Gray wolf (Canis lupus)
Listing Status: (and others listed below)
The Gray Wolf, being a keystone predator, is an integral component of the ecosystems to which it typically belongs. The wide range of habitats in which wolves can thrive reflects their adaptability as a species, and includes temperate forests, mountains, tundra, taiga, and grasslands. Gray wolves were originally listed as subspecies or as regional populations of subspecies in the contiguous United States and Mexico. In 1978, we reclassifed the gray wolf as an endangered population at the species level (C. lupus) throughout the contiguous United States and Mexico, except for the Minnesota gray wolf population, which was classified as threatened. Gray wolf populations in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Western Great Lakes were delisted due to recovery in 2011 and 2012.
The FWS is currently monitoring the following populations of the Gray wolf
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|03/09/1978||Mountain-Prairie Region (Region 6)||U.S.A.: All of AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NV, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT and WV; those portions of AZ, NM, and TX not included in an experimental population; and portions of IA, IN, IL, ND, OH, OR, SD, UT, and WA. Mexico.|
|01/12/1998||Southwest Region (Region 2)||Mexican gray wolf, EXPN population|
|03/09/1978||Mountain-Prairie Region (Region 6)||WY, EXPN population|
|03/09/1978||Mountain-Prairie Region (Region 6)||Northern Rocky Mountain DPS (delisted, except WY)|
|03/09/1978||Great Lakes-Big Rivers Region (Region 3)||Western Great Lakes DPS|
» Action Plans
|08/21/2009||Mexican wolf spotlight species action plan|
» RecoveryRecovery Plan Information Search
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|05/05/2010||Final Mexican Wolf Conservation Assessment||Recovery efforts in progress, but no implementation information yet to display||Conservation Strategy|
|09/15/1982||Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan||View Implementation Progress||Final|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|02/10/2014||79 FR 7627 7629||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered; Proposed rule; notice of availability and reopening of comment period.|
|06/13/2013||78 FR 35663 35719||Removing the Gray Wolf(Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi ) by Listing It as Endangered; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental Population of the Mexican Wolf; Proposed Rules|
|09/10/2012||77 FR 55530 55604||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Removal of the Wyoming Wolf Populationís Status as an Experimental Population|
|12/28/2011||76 FR 81666 81726||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes|
|10/05/2011||76 FR 61782 61823||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants, Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Removal of the Wyoming Wolf Population's Status as an Experimental Population|
|02/29/2012||Lower 48 State and Mexico C. lupus listing, as revised. 5 YSR|
|06/04/2007||Draft Post Delisting Monitoring Plan|
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|03/09/1978||43 FR 9607 9615||Reclassification of the Gray Wolf in the U.S. and Mexico with Determination of Critical Habitat in Michigan and Minnisota||Final Rule||Final designated|
|06/09/1977||42 FR 29527 29532||Proposed Reclassification of Gray wolf in U.S. and Mexico,Proposed Critical Habitat, Michigan and Minnesota; 42 FR 29527 29532 (Canis lupus)||Proposed Rule||Unknown|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://criticalhabitat.fws.gov
» Conservation Plans
|HCP Plan Summaries|
|Cedar River Watershed HCP|
|City of Tacoma, Tacoma Water HCP|
|Plum Creek Timber Central Cascades HCP (aka I-90 HCP)|
|Plum Creek Timber I-90 Land Exchange|
|WDNR Forest Lands HCP|
|SHA Plan Summaries|
|Paterson, Thomas W. and Caroline H. (Spur Ranch)|
|10/09/2012||77 FR 61375||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies or Distinct Population Segment With Critical Habitat|
|09/14/2010||75 FR 55730 55735||90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray Wolf in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and the Western Great Lakes|
|08/04/2010||75 FR 46894 46898||90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies With Critical Habitat|
|06/10/2010||75 FR 32869 32872||90-Day Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct Population Segment of the Gray Wolf in the Northeastern United States as Endangered|
|08/01/2006||71 FR 43410 43432||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Establish the Northern Rocky Mountain Gray Wolf Population (Canis lupus) as a Distinct Population Segment To Remove the Northern Rocky Mountain Gray Wolf Distinct Population Segment From the List of Endangered and Threatened Species|
» Life History
Wolves are habitat generalists and lived thorughout the northern hemisphere. They only require ungulate prey and human-casued mortality rates that are not excessive.
Ungulates [wild and domestic] are the typical prey of wolves, but wolves also readily scavenge. Beaver are among the smallest important prey but wolves can utilize smaller mamals, birds, and fish.
Movement / Home Range
Wolves packs defend their territories from other wolves. Territory size is a function of prey density and can range from 25-1,500 square miles. Both male and female wolves disperse at equal rates and equal distances, sometimes >600 miles.
Normally first breed as yearings and once a year in February. One to 10 pups [normally ~5] are born 63 days later. Pups normally stay with pack until > 1 year old.
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.