Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Mountain-Prairie Region

Endangered Species

Blowout Penstemon (Penstemon haydenii)


Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)


Known only from the Sandhills region of Nebraska.


Loose sand; usually in or on the margins of blowouts.

General Information

Blowout Penstemon's decline has been attributed to the decline of disturbances. Large bison herds and wildfire made the sands vulnerable to blowing and shifting winds. The winds create the blowouts or open sand areas the penstemon seed in.

Population Status

Over the past 20 years, Refuge populations have fluctuated from a high of 2,058 plants to a low of 329 plants.

Photo of Blowout Penstemon - Photo credit: Dr. Jim Stubbendiek

Last updated: March 21, 2011