Toxicity of fluoride to the endangered unionid mussel, Alasmidonta raveneliana, and surrogate species.
Tom Augspurger A. E. Keller
242 - 249
The Appalacian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana) is a federally-listed endangered unionid mussel whose range once included the Cumberland and Tennessee River drainages, but is now limited to the Tennessee River and its tributaries, Nolichucky River system, Pigeon River system, Mills River, and Little River (Burch 1975, USFWS 1996, Bogan 2002). The decline in abundance of this species and other unionids is believed to have resulted from habitat destruction, competition with nonindigenous species, the loss of host fish species that are necessary for larval transformation to the juvenile stage, and contamination (Williams et al. 1993, USFWS 1994, The Nature Conservancy 1992). One of the healthiest remaining populations of the Appalachian elktoe mussel is found in North Carolina's North Toe River that now receives discharges from feldspar mining operations containing significant concentrations of flouride. Fluoride is known to be toxic to fish, zooplankton, aquatic insects and some adult unionid mussels (Smith et al. 1985, Feiser 1986, Camargo and Tarazona 1990, Muley 1990). However, no fluoride toxicity data were available for early life stages of the endangered A. raveneliana. The present study was conducted primarily as a means of evaluating fluoride as a possible limiting factor in the recovery of this mussel species. A second goal was to test several fish species as potential hosts for the mussel larvae during transformation.
Springer New York
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p27r052015514q61/-p=cd0e1c868c1d4826827122432818520e&pi=3, 1 MB
NOTE: This link will take you to a site outside of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
We do not control the content or policies of the site you are about to visit. You should always check site policies before providing personal information or reusing content.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Raliegh, North Carolina, Ecological Services Field Office