Marine Foraging Birds As Bioindicators of Mercury in the Gulf of Maine
Steven E. Mierzykowski Wing Goodale David Evers Julie C. Ellis Steve Kress Linda Welch Alexander L. Bond Neil M/ Burgess Catherine I. Otorowski C. Scott Hall R. Bradford Allen Anthony W. Diamond Robert J. Taylor
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From existing databases, we compiled and evaluated 604 total mercury (Hg) levels in the eggs and
blood of 17 species of marine foraging birds from 35 Gulf of Maine islands to provide baseline data and to
determine the best tissue, age class, and species for future biomonitoring. While mean Hg levels in most species
did not exceed adverse effects thresholds, levels in some individual eggs did; for all species arithmetic mean egg
Hg levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.62 (lg/g, wet weight). Piscivorous birds had higher Hg levels than invertivores.
Leach’s storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), razorbill (Alca torda), and black guillemot (Cepphus grylle)
adult blood and egg Hg levels were higher than other species. Our results indicate that adult blood is preferable
to chick blood for detecting long-term temporal trends because adult levels are higher and not confounded by
metabolic effects. However, since we found that eggs and adult blood are comparable indicators of methylmercury
bioavailability, we determined that eggs are the preferred tissue for long-term Hg monitoring because
the relative ease in collecting eggs ensures consistent and robust datasets. We suggest specific sampling
methods, and based on our results demonstrate that common eider (Somateria mollissima), Leach’s stormpetrel,
double-crested cormorant, and black guillemot are the most effective bioindicators of Hg of the Gulf of
International Association for Ecology and Health
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