Migratory Bird Mortality in Oilfield Wastewater Disposal Facilities
Commercial and centralized oil field wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs), pose a significant risk to migratory birds and other wildlife because they use large evaporation ponds (either passive or with aeration) to dispose of and treat oil and gas exploration and production wastes.
An estimated 500,000 to 1 million birds are lost annually throughout the United States in oil field production skim pits and COWDFs.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
http://www.fws.gov/contaminants/Documents/COWDFBirdMortality.pdf, 2 MB
Mountain-Prairie Region Environmental Contaminants site