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Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
IPM is a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests that includes a combination of strategies that pose the least hazard to people, property, and the environment. The simple philosophy is that control will be more effective, and resistance will be less likely to build up, when a range of measures is deployed against a pest. These measures can include, cultural, mechanical or physical, biological, and chemical methods for managing the pest.
Some of the key components to a successful IPM program include the following:
Volunteers and Invasives: Learning and Lending a Hand is the Refuge System’s first online, self-study course helped train Refuge Friends and volunteers to fight invasive species. It includes a thorough but simplified explanation of Integrated Pest Management, among other elements.
The pest issues affecting Service trust resources are broad
and complex. The competition and predation of nonnative species
poses risks to approximately 50% of threatened and endangered
species. Some of the top pest issues
affecting Service trust resources include the Norway rat, arctic
fox, northern pike, European starling, European green crab,
and musk thistle, purple loosestrife, saltcedar (tamarisk),
Chinese tallow tree, Russian knapweed, spotted knapweed,
buffel grass, ox-eye daisy, orange hawkweed, Johnson grass,
field bindweed, leafy spurge, Russian olive, Dalmatian and
yellow toadflax, salvinia molesta, and soybean aphid.
Orange hawkweed infestation, Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Island, Alaska
Same location after three years treatment with herbicide.
Cultural management: Cultural practices are a manipulation of the habitat environment to increase pest mortality or reduce rates of pest increase and damage. There are many different cultural practices that can help to reduce pest impact such as selection of pest resistant varieties of crops, mulching, winter cover crops, changing planting dates to minimize insect impact, burning, flooding, crop rotations that include non-susceptible crops, moisture management, addition of beneficial insect habitat, or other habitat alterations.
Mechanical or Physical Management: Mechanical or physical control methods involve using barriers, traps, or physical removal to prevent or reduce pest problems. Tactics may include using row covers or trenches to prevent insects from reaching the crop, baited or pheromone traps to capture insects, or cultivation or mowing for weed control.
Chemical Control: When exploring chemical control options, you should select the lowest risk and most effective products. The key is to use pesticides in a way that complements rather than hinders other elements in the strategy and which also limits negative environmental effects. It is important to understand the life cycle of a pest so that the pesticide can be applied when the pest is at its most vulnerable – the aim is to achieve maximum effect at minimum levels of pesticide.
Environmental Quality - Part 569 Pest Management. Chapter 1. (pdf )Integrated Pest Management 569 FW 1. 8/3/2010.
Reducing Risks to Pollinators from Pest Management Activities (pdf). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. January 2013.
Reducing the Risks from Pests and Pest Management Activities (pdf). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. July 2004.
Integrated Pest Management Policy (pdf). Department of the Interior. Departmental Manual. (Effective Date: 5/31/07 Series: Environmental Quality Programs Part 517: Pesticides).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Map with links to Regional and National IPM Contacts.
Instructions for Preparing Integrated Pest Management Plans (pdf) for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. 2004.
National Park Service, Integrated Pest Management - http://www.nature.nps.gov/biology/ipm/
Bureau of Reclamation, Ecological Research and Investigations:
Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC). Specializes in finding non-toxic and least-toxic, integrated pest management (IPM) solutions to urban and agricultural pest problems - http://www.birc.org/.
IPM Institute of North America. An independent non-profit organization whose mission is to accelerate adoption of IPM in agriculture and communities through consumer education and development of IPM standards for self-evaluation and IPM certification - http://www.ipminstitute.org/index.htm.
North Central IPM Center: National Road Map for Integrated Pest Management