprey killed by lightning at Merritt
Island National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Florida Field Nat. 15:
Immature in nest located atop 20-m steel USGS bilby tower apparently
struck and killed by lightning. Notes that 10 of 23 active nests on
Merritt Island NWR were on metal human-made structures (which may be
especially susceptible to lightning strikes) and suggests that lightning
mortality may be more frequent than realized.
MacKay, B. K. 1997. Birds on a collision course. Mainstream 28(2). Animal Protection Institute., Sacramento, California. <http://www.api4animals.org/Collision.htm>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This well-written essay explores the impacts of windows, buildings, and
lighted human-made structures on migrating birds, and briefly mentions the
efforts of the Fatal Light Awareness Program; also suggests ways to
prevent birds from hitting windows or lighted structures.
Maehr, D. S., and J. Q. Smith. 1988. Bird casualties at a
central Florida power plant: 1982-1986. Florida Field Nat. 16:
Marsden, J. E., T. C. Williams, V. Krauthamer, and H. Krauthamer. 1980. Effects of nuclear power plant lights on migrants. J.
Field Ornithol. 51: 315-318.
The lights associated with the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Plymouth,
Massachusetts, did not appear to regularly disrupt the orientation of
nocturnal passerine migrants, as headings and tracks of birds passing the
Station (as determined by radar) differed significantly from a control
area on only 1 of 9 nights, 20-20 May 1976.
McCrary, M. D., R. L. McKernan, R. W. Schreiber, W. D. Wagner, and T. C.
Sciarrotta. 1986. Avian mortality at a solar energy power plant. J. Field Ornithol. 135-141.
Over a 40-week period (May-June 1982 and September 1982-May 1983), a
total of 70 individuals of 26 species were found dead at Solar One (the
world's largest solar engery power plant), located in the Mojave Desert,
San Bernardino County, California. Most (81%) of the birds died from
collisions with physical structures. The impact of this mortality on the
local bird population was considered minimal (0.6-0.7%/week).
Mollhoff, W. 1979. [Nebraska] Tower kills. Nebraska
Bird Rev. 47: 58.
Reports kill of 80 birds of 24 species in 1978 (apparently both spring
and fall) at KCNA-TV tower near Albion.
Mollhoff, W. J. 1983. [Nebraska] Tower kills. Nebraska
Bird Rev. 51: 92.
Reports kill of 320 birds of 42 species at KCNA-TV tower near Albion,
12-16 September 1982.
Mosman, D. 1975. Bird casualties at Alleman, I[ow]a, TV tower. Iowa Bird Life 45: 88-90.
Known mortality at 2,000-ft tower in fall 1973 and spring and fall 1974
totaled 3,321 birds of 76 species. Red-eyed Vireo was most abundant
species, comprising 21% (724) of birds recovered; 26 species of warblers
made up 60% (2,102) of kill.
National Wind Technology Center. n.d. Avian literature
database. <http://www.nrel.gov/wind/avianlit.html.> National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Department of Energy. Accessed 9
This updated version of Hebert et al. (1995) includes a convenient
search feature. As examples, a search on the key word "TV tower"
retrived 169 citations, a search on "windows" retrieved 34
citations, a search on "lights" retrived 33 citations, and a
search on "Florida" retrived 31 citations.
Nicholson, C. P. 1984. September 1984 tower kill in Knox
County, Tennessee. Migrant 55: 86.
A total of 749 individuals of 34 species were found dead at the base of
television towers on Sharp's Ridge and Zachary Ridge, with the most
abundant species being Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, and
Black-and-white Warbler. This is the first large tower kill reported from
the Knoxville area since 1979 (see Turner and Davis 1980).
Norman, J. L. 1975. Birds killed at a TV tower near Coweta,
Oklahoma. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 8: 25-27.
Norman, J. L. 1982. The Coweta [Oklahoma] TV tower kill. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 15: 19-22.
Tabular summary of number of individuals of 81 species recorded in each
of 5 consecutive fall seasons, 1974-1978, at this site in Wagoner County.
Highlights include second and third Oklahoma specimens of Yellow Rail
(1976), first Oklahoma specimen of Golden-winged Warbler (1974), first
Oklahoma fall specimens of Bay-breasted Warbler (1976 and 1978), and fifth
Oklahoma specimen of Sharp-tailed Sparrow (1974).
Norman, J. L. 1987. Synopsis of birds killed at the Coweta,
Oklahoma, TV tower, 1974-1984. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 20:
Ogden, L. P. 1996. Collision course: the hazards of lighted
structures and windows to migrating birds. World Wildlife Fund
Canada and the Fatal Lights Awareness Program. 46 pp. Available for $10.00
from WWF Canada, Suite 504 - 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario,
Documents the hazards posed to birds by these human-made features of the
Ornithological Council, The. 1988a. Communication towers and
avian mortality. <http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/NOAC98Res.html#radio>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This joint resolution from the 1988 North American Ornithological
Conference (approved by the American Ornithologists Union, the Association
of Field Ornithologists, the Cooper Ornithological Society, and the Wilson
Ornithological Society) (a) urges the Federal Aviation Administration to "endorse
studies involving experiments toward finding lighting systems for towers
that reduce avian mortality," (b) encourages the communications
industry to "voluntarily reduce the number of new towers by
co-locating new transmitters on existing towers," and (c) encourages
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to work with the FAA and the Federal
Communications Commission to "study the magnitude of the problem . .
. and to develop a national plan to minimize collisions of birds with
Ornithological Council, The. 1988b. Design or modification of
buildings and other structures to reduce collisions by birds.
<http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/NOAC98Res.html#window>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This joint resolution from the 1988 North American Ornithological
Conference (approved by the American Ornithologists Union, the Association
of Field Ornithologists, the Cooper Ornithological Society, and the Wilson
Ornithological Society) encourages the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to "make
research related to bird-window collisions and their avoidance high on its
priority list and to encourage the Biological Resources Division of the
U.S. Geological Survey to carry out the needed research."
Palmer-Ball, B., Jr., and L. Rauth. 1990. Tower mortality in
Henderson County [Kentucky]. Kentucky Warbler 66: 97-98.
On 21 September 1990, 128 individuals of 20 species (mostly Ovenbird)
were found dead at a TV tower in Henderson, while no mortality was noted
at a tower located just 3 miles away.
Parmalee, P. W., and M. D. Thompson. 1963. A second kill of
birds at a television tower in central Illinois. Illinois Audubon
Bull. 128: 13-15.
Report kill of 219 birds of 31 species at 999-ft WICS-TV tower in
Sangamon County, 13-14 September 1963; 5 species (Ovenbird, Tennessee
Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, Northern Waterthrush, Bobolink, in decreasing
order of abundance) made up 66% of total.
Pfand, A. 1996 (November/December). Fatal light. The
Storm-Petrel 17(6), Kalmiopsis Audubon Society, Port Orford, Oregon. <http://www.harborside.com/cc/audubon/petrl6-6.htm#alice>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This brief popular account mentions the attraction of Leach's
Storm-Petrels to lighted structures in coastal Curry County, Oregon.
Remy, R. J., Jr. 1974. Birmingham [Alabama] tower
casualties--fall, 1974. Alabama Birdlife 22(3-4): 9-10.
Reports total of 29 individuals of 14 species at 2 towers (WAPI and
WBRC), 9 September-10 November.
Remy, R. J., Jr. 1975. Birmingham [Alabama] television tower
casualties, 1975. Alabama Birdlife 23(3-4): 18-19.
Reports 39 individuals of 16 species in spring (15 March-23 May) and 25
individuals of 11 species in fall (9 September-7 November) at 2 towers
(WAPI and WBRC).
Roberts, R. E., and C. V. Tamborski. 1993. Blackpoll Warbler
mortality during fall migration at a tower in southeastern Florida. Florida Field Nat. 21: 118-120.
A total of 617 individuals of 9 species (including 586 Blackpoll
Warblers) was found dead at a 191-m U.S. Coast Guard LORAN tower in Martin
County on 8 October 1981. This represents the largest reported kill of
Blackpoll Warblers due to striking a structure. Literature cited by the
author reveals that the Blackpoll Warbler is rarely represented in tower
kills in Florida during fall (e.g., 5 in 25 years at a tower in Leon
County; 10 in 3 years at a tower in Orange County; 3 in 11 years at a
structure in Brevard County). The only other reported large kill was 322
birds found at a sructure in Brevard County on October 1964.
Sealy, S. 1986. Fall migration of Northern Orioles: an analysis
of tower-killed individuals. N. Am. Bird Bander 12: 43-45.
Based on examination of preserved specimens of 47 individuals killed on
23 different dates, 1957-1979, in 5 States and 2 Provinces; only 4 of the
23 kills involved 3 or more individuals.
Stevenson, H. M., and W. W. Baker. 1970. Records of new avian
subspecies in Florida. Florida Nat. 41: 69-70.
Describe first Florida specimen records of 25 subspecies of 23 species,
many collected at WCTV TV tower in Leon County, 1952-1968.
Stoddard, H. L., Sr. 1961. Bird casualties at a Leon County,
Florida, TV tower: 1955-1961. Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 1, 94
Annotated list discusses relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of
149 species (totalling 15,251 individuals) found dead at WCTV tower,
October 1955-July 1961.
Stoddard, H. L., Sr., and R. A. Norris. 1967. Bird casualties
at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower: an eleven-year study. Bull.
Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 8, 104 pp.
Annotated list discusses relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of
170 species (totalling 29,451 individuals) found dead at WCTV tower,
October 1955-September 1966.
Strnad, F. 1962. Birds killed at the KROC-TV tower, Ostrander,
Minnesota. Flicker 34: 7-9.
Reports recovery of 1,547 birds of 66 species on 3 dates (4 and 12
September and 9 October 1961) at this 1,314-ft tower.
Strnad, F. V. 1975. More bird kills at KROC-TV tower,
Ostrander, Minnesota. Loon 47: 16-21.
The majority of the 3,507 individuals of 84 species salvaged in fall
(1961-1962, 1972-1974) at this site in Filmore County were warblers (26
species). The most abundant species were Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo, and
Sutton, G. M. 1980. Subspecies of Savannah Sparrow found in
Oklahoma. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 13: 6-8.
Of 7 birds found dead at TV tower in Wagoner County 27 October 1976, 4
were nevadensis race (which breeds in western U.S.), 2 were "intergrades
between nevadensis and oblitus" (latter breeding
in central Canada), and 1 was "intergrade of mediogriseus toward oblitus" (former breeding in New England).
Taylor, W. K. 1981. No longer a bird killer. Florida
Nat. 9: 4-5, 10.
Over a 4-year period, a minimum of 9,331 individuals of 90 species was
killed at the 1,500-ft WDBO-WFTV tower near Orlando, Florida, in autumn
(1969-1972) and spring (1970-1973), with most mortality in the autumn.
This tower collapsed in 1973 and was replaced by an even taller structure
equipped with strobe lights; for unknown reasons, migrants are "not
attracted to the powerful white lights" of the new tower. The nearby
1,500-ft WSWB-TV tower, with stationary and blinking red lights, also no
longer accounts for big kills, although kills there were never as large as
the ones at WDBO-WFTV.
Taylor, W. K., and B. H. Anderson. 1974. Nocturnal migrants
killed at a central Florida TV tower, autumn 1972. Florida Field
Nat. 2: 40-43.
In 36 visits (August-November) to WDBO-WFTV tower in Orange County,
1,347 individuals of 49 species were collected. Warblers accounted for 41%
of the species and 89% of the individuals, with 3 species (Common
Yellowthroat, Black-throated Blue Warbler, American Redstart) comprising
72% of total.
Taylor, W. K., and M. A. Kershner. 1986. Migrant birds killed
at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), John F. Kennedy Space Center. J. Field Ornithol. 57: 142-154.
From 1971-1981, 5,046 individuals of 62 species were collected at this
facility in Brevard County. Twenty-three spring kills totaled 4,336
individuals of 47 species, and 16 fall kills totaled 710 individuals of 45
species.; 12 of the 39 kills (11 in spring, 1 in fall) involved more than
100 individuals. Warblers accounted for the majority of casualties in both
spring (93%) and fall (82%).
Telfer, T. C., J. L. Sincock, G. V. Byrd, and J. R. Reed. 1987. Attraction of Hawaiian seabirds to lights: conservation efforts
and effect of moon phase. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15: 406-413.
Between 1978 and 1985, 11,767 Newell's shearwaters, 38 dark-rumped
petrels, and 8 band-rumped storm-petrels were attracted to bright urban
lights on Kauai Island, struck unseen objects, and fell to the ground.
Salvage effort has returned 90% of these birds to the wild. More than 97%
of the fallout involved fledgling birds. Fallout was heaviest during the
dark period near the new moon and was lowest when moonlight intensity was
high (an effect that was most pronounced on the 4 nights around the full
Temme, M., and W. B. Jackson. 1981. Cooling towers as obstacles
in bird migrations. Proc. Bird Control Seminar 8: 111-118.
Terrill, S. B., and R. L. Crawford. 1988. Additional evidence
of nocturnal migration by Yellow-rumped Warblers in winter. Condor 90: 261-263.
Examination of the number of birds found dead in winter (15 December-20
February) at the 304-m WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida--median of 23
birds/year (range 5-264, n = 8 years, 1956-1966)--suggests that winter
migratory movements are regular but of variable magnitude, with most tower
kills corresponding to passage of major cold fronts.
Turner, L., and M. Davis. 1980. Birds killed at television
towers in Knox County [Tennessee]. Migrant 51: 27-29.
On 30 September 1979, 280 individuals of 32 species were found dead at
WATV-TV tower, and 47 individuals of 17 species at WBIR-TV tower, for
cumulative totals of 327 individuals and 33 species. Warblers (20 species)
and vireos (5 species) accounted for most of the mortality (65% and 19%,
Vaughn, C. R. 1977. First Virginia specimen of the Magnificent
Frigatebird. Raven 48: 78.
Bird first seen 14 May 1976 was found injured on 17 May 1976, apparently
having collided with steel tower in fog at Chincoteague.
Velie, E. D. 1963. Report of a survey of bird casualties at
television towers, ceilometers, and other obstructions. Flicker
Provides tabular summary of 51 published studies.
Verheijen, F. J. 1980. The moon: a neglected factor in studies
on collisions of nocturnal migrant birds with tall lighted structures and
with aircraft. Vogelwarte 30: 305-320.
Verheijen, F. J. 1981a. Bird kills at lighted man-made
structures: not on nights close to a full moon. Am. Birds 35:
Provides essentially identical analyses and discussion of the 2 data
sets reported by Verheijen (1981b). Additionally, an independent analysis
of the distribution, in relation to moon phase, of 47 nights on which bird
kills were reported in North America, 1886-1975 (from Weir 1976), revealed
a significant clustering between the new moon and the first quarter moon,
with none of the kills occurring on or near the full moon. Suggests that "moonlight,
whether weakend and scattered by clouds or not" can mitigate the
disorienting effects of artificial light sources on migratory birds.
Verheijen, F. J. 1981b. Bird kills at tall lighted structures
in the USA in the period 1935-1973 and kills at a Dutch lighthouse in the
period 1924-1928 show similar lunar periodicity. Ardea 69:
The distribution, in relation to moon phase, of 62 nights on which bird
kills were reported in the United States, 1935-1973, was non-uniform, with
a highly significantly clustering around the new moon; none of the kills
occurred on or near the full moon. Concludes that moon phase may be as
important as weather conditions (e.g., cloud cover, visibility) in
determining timing and magnitude of major kills.
Weir, R. C. 1976. Annotated bibliography of bird kills at
man-made obstacles: a review of the state of the art and solutions. Canadian Wildl. Serv., Ontario Region, Ottawa. 85 pp.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1996a. Migratory birds in peril.
The threat of collision. <http://www.wwfcanada.org/migration/flap.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
This brief overview of FLAP, the Fatal Light Awareness Program (see
Anonymous 1998), claims that more birds are killed annually due to
collisions with tall buildings in North America alone than died as a
result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1996b. Migratory birds in peril.
Collision course: the hazards of lighted structures and windows to
migrating birds. <http://www.wwfcanada.org/migration/report.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
This executive summary of the FLAP report (see Ogden 1996) notes that a
minimum of 1,818 birds were killed annually since 1993 by striking lighted
buildings in downtown Toronto, Canada, and that a single tall building in
Chicago, Illinois, caused an average of 1,478 bird mortalities annually
over a period of 14 consecutive years.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1996c. WWF/FLAP Bird-friendly
building program. <http://www.wwfcanada.org/migration/12step.html>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
This joint effort of the World Wildlife Fund and the Fatal Light
Attraction Program is a 12-step program for reducing migratory bird
collisions with brightly lighted buildings.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1998. The bird-friendly building
<http://www.wwfcanada.org/wwf_international.htm#flap>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
A slightly different version of World Wildlife Fund Canada (1996c),
although the 12 steps remain virtually unchanged.
World Wildlife Fund Canada (J. Levita). 1997 (19 August). Time
to turn out the office lights at night: migratory bird season has begun. Canada NewsWire. <http://www.newswire.ca/releases/August1997/19/c3223.html>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
Notes that more than 80 office towers in Toronto are participating in
FLAP's "Bird-Friendly Building Program" (see World Wildlife Fund
Canada 1996c, 1998). Urges office workers to turn off lights before
leaving at end of day, or to draw the blinds and use task lighting if
working at night, to prevent collisions.
Wylie, B. 1977. Bird kill at Chestnut Ridge [West Virginia]. Redstart 44: 65.
Reports 75 individuals of 21 species (36% Ruby-crowned Kinglet) found
dead at base of 100-ft fire tower at Cooper's Rock SF, 20 October 1975.
Wylie, W. L. 1966. [West Virginia] Migration mishap. Redstart 33: 102-103.
Reports kill of "at least a truckload" of birds due to
collision with microwave communication tower in Upshur County, 24-25
September 1965. Of 81 birds of 26 species examined, 60% were wood warblers
(with Blackpoll Warbler and Ovenbird being most abundant of 14 species).
Young, E. A., B. M. O'Brien, and S. Martin. 1994. Preliminary
report on bird mortality at several transmitting towers in south-central
Kansas. Horned Lark 21: 10 (Abstract only).