SPECIES CODE: E04E V01
Listed Endangered on April
27, 1993 (58 FR 25758 25763).†
Recovery Plan completed on July
Note: All descriptions are taken from the Recovery Plan
The palezone shiner is a member of the Cyprinidae
family.† The species grows to a maximum
of 2 inches.† The speciesí food habits
is little information regarding reproduction and development of the palezone
by Warren and Burr (1990) indicate that males and females mature at about
35-40mm standard length.† Field
observations suggest a spawning period from late-May through June and perhaps
early July.† Other aspects of spawning
behavior are unknown.
RANGE AND POPULATION LEVEL:
palezone shiner has been taken from the Paint Rock River (PRR), Jackson County,
Alabama; the Little South Fork of the Cumberland River (LSFCR), Wayne and
McCreary Counties, Kentucky; Marrowbone Creek, Cumberland County, Kentucky; and
Cover Creek, Clinch River drainage, Campbell County, Tennessee (Starnes and
Etnier 1980; Warren and Burr 1990; Richard Hannan, Kentucky State Nature
Preserves Commission, in litt., 1990).†
It currently occurs in only two widely disjunct populations in the Paint
Rock River in Jackson County, Alabama, and the Little South Fork of the Cumberland
River in Wayne and McCreary
palezone shiner occurs in large creeks and small rivers in the Tennessee
and Cumberland River systems.† The species inhabits flowing pools and runs
of upland streams that have permanent flow; clean, clear water; and substrates
of bedrock, cobble, pebble, and gravel mixed with clean sand (Starnes and
Etnier 1980, Branson and Schuster 1982, Burr and Warren 1986, Ramsey 1986).
Three of the four known localities for the palezone shiner
(except Marrowbone Creek) and both extant populations (Paint Rock River and the
Little South Fork of the Cumberland River) occur in
streams on the periphery of the Cumberland Plateau. The
distribution of the palezone shiner implies that the two remaining populations
are remnants of a once more widespread distribution (Starnes and Etnier 1986).
Thus, two alternate, but not mutually exclusive, explanations may be relevant
concerning the highly fragmented range of the palezone shiner: (1) the species
is relatively ancient and extirpation has occurred prehistorically over much of
its range, or (2) the extirpation of populations over much of the range has
occurred in historic times as a result of loss or degradation of appropriate
habitat from siltation, inadequate in-stream flow, reservoir construction,
channelization, and coal-mining runoff (Warren and Burr 1990).
The elimination of the species from the Cove Creek drainage
within recent times is exemplary of the effect of reservoir construction and
coal-mining pollution on an obligate, stream species (Starnes and Etnier 1980).
Unfortunately, lack of extensive preimpoundment surveys in both the Tennessee
and Cumberland river systems precludes assessment of the
historical distribution of the palezone shiner, but loss of other species as a
result of impoundments in these systems is well documented. (Etnier et al. 1979).
The lower portions of most large tributaries in both the Tennessee
and Cumberland rivers are embayed,
eliminating habitat transitional between that of small streams and large
rivers. Reservoirs also effectively eliminate migration by obligate stream
fishes from one tributary to another, precluding natural colonization of
potentially suitable streams by the palezone shiner (Warren and Burr 1990). The
mouth of Little South Fork of the Cumberland River is
embayed by Cumberland Reservoir Paint Rock River by Wheeler Reservoir.
Marrowbone Creek empties into the Cumberland
River below Wolf Creek Dam. The dam discharge consists of
extremely cold, hypolimnetic waters from Cumberland Reservoir which effectively
impounds lower reaches of the creek depending on the extent and duration of
release schedules. Collecting in the mainstem Cumberland
(and lowermost reaches of tributaries) at and well below the dam indicates a
depauperate native ichthyofauna (Warren and Cicerello 1983), primarily a
function of the cold dam releases and irregular water-level fluctuations.
Other probable historic reasons that may have restricted the
distribution of the palezone shiner include: removal of shade-producing
riparian vegetation and concomitant increase in maximum stream temperatures;
channelization; increased siltation associated with poor agricultural and
mining practices; deforestation of watersheds and concomitant decreases in
in-stream low flow; and perhaps pesticide runoff (Warren and Burr 1990).
Since about 1980, the lower third of Little South Fork of
the Cumberland River (about 15 River Miles) has been
periodically subjected to toxic surface mine runoff (especially, elevated heavy
metal concentrations) that all but eliminated the mussel fauna from the lower
third of the river (Anderson 1989).
The impact of the discharge on the palezone shiner within this reach of the
river is unknown, but recent (1990) sampling in this reach (Warren and Burr
1990) compared to past efforts (Harker et al. 1979, 1980, Branson and
Schuster 1982) indicate the benthic fish community, both in terms of diversity
and numbers of individuals, has been severely reduced, a probable result of
direct mortality of adults and/or eggs, larvae, and juveniles. Warren and Burr
(1990) concurred with Anderson (1989) who concluded that current surface mine
regulations are inadequate to protect the mussel fauna of the LSFCR, and add
that, if the toxic discharge is not curtailed, much of the aquatic fauna of the
LSFCR, including the palezone shiner, is imperiled. Upstream of the area
receiving toxic mine discharge in LSFCR, the primary threats to the palezone
shiner are brine discharges from oil wells (Harker et al. 1979, 1980)
and poor land-use practices associated with increased siltation of the stream
(road building, deforestation, destruction of riparian buffer strips) (Warren
and Burr 1990).
Within the PRR the continued existence of the species will
depend upon the continued high-water quality present from about Princeton,
Alabama, upstream. The limited distribution
of the species within the PRR definitely appears correlated with increasing
agriculture and associated increase in stream siltation in the reaches below Princeton.
Ramsey (1986) noted that the Paint Rock River was channelized by the Army Corp
of Engineers in 1966, but the impacts on the palezone shiner are unknown
because no surveys were conducted prior to channelization.
Because the existing palezone shiner populations inhabit
short river reaches, they are vulnerable to extirpation from accidental toxic
chemical spills. Because of the palezone's relatively short lifespan, the
species is extremely vulnerable to short-term and/or localized habitat
alterations. In addition, as the populated stream reaches are isolated from
each other and from any potential unoccupied habitat by impoundments,
recolonization of any extirpated population would not be possible without human
intervention. Absence of natural gene flow between palezone populations leaves
the long-term genetic viability of these isolated populations in question.
Anderson, R. M.
1989. The effect of coal surface mining on endangered freshwater mussels
(Molluska: Unionidea) in the Cumberland River drainage.
M. S. Thesis, Tennessee
Technological University, Cookeville, TN.
Branson, B. A.,
and G. A. Schuster. 1982. The fishes of the wild river section of the Little
South Fork of the Cumberland River, Kentucky.
Transactions of the Kentucky Academy
of Science 43(1-2):60-70.
Burr, B. M. 1980.
A distributional checklist of the fishes of Kentucky.
Brimleyana No. 3:53-84.
Etnier, D. A., W.
C. Starnes, and B. H. Bauer. 1979. Whatever happened to the silvery minnow (Hybognathus
hayi) in the Tennessee River? Southeastern Fishes
Council Proceedings 2(3):1-3.
Harker, D. F.,
Jr., S. M. Call, M. L. Warren, Jr., K. E. Camburn, and P. Wigley. 1979. Aquatic
biota and water quality of the Appalachian Province, eastern Kentucky.
Kentucky Nature Preserves
Commission Technical Report, Frankfort, Kentucky.
Harker, D. F.,
Jr., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. E. Camburn, S. M. Call, G. J. Fallo, and P. Wigley.
1980. Aquatic biota and water quality of the upper Cumberland
River basin. Kentucky
Nature Preserves Commission Technical Report, Frankfort,
Ramsey, J. S.
1986. Paleband shiner, Notropis sp. cf. procne, p. 6-7. In:
R. H. Mount (ed.), Vertebrate animals in Alabama
in need of special attention. Alabama
Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn
Starnes, W. C.,
and D. A. Etnier. 1980. Fishes, p. B1-B134. In: D. C. Eager and R. M.
Hatcher (eds.). Tennessee's rare
wildlife, Volume I: the vertebrates. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and Tennessee
Heritage Program, Nashville, Tennessee.
Starnes, W. C.,
and D. A. Etnier. 1986. Drainage evolution and fish biogeography of the Tennessee
and Cumberland rivers drainage
realm, p. 325-361. In: C. H. Hocutt and E. O. Wiley (eds.). The
zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New
York, New York.
U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service. 1993. Endangered and threatened Wildlife and Plants;
determination of the palezone shiner (Notropis sp., cf. procne)
to be an endangered species. Federal Register 58(79):25758-25763.
Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Recovery Plan for Palezone Shiner (Notropis
albizonatus). Atlanta, GA.
Warren, M. L.,
and B. M. Burr. 1990. Status of the palezone shiner (Notropis sp., cf. procne),
a Federal candidate for listing. Unpub. Report to the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville, North
Carolina. 27 pp.
Warren, M. L.,
Jr. and R. R. Cicerello. 1983. Drainage records and conservation status
evaluations for thirteen Kentucky
fishes. Brimleyana 9:97-109.