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Document Title:

Department of Biology, University of Salmanca, Salmanca, Spain

AUTHOR(S):
Sherry Krest Donald Sparling Manuel Ortiz-Santaliestra


VOLUME:
51
ISSUE:
3
PAGES:
458 - 466

PUBLICATION DATE: October 2006

ABSTRACT:
We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 -g/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 -g/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 -g/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 -g/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

PUBLICATION:
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

PUBLISHED BY:
Springer New York

DOCUMENT LINK:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/9801484035667327/-p=2bd4bb9e26264b928b136f7235af1339&pi=17, 183 KB

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Last updated: February 13, 2013