The Refuge's 2800 acres are managed to provide optimum nesting, feeding, and cover habitat for migratory birds. Among the 238 species of birds that have been recorded on the Refuge, 105 species have been confirmed as nesting here.
The Refuge is mandated to provide optimal habitat for Federally-listed endangered and threatened animal and plant species. A pair of bald eagles established a breeding territory on the Refuge in 1990. Other raptor species such as the Peregrine falcon occasionally visit the Refuge.
Prescribed fire, mowing, re-seeding, hand-pulling, wetland management, and promoting natural insect predators all play parts in integrated weed management. .
Refuge staff work to identify and protect significant historic, cultural, and natural resources within the Refuge that are unique to the Bitterroot Valley. The Whaley Homestead, built in 1885, reflects the history and lifestyle of early settlers.