Midway Atoll is not your typical national wildlife refuge. Nowhere in the Refuge System are the lives of wildlife and human residents so intertwined. It is, in many respects, a little city, with all the structures, utilities, and types of equipment that are needed to function in support of the resident human community. At one time, the facilities at Midway supported more than 5,000 people. While the current resident population is 65, much of the original infrastructure remains in place.
Roads - 10 miles paved and 2 miles gravel
Seawalls - nearly 18,000 ft. of sheet piling seawall and breakwater
Runways - one usable runway/one taxiway (Sand); three unusable runways (Eastern)
Telephone - satellite system and 9+ miles of line supporting on-island system
Electrical - Power is generated by a new system installed in 2005. Twin Caterpillar 450-kilowatt generators operate separately or in tandem as needed. Additionally, the larger 1,300-kilowatt Caterpillar generator installed in 1999 is fully operational as a backup unit. Ninety-nine percent of the old electrical grid has been replaced with underground power cables.
Buildings - nearly 120 buildings, including Cable company buildings (1904), maintenance shops, hangars, warehouses, barracks, residences, cold storage, theater, gymnasium, etc. Most built between 1941-1960.
Fuel - In 2007, a new 450,000 gallon fuel storage facility was constructed. It consists of nine 50,000-gallon, double-walled tanks that meet all spill and containment requirements. The new fuel facility is located on the large concrete pad by the old seaplane hangar and inner harbor. The Coast Guard was a partner in the purchase and constuction of this facility and maintains fuel for their use.
Water - 126 acre catchment basin; 3-4.2 million gallon storage tanks, 2 treatment reservoirs, one 161 ft. water tower, 41,000 ft.of underground water line. A new water filitration and treatment unit was installed in 2005 and delivers water through a new pressurized system.
Sewage - a new septic/leach field system was installed in October, 1997.
Recreation - tennis courts, bowling alley, gymnasium, weight room, racquetball courts, theater, satellite TV.
Historic - 63 historically significant buildings, facilities, sites and structures, such as runways, bunkers, ammo huts, gun emplacements, pillboxes, etc.