Madison Wetlands Management District
Mountain-Prairie Region

Bird Checklist


I. Instructions to Refuge staff for using this list to prepare the Refuge bird list:

1.   Save the original file and create a “working” copy.

2.   On the “working” copy, review the list and delete any species that are not found on your Refuge.

3.   After you’ve identified the species, delete all the scientific/Latin names.

4.   After each species name, enter one space (DO NOT USE TABS), then type in the seasonal abundance codes. Use the letter “m” to indicate that the species is not present during a particular season. For example: American Coot aaau (abundant in Spring, Summer, Fall; uncommon in Winter) or California Gull ommm (occasional in Spring; not present in Summer, Fall, and Winter)

5.   If the species nests at your Refuge, type an asterisk in front of the species name.

6.   If you alter any of the season and/or seasonal abundance definitions, please include the altered definitions with your list.

7.   Save the file and send a copy to your EVS contact (Cindy Souders for ND and SD stations; Shannon Heath for MT, UT, and WY stations; Melvie Uhland for CO, KS, and NE stations).


II. Commonly used season and abundance definitions:

The following are season and seasonal abundance definitions that have been commonly used in Region 6. You are welcome to use the definitions as they are or alter them to fit your Refuge’s situation. If you do alter any of the season and/or seasonal abundance definitions, please include the altered definitions with your list.

A. Seasons:

Spring (March - May)

Summer (June - August)

Fall (September - November)

Winter (December - February)

B. Seasonal Abundance:

a = abundant - occurring in large numbers

c = common - certain to be seen in suitable habitat

u = uncommon - present, but not certain to be seen

o = occasional - seen only a few times during the season

r = rare - seen at intervals of 2 - 5 years

x= accidental - there is a recorded occurrence 

h = hypothetical - within normal range, but never documented.


Taxonomic List of Birds

(Order follows the A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, 7th ed. Sept.1998)


523 species occurring with 10 Introduced; 2 Extinct; 4 Possibly Extirpated.

320 species breeding, 143 accidental/vagrant, 170 migrants, winter residents.

40 occur on OMBM’s 1995 List; 12 on the ESA: 7 Federal Endangered, 4 Federal Threatened, 1 Federal Candidate: Threatened.


UPDATED October 6, 2003

Swans, Geese, and Ducks

Greater White-fronted Goose cocr

Snow Goose arar

Ross' Goose crcr

*Canada Goose aaau

Trumpeter Swan x

Tundra Swan cmcr

*Wood Duck uuum

*Gadwall cccm

*American Wigeon cucm

American Black Duck rmrr

*Mallard aaao

*Blue-winged Teal aaam

Cinnamon Teal rrrm

*Northern Shoveler cccr

*Northern Pintail acar

*Green-winged Teal cucr

*Canvasback cucr

*Redhead cccr

*Ring-necked Duck cucr

Greater Scaup umum

Lesser Scaup cucm

Harlequin Duck x

Surf Scoter rmrm

White-winged Scoter rmrm

Black Scoter rmrm

Long-tailed Duck (formerly Oldsquaw) rmrm

Bufflehead cocu

Common Goldeneye cmcm

Barrow's Goldeneye rmrm

Hooded Merganser urum

Common Merganser crcm

Red-breasted Merganser urum

*Ruddy Duck cucr


Gallinaceous Birds

*Gray Partridge (Introduced) uuuu

*Ring-necked Pheasant (Introduced) aaaa

*Sharp-tailed Grouse rrrr

*Wild Turkey rrrr



Red-throated Loon x

Pacific Loon omom

Common Loon uruo



*Pied-billed Grebe cccm

Horned Grebeumum

Red-necked Grebe rrrm

*Eared Grebe cccm

*Western Grebe cccm

Clark's Grebe rrrm



American White Pelican cucm



Double-crested Cormorant cccm


Bitterns, Herons, and Egrets

*American Bittern uuum

*Least Bittern uuum

*Great Blue Heron cccr

*Great Egret cccm

*Snowy Egret uuum

*Little Blue Heron rrrm

*Tricolored Heron rrrm

*Cattle Egret uuum

*Green Heron uuum

*Black-crowned Night-Heron uuum  

Yellow-crowned Night-Heron ooom


Ibises and Spoonbills

*White-faced Ibis uuum


New World Vultures

Turkey Vulture uoum


Osprey, Kites, Hawks, and Eagles

Osprey uoum

Mississippi Kite x

Bald Eagle uuuu

*Northern Harrier cccu

Sharp-shinned Hawk uuuu

Cooper's Hawk uuur

Northern Goshawk rrrr

Red-shouldered Hawk omom

Broad-winged Hawk urum

*Swainson's Hawk cucm

*Red-tailed Hawk cucu

Ferruginous Hawk uuur

Rough-legged Hawk cucu

Golden Eagle rmrr


Falcons and Caracaras

*American Kestrel cucu

Merlin umuu

Gyrfalcon mmmr

Peregrine Falcon umrr

Prairie Falcon rmrr



King Rail x

*Virginia Rail cccm

*Sora cccm

Common Moorhen orom

*American Coot cccr



Sandhill Crane uour

Whooping Crane rrrm



Black-bellied Plover umum

American Golden-Plover cmum

Semipalmated Plover umum

Piping Plover rmrm

*Killdeer cccr


Stilts and Avocets

Black-necked Stilt rorm

American Avocet rorm


Sandpipers and Phalaropes

Greater Yellowlegs cmcm

Lesser Yellowlegs cmcr

Solitary Sandpiper umum

Willet umum

*Spotted Sandpiper cucm

*Upland Sandpiper uuum

Whimbrel omrm

Long-billed Curlew rmrm

Hudsonian Godwit cmom

Marbled Godwit uuum

Ruddy Turnstone rmrm

Red Knot omrm

Sanderling umum

Semipalmated Sandpiper cmcm

Western Sandpiper omom

Least Sandpiper cmcm

White-rumped Sandpiper cmrm

Baird's Sandpiper cmcm

Pectoral Sandpiper cmcm

Dunlin cmrm

Stilt Sandpiper cmcm

Buff-breasted Sandpiper rmrm

Ruff x

Short-billed Dowitcher umum

Long-billed Dowitcher cmcm

*Wilson’s Snipe cucu

*American Woodcock uuum

*Wilson's Phalarope cccm

Red-necked Phalarope umum

Red Phalarope x


Skuas, Jaegers, Gulls, and Terns

*Franklin's Gull cccm

Bonaparte's Gull crcm

Ring-billed Gull cccm

California Gull rrrm

Herring Gull cmcr

Glaucous Gull orom

Sabine's Gull rmom

Black-legged Kittiwake x

Caspian Tern rmrm

Common Tern umum

*Forster's Tern cccm

Least Tern rmrm

*Black Tern cccm


Pigeons and Doves

*Rock Pigeon (Dove?) cccc (Introduced)

European Collared-Dove rrrr (Introduced)

*Mourning Dove cccr

Inca Dove x


Cuckoos and Anis

*Black-billed Cuckoo uuum

*Yellow-billed Cuckoo uuum


Barn Owls

Barn Owl rmrm


Typical Owls

*Eastern Screech-Owl cccc

*Great Horned Owl cccc

Snowy Owl mmmr

Northern Hawk-Owl x

Burrowing Owl ooom

Great Gray Owl x

Long-eared Owl uruu

Short-eared Owl oroo

Boreal Owl x

Northern Saw-whet Owl omoo



*Common Nighthawk cccm

Whip-poor-will omom



*Chimney Swift cccm



Ruby-throated Hummingbird urum



*Belted Kingfisher uuur



*Red-headed Woodpecker cccr

*Red-bellied Woodpecker uuuu

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker uuur

*Downy Woodpecker cccc

*Hairy Woodpecker uuuu

*Northern Flicker cccu

Pileated Woodpecker rrrrr


Tyrant Flycatchers

Olive-sided Flycatcher rmrm

*Eastern Wood-Pewee cccm

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher rmrm

Alder Flycatcher umrm

*Willow Flycatcher uuum

Least Flycatcher cucm

*Eastern Phoebe uuum

Say's Phoebe rmrm

*Great Crested Flycatcher uuum

*Western Kingbird cccm

*Eastern Kingbird cccm

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher x



*Loggerhead Shrike uuum

Northern Shrike umuu



White-eyed Vireo cmom

Bell's Vireo ooom

Yellow-throated Vireo umum

Blue-headed Vireo uoum

*Warbling Vireo cccm

Philadelphia Vireo rmrm

*Red-eyed Vireo cccm


Crows, Jays, and Magpies

*Blue Jay cccc

*American Crow cccc



*Horned Lark cccc



*Purple Martin cucm

*Tree Swallow cccm

*Northern Rough-winged Swallow cccm

*Bank Swallow cccm

*Cliff Swallow cccm

*Barn Swallow cccm


Titmice and Chickadees

*Black-capped Chickadee cccc

Boreal Chickadee x

Tufted Titmouse x



Red-breasted Nuthatch uruu

*White-breasted Nuthatch cccc



Brown Creeper uruu



Rock Wren x

Carolina Wren ooom

*House Wren cccc

Winter Wren umuo

*Sedge Wren cccm

*Marsh Wren cccm



Golden-crowned Kinglet cmcu

Ruby-crowned Kinglet cmcr


Old World Warblers

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher rrrm



*Eastern Bluebird uuuo

Mountain Bluebird rmrm

Townsend's Solitaire rmrr

Veery rmrm

Gray-cheeked Thrush umom

Swainson's Thrush cmum

Hermit Thrush umur

Wood Thrush rrrm

*American Robin cccr

Varied Thrush cmcc


Mimic Thrushes

*Gray Catbird cccr

Northern Mockingbird rrrm

Brown Thrasher cccc



*European Starling cccc


Wagtails and Pipits

American (Water) Pipit rmum

Sprague's Pipit x



Bohemian Waxwing umur

*Cedar Waxwing cccc


Wood Warblers

Blue-winged Warbler rmrm

Golden-winged Warbler rmrm

Tennessee Warbler cmum

Orange-crowned Warbler crcm

Nashville Warbler urcm

Northern Parula rmrm

Yellow Warbler cccm

Chestnut-sided Warbler umum

Magnolia Warbler umum

Cape May Warbler rmrm

Black-throated Blue Warbler rmrm

Yellow-rumped Warbler cmcm

Black-throated Gray Warbler x

Black-throated Green Warbler umum

Blackburnian Warbler umum

Yellow-throated Warbler x

Pine Warbler rmrm

Prairie Warbler x

Palm Warbler umum

Bay-breasted Warbler rmrm

Blackpoll Warbler umum

Cerulean Warbler rmmm

Black-and-white Warbler cucm

American Redstart cmcm

Prothonotary Warbler rmrm

Worm-eating Warbler omrm

Ovenbird cucm

Northern Waterthrush umum

Louisiana Waterthrush omrm

Kentucky Warbler oorm

Connecticut Warbler rmrm

Mourning Warbler umum

MacGillivray's Warbler x

*Common Yellowthroat cccr

Hooded Warbler rmrm

Wilson's Warbler umcm

Canada Warbler umum

Yellow-breasted Chat rrrm



Summer Tanager rmrm

Scarlet Tanager urum

Western Tanager rmrm


Sparrows and Towhees

Spotted Towhee umum

Eastern Towhee umum

American Tree Sparrow cmcc

*Chipping Sparrow cccr

Clay-colored Sparrow cocm

Field Sparrow cucr

Lark Sparrow crcm

Lark Bunting orom

*Savannah Sparrow cucm

*Grasshopper Sparrow cccm

Baird's Sparrow rmrm

Henslow's Sparrow omom

Le Conte's Sparrow urum

Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow rrrm

Fox Sparrow umum

*Song Sparrow cccr

Lincoln's Sparrow cmcm

*Swamp Sparrow uuum

White-throated Sparrow cmcr

Harris' Sparrow cmcr

White-crowned Sparrow cmcr

Golden-crowned Sparrow x

Dark-eyed Junco cmcc

Lapland Longspur cmcc

Smith's Longspur rmrm

*Chestnut-collared Longspur cccm

Snow Bunting cmcc


Cardinals, Grosbeaks, and Allies

Northern Cardinal uuuu

Rose-breasted Grosbeak cccr

Black-headed Grosbeak omom

*Blue Grosbeak uuum

Lazuli Bunting orom

*Indigo Bunting cucm

Dickcissel cccm


Blackbirds and Orioles

*Bobolink cccm

*Red-winged Blackbird cccm

Eastern Meadowlark x

*Western Meadowlark cccu

*Yellow-headed Blackbird cccm

Rusty Blackbird cmcr

Brewer's Blackbird crcr

*Common Grackle cccr

*Great-tailed Grackle ooom

*Brown-headed Cowbird cccr

*Orchard Oriole cccm

*Baltimore Oriole cccm



Pine Grosbeak mmmr

Purple Finch mmmr

*House Finch cccc

*Red Crossbill oooo

White-winged Crossbill rmrm

Common Redpoll omoo

Hoary Redpoll mmmr

Pine Siskin oooo

*American Goldfinch cccc

Evening Grosbeak omoo


Old World Sparrows

*House Sparrow (Introduced) cccc


Last updated: March 22, 2011