East Lansing Ecological Services Field Office

Midwest Region

 

East Lansing Field Office
2651 Coolidge Road
East Lansing, MI 48823
Phone: 517-351-2555
Fax: 517-351-1443
TTY: 1-800-877-8339

(Federal Relay)

e-mail: EastLansing@fws.gov

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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s “Birds of Conservation Concern” in Michigan

PDF Version

 

Upland sandpiper

The upland sandpiper is a Bird of Conservation Concern in Michigan and it is also a surrogate species for grasslands in the "Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Big Rivers" Landscape Conservation Cooperative.

Photo by USFWS

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Birds of Conservation Concern (2008) report identifies “species, subspecies, and populations of all migratory nongame birds that, without additional conservation actions, are likely to become candidates for listing” under the ESA. This report is intended to stimulate coordinated and proactive conservation actions among Federal, State, and private partners.   Effective planning now can help ensure the long-term conservation of these species and remove threats that may contribute to the future need for listing under the Endangered Species Act.  We encourage project planners to develop and implement protective measures for the Birds of Conservation Concern as well as other high priority species in need of conservation action. 

 

Many species of birds are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and eagles are also protected by the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (Eagle Act).  In addition, the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii) and the piping plover (Charadrius melodus, Great Lakes population) are listed as endangered species and protected under the federal ESA.

 

In order to further promote the conservation of migratory bird populations and their habitats, Federal agencies should implement those strategies directed by Executive Order 13186, “Responsibilities of Federal agencies to protect migratory birds” (Clinton 2001). 

 

Work that could lead to the take of a migratory bird or eagle, their young, eggs, or nests (for example, working in the vicinity of a nest or removing habitat where birds are likely to be actively nesting), should be coordinated with our office before any actions are taken to help ensure the requirements of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Eagle Act are met. 

 

Bird Conservation Regions in Michigan

Bird Conservation Regions in Michigan.

The Birds of Conservation Concern report delineates geographical areas known as Bird Conservation Regions (BCR).  Michigan includes three regions: BCR 12 (Boreal Hardwood Transition), BCR 22 (Eastern Tallgrass Prairie), and BCR 23 (Prairie Hardwood Transition). Within Michigan, 37 bird species of conservation concern utilize these regions as breeding grounds, pass through during migration, or live there throughout the year.  Table 1 lists the species of conservation concern along with the regions where they can be found, their habitat preference, and possible threats.

 

In Table 1, we have identified Birds of Conservation Concern that are also conservation “Surrogate Species.”  Surrogate species can represent multiple species or aspects of the environment, allowing resource managers to target those species and maximize overall conservation gains.  Surrogate species are identified by Landscape Conservation Cooperatives.  At this time, only the "Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Big River" Landscape Conservation Cooperative has identified surrogate species.  Table 1 also indicates the status of the birds under the Endangered Species Act of the State of Michigan (Part 365 of PA 451, 1994 Michigan Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act), which lists Endangered (E), Threatened (T), and Probably Extirpated (X) animal species of Michigan.  The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) also identifies “species of Special Concern (SC).  According to the Michigan DNR, “Protection of Special Concern species now, before they reach dangerously low population levels, would prevent the need to list them in the future by maintaining adequate numbers of self-sustaining populations within Michigan. Some other potentially rare species are listed as Special Concern pending more precise information on their status in the state; when such information becomes available, they could be moved to threatened or endangered status or deleted from the list.”  

 

For assistance with project planning:      

               

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
East Lansing Field Office
2651 Coolidge Road, Suite 101
East Lansing, Michigan 48823

Phone: 517-351-2555
Email: EastLansing@fws.gov

 

REFERENCES
Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 2005.  Michigan’s Wildlife Action Plan SGCN Status & Species-Specific issues, Birds. Lansing, Michigan. 50 pp. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/birds_326069_7.pdf

 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2014.  Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Region Joint Venture web site: http://www.uppermissgreatlakesjv.org/Background.htm

 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2008.  Birds of Conservation Concern 2008.  United States Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, Arlington, Virginia.  85 pp. http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/ref/collection/document/id/1404

 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2013.  Surrogate Species Version 1.0 Status Report, Draft – November 26, 2013.  United States Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3 (Midwest Region), Bloomington, Minnesota.  104 pp. http://www.fws.gov/midwest/science/surrogatespecies/documents/MidwestStatusReport.pdf

 

TABLE 1

Species

Bird
Conservation
Region (BCR)

Michigan T&E Species Status

FWS Surrogate Species in Michigan

Primary Habitat
Type(s) from Michigan Wildlife Action Plan

Possible
Threats from

Michigan Wildlife Action Plan

Acadian Flycatcher

Empidonax virescens

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,
BCR 23

 

 

 

Hardwood, riparian-floodplain corridor

fragmentation, invasive plants and animals

American Bittern

Botaurus lentiginosus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,
BCR 23

 

SC

 

 

Prairie, Lowland
shrub, bog, wetland

conversion to agricultural land, wetland alteration

Bald Eagle (ESA delisted)

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

SC

 

 

Hardwood, conifer, dunes, inland lakes,

conversion to agricultural land, dams, dredging

Black Tern

Chlidonias niger

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,
BCR 23

 

SC

 

 

Wetlands, inland lakes, ponds

conversion to agricultural land, competition

Black-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus erythropthalmus

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Pastures, forests

conversion to agricultural land, grazing patterns

Black-crowned Night-heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Lowland shrub, wetland, inland lakes

conversion to agricultural land, grazing patterns

Blue-winged Warbler

Vermivora pinus

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Shrub, hardwood,
conifer, forest opening

incompatible resource mgmt.,
invasive species

Bobolink

Dolichonyx oryzivorus

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

Grassland Habitat of ETPBR1

Prairie, hayland, wetlands, fields

altered fire regimes, fragmentation, grazing patterns

Brown Thrasher

Toxostoma rufum

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

shrub, hardwood, conifer, forest opening

altered fire regimes, biological interactions

Canada Warbler

Wilsonia canadensis

 

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

shrub, hardwood, conifer, floodplain corridor

conversion to agricultural land, altered fire regime

Cerulean warbler

Dendroica cerulea

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Hardwood, floodplain corridor

conversion to agricultural land, fragmentation

Common Tern

Sterna hirundo

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

T

 

 

Wetlands, inland lakes, dunes, floodplain corridor

parasites, altered hydrologic regimes, competition

Dickcissel

Spiza americana

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Prairie, hayland, fence row

grazing/mowing patterns, pesticides, invasive species

Field Sparrow

Spizella pusilla

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Prairie, fence row, shrub, forest opening

altered fire regime, grazing patterns, industrialization

Golden-winged Warbler

Vermivora chrysoptera

 

BCR 12,
BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Shrub, hardwood,
forest opening,
bog

conversion to
agricultural land,
altered fire regimes

Grasshopper Sparrow

Ammodramus savannarum

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

SC

Grassland Habitat of ETPBR1

Prairie, hayland, pasture

conversion to agricultural land, altered fire regimes

Henslow's Sparrow

Ammodramus henslowii

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

E

Grassland Habitat of ETPBR1

Prairie, hayland, pasture

conversion to agricultural land, altered fire regimes

Horned Grebe (non-breeding)

Podiceps auritus

BCR 12, BCR22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Prairie, wetlands, inland lakes, ponds

conversion to agricultural land

Kentucky Warbler

Oporomis formosus

 

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Hardwood, forest opening, swamp

Fragmentation, invasive plants and animals

Least Bittern

Ixobrychus exilis

 

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Lowland shrub, wetland, inland lakes

conversion to agricultural land, dredging, parasites

Marsh Wren

Cistothorus palustris

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Wetlands, ponds, inland lakes

conversion to agricultural land, grazing patterns

Migrant loggerhead shrike

Lanius ludovicianus migrans

 

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Pasture, shrub, hardwood

conversion to agricultural land, altered fire regime

Northern Flicker

Colaptes auratus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Pasture, wetland, hardwood, conifer, swamp

biological interactions (nest (site competition)

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Contopus cooperi

 

BCR 12

 

 

 

 

Hardwood, conifer, wetlands, inland lakes

conversion to agricultural land, altered fire regime

Peregrine Falcon

Falco peregrinus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Great Lakes nearshore, floodplain corridor

disease, parasites, industrialization, pesticides

Pied-billed Grebe

Podilymbus podiceps

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Wetlands, inland lakes, ponds, floodplain corridor

climate change, conversion to agricultural land

Prothonotary Warbler

Protonotaria citrea

 

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Hardwood, swamp, floodplain corridor

invasive species, wetland alterations

Red-headed Woodpecker

Melanerpes erythrocephalus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Prairie, hardwood, conifer, forest opening

conversion to agricultural land, altered fire regime

Rusty Blackbird (non-breeding)

Euphagus carolinus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Ponds, wetlands, shrubby shoreline

conversion to agricultural land

Short-billed Dowitcher (non-breeding)

Limnodromus griseus

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Mudflats, creeks

conversion to agricultural land

Short-eared owl

Asio flammeus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

E

 

 

Prairie, pasture, bog, wetland, hayland

conversion to agricultural land, fragmentation

Solitary Sandpiper (non-breeding)

Tringa solitaria

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Swamps, ponds,
woodland streams

conversion to
agricultural land

Upland Sandpiper

Bartramia longicauda

 

BCR 12,

BCR 23

 

 

Grassland Habitat of ETPBR1

Pastures, fields, grasslands

grazing/mowing patterns, pesticides, invasive species

Whip-poor-will

Caprimulgus vociferus

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Hardwood, conifer, forest opening

conversion to agricultural land, competition

Willow Flycatcher2

Empidonax traillii

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Swamps, pastures, lakeshores

conversion to agricultural land

Wood Thrush

Hylocichla mustelina

 

BCR 12,

BCR 22,

BCR 23

 

 

 

 

Hardwood, swamp, floodplain corridor

fragmentation, invasive plants and animals

Yellow Rail

Coturnicops noveboracensis

BCR 12

 

 

 

 

Hayland, bog, wetland, fen

altered fire & hydrologic regime, urbanization

 

Bird Conservation Regions

BCR 12 = Boreal Hardwood Transition

BCR 22 = Eastern Tallgrass Prairie

BCR 23 = Prairie Hardwood Transition

 

State Status:

T = Threatened

E = Endangered

SC = Species of Concern

 

1ETPBR =Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Big River

 

2Empidonax traillii is not listed under ESA; but a subspecies, the Southwest Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), is listed as endangered under the ESA. The Soutwest Willow Flycatcher is not found in any of Michigan's Bird Conservation Regions.

 


 

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Last updated: March 25, 2014
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