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  • Species Profile for Southwestern Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)
Map of Species occurrence
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Map Image Map of Species occurrence Map of Species occurrence
This map represents our best available information about where a species is currently known to or or is believed to occur; however, it should NOT be used as an official species list for Section 7 Consultation purposes. To obtain an official species list for this purpose, please visit the Information, Planning, and Conservation (IPaC) System (click here: http://ecos.fws.gov/ipac)

Southwestern Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

Small; usually a little less than 6 inches in length, including tail. Conspicuous light-colored wingbars. Lacks the conspicuous pale eye-ring of many similar Empidonax species. Overall, body brownish-olive to gray-green above. Throat whitish, breast pale olive, and belly yellowish. Bill relatively large; lower mandible completely pale. Best identified by vocalizations. Call a liquid, sharply whistled whit! or a dry sprrit; song a sneezy witch-pew or fitz-bew. While perched, characteristically flicks tail slightly upward.

This species is listed wherever it is found, but
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
02/27/1995 Southwest Region (Region 2) Entire

» Federal Register Documents

Most Recent Federal Register Documents (Showing 5 of 23: view all)
Date Citation Page Title
01/03/2013 78 FR 343 534 Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Final rule.
07/12/2012 77 FR 41147 41162 Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period.
08/15/2011 76 FR 50542 50629 Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Proposed rule.
03/20/2008 73 FR 14995 14997 5-Year Reviews of 28 Southwestern Species
09/27/2007 72 FR 54922 54923 Virgin River Habitat Conservation and Recovery Program, Clark County, NV, Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) and notice of public meetings

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
08/30/2002 Final Recovery Plan for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents (Showing 4 of 4)
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
03/20/2008 73 FR 14995 14997 5-Year Reviews of 28 Southwestern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
03/05/2003 68 FR 10485 Notice of Availability of the Final Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan
  • Notice Final Recovery Plan Availability
10/10/2001 66 FR 51683 51684 ETWP;Notice of Reopening the Comment Period for the Draft Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan for Review and Comment
  • Notice Doc. Availability
  • Notice Reopen Comment
06/06/2001 66 FR 30477 30478 EWTP;Notice of Availability of the Draft Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan for Review and Comment
  • Notice Doc. Availability
Five Year Review
Date Title
09/04/2014 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

Current Critical Habitat Documents (Showing 5 of 6: view all)
Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
01/03/2013 78 FR 343 534 Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Final rule. Final Rule Final designated
08/15/2011 76 FR 50542 50629 Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Proposed rule. Proposed Rule Not Required
10/19/2005 70 FR 60886 61009 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) Final Rule Not Required
10/12/2004 69 FR 60706 60786 Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) Proposed Rule Not Required
07/22/1997 62 FR 39129 39147 ETWP; Final Determination of Critical Habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Final Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP) (learn more) (Showing 5 of 24: view all)
HCP Plan Summaries
Cal. Dept. of Corrections Statewide Electrified Fence Project
Cedar River Watershed HCP
Clark County Multiple Species HCP (7 permittees)
Coachella Valley Multi-Species HCP
Fieldstone/La Costa & City of Carlsbad
Safe Harbor Agreements (SHA): (learn more) (Showing 5 of 9: view all)
SHA Plan Summaries
Crosswhite / EC Bar Ranch SHA
Ojai Valley Land Conservancy
Pahranagat Programmatic SHA in Lincoln County, NV
Paterson, Thomas W. and Caroline H. (Spur Ranch)
Pueblo of Santa Ana Amendment # 1
Candidate Conservation Agreements (CCA): (learn more) (Showing 1 of 1)
CCA Plan Summaries
Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

» Petitions

Most Recent Petition Findings (Showing 2 of 2)
Date Citation Page Title Finding
07/23/1993 58 FR 39495 39522 ETWP; Proposed Rule to List the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as Endangered with Critical Habitat
  • Notice 12 month petition finding, Warranted
  • Proposed Critical Habitat, Critical habitat--birds
  • Proposed Listing, Endangered
09/01/1992 57 FR 39664 39668 ETWP; 90-Day Finding on Petition to List Southwestern Willow Flycatcher and Initiation of Status Review; 57 FR 39664
  • Notice 90-day Petition Finding, Substantial

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

For nesting, requires dense riparian habitats (cottonwood/willow and tamarisk vegetation) with microclimatic conditions dictated by the local surroundings. Saturated soils, standing water, or nearby streams, pools, or cienegas are a component of nesting habitat that also influences the microclimate and density vegetation component. Habitat not suitable for nesting may be used for migration and foraging. Recurrent flooding and a natural hydrograph are important to withstand invading exotic species (tamarisk). Typically found below 8,500 feet of elevation. Critical habitat was finalized on October 19, 2005 in Apache, Cochise, Gila, Graham, Greenlee, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Pinal, and Yavapai counties (70 FR 60886). Revised critical habitat was proposed August 15, 2011(76 FR 50542) and includes river segments in counties currently designated plus those in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Yuma counties. The 2005 critical habitat designation remains in effect until the current proposal is finalized. Training seminar/permits required for those conducting call playback surveys.

Food Habits

Primarily flying insects.

Movement / Home Range

The flycatcher is a summer breeder within its range in the United States. It is gone to wintering areas in Central America by the end of September. Nest territories are set up for breeding, and there is some site fidelity to nest territories.

Reproductive Strategy

Arrives on breeding grounds in late April to early May. Nesting begins in late May and early June, with fledging from late June to mid-August. Typically lay 3-4 eggs per clutch, laid at one day intervals and are incubated by the female for about 12 days. Young birds fledge 12-13 days after hatching. Typically only raise one brood per year; however some pairs will raise a second brood, or renest after a nest failure.

Other

Loss and degradation of dense riparian habitats are the primary habitat threat to the flycatcher. Historically, water developments that altered flows in the rivers and streams were the primary threat. Now, with riparian areas limited and re-growth difficult due to changes in flows, fire is a significant risk to remaining habitats. Human disturbances at nesting sites may result in nest abandonment.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.