Endangered Species
Midwest Region

 

 

Map of Region 3 Minnesota Wisconsin Michigan


 


Connect With Us


Facebook icon

FaceBook

Flickr icon

Flickr

RSS

RSS

Twitter icon

Twitter

Blogger icon

Blog

YouTube icon

YouTube


Buy Duck Stamps icon Endangered Species Day icon

Great Lake Restoration Initiative logo

Sheepnose and Spectaclecase Mussels

Final Rule to List as Endangered - Federal Register

 

Below is the first page of the Federal Register Final Rule to List the Sheepnose and Spectaclecase as Endangered. Download the complete 36-page PDF Adobe PDF icon

 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Fish and Wildlife Service
50 CFR Part 17
[Docket No. FWS-R3-ES-2010-0050]
[4500030113]

RIN 1018-AV93

 

Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and Spectaclecase Mussels Throughout Their Range AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

 

ACTION: Final rule.

 

SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, for the spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta) and sheepnose (Plethobasus cyphyus), two freshwater mussels. This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for these species throughout their ranges, including sheepnose in Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin, and spectaclecase in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. We determined that critical habitat for the spectaclecase and sheepnose is prudent, but not determinable at this time.

 

DATES: This rule becomes effective on April 12, 2012.

 

ADDRESSES: This final rule is available on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. FWS–R3–ES–2010–0050. Comments and materials received, as well as supporting documentation used in preparing this final rule will be available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rock Island, Illinois Ecological Services Field Office, 1511 47th Avenue, Moline, IL 61265; telephone 309–757–5800.

 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Nelson, Field Supervisor, at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rock Island, Illinois Ecological Services Field Office, (see ADDRESSES section). If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800–877–8339.

 

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

Previous Federal Action

Federal actions for these species prior to January 19, 2011, are outlined in our proposed rule - - 30-page PDF Adobe PDF icon - - for these actions (76 FR 3392–3420). Publication of the proposed rule opened a 60-day comment period, which closed on March 21, 2011.


Species Descriptions

The spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta) is a member of the mussel family Margaritiferidae and was originally described as Unio monodonta Say, 1829. The type locality is the Falls of the Ohio (on the Ohio River in the vicinity of Louisville, Kentucky, and adjacent Indiana), and the Wabash River (probably the lower portion in Illinois and Indiana) (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 49). Parmalee and Bogan (1998, p. 49) summarized the synonymy of the spectaclecase. The species has been placed in the genera Unio, Margaritana, Alasmidonta, Margarita, Margaron, and Margaritifera at various times in history. Ortmann (1912, p. 13) placed it in the monotypic (a taxonomic group with only one biological type) genus Cumberlandia in the family Margaritiferidae. Currently recognized synonymy includes Unio soleniformis (Lea). Smith (2001, p. 43) reassigned the spectaclecase to the Holarctic genus Margaritinopsis based on shell and gill characters. The Service, however, will defer to the Committee on Scientific and Vernacular Names of Mollusks of the Council of Systematic Malacologists, American Malacological Union (Turgeon et al. 1998), on whether the genus Margaritinopsis is accepted as valid for the spectaclecase. Until an official decision is made, the Service will use the commonly accepted Cumberlandia for the genus of this species. Spectaclecase is the accepted common name for Cumberlandia monodonta (Turgeon et al. 1998, p. 32).

 

The spectaclecase is a large mussel that reaches at least 9.25 inches (23.5 centimeters (cm)) in length (Havlik 1994, p. 19). The shape of the shell is greatly elongated, sometimes arcuate (curved), and moderately inflated, with the valves being solid and moderately thick, especially in older individuals (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 49). Both anterior and posterior ends of the shell are rounded with a shallow depression near the center of the shell (Baird 2000, p. 6; Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 49). The anterior end is higher than the posterior end (Baird 2000, p. 6). The posterior ridge is low and broadly rounded (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 50). Year-one specimens have heavy ridges running parallel with the growth arrests, which are shell lines that indicate slower periods of growth, thought to be laid down annually (Baird 2000, p. 6). The periostracum (external shell surface) is somewhat smooth, rayless, and light yellow, greenish-tan, or brown in young specimens, becoming rough and dark brown to black in old shells (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 50). The shell commonly will crack posteriorly when dried (Oesch 1984, p. 31).

 

Internally, the single pseudocardinal tooth (a triangular tooth-like structure along the hinge line of the internal portion of the shell) is simple and peglike in the right valve, fitting into a depression in the left (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 50). The lateral teeth are straight and single in the right valve, and double in the left valve, but become fused with age into an indistinct raised hinge line (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 50). The soft anatomy was described by Williams et al. (2008, pp. 497–498). The color of the nacre (interior covering of the shell) is white, occasionally granular and pitted, mostly iridescent in young specimens, but becoming iridescent posteriorly in older shells (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 50). There are no differences between the sexes in the shells of this species (Baird 2000, p. 19). Key characters for distinguishing the spectaclecase from other mussels are its large size, elongate shape, arcuate ventral margin, dark coloration, roughened periostracum, poorly developed teeth, and white nacre (Oesch 1984, pp. 31–32). No other North American mussel species has this suite of characters.

 

The sheepnose (Plethobasus cyphyus) is a member of the mussel family Unionidae and was originally described as Obliquaria cyphya Rafinesque, 1820. The type locality is the Falls of the Ohio (Parmalee and Bogan 1998, p. 175) on the Ohio River in the vicinity of Louisville, Kentucky, and adjacent Indiana. Parmalee and Bogan (1998, p. 175) summarized the synonymy of the species. Over the years, the name of this species has been variably spelled cyphya, scyphius, cyphius, cyphia, cyphyum, and ultimately cyphyus. Over the years the species has been placed in the genera Obliquaria, Unio, Pleurobema, Margarita, and Margaron. It was ultimately placed in the genus Plethobasus by Ortmann (1919, pp. 65– 66), where it remains today (Turgeon et al. 1998, p. 35). The Service recognizes Unio aesopus and U. compertus as synonyms of Plethobasus cyphyus. Sheepnose is the accepted common name for Plethobasus cyphyus as established by the Committee on Scientific and Vernacular Names of Mollusks of the Council of Systematic Malacologists, American Malacological Union (Turgeon et al. 1998, p. 35). The Service also recognizes ‘‘bullhead’’ and ‘‘clear profit’’ as older common names for the sheepnose.

 


 

Above is the first page of the Federal Register Final Rule to List the Sheepnose and Spectaclecase as Endangered. Download the complete 36-page PDF Adobe PDF icon

 

Sheepnose Home

Spectaclecase Home

Midwest Endangered Species Home

 

 

 

Last updated: July 16, 2014