U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
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Mussel Conservation Activities

Work continues to identify host fish and propagation techniques for a variety of Upper Mississippi River mussels.  Some species like black sandshell (Ligumia recta), mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina), fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium) have been successfully propagated. Identifying a host fish for spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonata), a federal candidate species, still eludes researchers.

Juvenile black sandshell

closed propagation cage

Juvenile black sandshell (Ligumia recta) collected in August, 2006, from a closed propagation cage in the Upper Mississippi River, Pool 4 (Frontenac), Minnesota.  Juveniles are three years old.  Photos by Gary Wege, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

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Last updated on December 21, 2006