NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

INTRODUCTION

The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards is intended as a source of general industrial hygiene information for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The Pocket Guide presents key information and data in abbreviated tabular form for 677 chemicals or substance groupings (e.g., manganese compounds, tellurium compounds, inorganic tin compounds, etc.) that are found in the work environment. The industrial hygiene information found in the Pocket Guide should help users recognize and control occupational chemical hazards. The chemicals or substances contained in this revision include all substances for which the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended exposure limits (RELs) and those with permissible exposure limits (PELs) as found in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) General Industry Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR 1910.1000).

Background

In 1974, NIOSH (which is responsible for recommending health and safety standards) joined OSHA (whose jurisdictions include promulgation and enforcement activities) in developing a series of occupational health standards for substances with existing PELs. This joint effort was labeled the Standards Completion Program and involved the cooperative efforts of several contractors and personnel from various divisions within NIOSH and OSHA. The Standards Completion Program developed 380 substance-specific draft standards with supporting documentation that contained technical information and recommendations needed for the promulgation of new occupational health regulations. The Pocket Guide was developed to make the technical information in those draft standards more conveniently available to workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The Pocket Guide is updated periodically to reflect new data regarding the toxicity of various substances and any changes in exposure standards or recommendations.

Data Collection and Application

The data were collected from a variety of sources, including NIOSH policy documents such as criteria documents and Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIBs), and recognized references in the fields of industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, toxicology, and analytical chemistry.

NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS

Acting under the authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 USC Chapter 15) and the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (30 USC Chapter 22), NIOSH develops and periodically revises recommended exposure limits (RELs) for hazardous substances or conditions in the workplace. NIOSH also recommends appropriate preventive measures to reduce or eliminate the adverse health and safety effects of these hazards. To formulate these recommendations, NIOSH evaluates all known and available medical, biological, engineering, chemical, trade, and other information relevant to the hazard. These recommendations are then published and transmitted to OSHA and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) for use in promulgating legal standards.

NIOSH recommendations are published in a variety of documents. Criteria documents recommend workplace exposure limits and appropriate preventive measures to reduce or eliminate adverse health effects and accidental injuries.

Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIBs) are issued to disseminate new scientific information about occupational hazards. A CIB may draw attention to a formerly unrecognized hazard, report new data on a known hazard, or present information on hazard control.

Alerts, Special Hazard Reviews, Occupational Hazard Assessments, and Technical Guidelines support and complement the other standards development activities of the Institute. Their purpose is to assess the safety and health problems associated with a given agent or hazard (e.g., the potential for injury or for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic effects) and to recommend appropriate control and surveillance methods. Although these documents are not intended to supplant the more comprehensive criteria documents, they are prepared to assist OSHA and MSHA in the formulation of regulations.

In addition to these publications, NIOSH periodically presents testimony before various Congressional committees and at OSHA and MSHA rulemaking hearings.

A complete list of occupational safety and health issues for which NIOSH has formal policies (e.g., recommendations for occupational exposure to chemical and physical hazards, engineering controls, work practices, safety considerations, etc.) can be found in NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health: Compendium of Policy Documents and Statements [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 92-100].

HOW TO USE THIS POCKET GUIDE

The Pocket Guide has been designed to provide chemical-specific data to supplement general industrial hygiene knowledge. To maximize the amount of data provided in this limited space, abbreviations and codes have been used extensively. These abbreviations and codes, which have been designed to permit rapid comprehension by the regular user, are discussed for each column in the following subsections.

Chemical Name and Structure/Formula, CAS and RTECS Numbers, and DOT ID and Guide Numbers

Chemical Name and Structure/Formula - The chemical name found in the OSHA General Industry Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR 1910.1000) is listed first. The chemical formula is also provided under the chemical name.

CAS and RTECS Numbers - The Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number, in the format xxx-xx-x, is unique for each chemical and allows efficient searching on computerized data bases. The NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) number, in the format ABxxxxxxx, may be useful for obtaining additional toxicologic information on a specific substance.

DOT ID and GUIDE Number - The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) identification number and the corresponding guide number. Their format is xxxx xxx. The Identification number (xxxx) indicates that the chemical is regulated by DOT. The Guide number (xxx) refers to actions to be taken to stabilize an emergency situation; this information can be found in the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook (Office of Hazardous Materials Training and Initiatives [DHM-50], Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 20590-0001; for sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328). A page index for all DOT ID numbers listed is included at the back of the Pocket Guide to help the user locate a specific substance; please note however, that many DOT numbers are NOT unique for specific substances.

Synonyms, Trade Names, and Conversion Factors

Common synonyms and trade names are listed alphabetically for each chemical. Factors for the conversion of ppm (parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume) to mg/m3 (milligrams of vapor or gas per cubic meter of contaminated air) at 25 °C and 1 atmosphere are listed for chemicals with exposure limits expressed in ppm.

Exposure Limits

The NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs) are listed first in this column. Unless noted otherwise, RELs are time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations for up to a 10-hour workday during a 40-hour workweek. A short-term exposure limit (STEL) is designated by "ST" preceding the value; unless noted otherwise, the STEL is a 15-minute TWA exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday. A ceiling REL is designated by "C" preceding the value; unless noted otherwise, the ceiling value should not be exceeded at any time. Any substance that NIOSH considers to be a potential occupational carcinogen is designated by the notation "Ca" see (Appendix A, which contains a brief discussion of potential occupational carcinogens).

The OSHA permissible exposure limits (PELs), as found in Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 of the OSHA General Industry Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR 1910.1000), that were effective on July 1, 1993* and which are currently enforced by OSHA are listed next. [*Note: In July 1992, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals in its decision in AFL-CIO v. OSHA, 965 F.2d 962 (11th Cir., 1992) vacated more protective PELs set by OSHA in 1989 for 212 substances, moving them back to PELs established in 1971. The appeals court also vacated new PELs for 164 substances that were not previously regulated. The substances for which OSHA PELs were vacated on June 30, 1993 are indicated by the symbol "" following OSHA PEL in this column. A number of RELs are based on NIOSH concurrence with the data presented and the airborne exposure limits proposed in this rulemaking.] Unless noted otherwise, PELs are TWA concentrations that must not be exceeded during any 8-hour workshift of a 40-hour workweek. A STEL is designated by "ST" preceding the value and is measured over a 15-minute period unless noted otherwise. OSHA ceiling concentrations (designated by "C" preceding the value) must not be exceeded during any part of the workday; if instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, the ceiling must be assessed as a 15-minute TWA exposure. In addition, there are a number of substances from Table Z-2 (e.g., beryllium, ethylene dibromide, etc.) that have PEL ceiling values that must not be exceeded except for specified excursions. For example, a "5-minute maximum peak in any 2 hours" means that a 5-minute exposure above the ceiling value, but never above the maximum peak, is allowed in any 2 hours during an 8-hour workday. Appendix B contains a brief discussion of substances regulated as carcinogens by OSHA.

Concentrations are given in ppm, mg/m3, mppcf (millions of particles per cubic foot of air as determined from counting an impinger sample), or fibers/cm3 (fibers per cubic centimeter). The "[skin]" designation indicates the potential for dermal absorption; skin exposure should be prevented as necessary through the use of good work practices and gloves, coveralls, goggles, and other appropriate equipment. The "(total)" designation indicates that the REL or PEL listed is for "total particulate" versus the "(resp)" designation which refers to the "respirable fraction" of the airborne particulate. Appendix C contains more detailed discussions of the specific exposure limits for certain low-molecular-weight aldehydes, asbestos, various dyes (benzidine-, o-tolidine-, and o-dianisidine-based), carbon black, the various chromium compounds (chromic acid and chromates, chromium(II) and chromium(III) compounds, and chromium metal), coal tar pitch volatiles, coke oven emissions, cotton dust, lead, NIAX Catalyst ESN, trichloroethylene, and tungsten carbide (cemented). Appendix D contains a brief discussion of substances included in the Pocket Guide with no established RELs at this time and Appendix F contains miscellaneous notes regarding the OSHA PELs. Appendix G lists the OSHA PELs that were vacated on June 30, 1993.]

IDLH

For the June 1994 Edition of the Pocket Guide, immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations (IDLHs) were reviewed and, in many cases, were revised and made more protective. As a consequence of the IDLH changes, many of the respirator recommendations for these substances were also revised. The criteria utilized to determine the adequacy of existing IDLH values were a combination of those used during the Standards Completion Program and a newer methodology developed by NIOSH. These "interim" criteria form a tiered approach with acute human toxicity data being used preferentially, followed next by acute animal inhalation toxicity data, and then finally by acute animal oral toxicity data to determine an updated IDLH value. When relevant acute toxicity data were insufficient or unavailable, the use of chronic toxicity data or an analogy to a chemically similar substance was considered. The criteria and information sources for both the original and revised IDLH values are given in Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLHs) (NTIS Publication No. PB-94-195047). NIOSH is currently assessing the various uses of IDLHs and whether the original criteria used to derive the IDLH values are valid or if other information or criteria should be utilized. Based on this assessment, NIOSH will develop a new strategy for revising the IDLH values currently listed, as well as for developing new IDLH values for the more than 300 substances listed in the Pocket Guide without IDLHs.

The definition of IDLH that was derived during the Standards Completion Program was based on the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) definition stipulated in 30 CFR 11.3(t). The purpose for establishing an IDLH value in the Standards Completion Program was to ensure that a worker could escape without injury or irreversible health effects from an IDLH exposure in the event of the failure of respiratory protection equipment. The IDLH was considered a maximum concentration above which only a highly reliable breathing apparatus providing maximum worker protection was permitted. In determining IDLH values, the ability of a worker to escape without loss of life or irreversible health effects was considered along with severe eye or respiratory irritation and other deleterious effects (e.g., disorientation or incoordination) that could prevent escape. As a safety margin, the Standards Completion Program IDLH values were based on the effects that might occur as a consequence of a 30-minute exposure. However, the 30-minute period was NOT meant to imply that workers should stay in the work environment any longer than necessary, in fact, EVERY EFFORT SHOULD BE MADE TO EXIT IMMEDIATELY!

The current NIOSH definition for an IDLH exposure condition, as stipulated in the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic (DHHS [NIOSH] Publication No. 87-108, NTIS Publication No. PB-91-151183), is a condition "that poses a threat of exposure to airborne contaminants when that exposure is likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." The purpose of establishing an IDLH exposure concentration is to "ensure that the worker can escape from a given contaminated environment in the event of failure of the respiratory protection equipment." The NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic uses these IDLH values as one of several respirator selection criteria. Under the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic, the most protective respirators (e.g., a self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode) would be selected for firefighting, exposure to carcinogens, entry into oxygen-deficient atmospheres, in emergency situations, during entry into an atmosphere that contains a substance at a concentration greater than 2,000 times the NIOSH REL or OSHA PEL, and for entry into IDLH atmospheres.

IDLH values are listed for over 380 substances. The notation "Ca" appears in this column for all substances that NIOSH considers to be potential occupational carcinogens. However, IDLH values that were originally determined in the Standards Completion Program or were recently revised are shown in brackets following the "Ca" designations. "10%LEL" indicates that the IDLH was based on 10% of the lower explosive limit for safety considerations even though the relevant toxicological data indicated that irreversible health effects or impairment of escape existed only at higher concentrations. "N.D." indicates that an IDLH has not as yet been determined.

Physical Description

This entry provides a brief description of the appearance and odor of each substance. Notations are made as to whether a substance can be shipped as a liquefied compressed gas or whether it has major use as a pesticide.

Chemical and Physical Properties

The following abbreviations are used for the chemical and physical properties given for each substance. "NA" indicates that a property is not applicable, and a question mark (?) indicates that it is unknown.

MWMolecular weight
BPBoiling point at 1 atmosphere, °F
SolSolubility in water at 68 °F (unless a different temperature is noted), % by weight (i.e., g/100 ml)
Fl.PFlash point (i.e., the temperature at which the liquid phase gives off enough vapor to flash when exposed to an external ignition source), closed cup (unless annotated "(oc)" for open cup), °F
IPIonization potential, eV (electron volts) [Ionization potentials are given as a guideline for the selection of photoionization detector lamps used in some direct-reading instruments.]
VPVapor pressure at 68 °F (unless a different temperature is noted), mm Hg; "approx" indicates approximately
MLTMelting point for solids, °F
FRZFreezing point for liquids and gases, °F
UELUpper explosive (flammable) limit in air, % by volume (at room temperature unless otherwise noted)
LELLower explosive (flammable) limit in air, % by volume (at room temperature unless otherwise noted)
MECMinimum explosive concentration, g/m3 (when available)
Sp.GrSpecific gravity at 68 °F (unless a different temperature is noted) referenced to water at 39.2 °F (4 °C)
RGasDRelative density of gases referenced to air = 1 (indicates how many times a gas is heavier than air at the same temperature)

When possible, the flammability/combustibility of a substance was determined and listed after the specific gravity. The following OSHA criteria (29 CFR 1910.106) were used to classify flammable or combustible liquids:

Class IA flammable liquidFl.P. below 73 °F and BP below 100 °F.
Class IB flammable liquidFl.P. below 73 °F and BP at or above 100 °F.
Class IC flammable liquidFl.P. at or above 73 °F and below 100 °F.
Class II combustible liquidFl.P. at or above 100 °F and below 140 °F.
Class IIIA combustible liquidFl.P. at or above 140 °F and below 200 °F.
Class IIIB combustible liquidFl.P. at or above 200 °F.

Incompatibilities and Reactivities

This entry lists important hazardous incompatibilities or reactivities of each substance.

Measurement Methods

This entry provides a source (NIOSH or OSHA) and the method number for which a measurement method can be used to determine the exposure. Unless otherwise noted, the NIOSH methods are from the 4th edition of the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (DHHS [NIOSH] Publication No. 94-113). If a different edition of the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods is cited, the appropriate edition and, where applicable, the volume number would be noted [e.g., II-4 (2nd edition, volume 4)]. The OSHA methods are from the OSHA web site, http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/. "None available" means that no method is available from the NIOSH or OSHA source.

Personal Protection and Sanitation

This column presents a summary of recommended practices for each toxic substance. These recommendations supplement general work practices (e.g., no eating, drinking, or smoking where chemicals are used). Table 3 explains the codes used. Each category is described as follows:

SKIN:Recommends the need for personal protective clothing.
EYES:Recommends the need for eye protection.
WASH SKIN:Recommends when workers should wash the spilled chemical from the body in addition to normal washing (e.g., before eating).
REMOVE:Advises workers when to remove clothing that has accidentally become wet or significantly contaminated.
CHANGE:Recommends whether the routine changing of clothing is needed.
PROVIDE:Recommends the need for eyewash fountains and/or quick drench facilities.

First Aid

This entry lists emergency procedures for eye and skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion of the toxic substance.

Respirator Recommendations

This entry provides a condensed table of allowable respirator use for those substances for which IDLH values have been determined. NIOSH is currently reevaluating the IDLH values, and as new or revised IDLH values are developed, respirator selection recommendations will be incorporated into subsequent editions of the Pocket Guide. In the interim no respirator recommendations will be made for substances without IDLH values (these will be noted by "To be added later").

NIOSH has developed a new set of regulations in 42 CFR 84 (also referred to as "Part 84") for testing and certifying nonpowered, air-purifying, particulate-filter respirators. The new Part 84 respirators have passed a more demanding certification test than the old respirators (e.g.; dust; dust and mist; dust, mist, and fume; spray paint; pesticide; etc.) certified under 30 CFR 11 (also referred to as "Part 11"). Under Part 84, NIOSH is allowing manufacturers to continue selling and shipping Part 11 particulate filters as NIOSH-certified until July 10, 1998. It is important to see the NIOSH Guide to the Selection and Use of Particulate Respirators (DHHS [NIOSH] Publication No. 96-101) for substitution of Part 84 respirators for Part 11 respirators.

The first line in the entry indicates whether the "NIOSH" or the "OSHA" exposure limit is used on which to base the respirator recommendations. The more protective limit between the NIOSH REL or the OSHA PEL is always used. "NIOSH/OSHA" indicates that the limits are equivalent.

Each subsequent line lists a maximum use concentration (MUC) followed by the classes of respirators, with their assigned protection factors (APFs), that are acceptable for use up to the MUC. Individual respirator classes are separated by diagonal lines (/). More protective respirators may be worn. Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or entry into IDLH conditions are followed by the classes of respirators acceptable for these conditions. "Escape" indicates that the respirators are to be used only for escape purposes. For each MUC or condition this entry lists only those respirators with the required APF and other use restrictions based on the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic.

In certain cases, the recommended respirators are annotated with the following symbols as additonal information:

*Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection
£Substance causes eye irritation or damage; eye protection needed
^If not present as a fume
¿Only nonoxidizable sorbents allowed (not charcoal)
End of service life indicator (ESLI) required

All respirators selected must be approved by NIOSH and MSHA under the provisions of 30 CFR 11 or by NIOSH under 42 CFR 84. The current listing of NIOSH/MSHA certified respirators can be found in the NIOSH Certified Equipment List (DHHS [NIOSH] Publication No. 2001-139). A list of Part 84 respirators can be found on the NIOSH Home Page (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/) or obtained by calling 1-800-35-NIOSH.

A complete respiratory protection program must be implemented and must fulfill all requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134. A respiratory protection program must include a written standard operating procedure covering regular training, fit-testing, fit-checking, periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance, medical monitoring, inspection, cleaning, storage and periodic program evaluation. Selection of a specific respirator within a given class of recommended respirators depends on the particular situation; this choice should be made only by a knowledgeable person. REMEMBER: Air-purifying respirators will not protect users against oxygen-deficient atmospheres, and they are not to be used in IDLH conditions. The only respirators recommended for fire fighting are self-contained breathing apparatuses that have full facepieces and are operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure modes. Additional information on the selection and use of respirators can be found in the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection (DHHS [NIOSH] Publication No. 87-116).

Route of Health Hazard

This entry lists the toxicologically important routes of entry for each substance and whether contact with the skin or eyes is potentially hazardous.

Symptoms

This entry lists the potential symptoms of exposure.

Target Organs

This entry lists the organs that are affected by exposure to each substance.